Anda di halaman 1dari 96

JRC:90-2010

GUIDELINES FOR
SELECTION, OPERATION AND
MAINTENANCE OF BITUMINOUS

HOT MIX PLANT


(FIRST REVISION)

INDIAN

ROADS CONGRESS
2010

Digitized by the Internet Arciiive


in

2014

https://archive.org/details/govlawircy201090

IRC:90-2010

GUIDELINES FOR
SELECTION, OPERATION AND
MAINTENANCE OF BITUMINOUS
HOT MIX PLANT
(FIRST REVISION)

Published by

INDIAN

ROADS CONGRESS
Kama

Sector

New

6,

Koti

Marg,

R.K. Puram,

Delhi-110022

NOVEMBER -2010
(

Price Rs. 300/-

(Packing & postage charges extra)

IRC:90-2010
First

Published

Repriented

2002
April, 2005
March, 2006
July, 2008
November, 2010
April,

Repriented
Repriented

Repnented
First

September, 1985

Revision

May, 2012

Reprinted

(All

Rights Reserved.

No

Part of this Publication shall be reproduced,

translated or transmited in

any form or by any means without the

permission of the Indian Roads Congress)

Printed at Aravali Printers

& Publishers

Pvt. Ltd.,

(500 copies)

New

Delhi-110 020

IRC:90-2010

CONTENTS

Page No.
Personnel of General Specifications & Standards Committee (GSS)
Introduction
1

2.
3.
.;

Background

3|;

Purpose

Classification

3.1

Capacity of Hot Mix Plant

3.2

Methodology Adopted

3.3

3.4
4.

(i)

for Preparation of

Hot Mix

3.2.1

Hot mix plant (continuous type)

3.2.2

Hot mix plant (batch type)

Direction of Flow of Aggregates

and Hot Gases

3.3.1

Counter flow type dryer-mixer

3.3.2

Parallel flow type

drum mixer

Mobility of Hot Mix Plant

Components

Type Hot Mix Plant

Salient Features of Batch


4.1

'4
,

9
9

of Hot Mix Plant (Batch Type)

4.1.1

Cold bin feeder

10

4.1.2

Cold elevator or cold feed conveyor

11

4.1.3

Dryer drum

11

4.1.4

Primary pollution control device

4.1.5

Hoteievator

4.1.6

Screening

4.1.7

Hot bins

4.1.8

Weigh hopper

19

4.1.9

Bitumen

20

4.1.10

Mixing unit (pugmill)

4.1.11

Mineral

4.1.12

Control panel

13

14

unit

14

'

"

17

unit

filler/dust control

system

'

22
24
25

IRC:90-2010

Secondary

4.1.14

Hot mix surge

pollution control device (bag

house

silo

filter)

26
27

4.2

Selection of Site for Hot Mix Plant (Batch Type)

27

4.3

Advantages

28

4.4
4.5
5.

4.1.13

of

Hot Mix Plants (Batch Type)

Limitations of Hot Mix Plants (Batch Type)

RequirementofDG Set

Drum Mix

for

28

28

Hot Mix Plant (Batch Type)

28

Plant

5.1

Bnef

5.2

Components

28

Drum Mix

of Conventional

Plant (Parallel Flow Type)

29
29

5.2.1

Cold bin feeder

5.2.2

Aggregates over size

5.2.3

Cold feed conveyor

5.2.4

Automatic weighing system

5.2.5

Dryer

mixing drum

30

5.2.6

Exhaust control system

32

5.2.7

Bitumen

33

5.2.8

Primary pollution control device (dust

cum

29

rejection screen

30

30

unit

collection system)

34

5.2.9

Hot mix conveyor

34

5.2.10

Gob hopper

5.2.11

Control cabin

5.2.12

Mineral

5.2.13

Hot mix surge

5.2.14

Secondary

filler

34

'

34
34

system

34

silo

34

pollution control device

35

5.3

Advantages

5.4

Limitations of Hot Mix Plant (Drum-Mix Type)

36

5.5

Power Requirement

36

5.6

Double Barrel Drum Mix Plant

of Hot Mix Plant

for

5.6.1

Sequence

5.6.2

Components

5.6.3

Bitumen

(Drum-Mix Type)

Drum-Mix Plant

of

37

....

for preparation of hot

unit

mix

double barrel drum mix plant

37
39
41

IRC:90-2010
5.6.4

Drag conveyor

5.6.5

Gob hopper

5.6.6

Control cabin

5.6.7

Mineral

5.6.8

Secondary

6.

42

system

42

pollution control device (bag

house
42
42

silo

Hot Mix Plant (Double Barrel Drum-Mix Type)

Advantages

5.8

Limitations of Hot Mix Plant (Double Barrel

of

42

Drum-Mix Type)

42

43

Operation of Hot Mix Plants


6.1

Principles for Operation

43

6.2

General

43

6.3

Precaution During Operation of Plant

44
44

6.3.1

Cold aggregate feeder

6.3.2

Cold aggregate bucket elevator

44

6.3.3

Dryer unit

45

6.3.4

Burner

46

6.3.5

Hot elevator

46

6.3.6

Gradation unit

46

6.3.7

Mixerunit

6.3.8

Bitumen

'

r-

47

48

unit

Essential Activities while Starting, Operating and

Shutting

8.

.......

5.7

7.

41

Hot mix surge

5.6.9

41

..

system)

filter

filler

Down

the Plants

7.1

Check

7.2

Sequence

7.3

Upkeep

List

51

before Starting the Plant


of Operation for Starting

51

and Shutting Down the Plant

53

of the Plant During Idling

Maintenance and Upkeep of Hot Mix Plant


8.1

Maintenance Schedule
8.1.1

Daily

Requirement

of Tools

8.3

Requirement
Maintenance

of

and Plant

54

54

.54

maintenance schedule

8.2

51

for

Maintenance

Spare Parts and Lubricants

for

57

Repair and

58

IRC:90-2010
Safety Aspect at Hot Mix Plant Site

9.1

Work

9.2

Plant and Equipment

59

9.3

Loading and Transportation of Plant and Equipment

60

9.4

Maintenance of Plant and Equipment

Site

58

'

60

Major Factors Affecting the Performance of Hot Mix Plant

10.

11

58

:.:

10.1

Presence

10.2

Dust Contents

10.3

Altitude

10.4

Insulation of

of Moisture
in

Content

in

60

Aggregates

60

Mix

61
.

Drum

61

Suggestions

61

61

ANNEXES
Annex-

A-

Information to be Furnished by the Purchaser While

63

Making an Enquiry with the Manufacturer

Annex- B -

Information to be Supplied by the Manufacturer to the Purchaser

Annex- C - Typical Hot Mix Plant Emission and

66

their Control

Annex- D - Typical Charts of Hot Mix Plant Output vs

Different

65

Parameters

68

Annex- E -

Checklist for selection of Hot Mix Plant

70

Annex- F -

Sample Procedure

71

for Calculation of

Rate of Usage Charges of

Hot Mix Plant

Do's and Don'ts for Maintenance of Hot Mix Plants

74

Annex- H

Sample

Calculation for Output Analysis of a Hot Mix Plant

77

Sample

Calculation to

Annex-

Annex-

Annex

-J

Work Out Requirement

Calibration of Hot Mix Plant

of Hot Mix Plant

78
79

IRC:90-2010

PERSONNEL OF THE GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS


AND STANDARDS COMMITTEE (GSS)
(As on 24 April, 2010
1.

2.

3.

&

Sinha,A.V.

Director Genera! (RD)

(Convenor)

Road Transport & Highways, New

Delhi

Puri, S.K.

Addl. Director General, Ministry of

Road Transport &

(Co-Convenor)

Highways,

Kandasamy,

Chief Engineer (R) (S&R), Mir)istry of

C.

( Member-Secretary)

New

Delhi

New

and Highways,

Spl. Secretary, Ministry of

Road Transport

Delhi

Members
4.

Ram, R.D.

Engineer-in-Chief-cum-Addi. Gomm.-cum-Spl.
Secy., Rural Construction Deptt., Patna

M.P PW.D., Bhopal

5.

Shukia, Shailendra

Engineer~in-Chief,

6.

Chahal, H.S.

Vice Chancellor, Deenbandhu Choturam University

&

of Science
7.

Chakraborty, Prof. S.S.

Managing

Engg. Services

(I)

Executive Director, Consulting Engg. Services

(I)

Pvt. Ltd.,
8.

Datta,

PK.

Pvt. Ltd.,
9.

Sonepat

Tech.,

Director, Consulting

New
New

Delhi

Delhi

Chief Engineer (R&B) Deptt., Govt, of Gujarat,

Vala, H.D.

Gandhinagar
10.

Dhodapkar, A.N.

Chief Engineer (Pig

New

Highways,
11.

Gupta, D.P

12.

Jain,

Vishwas

),

Road Transport &

Delhi

Director General (RD)

Managing

Ministry of

& AS

(Retd.)

Director, Consulting

MORTH, New

Delhi

Engineers Group

Ltd,

Jaipur
13.

Bordoloi,A.C.

Chief Engineer (NH) Assam, Guwahati

14.

Marathe, D.G.

Chief Engineer, Nashik Public

15.

Choudhury, Pinaki Roy

Managing

New

Director,

Works Region, Mumbai

Lea Associates (SA)

Pvt. Ltd.

Delhi

(RD) &

AS

MOST

16.

Narain,A.D.

Director General

17.

Mahajan, Arun Kumar

Engineer-in-Chief,

18.

Pradhan, B.C.

Chief Engineer, National Highways, Bhubaneshwar

19..

Rajoria,

20.

Ravindranath, V.

B.

(Retd.),

Chief Engineer (R&B)

(i)

H.P PWD, Shimla

Engineer-in-Chief (Retd.), Delhi

Hyderabad

Noida

PWD, New

& Managing

Director,

Delhi

APRDC,

IRC:90-2010
21.

Das, S.N.

New

Highways,
22.

Ramesh

Chandra,

Road Transport &

Chief Engineer (Mech.), Ministry of


Delhi

Chief Engineer (Rohini), Delhi Development Authority,


Delhi

23.

Sharma,

Rama Shankar

Past Secretary General, Indian Roads Congress,

New

Delhi

PWD,

24.

Sharma, N.K.

Chief Engineer (NH), Rajasthan

25.

Singhal, K.B. Lai

Engineer-in-Chief (Retd.), Haryana

Jaipur

PWD, Panchkula

(Haryana)
26.

Tamhankar,

Dr.

Director-Grade Scientist

G.

Navi

(SERC-G)

Mumbai

Chief Engineer (Retd.), U.P

RS.

27.

Tyagi,

28.

Verma, Maj. V.C.

(Retd.),

PWD, Ghaziabad

Executive Director-Marketing, Oriental Structural


Engrs. Pvt.

Ltd.,

New

Delhi

Deputy Director General (WP), DGBR,

29.

Tiwar, Dr. A.R.

30.

Shrivastava, Col.

OP.

Delhi

Kashmir House,

Director (Design), E-in-C Branch,

New

New

Delhi

PWD, Lucknow

31.

Kumar, Krishna

Chief Engineer, U.P.

32

Roy, Dr. B.C.

Executive Director, Consulting Engg. Services


Pvt. Ltd.,

33.

Tandon,

Prof.

Mahesh

New

Managing

New

Director,

Tandon Consultants

New

Sharma, D.D.

1-1603, Chittaranjan Park,

35.

Banchor, Anil

Head - Business Expansion,


Mumbai

36.

Bhasin, Col. A.K.

Senior Joint President, M/s Jaypee

37.

1.

Kumar, Ashok

President,

IRC

Ltd.,

Highways,

New

Ex-Officio

Members

Delhi

ACC

Noida

Chief Engineer, Ministry of

Concrete Limited,

Ganga

Infrast.

4-

Road Transport &

Delhi

(Liansanga) Engineer-in-Chief

..'

Pvt. Ltd.,

Delhi

34.

Corp.

(I)

Delhi.

&

Secretary,

PWD

Mizoram, Aizawl
2.

Director General (RD)


Spl.

3.

Secretary

Secretary General

&

(Sinha, A.V.) Ministry of

New

Road Transport & Highways,

Delhi

(Indoria, R.P.) Indian

Roads Congress, New

Delhi

Corresponding Member
1.

Merani, N.V.

Principal Secretary (Retd.),

(ii)

Maharashtra

PWD, Mumbai

IRC:90-2010

INTRODUCTION
advancement in hot mix plant technology over the last
two decades. This has prompted the revision of the document titled "Guidelines For
Selection, Operation and Maintenance of Bituminous Hot Mix Plants" (IRC:90-1985)
to update the same. With continued emphasis on mechanisation in road construction
There has been

it

is

significant

necessary to familiarize the consultants, contractors, concessionaires, planning

and construction engineers with the technology aspects of hot mix plants and enable

them

mix

to select the appropriate type of hot

plant,

minimum downtime. It is hoped that


purpose. The changes in the design of hot mix
manner

with

been described

in detail.

this

operate the plant

document

will

in

serve

an optimum
its

intended

plants at various spell of time have

Scope
The Guidelines cover the

following aspects

a)

Background

b)

Purpose of Hot Mix Plant

c)

Classification of hot mix plants, their salient,

d)

Information to be furnished by the purchaser, while making an enquiry


with the manufacturer

"
,

^..

advantages and

limitations.

-r-' -^^---^:]-

e)

Information to be supplied by the manufacturer to the purchaser

f)

Sample procedure

g)

Operation of Hot Mix Plant

h)

Maintenance and upkeep of Hot Mix Plant

i)

Major factors affecting the performance of Hot Mix Plant

for calculation or

usages charges of Hot Mix Plant

j)

Effect of moisture content, dust, altitude

k)

Parmeters

I)

Calibration of Hot Mix Plant

for the Selection of

The Secretary General IRC and

on output

Hot Mix Plant

Convenor of the Mechanisation Committee


(G-4), took a decision to revise the document and make
more contemporary and
relevant. Thus, the task of revision of document was assigned to Shri R.K. Saxena, SE
(Mech.) (Retd.), MORT&H. The document was revised with great painstaking efforts.
The document was then scrutinized by Shri S.N. Das, Convenor, Mechanisation
Committee (G-4) & CE (Mech), MORT&H along with the officers of the Mechanical
Wing of MORT&H and various important aspects were included in the document. The
the

it

IRC:90-2010
draft

document was then

and tabled

for

circulated to the

Members

of the Mechanisation

Committee

discussion on 25.03.2010.

The Mechanisation Committee (personnel given below) in its meeting held on


25.03.2010 finalized the Guidelines and recommended its submission to the General
Specifications and Standards Committee (GSS) for their consideration.
'

^
Convenor
Co-Convenor
Member-Secretary

Das, S.N.

Verma, Maj. V.C.


Basu, Kaushik

Members
Balasubramanian,

Raza, M.A.

V.

Bharadwaj, R.S.

Sachdev, V.K.

Gyani, PS.

Saxena, R.K.

Rajesh Kumar

Kalita, N.K.

Sharma, K.C.
Sharma, M.P.

Kumar, Niwas Shree

Shankar,

Kumar, Sudhir

Sharma, Rajesh

Jain,

Lall,

Singh,

Patwardhan, S.V.

Hans
Ex-Officio

President,

Ravi

Mahendra
Singh, RN.
Singh, RN.
Rep., lOCL

B.N.

Paramanik, M.K.
Raj,

P.

Member

DG

IRC

(Liansanga)

(RD) & SS,

MORT&H

(A.V. Sinha)

Secretary General, IRC

(R.R Indoria)

The revised Guidelines were approved by the General Specifications and Standards
Committee (GSS) in its meeting held on 24.04.2010 and the Executive Committee in
its meeting held on 10.05.2010 and authorized the Secretary General, IRC to place
the same before Council. The document was approved by the IRC Council in its
191^^ meeting held on 22.05.2010 at Munnar (Kerala). The Convenor, Mechanisation
Committee (G-4) & CE (Mech.) MORT&H was requested by DG (RD) & SS to incorporate
the comments offered by the Council members. The document after incorporation of
comments was approved by the Convenor, GSS Committee for printing.

IRC:90-2010
1

The

hot mix plant technology

BACKGROUND

came

existence around 1870,

into

requirement for preparation of hot mix that

is

in

which the basic

drying, screening, proportioning

mixing were combined. These plants were crude and remained

in

shape upto

that

the end of 1900. By 1900, the plants were improved by including aggregates
cold elevators, rotary dryers, hot elevators, bitumen tanks

mill

mounted

horse drawn carts pass underneath. The hot mix plants

at sufficient height to allow

up

bins,

and mixing platforms which

measuring box, bitumen bucket, and pug

consisted of an aggregate

and

125 tonne per hour capacity were available by 1930. There was considerable

to

improvement

in

the design of hot mix plant during 1930 to 1940,

better quality of gates, feeders

belts,

when

the conveyor

cold feeder system, large size of dryers,

in

cyclone type dust collectors, spring less scales and pyrometer recording system were
inducted.

In

These

plants

were continuous as

well as batch type.

early 1950, higher capacity of plants with automatic burner control, automatic

proportioning and cycling function

came

into use.

The

hot mix plant continuous type

15/20 tonne per hour capacity were imported and inducted

under International Development Agency

system and improvement


health

in

and safety aspect

noise and dust control system

bins;
in

hot mix plant, considering

These plants were based on continuous


design and more portable. The hot mix plants

in

20/30 tonne per hour capacity were indigenously developed

there

fleet

worked successfully upto

was sharp increase

computerized control

of operating staff.

production process, were simpler

and a good

1963

the most significant

project. During 1970's

development took place by emerging surge and storage

India during

in

in

petroleum

90's.

price.

in

India during mid 70's

During late 1970 and early 1980's,

Thus, further development took place

more fuel efficient, reusing milled bituminous


pavement known as "Reclaimed Bituminous Pavement" (RBP) to preserve the natural
in

the design of hot mix plant making

it

resources of aggregates and keep the environment free from pollutants.

USA and

other parts of the world, asphalt

is

In

Europe,

used as binder. Therefore, the pavement

known as asphalt pavement and reused milled asphalt pavement as


"Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement" (RAP). In India bitumen is used as binder. Therefore,
these terminologies are known as bituminous pavement and Reclaimed Bituminous
to

be

laid is

Pavement" (RBP). Since, heating, drying and mixing took place


these plants

By the end

became popular

with the

of year 2000, further

for efficient utilization of

name "Drum Mix

in

dryer

in

same drum,

the design of hot mix plant

drum and use

of reclaimed bituminous

pavement. This technology was known as double barrel technology.


3

the

Plant".

development took place

heat produced

in

In this

technology.

IRC;90-2010
the concentric
the

same

Effort

chambers

of

same drum

with molten bitumen,

has been made

in

are used to heat the virgin aggregates and mix

and reclaimed bituminous pavement.

filler

these Guidelines to get the highway engineers acquainted

with different type of hot mix plants available

selection of the hot mix plant

the

quantum

in

in

international market.

It

will facilitate

the region for preparation of hot mix depending upon

and use

of work, availability of aggregates, fuel efficiency

of reclaimed

bituminous pavement.

The purpose

of hot mix plant

PURPOSE

is:

a)

To blend

b)

To dry the aggregates (reduce moisture content

different sizes of

and heat them

aggregates

specified proportion.
to

below 0.5 percent)

to the specified temperature.

To heat the bitumen uniformly


d)

in

at specified

temperature.

To feed controlled quantity of bitumen and

filler

in

the specified

proportion.
e)

To mix the aggregates with bitumen and

filler

thoroughly and uniformly

produce homogenous mix

to

To run

in

at the specified

temperature

a safe, environment-friendly and reliable manner to carry out

the above tasks accurately and consistently.

The
in

CLASSIFICATION

based on its capacity, type of flow of aggregates and hot gases


dryer drum, methodology adopted for preparation of hot mix.
plant

is

classified

Capacity of Hot Mix Plant

3.1

As per

3066-1965 and IS 5890-2004, the capacity of hot mix plant is given in


tonne per hour and is specified in the following manner for two different values of the
IS

moisture content

The
shall

in

the aggregates

a)

Output of plant

at 6 percent moisture content in

b)

Output of plant

at 2

percent moisture content

in

aggregates

aggregates.

hot mix plant 40/60 tonne per hour capacity specifies that the output of plant

be 40 tonne per hour

60 tonne per hour

at 2

at

6 percent moisture content present

percent moisture content present

in

in

aggregates and

aggregates.

IRC;90-2010

Methodology Adopted

3.2

Hot mix

is

According

prepared

in

for Preparation of

Hot Mix

hot mix plant either on continuous operation basis or

to preparation of hot mix, hot

a)

Continuous type

b)

Batch type

mix plants are divided

into

in

batch.

two categories.

'

Hot mix plant (continuous type)

3.2.1

in

continuous type of plant, aggregates, fines and bitumen are continuously inducted

pugmill/drum mix

in

desired proportion and hot mix discharged without interruption.

Hot mix plant (batch type)

3.2.2

batch type plant, hot bitumen

(if

necessary) at desired temperature


in

batch

is

is

'

added

In

prepared

into

in

with the batch of hot aggregates

desired proportion

transferred either into silo for

its

in

mixing

unit.

storage or directly fed

and

filler

The mix

into tipper

This process of batch transfer continues one after the other. The

for transportation.

batch type hot mix plant

classified

is

based on capacity, type of flow

and hot gases, screening system adopted

for

grading the aggregates

of aggregates

quantity of hot

mix prepared per batch and number of batches prepared per hour.

The batch type

400 tonne per hour capacity are available

hot mix plants upto

internationally.

Flow of material (aggregates, bitumen and

fines)

is

similar for various designs of hot

mix plants except the method of screening, proportioning and mixing.


Plant capacity

batch

is

is

specified

prepared within 45

in

number

to

60 seconds.

of

batches produced per hour. Normally, one

Direction of Flow of Aggregates and Hot

3.3

The

direction of flow of

flow

in

the plant.
a)

It

aggregates and hot gases

may be

of

Counter flow

in

Gases
dryer

drum specify the type

two types.

type: In this type of plant, virgin

aggregates enter the end

from where exhaust gases are discharged. The aggregates

gases flow

in

of

and hot

opposite direction inside the dryer drum, which increases

efficiency of heat transfer process, lowers exit

the plant emission and fuel consumption.

gas temperature, reduces

IRC:90-2010
Parallel flow type: In this type of plant, aggregates

b)

in

same

and hot gases flow

direction inside the dryer drum. This type of

drum mixer has

certain limitations, which are given below:


1 )

The thermal

efficiency of plant

transfer inside the

drum

mixer.

is

As

on lower side due

to low heat

a result, fuel consumption

is

on

the higher side.


2)

The stack temperature

is

high,

as most of the drying process of

aggregates takes place near the burner zone.


3)

High blast of

air

from burner carries the dust from dry aggregates

through the exhaust, resulting

in

environmental hazards.

Counter flow type dryer-mixer

3.3=1

Three

different types of dryer-mixers

under

Counter Flow Drum Mix Coater

a)

In this

this

category are described below:

(Fig. 1)

type of dryer-mixer, the virgin aggregates flow opposite to the hot gases

dryer and enter the coater.

The reclaimed bituminous pavement may

the coater or mixing section along with the virgin aggregates

which

in

in

in

the

also enter into

super heated condition,

turn heats the reclaimed material.

'

>

The disadvantage

Fig.

Counter Flow Drum Mix Coater

drum mixer is that the hot virgin aggregates, liquid


bitumen and reclaimed bituminous pavement are injected at approximately the same

time
In

in

of this type

of

the coater, thus the mixing time

is

short

in

the coater.

case higher percentage of reclaimed bituminous pavement

time produces less

homogeneous

mixture.

is

used, the short mixing

IRC:90-2010

Counter Flow Drum Mixer with Embedded Burner

b)

In this

type of mixer, the burner

is in

(Fig. 2)

inserted position inside the drum.

<;

The reclaimed

down stream of the burner, where mixes with virgin


aggregates and liquid bitumen. The disadvantage of this plant is that mixing time is
short and to maintain the burner is cumbersome process, since its key components
are not accessible. Thus, this type of drum mixer could not become popular.
bituminous pavement

is

injected

it

CCUNTERFLOW DRUftfi MIXER WITH EMBEDDED BURNER AND AiR COOLED SHiEL
-

Fig.

Drum Mixer with Embedded Burner

Double Barrel Drum Mixer

c)

In this

2 Counter Flow

(Fig. 3)

type of mixer, the transfer of heat from virgin aggregates to reclaimed bituminous

pavement

is

very effective due to sufficient mixing time. Thus, the mix produced

homogenous.
BAP

Fig.

3 Double Barrel

Drum Mixer

is

IRC:90-2010
3.3.2

Three

Parallel flow type


different type of

Parallel

a)

drum mixer

mixers under

..

..^

..

category are shown below,

this

Flow Plain Drum Mixer

(Fig. 4)

EXHAUST

0T

mx

Fig.

It

is

common

road projects

This type of
It

Parallel

Flow Plain Drum Mixer

type of parallel flow drum mixer and

in

India, since

Drum Mixer

b)

its

induction

with Centre Inlet for

drum mixer was developed

has resulted

in

in late

in

RBP

is

being widely used

in

different

eighties.

(Fig. 5)

1970's due to increase

the use of reclaimed bituminous pavement,

it

is

in

crude

similar

in

oil

prices.

design to

drum mixer except a hole in the shell of drum to induct Reclaimed Bituminous
Pavement (RBP). This plant is suitable for use of reclaimed bituminous pavement up

plain

to

30 percent.

IRC:90-2010

Drum Mixer with Coater

c)

It

is

a parallel flow type drum mixer,

direction
liquid

(Fig. 6)

in

which hot gases and aggregates move

and reclaimed bituminous pavement

bitumen

in

is

added

same

cooler zone and mixed with

in

a mixer or coater located at the discharge end of the drum.

time for mixing reclaimed bituminous pavement with virgin aggregates and
It

in

It

gives

liquid

more

bitumen.

produces good quality of homogenous mix using reclaimed bituminous pavement.

RBP

6 Parallel Flow Type

Fig.

In this

virgin

type of

drum mixer approximately 70 percent

of reclaimed material

is

heated by

Mobility of Hot Mix Plant


hot mix plant whether batch type or continuous type

on two
rigid

Drum Mixer with Coater

aggregates and 30 percent by hot gases.

3.4

The

Virgin aggregates

factors, a) Stationary type

and normally used

in

and

b)

may be

categorized based

Mobile type. Stationary type plants are more

where quantum of work


engaged. In case quantum of work

construction of flexible pavement,

is

more and frequently available to keep the plant


is
small and plant needs frequent shifting, mobile type of plant is preferred. Major units of
mobile type drum mix plant are fitted with pneumatic tyres, which make
convenient
from one place to another. Mobile batch type hot mix plant does not require
to tow
a crane of bigger capacity for its commissioning and dismantling. Nowadays a third
category of hot mix plant known as self-erecting or portable type is also in use. In this
it

it

case, the plants have an integrated foundation on which

4
4.1

The

it

can be erected.

SALIENT FEATURES OF BATCH TYPE HOT MIX PLANT


Components

essential

Secondary

of Hot Mix Plant (Batch Type)

components

of hot mix plant (batch type) are given in Fig. 7. in addition,

pollution control device

(Bag House

Filter)

and Hot mix surge

silo

are

IRC:90-2010
optional

components

of batch type hot mix plant.

The

brief details of the

components

are given below:

1-

Cold Bin Feeder 2- Cold Elevator/Cold Feed Conveyor, 3- Dryer Drum, 4- Primary
Exhaust Stack, 6- Hot Elevator, 7- Screening Unit, 8- Hot Bins,

Pollution Control Device, 59-

Weigh Box, 10- Bitumen

Mixing Unit (Pugmill), 12- Mineral

Unit, 11-

Filler

(Dust Collection

System), 13- Control Panel (Not shown)


Fig.

4.1.1

7 Different

Components

of Hot Mix Plant (Batch Type)

Cold bin feeder


a)

it

contains

minimum 4 Nos.

bins with separators

avoid inter mixing of aggregates being loaded


b)

The

bin wails

and

bin gates are

in

between them,

to

different bins.

so designed as to prevent arching and

ensure smooth flow of aggregates.


c)

Bin gates have a graded scale to control the

d)

The capacity

of

all

four bins

amount

of gate-opening.

sufficient to run the plant for

is

minimum

30 minutes.
e)

The

first

bin containing fines

is

provided with a bin vibrator (Fig. 8) to

avoid sticking of fines with the bin wall.


f)

Variable speed motor (DC/AC)

the speed of conveyor


g)

One

belt, to

gathering conveyor

sizes from the conveyors


h)

is

is

provided below each

bin, to control

vary aggregates proportion.

provided to collect aggregates of different

fitted

under each

bin.

Properly designed and calibrated bin gate are provided for smooth flow
of aggregates.

10

IRC:90-2010
Single deck vibratory screen

i)

conveyor

remove over

to

provided at discharge end of gathering

is

size aggregates.

Flow of material
Fig.

in

1st Bin

feeds the aggregates received from gathering conveyor to dryer drum. The conveyor

used

is

known as

slinger conveyor.

Dryer drum

4.1.3

It

8 Position of Bin Vibrator

Cold elevator or coJd feed conveyor

4.1.2

It

plays a

vital role in

the performance of hot mix plant.

normally ranging between

upon the capacity


ratio is

4 to

6.

It

of plant.

.5 to

3.0

The drum

The

inclined position

The

lift

revolving cylindrical
1

and

in

its

to create a draft

the aggregates

and drop

it

in veils

drum

length depending

length to diameter

includes burner and blower fan, which provides primary

with longitudinal trough or channels called flights


flights

is

diameter and 6 to

is in

combustion of fuel and an exhaust fan


fitted

in

It

air for

through the dryer. The drum

mounted

is

with bolts and nuts.

through the burner flame and hot

depend on the
slope of the dryer drum, its revolutions per minute, diameter, length, number of flights
and their arrangement, and efficiency of burner. The balance between fuel and air
supply should be maintained for complete combustion and efficient dryer operation.
Imbalance between draft air and blower air velocities can cause a back pressure
gases.

dwell time (retention time for aggregates

within the drum,

in

dryer drum)

will

which should be maintained.

Normally, dryers are designed to heat and dry the aggregates at 4 to 6 percent moisture

content for

maximum

efficiency.

the feeding of aggregates

If

moisture content present

into dryer

drum

is

in

aggregates increases,

reduced, resulting

in

drop

in

hourly

production capacity of plant.

The temperature

of the aggregates controls the temperature of mix.

bitumen put on each

particle of

The

layer of

aggregates during mixing achieves the aggregates

11

IRC;90-2010
temperature instantaneously. The aggregates heated at high temperature can
harden the bitumen during mixing while underheated aggregates cannot get a proper
coating of bitumen. Therefore, aggregates should be heated uniformly at approphate

achieve homogenous mix. The temperature of aggregates should be


measured with pyrometers/ thermocouple or other suitable device by putting them at

temperature

to

appropriate location.

Burner and

4.1.3.1

The burner used

fuel

based on gas or fuel oil or a combination of them. In


India, light diesel oil or furnace oil is used as fuel, hence burner should be suitable for
such application. Burner should have a blower of adequate capacity to ensure efficient
fuel atomization with low noise, auto ignition and flame failure detection device. The
important components and the function of an efficient burner are as under:
a)

in

hot mix plant

Strainer

is

It

removes contaminants

in fuel oil

and avoids

trouble during operation


b)

Flow Meter

It

registers total

volume of fuel

oil

burnt by the

burner
c)

Solenoid Valve

It

opens or closes the

fuel suction line

based on the

signal received from burner control panel.


d)

Fuel Feed

e)
f)

Pump

It

feeds the

Relief Valve

It

maintains the fuel pressure being fed to nozzle

unit.

Control Valve

It

regulates the return

pressure from nozzle

unit,

fuel supply.

oil

thus adjusting the quantity of fuel

oil

atomized

at the

nozzle.
g)

Blower

h)

Air

Damper

combustion including excess

It

supplies

It

regulates the volume of air being supplied to

burner

air for

proportion with fuel

in

oil

and

The damper closes when


low and opens while is high.

outlet of blower.

of flame
i)

j)

is

is fitted

air.

at the

intensity

it

Pump Motor

These are low voltage, fully enclosed, fan cooled,


squirrel cage induction motors to drive blower and
fuel feed pump.

Control Motor

It

Blower and Fuel

is

used

to control

opening of

air

damper and

fuel

return line valve through automatic temperature


controller or

12

manual

switch.

IRC:90-2010
Ignition

k)

Transformer

It

and Electrodes

spark

Flame Detector

I)

more than 15,000 V emitting electric


electrode gap to ignite fuel mist.

transmits
in

The photo sensor detects the

glare of

flame and

oil

connects/ breaks relay contacts.

m) Automatic Temperature

It

Indicator Controller

Pre-Heater

>

fuel

same

signal

adjusts

reduce

its

transmitted to control motor

is

air

oil

damper
to a

and

fuel

supply.

temperature of 100-1 10C


atomization/

viscosity for efficient

combustion.
switches, timers, pilot lamps, wiring for automatic or

All controls, relays, indicators,

The

measure aggregates temperature.

Heats the furnace

to

manual

to

fitted

The output

n)

indicating

from a thermocouple or other sensing

received

which

digital

which operates based on the signals

controller,

device

based

microprocessor

is

control of dryer burner are located in control panel.

oil

tank should be located close to the burner and bottom of tank should be at

The pipeline between burner and fuel tank should be


of adequate diameter with minimum bends to reduce suction resistance.
elevation as burner.

The viscosity of furnace oil


of suitable capacity

is

more specially during

cold weather. Therefore, pre- heater

provided to keep uninterrupted supply of fuel into burner.

Primary pollution control device

4.1.4

It

is

is

clean,

the primary dust collection System (Fig. 9) of hot mix plant.

Its

function

is

to

remove undesirable amount of dust coming from the exhaust. It is cyclonic in shape, in
which dust is collected and removed/ added to dry aggregates, if required. It consists
of cyclonic separators and works on the principle of centrifugal separation. It is fitted
at the rear of dryer drum. The flue gases leaving the dryer drum pass through these
separators. Single cylinder cyclone basically consists of a large diameter cylindrical
shell
it

having a conical base. Dust laden gas enters

spinning motion and

bottom,

it

spirals

makes

up and

is

it

to travel upto

The

bottom of cylinder. After reaching the

larger size dust particles are thrown out towards

due to spinning motion of gas. These particles slide down and


a hopper. These are removed through auger screw and sent to mixing

the wall of the cylinder


in

which gives

sucked out (vacuum created by exhaust fan) through

coaxial cylinder fitted at the top.

are collected

this shell tangentially,

13

IRC 90-2010
zone,

if

desired. Multiple units of cones having longer length of cyclones,

of inner wall are the

main factors responsible

removing 60

are capable of

to

smoothness

for higher efficiency of cyclone.

These

90 percent of dust from the dryer exhaust. Hot Mix

Plant Emission and their Control are given

in

Annex-C.

Gases out through exhaust

Inlet for tlue

gases

Collected fines
Fig.

9 Primary Dust Collector

Exhaust stack

4.1.4.1

The exhaust gases are eliminated through the


further

pass through the secondary

plant exhaust stack.

pollution control device, that

is

These gases

bag house

filter

for

further filtration.

Hot elevator

4.1.5

The aggregates

after heating

system) to the gradation

and drying are carried by a hot elevator (bucket conveyor

unit.

stone box

is

provided at the edge of hot elevator

discharge chute, which lowers and smoothens the flow speed of aggregates

screen sieves. However,

no need

for

any hot

in

case of tower model where the dryer

is

falling

on

at the top, there

is

elevator.

Screening unit

4.1.6

The secondary
is
gradation of aggregates, in hot condition, is carried out in screening unit. Thus
known as second gradation control unit of hot mix plant batch type. The screening of

The primary gradation

of aggregates

is

done

in

cold bin feeder system.

it

hot aggregates
of

is

essential

graded hot aggregates

adopted

to

in

in

batch type hot mix plants to feed appropriate quantity

each batch. Normally, two designs of plants have been

separate different size of aggregates.


a)

Through multi-deck vibratory screening

b)

Through

rotary screening

14

IRC:90-2010

Hot mix plant (batch type)

4. 1.6. 1

The screening

in

multi decl< vibrating

fitted with

screen

multi-deck vibratory screen (Fig. 10)

done through reciprocating motion.

is

multi-deck vibratory screening, the aggregates

after heating are

elevator to vibrating screen for second gradation (Fig. 11

and

In

taken through hot

12).

Vibrating
screens

Cold bins

Hot bins

Pugmill

Dryer

Hot mix

drum

discharge

Fig.

10 Hot Mix Plant (Batch Type)

fitted

Over

with Multi

mm

size

Deck Vibratory Screen

CImIe

Over

si/e 3(i

mm rcjcclion

rejectio?!

Chute

Vibrating

screen

2.5 lo

13 to

30

mm

Ou)2.5min

mm
\

30 nim

2.5 to
5 10

mm
5 to 13

Fig. 11 Different sizes of

Screens

Sequence one over another

The

hot aggregates

in

Fig. 12

^'

to 2.5

mm

5mm

mm

Screening the Aggregates to Achieve

Specified Sizes through Reciprocating Motion

received through hot elevator pass

screens of different sizes, which separates them


hot bins.

15

over a series of vibrating

into specific sizes

and deposits

into

IRC:90-2010

Hot mix plant (batch type)

4.1.6.2
In rotary

The heat losses

in

both cases, graded material

is

collected

in

hot bins.

screening and dryer drum are lesser, thus thermal efficiency of hot

mix plant (batch type)


type of plant

In

where screening and

13 Hot Mix Plant (Batch Type) Fitted with Rotary Screen

Fig.

In rotary

screen (Fig. 13)

screening, cold aggregates are taken into screening drum,

heating takes place simultaneously.

this

fitted with rotary

is

screening

fitted

with rotary motion

is

higher. Besides, the

maintenance of

also less.

unit,

cold aggregates received from cold bin feeder are fed into drum,

in

which drying and screening of aggregates takes place in same dnjm via counter flow process
(Fig. 14).

The drum

is

inclined

and nx)unted on two

to the internal surface along the

dmm

length to

tire rings.

move

The shovel

flights

are

fitted

the aggregates and form an efficient

saew flight

on outer surface sieve the


various sized aggregates and deposit heated aggregates into different compartments of
hot bins. The over sized aggregates are removed for disposal. The vacuum drum pressure
drying curtain. Four sections of screens with

device

fitted to control

Fig.

plates

the rotary actuator at exhaust fan regulates the air flow.

Screens

14 Screening of Aggregates through Rotary Motion

16

IRC;90-2010

Hot screens

4.1.6.3

For multi-deck vibratory screening

unit,

the screen provided at the top

screen, which rejects and carries off oversized aggregates.

intermediate sized screens decreasing

For rotary screening


flow

is

size from top to bottom

whereas the

function of the screens

screen

last

to

is

their capacity

called carry over.

is

Carry over more than the prescribed


total mix,

The

limit

first

screen

is

into specific sizes.

The

into a bin

intended to contain next

carry over affects the mix design formula.

can add the fines present

in

aggregates

in

thus increasing the surface area to be covered with bitumen. To prevent

These are used

to store the

temporarily (Fig. 15).

compartment with
each hot

Each

bin should

capacity of

all

for cleanliness.

heated and screened aggregates of various sizes

bin

is

an individual compartment or a segment

division by partitions

be

when

the plant

to hold the
is

aggregates

operating at

full

each size and

of

capacity. Normally, the

hot bins should be of about ten batches production.

bin should

aggregates

be equipped with an overflow pipe


from backing up

into other bins.

prevent the excess amount

to

The overflow pipes should be

set to stop overfilling of the bins. Overflow vents should be

ensure that they are flowing.

the aggregates, resulting

in

screen. Each compartment

If

heavy carryover and the


is

level indicator

checked frequently

a bin overfills, the screen

above

possibility of

warn the operator when bins are


or

rides on

damage

It

is fitted

with a

wired remotely to control the quantity of aggregates

Any shortage

it

to the

equipped with pneumatically actuated two stage

discharge gates controlled by the computer system.

starving also.

at large

which are minimum 4 Nos. The capacity of

enough

sufficient

avoid their intermingling,

to

the

is,

Hotbins

4.1.7

of

That

matching with the capacity of dryer

excessive carryover, screens should be checked daily

Each

last is fine screen.

the scalping or oversized rejection screen.

is

pugmill. Induction of finer aggregates

larger size fraction

unit.

separate the aggregates

screens must be clean, robust and

drum and

and

the screen configuration along the direction of aggregates

reverse to that of multi-deck vibratory screening

the fines screen,

The

unit,

in

followed by two

is

It

a scalping

is

full.

Hot bins should not be allowed

excess

of

17

aggregates

in

in

maximum
bins and

to run

empty/

the hot bins should be

IRC:90-2010
regularized, by adjusting the aggregates
feeder.

Any leakage

at the

supply from respective bin of cold bin

bottom of hot bins should be immediately repaired

to

avoid improper mix gradation.

Fig.

4.1.7.1

It

Hot bin

15 Segregation of Aggregates

each Hot Bin

levelling indicator

detects the quantity of aggregates stored

below a certain

in

level (Fig. 16).

The

in

indicators

hot bins and indicates

may be operated

or mechanically. Presently, electronic indicators

when

it

falls

either electronically

mounted on the side

of the bins

are used. Aggregates inside the bin apply pressure on the walls of the bin, which
controls the operation of

diaphragm and

a predetermined level,

is

it

case aggregates drop


displayed through indicating lamps/warning sign
indicator.

In

control panel.

Fig.

16 Hot Bin Levelling Indicator

18

to
in

IRC:90-2010
4.1.7.2

Aggregates temperature measurement device

The temperature
bin,

of aggregates

which contains

4.1.7.3

is

measured by providing thermocouple

fines.

Bin sampling device

This device (Fig. 17)

is

provided

in

bins and to check their segregation.

gates under hot bins

into

the plant to take sample of hot aggregates from


It

diverts the flow of

sample containers.

It

is

aggregates from feeders or

essential that sampling device be

located such, as to collect representative samples of material

the flow of material over the screen

each
in

bin

and coarse

in

in

bins.

the plant that fine particles

fall

particles to other side. Therefore, the position of

is

to

seen from

one side

of

sampling device

in bin.

It

assists

calibrating the grading of aggregates.

Fig.

4.1.8

17 Bin Sampling Device

Weigh hopper

The aggregates are withdrawn from hot


and accumulated
weigh hopper

is

aggregates

the

of

It

stream of material discharged from a bin determines whether the sample contains

a fine portion, a coarse portion or an accurate proportion of material


in

hot

in first

in

in

bins

in

desired quantity through load

weigh hopper. The sequence of

coarse aggregates
last.

first,

This sequence

is

collection of

cell

aggregates

in

intermediate sized aggregates next and fine

designed

to place the fine fractions at the top

weigh hopper, so that they cannot leak out through the gate

at the

bottom of weigh

hopper. This system allows the most efficient utilization of available volume

19

in

weigh

IRC:90-2010
hopper. Aggregates, thus collected

in

weigh hopper are transferred

into pugmill

where

these are blended with desired quantity of bitumen. The sequence of operations

shown

in

Fig. 18.

3.

Discharge gate of next ;iggregate


to

4.

openal and aggregates pour


w eigh hopper

bin

is

When scale reading


preset weight,

in

sizes

Fig.

of these steps takes place for balance


and mineral filler sizes also

used

formula.

to

weigh aggregates,

Earlier,

Load
and

Filler in

reliable,
is

filler

and bitumen separately

easy

this

to calibrate

and low

in

maintenance

weigh hoppers with

insulators. Following precautions are

ball

unit

Bitumen

cell is

designed

respective weigh hopper

30

cell

to

The weight

of

is lighter,

each weigh

by a load

cell.

connection:

cm away

Severe shock or excessive load more than


Normally, load

4.1.9

in this

b)

tied

which

electrical signal

Lead wire

of load cell

cell

with spring

rod-ends, rubber vibration dampers

observed

may be

cost.

a)

when

achieve specified mix

was being measured

measured through transducer, which sends

cell is installed at

to

system has been replaced with load

should not be applied on load

The

of aggregate

Weigh Box

the weight of different constituents

balance system. Now,

hopper

quantitx'

Weighing equipment

4.1.8.1

more

reaches a

discharge gate

18 Sequence of Operations used to Measure Aggregates

and Mineral

is

tlie

is closed.

5 Repetition

It

is

which

.5

from load

cell.

times the rated capacity

may cause damage

to

it.

bear 20 to 30 percent of rated load

is full

of rated load.

unit

mainly consists of bitumen tank, heating system, bitumen

pipe.

20

pump and

delivery

IRC:90-2010

Bitumen weigh bucket

4.1.9.1

Bitumen

is

weighed separately

pugmill.

When

a valve

in

delivery line closes

bitumen

is

then

in

weigh bucket

(Fig. 19) before being inducted into

the weight of bitumen reaches a pre-determined level

pumped

it,

which prevents

into pugmill

Pug

mill

through spray

its

excess entry

in

the bucket,

into bucket.

The

bar.

Spray

pump
Fig.

4.1.9.2

It

is

19 System to Measure and Deliver desired


Quantity of Bitumen in Pugmill

Bitumen tank

an insulated tank, of adequate capacity (minimum one day storage) meeting

the requirement of plant capacity.

Minimum 2 Nos. bitumen tanks each

of

45,000

to

litre

capacity should be provided for smooth running of 165 tonne per hour capacity hot

mix

plant. Dial indicator

type thermometer

is

provided outside the tank to indicate the

temperature of bitumen.

The heating system of bitumen should be efficient, having good fluidity of bitumen
for its easy pumping and spraying to get uniform coating on aggregates. The source
used

The

for heating

may be

viscosity of bitumen

through direct heating, thermic

decreases with increase

in

oil

heating or electric heating.

temperature. Therefore, bitumen

depend on its grade. The heating temperature of modified bitumen is kept


approximately 10C above ordinary bitumen temperature. The heating may be done
heating

in

will

any of the following ways:

a)

In this

Direct heating

system

flue

with light diesel

oil/

system

tube along with burner


furnace

oil

is

provided

in

bitumen tank. Burner operated

heats the bitumen around flue tube.

21

iRC:90-2010
^

Thermic

oii

heating system (Fig. 20)

system, hot

in this

received from hot

oi!

oil

heater

is

circulated through the coils

in

bitumen tank, bitumen pump, spray pump, delivery pipe, bitumen weighing tank, spray
bar and pugmiil; to keep the bitumen supply uniform and maintain the temperature.
It

IS

provided with independent automatic control panel including

oil

temperature

indicating controller, low level switch, low circulation pressure switch, over temperature

cut off thermostat, burner control relays, burner operating circuits etc. Indicating type

thermometer
at

to

show

the temperature of thermic

appropnate location

piping

for

its visibility.

and weighing hopper

at

and bitumen should be provided


heats the bitumen and keeps bitumen tank,

It

oil

constant temperatu'^e.

Its

operation

Bi lumen
"tank

is

pollution free.

lot Oil

Hitmnen
.racket

J2ii2e_

..J

Weigh
h.^'n

;i

bucket

Ijitiuncn

li
Pug

ii

mill

Spray

Fig.

4.1.10

pump

20 Heating of Bitumen through Thermic

Oil

System

Mixing unit (pugmiil)

chamber in which bitumen and aggregates are mixed thoroughly to achieve


homogenous mix. A lined mixing chamber with two horizontal shafts containing
several paddle arms and paddle tips are mounted. The paddle tips can be adjusted
and replaced easily. Paddles arms and tips are made of wear resistant high nickel
It

is

the

hardened cast
oil

alloy steel for longer service

jacketing system to avoid drop

that there are

no dead areas

in

in

life

and low maintenance

cost.

It

has hot

mix temperature. The paddles must be set such

the pugmiil.

The dead area

is

a place where material

can accumulate out of reach of paddles and cannot be mixed thoroughly. Dead areas
can be avoided by assuring that clearance between paddle
than half the
is

maximum aggregates

very important to

tip

and the

liner is less

The quantity of material to be fed in pugmiil


achieve the homogenous mix (Fig. 21). If material level is too high,
size.

22

IRC:90-2010
the upper

most material tends

Conversely, too

little

material

to float

material without actually mixing

Therefore, to achieve the

pug

in

^bove the paddles and does not mix thoroughly.


mill results

in

raking of

tip

paddles through the

it.

maximum

operating efficiency

the paddle tips should be

barely visible at the surface of material during mixing.

Over

filled pugniill

Under

filled

Fig. 21 Effect of

Feed Material

in

Pug

Mill

Mixing cycle

4.1.10.1

It

Piigmill live zone

pugmill

the cycle during which bitumen, aggregates and mineral

is

filler

are blended

in

pugmill of hot mix plant.

Batch mixing time

4.1.10.2

It

is

the time

between opening

of

weigh hopper gate and closing of pugmill discharge

During this period, the aggregates and bitumen are properly mixed and

gate.

homogenous mixture of thoroughly cooked particles achieved. The batch mixing


time should be minimum and such that homogenous mixture of evenly distributed
and uniformly coated aggregates particles is achieved. The sequence of operations
in Pugmill
is shown in Fig. 22. The improvement in design and techniques result
in

lowering the mixing time and achieve the mix as per specification. Longer mixing

time

will

adversely affect quality of mix, due to exposure of thin bitumen

aggregates temperature
It

will

also result

in

in

drop

the presence of
in

air,

film to

high

thus causing oxidation of bitumen.

the capacity of plant. Thus, the production cost

will

increase.
Normally, batch mixing time of the plant begins with 30 second mix cycle.

mixing time
in

depend upon type

of aggregates, design of mix,

presence of moisture

aggregates, viscosity of bitumen, shape and size of pugmill; shape, size number of

paddle
of

will

The optimum

tips

bitumen

and
flow,

their

arrangement, peripheral speed of paddle

method adopted

for

adding aggregates and

tips,

their

pugmill v/s batch size, condition of pugmill, operator's efficiency.

23

type and quantity

sequence, size

of

IRC;90-2010
Spray, bar

Weigh
box

-Pug
mil

2. The

The gates of weigh box


are opetied and diseharged
into

3.

pug

pug mill gate


opens and finished

bitumen are mixed.

5.

batch type plant, mixing

If

until

it

material

placed

is

in

is

'0^^

is

two matenals
4.1.11

is

to

in

Pugmill

is

provided at the discharge end of the mixer to store


in

a hauling truck.

be processed

in

the plant, the reclaimed bitumen

a separate cold bin and transferred to the pug

mill

pavement
through a

added in desired proportion to the


has been superheated in dryer drum. The heat transfer and mixing of
done as they move through the pug mill.

Mineral

The mineral

tip

a continuous process. Therefore, a hopper of smaller

charging conveyor. The reclaimed material

aggregates that

discharged.

Paddle

can be delivered

reclaimed material

is

22 Sequence of Operations

capacity for temporary holding


the material

mix

Pugmil! gate closes to receive the next batch.


Fig.

In

is

4. The

The aggregates and

Paddle
arms

bitumen

disehargcd into pug


mill by a spray bar.

filler/dust control

is

system

cement are used for the purpose


and stored in a separate chamber to protect from dampness and to avoid its choking/
hardening from moistures. The system consists of (a) a screw feeder which carries filler
from filler tank of adequate capacity (b) a screw feeder to carry dust collected from bag
filter and merge both of them into a common chute known as filler stock bin. Transportation
of filler from filler bin to weigh hopper is conducted either pneumatically or mechanically. In
pneumatic system, mineral filler is sent under air stream and handled as a fluid. It is more
accurate control system which eliminates the chances of plugging. The mechanical system
consists of a receiving hopper, screw conveyor, dust tight elevator to charge an elevated silo
filler

such as rock

dust, hydrated lime or


it

24

IRC:90-2010
with a

vane feeder to meter the

of the

filler

bin,

fines into the plant.

is

is

rotor rotate

installed at the outlet

and transfer the

driven by air cylinder installed at lower part of the

opens/closes as per the requirement of filler

In

rotary valve

wherein rotary plates equipped within the

through the flapper gate, which

4.1.12

The

filler

rotor.

It

weigh hopper.

into

Control panel

batch type plant, aggregates and bitumen are mixed

in

batch, which

is

controlled by

opening and closing of weigh hopper, discharge gate, bitumen valve, pugmill discharge
gate with preset automatically controlled timing device. Automatic proportioning and

work together through preset

cycling control

interlocking devices. Automatic dryer

control regulates the temperature of aggregates discharged from dryer automatically

within a preset range.


for

The control panel

for

batching console contains switches, circuits

automatic batching including preset controls for weigh batch, interlock controls,

tolerance controls and

The

limit

switches.

control panel consists of

an

air

conditioned cabin to avoid the effect of heat,

dust and vibration; which can cause malfunctions

in

the system.

It

incorporates

all

controllers, indicators including bin leveler, relays, switches, timers, pilot lamps, wiring
for operation of

all

different electric

In

components. The function of complete plant including operation

motors

is

controlled from control panel.

addition to above, following controls of plant are exercised

displayed

in

Plant load (set as percent of plant capacity)

b)

Composition of

d)

and the information

control panel:

a)

c)

different materials:

1)

Plant load

2)

Moisture content

3)

Aggregates bins

4)

Bitumen

5)

Mineral

filler

Running weight of materials:


1)

Quantity of aggregates

2)

Quantity of bitumen

3)

Quantity of mineral

in

in

tonne per batch

kilogram per batch

filler in

kilogram per batch

Total quantity of materials flow during specific period


1)

of

Aggregates

in

tonne

25

IRC:90-2010

e)

4.1.13
It

2)

Bitumen

3)

Mineral

4)

Total production of

kilogram

in

filler in

kilogram

mix (1+2+3)

in

tonne

Temperature of
1)

Bitumen

2)

Aggregates

3)

Hot mix

Secondary pollution control device (bag house

filter)

consists of a large metal housing containing hundreds of inverted, tabular, synthetic,

heat resistant fabric


cleaner.

filters.

The housing

is

The

house
two chambers.

function of a bag

divided into

filter

(Fig. 23)

is like

vacuum

gas chamber

a)

Dirty

b)

Clean gas chamber.

gas chamber and subsequently to filter bags


through open mouth. This gas is sucked out of the filter bags by the effect of suction
pressure created by a vacuum pump. As the gas comes out of the filter bags, it gets
filtered and dust is left behind on the inner walls of filter bags
Shaker arrangement
(mechanical shaker or reverse air flow system) is provided to shake a portion of bags
at a time, to clean them of dirt particles. The dust shaken out of the bags drops into
a hopper at the bottom and is taken out/sent back to mixing chamber for its reuse, if
desired. It is a highly efficient filter arrangement capable to separate large size particles
up to 1 micron size with 99 percent efficiency. These filters are very expensive and
should be used with great care for their optimum utilization and higher efficiency.
Dust laden flue gas enters the

dirty

Reverse

air jets

Cleaned gas
Reverse
Outiet

air

cleaning

process

Dust

Frame

laden

tor

gas

support

bag

Inlet

Dust hopper
Valve

Fig.

23 Function of Bag House

26

Filter

IRC:90-2010

Hot mix surge

4.1.14

The

silo

hot mix received from hot mix plant can be loaded directly into tipper. Alternatively,

same can be transferred


loading

in

tippers.

is

It

into

surge

24) and stored temporarily

silo (Fig.

till

its

controlled

a cylindrical shell with dual chamber, duly insulated with thermo/

ceramic wool and can maintain hot mix temperature upto 3 hours approximately.
combination of hot

oil

and thermo/ceramic wool

circulation

is

capable

to maintain hot

mix temperature upto 16 hours approximately depending upon ambient temperature,

and

quantity of bituminous mix


silos are

normally available

may be connected

its

temperature, hot

oil

temperature and

to the holding bin of the silo, to monitor the

material being loaded

in

each

tipper,

which

is

amount

controlled/ indicated

Conveyor

flow.

A weighing

the range of 50 to 200 tonne capacity.

in

its

in

Surge

system

of hot mix

control panel.

Hot mix
plant

/<

Surge
silo

IK

Hot mix
receiver

Fig.

4.2

24 Transfer of Hot Mix

into

Surge

Silo

Selection of Site for Hot Mix Plant (Batch Type)

Following points should be considered before commissioning the hot mix plant (batch
type) for

its

better efficiency:

The

a)

site

should be at appropriate distance to ensure proper laying

temperature.

The

b)

for

site

should have sufficient space for stocking the aggregates

minimum

equipments,
residential

shed

sheds

days
for

and

consumption,

their

repair,

other

storage

factors.

per hour capacity plant shall require


c)

Ground should be leveled and

soil

parking
of

Normally,

of

vehicles/

spares/fuel,

135/165

minimum 10,000 m^

staff

tonne
area.

should have good bearing capacity

to construct the foundation.


d)

Site should

be neat and clean

for free entry

'27

and

exit of tippers at plant site.

IRC:90-2010

The environmental

e)

effects that

should be considered

in

is

noise, vibration, dust, water pollution;

depth to prevent any harm to the residents or

farm location.

Proper water drainage should be provided

f)

for

smooth functioning

of

plant.

Advantages of Hot Mix Plant (Batch Type)

4.3

The
in

plant

is fitted

with secondary gradation control unit, thus the aggregates received

The aggregates and bitumen are measured in desired


per batch and mixed in pugmill. Thus, homogenous mix is received in desired

pugmill are well graded.

quantity

proportion.

Limitations of Hot Mix Plant (Batch Type)

4.4

a)

The

cost of the plant

The

c)

Smaller capacity plants, less than 90 tonne per hour are not available

plant

needs more space

Requirement of

Power

is

DG

to

commissioning has also

to

also limited. Thus,

it

is

remote area,
in

to

keep the environment

remote areas, besides minimum


to Electricity

pollution

fixed per

Board and cabling,

be borne by consumer. The working period of plant

is

The diesel generating set


economical and uninterrupted power supply to hot mix

a costly and time consuming

Normally 500 kVA diesel generating set

tonne per hour capacity

is

factor.

required for operation of 135/165

plant.

5
5.1

in

be paid on monthly basis

should be commissioned for


plants.

commissioning.

Set for Hot Mix Plant (Batch Type)

not frequently available

charges are also

kilowatt

for

the market, their operation being uneconomical and not feasible.

Hot mix plants are commissioned


free.

high.

b)

in

4.5

is

DRUM

MIX PLANT

Brief

The drum mix plant was adopted in India during late 1980's, for laying bituminous mix.
In drum mix plant, aggregates gradation is controlled at cold feed end and aggregates
heating, drying and bitumen mixing are done in same drum. It has been adopted
widely due to its a) Portability b) Higher efficiency c) Economy in basic cost d) Lower
fuel consumption e) Reduction in man power and maintenance cost f) Trouble free
28

IRC:90-2010
operation g) Ability to produce large quantity of mix at relatively low temperature and
h)

environmental

friendly.

The drum mix plant may be either Parallel flow type or Counter flow type. In Parallel
flow type drum mix plant, aggregates and hot gases flow in same direction inside the

same drum.

This

is

conventional type of plant and

is

used

in India.

Counter flow type drum mix plant, the aggregates and hot gases flow
direction within the same drum. These may be of two types:
In

1 )

2)

Drying and mixing of aggregates and bitumen takes place

opposite

same drum.

drum and aftenA/ards the dried


aggregates are transferred to another drum where mixing of aggregates
and bitumen takes place. This is known as dual drum plant also. A few
Drying of aggregates takes place

such type of plants are

Components

5.2

in

in

the major

In

addition to these,

it

operation

of Conventional

components

All

in

of

drum mix

in first

in India.

Drum Mix

Plant (Parallel Flow Type)

Flow Type) are shown in Fig. 25.


system. The hot mix surge silo and

plant (Parallel

includes mineral

filler

11

-Cold Bin Feeder (Minimum Bins-4 No.), 2-Aggregate Over size Rejection Screen, 3-Cold Feed Conveyor, 4-Automatic

Weighing System, 5-Dr\ er

cum Mixing Daim,

Primary^ Dust Collector), 9-Hot

Fig.

6-Exhaust Control System, 7-Bitumen Unit, 8-Pollution Control Device

Mix Conveyor, 10-Gob Hopper,! 1 -Control Cabm

25 Major Components of Drum Mix Plant

(Parallel

Flow Type)

secondary pollution control device are the optional components of the


details of the

Cold bin feeder

5.2.1

The

brief details

5.2.2

The

components are given below:

have already been furnished

in

Para 4.1.1.

Aggregates over size rejection screen

brief details

have already been furnished

29

in

Para 4.1.1.

plant.

The

brief

IRC:90-2010
Cold feed conveyor

5.2.3

It

is

known as

slinger conveyor also.

The

brief details

have already been furnished

in

Para 4.1.2.

Automatic weighing system

5.2.4

Load

provided at the center of slinger conveyor to measure the quantity of


material being fed in the drum.
cell is

5.2.5

It

is

and

Dryer cum mixing drum

a rotary shell
rollers. Its

a)

made

(Fig. 26)

of heat resistance steel 10 to 12

main function

mm thick,

supported on rings

is:

To remove moisture from aggregates by heating

it

at appropriate

temperature.
b)
.

To blend aggregates and bitumen in desired proportion


homogenous mix within 140C to 160C.

to achieve

Aggregate

Burner

Fig.

5.2.5.1

26 Components of Dryer cum Mixing Drum

Design aspects
a)

Dryer
1

cum

mixing drum

is

divided into two zones:

Combustion zone: The heating and drying of aggregates take place

in this

zone.
2) Mixing

place
b)

zone: The mixing of aggregates,

in this

The drum

is

filler

and bitumen takes

zone.

provided with replaceable different shapes of

flights,

which perform following functions:


1)

Kicker

flight

It

30

pushes the aggregates inside the drum

IRC:90-2010
2)

flight

It

eliminates showering of aggregates

directly into

3)

Notched

flight

It

allows the aggregates to

so
4)

Cup

flight

It

flame

that

all

forms a

veil of

does not reach


5)

Aggregates

rotation ring

It

collects the

fall

scattered,

heated uniformly.

particles are

aggregates so that flame

in

mixing zone.

aggregates received

combustion zone and moves

it

in

to mixing

zone.
-

6) J. flight

It

blends the aggregates

bitumen and

filler/fines.

Quantity and arrangement of flights depends on the output of the plant.


c)

Rate of drying the aggregates depend upon the moisture content present
in
The dwell time in dryer cum mixing drum, can control the drying of
aggregates and achieve homogenous mix. It depends on following factors:
it.

d)

drum should be

the range of 4 to

1)

Length

2)

For drum mix plants up to 90 tonne per hour capacity; speed of


drum should be in the range of 10 to 12 revolutions per minute and
slope of drum not to exceed 9 cm/metre.

to

diameter

ratio of

in

6.

Burner
1)

The

fuel

furnace

used

oil.

in

the burner

Preheater

is

in

drum mix

plant

is

essential for use of furnace

light diesel oil/


oil.

2)

Burner used in dryer cum mixing drum (Fig. 27) is based on forced
and induced draft principle, in which approximately 55 percent air
by exhaust fan and 45 percent by air blower is inducted in drum for
complete combustion of fuel.

3)

The flame should be


45

to

shorter,

more intense and

50 percent through forced draft

50-55% through induced


Fig,

27 Burner used

in

Dryer

31

cum

Mixing

Drum

highly radiatory.

IRC:90-2010
4)

should have auto flame failure detection system to avoid coating


of aggregates with fuel. Photocell is used for detection of flame.

5)

It

6)

There should be no

It

should have auto ignition system to avoid explosion.

down
7)

e)

is in

shut

position.
for

line

Liquid bitumen

is

not sprayed into drum.

such pressure, from where

f)

when burner

Excess air, approximately 25 percent should be supplied


complete combustion of fuel.

Bitumen
1 )

dribbling from nozzle tip

it

It

is

pumped

discharges by gravity

same may

to a point with

into

drum.

2)

should be close to
gas stream.

3)

should be more inside the drum but within mixing zone due to
longer dwell time for better mixing.

It

flights

so that

not be picked up with

It

Bitumen fines receiver

The dust received from dust

collector or

filler

received from mineral

system is inducted in desired proportion in mixing zone of drum


through bitumen fines receiver, (Fig. 28) which prevents the fines from
becoming rear borne.
filler

Fig.

5.2,6

28 Bitumen Fines Receiver

Exhaust control system

main function is to induce


remove evaporated moisture
Its

a)

Exhaust

fan:

in
It

cum

drum

complete combustion, to
aggregates and products of combustion. It consists of:

air in

is

dryer

mixing

for

and adequate capacity. In case it


the steam shall not be pulled out of drum

of centrifugal type

is not of adequate capacity,


and complete combustion will not take place resulting in higher fuel
consumption and coating of aggregates with fuel. It should be fitted with
20 horse power motor for 40/60 tonne per hour and 25 horse power with
60/90 tonne per hour capacity plant to achieve optimum efficiency.

32

IRC:90-2010

Exhaust damper it is provided at burner end to control automatic


based upon vacuum pressure measured inside the dryer.

b)

5.2.7

Bitumen

The bitumen
a)

unit

mainly consists

unit

draft,

of:

Bitumen tank

adequate capacity (minimum one day storage) meeting to


the requirement of plant capacity. Minimum 2 Nos. bitumen tanks should
be provided along with the plant. Total 20 and 25 tonne capacity bitumen
tanks are adequate to run 40/60 and 60/90 tonne per hour capacity plants
It

is

insulated, of

respectively.

It

consists of a tank

fitted

with burner

in

flue tube.

The

fuel

burner is light diesel oil/furnace oil. Dialindicator type thermometer


is provided outside the tank to indicate bitumen temperature. The burner
should have thermostatic firing control for automatic control of bitumen
temperature within the specified range.

used

b)

in

Bitumen pump

pump

speed motor to induct


bitumen in mixing zone of drum. The system ensures bitumen delivery in
desired proportion to dry weight of aggregates. In case modified bitumen is
being used in plant, provision for 1 ) one no. additional positive displacement
pump just below flue tube 2) adequate number of agitators in bitumen tank,
should be made for its proper circulation mixing and maintaining uniform
temperature. It may be ensured that Guidelines for use of modified bitumen
It

is

a positive displacement

driven by variable

C)

are

strictly

Hot

oil

It

followed to maintain the quality of mix.

System

consists of hot

^
oil

tank, hot

oil

'

-r-^-..

pump and bitumen

line jacketing.

used to maintain uniform temperature of bitumen and avoids


in bitumen line. The system may be used either as duct heating or
its

It

is

clogging
indirect

heating as described here:


1)

Direct heating:

An

"

insulated tank approximately

25

litre

capacity containing hot

oil

with

independent burner in flue tube is mounted on the chasis of bitumen


and fuel from existing bitumen heating system are used for
heating hot oil. Hot oil in the range of 1 50C-1 80C is circulated through
bitumen pump and bitumen line jacketing with an independent pump.

tank. Air

2)

Indirect heating:

Hot oil tank is installed at the top of bitumen tank, from where hot
passes by gravity into the pipe line passing through the bitumen
tank. Hot oil gets heated by bitumen tank temperature and circulated
in bitumen pump and bitumen line jacketing via independent pump.
This practice is normally used to heat hot oil in drum mix plant.
oil

33

IRC:90-2010
5.2.8

The

have already been furnished

brief details

5.2.9

The

Primary pollution control device (dust collection system)


in

Para 4.1.4.

Hot mix conveyor

hot mix prepared

in

dryer

cum

mixing drum

is

taken to gob hopper through hot

mix/load out conveyor.


5.2.10

Gob hopper

Gob hopper

collects the hot mix material

and transfers

through hydraulic
arrangement. The blades of gob hopper should remain in closed position, while mix
material is being fed into it. These should open when gob hopper has completely filled
with mix material and the same is being transferred into tipper, to avoid segregation.
Scrapper blade is provided in gob hopper to avoid sticking of fines on conveyor belt
and achieve desired mix formula.
5.2.11

The

it

to tipper

Control cabin

brief details

have been furnished

in

Para 4.1.12.

no system to measure the temperature of aggregates.


Therefore, exhaust temperature is measured by putting thermocouple in exhaust
chimney, which indicates temperature in control panel. It may be ensured that complete
fuel combustion takes place in dryer drum and temperature is stable for fifteen
minutes before considering final exhaust gas temperature. Aggregates temperature
is approximately 12C less than the exhaust gas temperature.
In

drum mix

5.2.12

The

is

filler

have been furnished

in

Para 4.1.11.

in

Para 4.1.14.

silo

have been furnished

Secondary pollution control device

of two types, a)

Control are given


a)

system

Hot mix surge

brief details

5.2.14
It

Mineral

brief details

5.2.13

The

plant, there is

in

Wet scrubber b) Bag house

filter.

Hot Mix Plant Emission and

their

Annex-C.

Wet scrubber type

unit

"
.

and dust particles are trapped by


water shower/forced water spray, thus separating them from gas stream. It can
In this

type of

unit,

gases pass through the

34

inlet

IRC:90-2010
separate dust particles upto 5 micron size and eliminate certain amount of gases
also with varying efficiency. This system requires large quantity of water. The ponds
of adequate capacity are made to collect the slurry, reclaim and reuse the water. The

be removed frequently preferably within 2 to 3 days


These are of two types, the details of which are given below:

particles settled should

better efficiency.

Open spray tower

1).

for

its

type (Fig. 29)

gases enter the chamber and pass through water spray under pressure. The
dust particles in the form of slurry settle down and are removed from the bottom. The
clean air passes out of the chamber.

The

dirty

Clean
out

air

let

Water
inlet

i|

Dirty gases inlet

Drain for slurry

Fig.

Pollution Control

venturi scrubber type, dust laden

Device

'

Venturi type (Fig. 30)

2)
In

29 Open Spray Tower Type

gases are made

pass through a venturi section


high pressure. The flue gases

to

which is constantly wetted through stream of water at


pass through this venturi section and atomize the liquid resulting in deposition of dust
particles with fine water droplets. In the complete process, clean air goes out and dust
particles in the form of slurry are removed from the bottom of the cylinder.
Dirty gases inlet

Jj
ff^T-J

Clean
out

air

let

Water
nozzles

.Separator

Discnarge for
slurry

Fig.

The
5.3

30 Venturi Type Roliution Control Device

efficiency of venturi type

wet scrubber

Advantages of Hot Mix


a)

The cost

cf the plant

Plarft
is

is

higher than open sptaylower type.

(Drum-Mix Type)

less.

35

IRC:90-2010

The

b)

plant

needs

less

space

for

commissioning and

its

transportation

different capacities ranging

from 40/60 to

also easy.

is

c)

The plants are available


400 tonne per hour.

d)

The operation and maintenance

in

cost of plant

is

less,

as compared to

other types of plants.

Limitations of Hot Mix Plant (Drum-Mix Type)

5.4

a)

The

b)

The

does not have second gradation control unit


material could be used to achieve desired mix quality.
plant

i.e.

only graded

does not have any system to measure aggregates


temperature. Aggregates temperature is assessed by deducting 12C
from exhaust gas temperature.
plant

c)

The

quality of hot mix prepared

is

not as

homogenous as

in

case of

batch type plant.


5.5

Power Requirement for Drum-Mix Plant

Drum mix

plant

Normally,

drum mix

in

India

and

is fitted

total

with electric motors for operation of different units.

and 60/90 tonne per hour capacity are being used


power for different units is approximately 1 05 and 1 30

plants of 40/60

requirement of

horse power respectively, the details of which are given below:

a)

Horse power required

Details of unit

SI.No.

Auxiliary conveyors (4nos.)

b)

Gathering conveyor

c)

Vibratory screen for oversize

60/90 tp.h
8.00
5.00
3.00

40/60 tp.h

5.00

5.00
20.00

8.00
5.00
3.00

rejection
d)

Slinqer conveyor

e)

Dryer cum
Exhauster
Dust collector conveyor screw
Load out conveyor
Hydraulic power pack
Asphalt pump
Air compressor for mineral filler
Burner air blower
Burner fuel pump
Hot oil circulation pump
others

f)

9)
h)
i)

i)

k)
1)

m)
n)

0)

mixing drum

25.00
25.00
1.50

1.50

7.50
5.00
5.00

5.00

15.00
15.00
2.00
1.00

7.00
130.00

Total

36

20.00

5.00

5.00
10.00
10.00
1.00
1.00
5.50
105.00

IRC:90-2010
All

the motors are not

in

operation at

kVA and 110 kVA are adequate

to run

The generating

load continuously.

full

set 82.5

40/60 and 60/90 tonne per hour capacity drum

mix plant respectively.


5.6

Double Barrel Drum Mix Plant

double barrel drum mix plant technology, the concentric chambers of same drum
are used to heat and mix the virgin aggregates with liquid bitumen, filler material
and reclaimed bituminous pavement (if required). The heat produced in dryer drum is
In

utilized

more
a)

effectively in following

The

manner:

inner shell of the dryer

drum de-moisturises and heats the

aggregates upto required temperature and discharges


b)

The outer

shell (annular portion) fitted with

it

arms and

virgin

to outer shell.
tips is utilized

aggregates with reclaimed bituminous


pavement, filler material and liquid bitumen. It works as pugmill and
produces homogenous mix with use of reclaimed bituminous pavement

to

mix the hot and dried

virgin

upto 50 percent.
5.6.1

Sequence
a)

for preparation of hot

mix

The aggregates in desired


to dryer drum (counter flow
flap

arrangement

proportion are fed from cold bin feeder

and shaken well with a vibratory


dryer drum, which loosens the dust

type)

at the entry of

particles sticking to the aggregates.


b)

The dryer chamber

consists of three sections

of flights for efficient drying of aggregates

The arrangement

Combustion

Fig. 31

Arrangement of

is

is

Showering

Different

Types

37

with different types

effective heat utilization.

shown in the (Fig.


also shown below:

of flights

different types of flights

and

fitted

31).

The

function of
-

Conditioning

of Flights

in

Double Barrel Plant

lRC.90-2010

These

as the

the lumps
UP tn
eoH to
o break up
are used

or sticky materials

Conditioning flights:
aggregates enter the '^'y^^^^^!!^^!!^^
cONOmONiNG

Fig

FUGHTS

32 Conditioning

Fliglits

^ ^^^^

Showering.ghts.T^^^^^^^
2)
lift

and
the aggregates

ensurethe|r_^___^
^

make sure
Showering fiighb

that the moteriai

through the hot

Fia

gas st^eom-

33 Showering

thP combustion zone

Comb.on zone

Fig.

Flights

P;^^Su^sJ

34 Combustion

38

Flights

and prevent

iRC:90-2010

The drum

rotates

incited pos,.on.

in

^^J^J^^^,,
g

and oth

3, per job

biturT^inouspavernent
^^^^^^
reclaimed
'^''^'"^
in
formula present
,^'"7^3^^
mtea at the out^
Pddles/arms
the
^^^^^^^
aqainst gravity by
d'ryer

slow -^^t^"^'
drum. Due to

^f,Xre the same is

pushed

r.ix

^
to the

time for P-P^^V-^'^^^^S chamber). It also utilizes the


gets sufficient
of m,
the uppe end
^^^^ consumption,
outlet (towards
final

dryer chamber,
radiant heat of
section, the hot

which

^^.^^ ^^^^

pavement
-"P^^'^^^^^J^'l^^fSd bituminous
-th
chamber
.^^^ ^.e, (dose to the outlet o
of \he dryer
"^'^'"S
externally fed to
pavement absorbs the
(RBP) being

,n this

Sed

aggregates).

The

'-^"'l^.^'^^^'Zes
aggregates a^;

^ me
heat from virgin
present on re la
bitumen
'p^sent in it. Old
aggregates thi y
the virgin
melts and coats
.

mixing temperature.

S^l^^^i^;;;^^^^^
d)

bituminous pavement

^^^^^^^^^^

the
which coats both

additives
N^'^^i^^^P^^rof Sen. The fines/
bitumen film
into thick
Virgin and old
embedded
-f-^t.rSgetJ

The

liquid

bitumen

is

a^r s^^^^^^^^

are added at
\w nu
and mixing continues

components
1)

moisture conten

of doub/e barre,

drum m/xp^nf

(minimum bins-4nos.)
cold bin feeder

39

IRC:90-2010

2)

Cold feed conveyor

3)

Double

4)

RBP

5)

Primary dust collector

6)

Bitumen

7)

Drag conveyor

8)

Gob hopper

9)

Control cabin

barrel

feeder

10) Mineral

"

filler

unit

Secondary

11)

drum

system

pollution control device

(Bag house

filter

system)

12) Hot mix surge/storage silo


5.6.2.1

The

brief details

5.6.2.2
It

is

Cold bin feeder

have already been furnished

in

Para 4.1.1.

Cold feed conveyor

known as

slinger

conveyor

also.

The

brief details

Para 4.1 .2
5.6.2.3

have already been fumished

in

Double barrel drum

double barrel drum consists of tv^o concentric


chambers. The inner chamber acts
as dryer drum and outer chamber as mixing drum.
It is fitted in inclined
position and
rotates at slow speed through chain and
sprocket mechanism. The drum shell is
supported by two steel tyres which rest on four trunion
rollers and two guide rollers
The process flow diagram is shown in Fig. 36.
Loader

Primary dust
collector unit

RBP bin

Conveyor

-t

n
K.
Double
Fig.

.
K
barrel drum
.

36 Process Flow Diagram

for

40

s^^^^i^
screen "

Exhaust to
atmosphere

Feeder

Cold aggregate
^'"^

Double Barrel Drum Mix Plant

IRC:90-2010

The dryer drum


dryer

chamber

with low noise

is fitted

and high efficiency burner

at

one end. The

with flights of three different configurations to ensure proper

is fitted

demoisturising and heating of virgin aggregates upto required temperature.

The heated

aggregates travel by gravity assisted by rotational movement of the drum (towards the
burner side) and

finally

come

annular portion of the dryer drum


hot virgin aggregates

is fitted

with externally

bitumen and other additives

chamber

out of the dryer

for

to the mixing

chamber. The

with mixing paddles/blades for churning the

added reclaimed bituminous pavement,

homogenous mixing as per job mix

formula.

liquid

The

hot

mix inside the mixing chamber are pushed against gravity by the mixing blades and
finally

come

5.6.2.4

out of the mixing

RBPfeeder

chamber as

final

product.
"

^
.

'

pavement
to double barrel drum. The reclaimed bituminous pavementfeeding arrangement
may comprise of an impact crusher and close loop screening arrangement
It

consists of bin and conveyor, which feeds the reclaimed bituminous

as optional to ensure proper down sizing of milled reclaimed bituminous

pavement.
5.6.2.5

The

The

have been given

Bitumen
unit

in

Para 4.1.4.

unit

mainly consists of bitumen tank, bitumen heating system, bitumen

and delivery
liquid

Primary pollution control device (dust collection system)

brief details

5.6.3

pipe.

Bitumen pump

fitted

with variable

bitumen as per job mix formula through hot

speed motor

oil

is

used

pump

to feed the

jacketed bitumen pipe

line.

In

addition to this, other controls like tachometer, flow meter etc. are provided to ensure

correct feeding of bitumen


5.6.4

The

5.6.5

The

mixing chamber.

Drag conveyor

hot mix prepared

to the

in

is

discharged from mixing chamber through drag

surge bin or hot mix storage

silo.

Gob hopper

brief details

have already been furnished

41

in

Para 5.2.10.

slot

conveyor

IRC:90-2010
Control cabin

5.6.6

The

entire operation of plant being run

centralized control room.

y'^

i.r^, ,,.;}..''>

The

on automatic

mode

controlled from a

is

have already been furnished

brief details

Para

in

4.1.12.

5.6.7

The

brief details

5.6.8

The

Mineral

filler

system

'

have been furnished

in

Para 4.1.11.

Secondary pollution control device (bag house

brief details

have been furnished

filter

system)
'

Paras 4.1 Jl 3 and 5.2.14.

in

have been furnished in Para

5.6.9

Hot mix surge

5.7

Advantages of Hot Mix Plant (Double Barrel Drum-Mix type)

silo: Tfie brief details

4.1.14.

Double barrel drum mix plant has got following advantages over other type of
a)

The

size of similar capacity of double barrel

the hot mix plant (batch type) and

its

drum mix

transportation

plant

is

plants:

less than

also easy and

is

economical.

b)

The plant being of counter flow type and having


chamber optimizes energy utilization.

c)

The

d)

Infrared sensors fitted at mixing

fuel

consumption

for heating the

aggregates

is

chamber sense and

insulated mixing

on lower

side.

control the desired

hot mix temperature and ensure even production.


e)

The mixing takes place in pugmill, thus more homogenous mix evenly coated
with uniform bitumen film thickness

f)

The use

negligible oxidation

to

produce consistently high quality of hot

Limitation of Hot Mix Plant (Double Barrel


of double barrel
a)

is

achieved.

Higher percentage of reclaimed bituminous pavement upto 50 percent,

can be used
5.8

and

drum mix

Second gradation
grading

is

piix.

Drum-Mjx type)

plant has following limitations:

control unit

is

not provided

in

the plant, thus accurate

not assured.

b)

Only graded materia!

c)

The

cost of double barrel

mix

plant.

is

to

be used.

drum mix

42

plant

is

high

in

the category of drum

1RC:90-2010

OPERATION OF HOT MIX PLANTS

Principles for Operation

6.1

The

following principles govern the operation of

The operation should be

a)

'

c)

carefully planned,

The operation should be

b)

supporting

staff,

hot mix plant:

so that the

final

product

is

of a high quality.

modern

are

run by a competent manager,

all fully

conversant with the

plant,

its

who

with his

operation and

maintenance.

The aim should be

continuity

operation, avoid break-down and

in

intermittent working.
d)

6.2

The adequate stock

must be ensured.

of ingredients

General

The Guidelines given in plant manufacturer's operational manual should be strictly


followed. The points given below should also be taken care of before starting, shutting
down and running the plant.
a)

The sample

and mix material should be taken

of aggregates, bitumen

and

at regular intervals of time


b)

The stock

c)

The operation

piles of

tested.

aggregates should be checked

of cold feeders (setting of cold feeders) should

checked twice daily and more frequently,


and got calibrated, if required.
.

d)

The operation

e)

The

of the dryer should

if

variation

appears

in

be

the mix

be checked

regularly.

hot screens, hot bins and dust collector should be checked daily

for uninterrupted flow of


f)

regularly.

aggregates.

The weigh hopper and bitumen bucket should be checked daily. The
accuracy of all scales should be checked at least once a week.

g)

The operation

h)

drum mix plant and double barrel drum mix plant, the bitumen pump
should be checked for its accuracy and got calibrated, if required.

i)

of mixer unit should

be checked

regularly.

In

Carry out visual inspection of the mix, collect mix samples, do extraction
test

on mix and bitumen penetration

daily or

as required, to ensure

compliance with specifications.


j)

The records
laid

and

pertaining to quantity of aggregates, bitumen,

their temperature,

be maintained.

43

mix being

!RC:90-2010

Precautions During Operation of Plant

6.3

The

following precautions should be observed during various

performance and optimum

of the plant to achieve better

sequence

of operations

utilization:

Cold aggregate feeder

6.3.1

a)

Segregation of aggregates as well as intermixing should be prevented,


while loading aggregates into bins.

b)

Bins should contain the aggregates of correct size and kept loaded
to allow

fully,

even flow through the feed gate

in

a particular set position.

The approximate tonnage per hour for gate openings


form of calibration chart
c)

for

Arching of fine aggregates

provided

is

in

the

each gate.
is

prevented by placing a vibrator

the bin

in

containing fines.
d)

Moisture on fine aggregates should be avoided, so that clogging


not take place.

e)

To avoid any damage

between gate and


1.5 times the

may be

belt,

conveyor

belt,

by getting the aggregates stuck

feed size of aggregates.

required, grizzly

If

kept over the bins to prevent large pieces of stone coming

may

in

clog the gate.

After completing the

work

for day, bins

should be

material especially during rainy season.


belts

the discharge gate openings of bins be kept

maximum

the bins, which


f)

of

may

and drives while

starting four bin

It

will

left

with

ensure less

minimum
strain

on

feeder next day and their longer

life.

g)

The

material build up should b

checked periodically

from turning and remove the same.


6.3.2

to prevent rollers

Cold ag^gregate bucket elevator


a)

In

order to reduce the feeding height of four bin feeder, a

pit

of

approximately one meter depth should be dug, to place cold elevator

mounting frame.
b)

Ensure the buckets receive the material from gathering conveyor,


eliminating digging, although the

edges are hard faced

c)

Ensure aggregates are not accumulated

d)

In

case of

rains during previous night,

cold elevator

is

removed.

to give long

life.

in pit.

ensure the water logging

in pit

of

IRC:90-2010
e)

Don't start the feeder,

until

the dryer burner has

been

incited.

Dryer unit
a)

Before starting the dryer, ensure the feed box bottom door

is

opened,

dust removed and cleaned.


b)

Before starting the plant, the nozzle and burner should be cleaned with

kerosene
c)

oil.

Don't allow the aggregates to flow through the dryer drum,


vertical hot elevator

d)

bucket

is

when

the

not working.

Before starting the dryer drum, the aggregates should not be inside
since a very high torque

is

required to start the dryer

drum

filled

it;

with

aggregates.
e)

If

furnace

down

its

oil

is

used

in

the burner,

passing

viscosity, before

it

it

should be pre-heated to bring

through burner. The furnace

oil

to

be preheated between 100C-110C.

new installation, ensure that combustion chamber of dryer

f)

Before starting a

drum and bitumen

boiler are completely dry. Refractory lining of combustion

chamber should be

dried with low

g)

Don't permit open

fire

h)

Always stand and hold torch

in
i)

around

wood

fuel

oil

fire

and not by

oil firing.

tanks.

prevent getting burnt

at desired length, to

case burner puffs back.

While

lighting burner,

never allow excessive fuel to be sprayed

into

combustion chamber of drum.


j)

more than five


the dryer drum, as the dryer drum

Don't keep the burner lighted for a long time preferably

minutes, without aggregates inside

may

bulge. Operate the burner on low flame,

when

it

is

not loaded

fully.

k)

I)

Shape

is

Maximum

swirl will

long cigar

shaped flame.

If

regulated by

means

produce a short wide flame and minimum

swirl

pump delivery is irregular or negligible, prime the pump and see


pump does not suck air through joints on suction side.

Observe the exhaust smoke during operation.

means incomplete combustion


In

of air swirling action.

fuel

the

m)

of the flame

case of white smoke,

it

of fuel

If

is

found black,

and feeding of excess

shows the presence

Necessary action may be taken accordingly.

45

it

of moisture

it

fuel.

in fuel.

IRC:90-2010

Ensure no holes are formed

n)

in

excess dusty conditions

at site.

The

dryer

the cyclone

unit,

which

may add

drum should be uniform. It should


be over loaded by passing more quantity of aggregates from four

o)

flow of material

feeder to dryer drum.

in

to

not
bin

should be checked by measuring hot aggregates

It

temperature, to be maintained at about 180C and moisture content


not to

exceed 0.5 percent.

The heat

P)

loss of aggregates from dryer to mixer

to laying site

should be checked at regular intervals of time.

At the end of day, put

q)

and hot mix from mixer

the dryer

off

drum burner by stopping

fuel oil

supply and then the motor.

Burner

6.3.4

The burner

fitted

on dryer

unit

should be adjusted properly to maintain uniform

and desired aggregates temperature. Shorter and longer flame length

will

heat the

aggregates and dryer ends properly.


6.3.5

Hot elevator
Before starting the plant, the material at the foot of elevator should be

a)

removed through

flap door.

Don't allow the aggregates to flow from dryer drum,

b)

bucket elevator

is

weekly

to

is

provided with liners and to be checked

determine the extent of wear.

Hot aggregates from dryer drum should be delivered

d)

only

vertical

not working.

Hot elevator discharge chute

c)

when

when

to vertical elevator

the motor of elevator picks up the speed and runs at rated

revolutions per minute.

Care should be taken

e)

to

see that buckets receive the material

directly

with out digging.

6.3.6

Gradation unit

6.3.6.1

Screening

The screen must be

a)
-

b)

unit:

and arranged

in

of

adequate area, having correct size of openings

sequence.

The screen must be

set at proper slope for

46

smooth flow

of aggregates.

IRC:90-2010
c)

The screen should

The clogging

not have holes.

of screen

will

not

allow the aggregates to pass through. Therefore, the screens must be

inspected and cleaned frequently.

Weighing hopper:

6.3.6.2

always stored

a)

Ensure that

b)

The automatic

leveling control device to maintain

aggregates

any

sufficient material

in

predetermined

is

bin stops the plant,

four hopper bins.

in all

minimum

aggregate

if

drops to

level

should be checked periodically.

level;

level of

It

may

also be

The

cold feed

aggregates should be taken from each hot bin

at regular

ensured that over flow from any

bin should not occur.

should be controlled accordingly.


c)

The sample
intervals to

d)
:

6.3.6.3

...

of

check

for

proper grade.

The proper gate openings should be ensured, since the output and
proportioning of aggregates depends upon the same.

Proportioning the aggregates:


a)

Ensure that aggregate feeder gates are set as per


provided on each gate.

b)

Gradation tests

may be carried out on each sample,

calibration chart

collected at regular

intervals.
c)

Check up the scales

d)

The aggregates should be discharged from hot bins


starting with coarse and progressing down to the

for

zero error at no load every day.


into

weigh hoppers,

finest, in

the batch

plant.

e)

The aggregates,
correctly

6.3.7

filler

and bitumen weighing scales should be calibrated

and checked

periodically preferably

once

in

two weeks.

IVIixerunit
a)

The

pugmill does the job of proper mixing,

found clearly above the mix. An under

paddles to work properly.

above the paddles and


b)

is

In

an over

not

The mixing should be done


uniform mix.

If

fully
in

the mixing time

to heat

and

air.

will

the tips of paddle arms are


pugmill

filled

filled

does not allow the

pugmill, the material floats

mixed.
shortest possible time, to produce
is

too short, the particles would

not have a uniform coating of bitumen.

bitumen coating

if

If

the time

is

too long, the

harden because of long exposure of bitumen

An average time
47

for dry

mixing

could be about

1RC;90-2010
15 seconds followed by 30 to 45 seconds of mixing, after bitumen
is

c)

added.

Over size aggregates entering the mixer, tend the mixer arms to bend.
The clearance between the paddle tips and inside lining of mixer box
should not be more than 2 cm.

d)

Check aggregates hopper gates and bitumen feed valve

to

see that

they close tightly and no leakage takes place into mixer after the feed
is

e)

f)

stopped.

Ensure sequence offeeding the

material. Therefore, coarse aggregates

first,

followed with smaller sizes progressively

See

that the paddies

and

tips

in

order of size.

are set to ensure proper mixing action.

g)

See that the lining and tips are not worn. The tips have a tendency
wear faster in macadam work compared to seal coat.

h)

Check

distribution of

covering
i)

all

bitumen uniformly over entire width of mixer

parts.

Check the temperature


tippers.

to

of mix frequently, as

soon as

it

is

dumped

into

Ensure that the temperatures of aggregates and bitumen are

within the specified range.


j)

6.3.8

Check the mix temperature

Bitumen
a)

unit

Ensure before

the bitumen tank,

filling

a small amount of water

times
b)

Fill

frequently for laying and rolling.

its

will

its

does not contain water. Even

cause hot bitumen

normal volume, resulting

up the bitumen tank to

it

in its

to

over flow.

80 percent capacity

only, since the

volume

The over

flow of

ensure

safety,

of bitumen increases while raising the temperature.

bitumen can be
c)

The

fire

boiler should

reduce the
bitumen

strain

line.

The

foam up several

hazardous.

be located nearest

to the plant to

on the bitumen pump and prevent the clogging of


lead pipes should be insulated against risk to the

work man and maintain the bitumen temperature. It should always


be at inclined position to enable the hot bitumen to run down to the
bitumen boiler when not in use. The boiler should also be erected with
slight

downward

under the
firing

flue

towards the hottest firing end. Cold bitumen


then drain down the inclination towards the

inclination

tubes

will

end and can be drained without choking.

48

IRC:90-2010
d)

The top

lids

be kept closed, since the water,


good and clean bitumen. Clean the external

of the bitumen tank should

dust are the deterrents to

sides of barrels, before charging to prevent foreign matter going into

The dust and

the boiler.

tubes, which results

in

poor heat transfer,

and cracks are produced


fire

e)

down around

fine particles settle

tubes

local heating of flue

welding resulting

in

the flue

leakage, which can be

in

hazardous.

case excess fuel has been fed into flue tubes, shut off the fuel
supply and allow air to blow off the fuel and again start the procedure
In

for lighting the burner.

It

is

always safe to

start the

blower

first

before

turning on the fuel.


f)

Bitumen must be maintained

may cause
g)

cracking and

Whenever there

it

may be

a change

is

at specified

temperature. Overheating

difficult to

pump.

type of bitumen to be used, the bitumen

in

tank should be drained and cleaned thoroughly with solvent before


further use.
h)

Certain solvents

diesel

like

to

oil

be used

for cleaning are highly

inflammable and must be thoroughly drained before bitumen


circulated.

i)

If

the traces of such solvents reach the mixer and


fire

Bitumen tank burner may be

when

inside the tank


j)

is

Circulate the hot

out,

the level of bitumen

about fifteen minutes to melt the bitumen sticking

for

bitumen

While inducting hot

oil

line.

into

a cold

line,

open the valve very

slowly, to

allow piping and jackets heat up gradually. Rapid induction of hot


into cold lines will result in

the connecting points


I)

The

hot

falls,

m)
6.3.8.1

oil

level

check

for

uneven expansion of

should be checked regularly

any leakage

in

pump

a)

a rotary gear type of pump

is

on the

kettle side

oil

and may damage

in line.

Bitumen

b)

lines

hot

oil

in

the hot

oil

tank.

in

If

the level

or jacketed bitumen pipe lines.

Ensure that the dust does not enter the meter relay box and

It

ir

higher than the heating tubes.

oil

to the walls of the


k)

cannot be ruled

contact with the heated aggregates, risk of


lighted, only

come

is

dial

head.

which while working, suction develops

and pressure on the delivery side of the pump.

The gear pump should be thoroughly drained at the end of each


operating period. The failure to clean the pump results in solidifying the
49

IRC:90-2010

and may break the gear teeth or

bitumen around the

rotor

when

applied.

rotor

the power
is

is

The

by heating the pump, which

c)

Never run the pump

d)

When

"Weeping" becomes apparent

persist,
It

is

it

means

of relieving the clogged

troublesome.

dry state.

in

the gland nuts carefully, one

e)

only

flat at

at the

bottom

a time.

If

pump

made

a practice to disengage the

operation. Otherwise,

if

the plant

is

gland, tighten

"Weeping"

soon becomes a leak and gland packing

should be

driving shaft,

is

pump

to

allowed to

is

be replaced.

drive at the

end of

started next day, before the bitumen

pump

engaged will
place excessive strain on the driving shaft and might cause the shaft or
rotors to break. The pump rotor should also be reversed for about four
to five minutes, as soon as the plant is stopped, to empty the bitumen
pipe lines. Always observe that the pump rotors are free by applying
is

sufficiently

heated

for circulation, the

drive,

if still

the V-belt drive gradually. Slipping of the belt over the


pulley indicates that the rotors are clogged

them. Never apply the drive quickly, as

pump
In

it

pump

driving

and need heating to relieve


may cause damage to the

rotors or shaft.

case chain drive

that the

being used, engage the clutch slowly and ensure

is

pump gears

are not clogged, which

is

indicated by excessive

slipping of the clutch.


f)

If

pump

the rate of flow of

slipping of clutch. In

case

falls
is

it

may be
pump rotors

during operation, the cause

not so,

it

would mean that

have worn out and need renewal.


g)

It

has been

practically

found

in

the

field that

clogged bitumen

relieved by heating the case, either by using a blow

soaked waste. These methods destroy the


should not be used.

the

h)

i)

oil

Boiling water

may

to relieve the

clogged

pump

is

pump or igniting
pump gland and

also be poured continuously over the

pump

housing

rotor.

When a new pump or pump with new rotor is fitted, the pump at times
the bitumen. To overcome this, uncouple the pipe from
may fail to
lift

and pour a small quantity of heated bitumen approximately


ten litres and at same time reverse the pump rotor by means of hand
wheel. Reconnect the pipe and start up. This difficulty would not occur,
once the pump has been operating satisfactorily.
delivery side

j)

Bitumen

to

before the

be used

pump

is

in

the mix should be heated to ensure

started.

The bitumen must be allowed

50

its fluidity,

to circulate

IRC:90-2010
for atleast fifteen

minutes before the mixing commences, so as

keep the meter, spray bar warm and also


throughout the

circuit.

test

cock

to

relieve the solidified deposits

return line, close to the kettle

in

is

provided to ensure that bitumen has completely circulated.

ESSENTIAL ACTIVITIES WHILE STARTING, OPERATING


AND SHUTTING DOWN PLANTS
Check

7.1

The

List Before Starting the Plant

following items covered

in

ticked before starting the plant.


list

the check

list

should be verified by the operator and

The date and time should be mentioned

in

the check

and kept as record:


a)

Have you

b)

Have you topped up


oil

and

carried out daily


all oil

maintenance schedule as per

instructions.

tanks and gear boxes with proper grade of

fuels.

c)

Have you checked

the

d)

Have you checked

the tension of "V" belts,

e)

Have you checked

all

f)

Have you checked

all

oil

level in the air

cleaner and topped


flat

belts

it

up.

and chains.

grease points.
guards and covers

fitted in

the plant complying

the safety norms.


g)

Have you heated

the bitumen pipe line through hot

system

oil

for

uninterrupted supply of bitumen.


h)

Have you cleared

the accumulated stones before starting Ihe bucket

elevator.

Have you checked the conveyor

belts for

j)

Have you checked the conveyor

rollers for free turning.

k)

I)

Have you checked


chamber of dryer.

The

too

in

is

no water

not sprayed into the combustion

in

the bitumen tank before pouring

for Starting

and Shutting Down the Plant

and shutting down the plant should be done

smooth running. The sequence


a)

is

fuel

the tank.

Sequence of Operation
starting

much

Have you checked there


the bitumen

7.2

any damage or wear.

i)

for starting various

Exhaust fan

51

in

chronological order for

components

of plant

is

its

as under:

IRC:90-2010
b)

Dust cleaning system

c)

Filler

d)

Vibrating screen

e)

Hot elevator

f)

Dryer

g)

Inclined belt

h)

Collecting belt

i)

Cold aggregate feeder

feeding system

j)

Burner

k)

Mixing unit

1)

Cold bin feeder

down the plant, the first component to be stopped is the input of


aggregate system. The material trapped inside the drum should be then flushed out
from the system in the sequence shown below:
During shutting

The

a)

Cold bin feeder

b)

Collecting belt

c)

Inclined belt

d)

Burner

e)

Hot elevator

f)

Vibrating screen

g)

Mixing unit

h)

Drying drum

i)

Cleaning system and

i)

Exhaust fan

following points should also

filler

system

be considered, while

starting

and shutting down the

plant:

a)

After ten minutes before seizing the production of plant or two to three

batches short of desired number of batches; the feeder

unit

should be

^stopped.
b)

As soon

the last portion of aggregates leaves the dryer, the burner

should be shut

off

from the cock provided close to the burner, which

52

IRC:90-2010

Now

cuts off the fuel supply.

shut

off

the dryer motor.

When

the

final

batch has been mixed and discharged, both ends of paddle shafts

should be cleaned with

diesel

light

speed

or high

oil

diesel to ensure

that they are free to rotate at the time of starting the plant next day.
c)

The

plant should not be stopped,

plant
d)

may be stopped

Now, put

off

the bitumen

if

in

case the material

dryer, elevator, screens. Dins,

The

is in transit.

mixer are empty.

the bitumen tank burner by stopping the fuel supply. Stop

pump and

reverse

wheel or reversing the motor

its

drive immediately, either by

rotation.

Move

hand

the lever on pressure

regulator (metering system only) to draining position. Fix the discharge


of weigh/ spray

system hopper

in

open

pdSition.

The bitumen system

must be drained thoroughly to ensure its easy operation the next day.
All bitumen piping should have slope downwards to the kettles to assist
drainage, and a tap

may be

left

fitted in

open over

the delivery line just after the pump, which

night to prevent the clogging of the

pump.

cleaning solvents are used, these should be thoroughly drained

If

off,

before re-circulating the bitumen.


e)

The

f)

Defects,

fuel

tank should be
if

any or unusual sound should be reported

engineer and got


g)

filled.

Check and

to the

concerned

rectified.

rectify

any leakage, especially

in

bitumen and hot

in

the chain,

oil

system.
h)

Check

i)

Inspect the blower of exhaust fan for balancing and play of bearings,

all

bolts, nuts for tightness

j)

Weld the cracks

k)

Clean the
belt/

I)

in

the sheets,

if

and tension

found.

dust/aggregates collected underneath the

plant, specially

chain conveyors and lubricate

Keep

all

points.

the motors and exhaust pipes covered to avoid rain or

dew

entering inside.
7.3

if

the plant

Upkeep of the Plant During


is left in

open

for

more than

especially on mobile plants


a)

Isolate

the

and

in

six

Idling

weeks, certain precautions should be observed,

extreme climatic conditions, which are as under:

mains supply

unaijthorized starting.

53

to

electrically

driven

plant

to

prevent

IRC:90-2010
b)

Cover the exposed

c)

Wrap
and

V-belts including pulleys with a strong, self-adhesive paper

all

lubricate

Grease

d)

starter panels.

all

exposed chain

drives,

adjusting screws, dryer swiveling support rollers, motor slide

adjusting screws, jacks to prevent rusting.

rail

e)

Protect the dryer burner nozzle.

f)

Remove

the pneumatic tyred wheels of a mobile plant and keep

hubs

safely. Protect the


roller

shutters are

them

of axles also.

fitted

on the mixer housing, lower and lock them up.

g)

If

h)

Close the windows of the control cabin and keep the doors locked.

i)

Cover the top

j)

Cover the

k)

If

I)

The

the door
plant

of the exhaust fan to prevent ingress of water.

inlet of

the burner air blower.

is fitted in

may be

the dryer feed end box, pin

painted,

if

it

in

the closed position.

required to prevent corrosion.

MAINTENANCE AND UPKEEP OF HOT MIX PLANT

Proper maintenance and upkeep of hot mix plant

is

required for

its

long

life,

control

on

frequent breakdowns, maintaining quality of output and controlling the operating cost.

The schedules
and given
'site

for

in their

maintenance

of hot mix plants are prescribed

maintenance manuals. Sometimes the working conditions

need frequent checking of specific items due

are added

forms

in

daily,

by the manufacturers

to their

premature

the maintenance schedules as per requirement.

failure.

These items

The maintenance schedule

weekly, fortnightly, monthly, quarterly, half yearly should be got printed, the

items checked as per format, signed by the maintenance staff and kept
history sheet of plant should also

plant to

of particular

in

records.

The

be maintained properly and transferred along with the

assess the requirement of

critical

components

at particular spell of time.

It

may

be ensured during maintenance that recommended type and grade of oil, lubricants are
used
at

in

the plant.

Annexure-G.

The Do's and Don'ts

A brief of normal

maintenance schedule

8.1

Maintenance Schedule

8.1.1

Daily maintenance schedule


a)

Lubricate

all

maintenance of hot mix plant are mentioned

for

parts as given

in

54

is

given below:

daily lubrication chart.

IRC: 90-20 10
b)

Check the gear box

when

plant,

the

oil

oil will

level atleast

one hour

down and

settle

after the shut

down

of

indicate the correct level.

If

necessary top them up.


c)

Top up

d)

Tighten

arms,
e)

The

all

drip feed lubricators.


bolts after completing day's operation, especially mixer

all

tips, liners,

elevator buckets, dryer

lifters, roller

paths

etc.

following points should also be attended to during operation of the

plant:

Bitumen cocks are operated

i)

These should be

material.

for production of

every batch of mix

lubricated at an interval of every two

hours. Other cocks need lubncation daily.


ii)

Check the bearings and ensure

iii)

Turn on

iv)

Turn the key on the

all

Open

does not

occur.

chain drive drip feed lubricators.


in

filter,

periodically during the day, to


v)

that over heating

the burner fuel supply pipe line

remove water and sediments.

the tap of moisture separators of air receiver twice daily.

-J

vi)

Check the gland

vii)

Be

viii)

Tighten the bucket bolts on hot elevator.

ix)

Recheck the angle

of dryer

if

"Weeping"

is

evident.

to loose bolts.

drum under frame

to

ensure that no

sinkage has occurred.

Weekly Maintenance Schedule

1)

pump. Tighten

undue noises, which may be due

alert for

local

of bitumen

(Fifty to sixty hours):

does not happen momentarily.

takes place slowly due

In

hot mix plants the trouble

to

slackness of belts/chains, loose bearings and other factors. The plant has open

gearing,
to

its

open chain

drives/flat belt/ V-belt drives, anti-friction metallic

low revolutions drive.

once a

The grease used

when absorbs the


week and new grease

material,

it

a)

Lubricate

b)

Clean the

c)

If

filters

soak

It

all

applied.

components as

fitted

lightly in

gear lubrication becomes a grinding

dust and fine sand. These should be cleaned at least

filters

are

for

bearings due

instructed

in

weekly

on suction side of the burner

fuel

lubrication chart.

and bitumen pump.

on the blower, remove the element, wash

fresh

oil

and

refit.

55

it

in

paraffin,

2010
d)

Check

V-beits

all

and chain drives and do necessary adjustments

accordingly.
e)

Inspect feeder and conveyor belts for

Check the
are

g)

scrapers on feed unit and

belt

good condition and

in

tear and broken

fasteners.
f)

wear and

Check the conveyor

effective.

belts;

gob hopper. Ensure they

in

necessary, replace them.

If

case of holes or

in

repair

cuts,

them

immediately by lacing or vulcanizing.


h)

Clean the cyclone of dust

i)

Periodic inspection of flue tube

collection.

essential to prevent a

is

fire

accident

resulting out of punctured tube.

Monthly Maintenance Schedule (Two hundred


a)

Clean the burner nozzles as per

b)

Check

all

and replace,
c)

if

Two hundred

fifty

hours):

instructions.

and cables

electrical wiring

to

for loss of insulation or corrosion

required.

Check the screen

cloth,

meshes and

screen

repair/

replace,

if

required.
d)
e)

Check the elevator


Check the

pins, links

and replace,

load cell and replace,

if

if

worn

required.

Quarterly Maintenance Schedule (Eight hundred to


a)

Drain the

oil

of

gear boxes, flush them and

recommended gear
b)

out.

One thousand

refill

to correct level with

oil.

Inspect the dryer chain ring for worn out or broken pins.
affected

segments

of the ring/pins

c)

Check the

d)

Inspect the liner plates

oil

discharge

level in

chute

hours):

and

dryer feed

interior

the

and replace them.

exhaust fan bearings and top up,


in

Remove

of

ring,

if

required.

discharge chute, elevator

paddle

mixer

and

replace,

if

required.
e)

Check the burner combustion chamber


clean

f)

Clean

g)

Do

it

and

repair,

if

refractory for carbonization,

required.

electric contact

and relays

the calibration of load

cell

56

in

control panel.

and weigh bucket.

IRC:90-2010
'

Maintenance of

4)

a)

Isolate the

b)

Cover

all

Electric motors:

mains supply

to

prevent unauthorized starting.

the exposed motor starter panels and controls, with tarpaulin

or plastic sheet to prevent their

Always place the proper size

c)

damage

during rains.

of fuse, while replacing

it.

Never put a

substitute of different size.


d)

Do

e)

Keep the motors and contacts always

earthing of entire electric supply line properly.


clean, by blowing

away

the

dust.

Test check no-volt coils and over load protection devices for their proper

f)

function.
g)

All

the wiring should be placed under insulated cabling and properly

covered trench.

Requirement of Tools and Plant for Maintenance

8.2

The
it

is

and

hot mix plants are located


essential to
allied

in

remote area, where repair

have a small workshop

equipments

for their

plants should be available

in

for the repair

upkeep and

facilities

and maintenance of hot mix plant

effective utilization.

the workshop at

are not available,

The

following tools and

site.

a)

Diesel welding set

b)

Small electrical tools for

c)

Pillar drill

d)

Gas welding

e)

Chain pulley block (three tonne capacity).

f)

Hydraulic jack of adequate capacity for erection of plant.

g)

25

mm

length.
h)

One

machine 25

drilling,

mm

grinding etc.

capacity.

set.

Manila rope length 50 m, 100

mm

Wire rope clamps. Packing timber

set of

hand

tools

wire rope about 70

like

such as spanner, screw

in

railway sleepers.
drivers,

hammers, chain

spanners, screw spanner, chain and pipe wrench.


1)

Grease guns,

j)

General items of store


belt, jitter,

oil

cans, trays.
like bolts, nuts,

washers, pins, fasteners, fan

cotton waste and other fast moving items.

57

IRC;90-2010

Requirement of Spare Parts and Lubricants

8.3

for Repair

and Maintenance

adequate inventory of fast moving spare parts and recommended


lubricants should be available for repair and maintenance of hot mix plant. The
manufacturer's recommendations for fast moving spare parts may be followed. It
would be appropriate to place the order for fast moving spare parts along with the
plant, so that the work does not suffer during operation. Normally, the procurement
10 percent cost of plant is adequate. The bulk purchase of spare
of spare parts
parts and lubricants should not be carried out, which involves space, blockage of
investment, chances of pilferage and fire hazard. In case the procureme.nt is to be
done through import, time factor for placement of purchase order, opening of letter of
credit, shipping period, custom clearance, inland transportation should also be taken
It

!S

essential that

into consideration.

SAFETYASPECTS AT HOT MIX PLANT

The

safety of equipments, operating and maintenance staff should be the prime criteria

at hot

mix plant

zone.

In this

9.1

SITE

site. Efforts

should be

made

to

make

the plant site as accident free

connection, following precautions should be

strictly

followed:

Worksite
a)

Create awareness regarding safety

b)

There should be no

c)

Provide proper training to

d)

Always employ a

e)

Every worker should be medically

f)

Provide

g)

Keep

h)

i)

j)

first-aid

slip-shot

skilled

among

and short

staff

on

cuts.

safety.

and trained worker


fit

for the job assigned.

equipments

in

operational condition.

Ensure that workers wear helmets, safety


other items as necessary.
tools

for the job.

boxes with adequate supplies.

fire fighting

Use proper

staff.

and

belts,

goggles, gloves and

tackles.

Ensure proper and clean platform/pathways

for the

work men

to

pass

through.
k)

Provide adequate illumination.

I)

Provide guards and railings wherever necessary.

m)

Blow

n)

There should be an emergency switch located


plant,

siren before start of plant every time.

which

will

stop

all

plant operations

58

"I

in

at a short distance

from the

the event of an emergency.

IRC:90-2010
0)
p)

A First Aid Box

should always be available,

Smoking should be

in

the control room,

prohibited near binder or fuel storage tanks.

Plant and Equipment


a)

Keep the equipment

b)

Never operate unsafe equipment.

c)

Be

d)

Look around before

e)

Never leave the equipment unattended with

f)

Keep operator's

g)

Operate the equipment only from operator's seat/platform.

h)

Never carry out


is

familiar with

all

in

good running

controls,

condition.

gauges, instruments.

and equipment.

starting the plant

platform clean and free from

servicing, adjustment

and

engine running.

its

oil

and grease.

repairs,

when

the equipment

running.

1)

Never permit unauthorized persons

to

j)

The operator must have maximum

unrestricted view of the operating

handle the equipment.

area.
k)

Avoid loose connections

I)

Ensure that engine is switched

system.

in electrical

off and

immobilized against unauthorized

use.

m)

Don't leave the control,

n)

Be

careful

in

when

the equipment

removing the radiator cap,

is

working.

after

engine has been

running.
o)

Avoid leakage and over heating of bitumen.

p)

Take precautions against backfire from burner.

q)

Store fuel and lubricants

r)

Keep away from

s)

Be

t)

Inspect

u)

Shut down procedure:

away from

plant.

hot bitumen.

careful while attending to lighted burner.

cables of plant periodically.

all

1)

Put

2)

Shut

all

the controls

off

in

neutral.

the engine after allowing

it

to idle

and gradually cooled

down.
v)

No open

fire

should be allowed around bitumen or fuel storage tanks.

59

IRC:90-2010

Loading and Tansportation of Plant and Equipment

9.3

a)

Load and unload the plant and equipment on the leveled ground.

b)

Use the

indicated

lifting

points, while

lifting

the plant and equipment

with a crane.
c)

Ensure correct loading and unloading procedure

for different type of

equipments.
d)

Use ramp

e)

Block transport vehicle, so that

f)

Tie

of

adequate strength.
it

cannot move.

and block the equipment securely

for transport.

Maintenance of Plant and Equipment

9.4

a)

Avoid

b)

Carry out repair and servicing

fire

hazards. Close fuel shut

off valve.

in

accordance with manufacturers'

recommendations.
c)

Before working on hydraulic system,


is

d)

make

sure that hydraulic pressure

released.

While

installing

the electrical system, the supply battery must be

disconnected.
e)

Protect the eyes with safety glasses, while striking the metal parts and

during welding.

Wear gloves,

f)

while handling bitumen, parts of sharp edges and during

welding.

MAJOR FACTORS AFFECTING THE PERFORMANCE

10

OF HOT MIX PLANT


The performance

of hot mix plant

depends on

its

design criteha, operational

efficiency,

maintenance and availability^ of allied machines. The following are the major factors
which affect the performance of drum mix plant:
10.1

Presence of Moisture Content

The presence

of moisture content

in

in

Aggregates

aggregates plays a

vital

role in preparation,

production of hot mix and fuel consumption of hot mix plant.


If

moisture content

of flights

in

is

a uniform

very high say 8-10 percent, the aggregates shall not


veil,

fall

out

thus there shall not be uniform and adequate heating of

60

IRC:90-2010
aggregates. Thus, the increase
increase

The
10.2

in fuel

consumption

indicative relation

in

moisture content results

in

in

drop of production and

also.

between moisture content and output

Dust Content

With increase

in

is

given

in

Annex-D.

Mix

dust content

mix, output falls

in

because there

is

more surface area

be coated by bitumen which requires greater mixing time. The indicative


between dust content and output is given in Annex-D.

to

10.3

relation

Altitude

The output of plant is derated approximately


3.5 percent every 300 m rise in elevation
above sea level. The requirement of plant in specific area should be assessed based on
this factor also. The variation of output with altitude is attached in the Annex-D.
10.4

insulation of

The output

Drum

can be increased by 2.5 percent and fuel consumption decreased


by 4 percent by maintaining temperature difference between outer and inner shell
of drum approximately 60C. The drum shell should be insulated with glass wool or
aluminium painted to avoid heat losses.
of plant

11
11.1

SUGGESTIONS

Following suggestions are

free operation, efficient running

and

made

for selection of hot

mix

plant,

.its

trouble

to achieve qualitative mix:

make and proven

a)

The

b)

The capacity

of plant should

space

commissioning, quantum of work and time period for

its

Guidelines, instructions, maintenance schedules prescribed

in

hot mix plant should be of reputed

for

its

be selected based on

design.

availability of

completion.
c)

The

manufacturers' manual should be


d)

strictly

followed.

History sheets/log books should be maintained properly.

It

shall give

an

assessment for the requirement of spare parts needed for replacement


at particular spell of time and their stocking for future use. It will reduce
the inventory of spare parts
e)

in

stock.

Fast moving spare parts should be kept


idling of

the plant.

61

in

stpre at plant site to avoid

IRC:90-2010
f)

Pyrometers/thermocouples are very sensitive instruments. These


should be shielded from the heat of dryer drum, vibrations of the plant

and got calibrated


g)

The

frequently; atleast

vibrating screen cover should

once during the

be opened

vy/orking period.

regularly,

checked

for

sieves wear and tensioning conditions and adjusted accordingly.


h)

Control panel of hot mix plant should be got calibrated regularly to

ensure accuracy of hot mix and output of


i)

j)

k)

down

In

case

in

operational manual should be followed.

of break

plant.

of plant, instructions given for trouble shooting

Genuine spares to be procured from plant manufacturer,


down and keep their interchangeability.
Skilled operators, technicians duly trained

to avoid break

by plant manufacturer or

otherwise, should be deployed for smooth operation

maintenance of

plant.
I)

Control Panel should have provision to store real time process data for

reference and review.

m)

High speed drives should be properly guarded, electrical wiring should

have proper

insulation

safety codes should be

and should be properly earthed and


fully

complied

in

all

relevant

design, erection and operation

of the hot mix plant.

given at Annex-A.

11.2

Information to be furnished by the purchaser

11.3

Information to be supplied by the manufacturer to the purchaser

is

is

given at

Annex-B.
11.4

The Parameters

11.5

The Sample

Plant

is

The Sample
Annex-H.

11.7.

mentioned
11 .8

Hot Mix Plant are given at Annex-E.

Calculation to ascertain the rate of

usage charges

of Hot Mix

given at Annex-F.

11 .6
at

for the selection of

Calculation forthe output analysis of Hot Mix Plant

Annex-I.

Some

mentioned

Calculation to work out requirement of Hot Mix Plant

The Sample
at

is

inputs regading calibration of Hot Mix Plants are given at

62

Annex-J.

is

IRC:90-2010

ANNEX-A
(Clause 11.2)

INFORMATION TO BE FURNISHED BY THE PURCHASER WHILE MAKING AN


ENQUIRY WITH THE MANUFACTURER
There are

different types of

Hot Mix Plants available with

suggested that following information

in

their salient features,

respect to Hot Mix Plant

may be

it

is

furnished

by the manufacturer while making the purchase, so that appropriate type, make and

model could be offered by the manufacturer.


1)

2)

Site Conditions:
a)

Space

b)

Altitude

c)

Temperature and climate

d)

Any

above mean sea

level

other special conditions under which hot mix plant

Type of Hot Mix

is

to

be used

Plant:

Drum mix coater/Drum mix

with

mixer with centre

RBP/Hot mix

drum mix
3)

available for commissioning the plant.

inlet for

embedded

burner/Plain

drum mixer/Drum

plant (Batch type)/Double barrel

plant

Type of flow:
Counter flow/Parallel flow

4)

Methodology adopted

for preparation of hot mix:

Continuous type/Batch type


5)

Mobility of Hot Mix Plant:


Stationary type/Mobile type

6)

Essential and optional units of Hot Mix Plant:

The components shown below may be selected based on the type


requirement of

plant.

a)

Cold bin feeder (Minimum- 4 No.)

b)

Aggregates over size

c)

Cold elevator/cold feed conveyor

rejection screen

63

of

IRC:90-2010
d)

Aytomatic weighing system

e)

Dryer drum

k)

Dryer

g)

Primary pollution control device

h)

Hot elevator

i)

Screening

j)

Hot bins

k)

Weigh box

I)

Bitumen

m)

Mixing unit (Pugmill)

n)

Mineral

o)

Control panel

p)

Secondary

cum

filter in

mixing drum

unit

unit

filler/

dust collection system

component as Bag house


as wet scrubber type in drum mix

pollution control device (Essential

batch type plant and optional

plant)

q)

Hot mix surge

silo

(Optional component)

64

IRC:90-2010

ANNEX-B

,.

(Clause 11.3)

INFORMATION TO BE SUPPLIED BY THE MANUFACTURER


TO THE PURCHASER
The manufacturer should

ANNEX-A.

In

purchaser to

furnish the information to the purchaser as

shown

in

be supplied to the
get him acquainted with the product and assist him in selection of
addition to that, following information should also

plant.

1)

Model and type of Hot mix plant offered

2)

Brief description of the plant along with

3)

Specific features of the plant,

4)

Type ahd No.

5)

Capacity of electric motors

6)

Capacity of

7)

Overall dimensions and weight of different units of the plant for transportation

of flights

DG

in

if

its

units

and

their capacity

any

Dryer/Dryer
fitted

cum

mixing drum

with different units of plant

set required for operation of plant

purpose
8)

After sales-service, nearest to the commissioning site

9)

Supply of spare parts catalogue, operation and maintenance manual


assured

moving components assured

10)

List of fast

11)

Details of similar

12)

Provision of training

model

of plants supplied

facilities

65

so

far,

year wise

IRC:90-2010

ANNEX-C
(Clause 4.1.4 & 5.2.14)
TYPICAL HOT MIX PLANT EMISSIONS AND THEIR CONTROL
The

norms are fixed by the respective State Pollution Control Board which
are binding on plants where they are in use. The following information are merely
pollution

guiding factor.

Emission Factors for Particulate Matter

(PM^^),

CO, No^ SO2 and VOCs


,

Emission Factor (kg/tonne)*

Process

Batch mix asphalt plants

CO

NO

SO,

VOCs

0.17

0.013

0.0025

0.0072

0.035

0.084

0.12

0.02

0.028

0.015

0.0017

0.022

0.0018

0.038

0.028

0.03

:-

Natural gas-fired dryer


Oil-fired

dryer

Drum asphalt

plants"

:-

Natural gas-fired dryer


Oil-fired

dryer

Batch Mix Asphalt Plants

Drum Mix Asphalt

Plants'^

Process

PM10

(Kg/tonne)

PM10

(Kg/tonne)

Natural gas-fired dryer:


Uncontrolled
Fabric

filter

2.2

2.2

0.0098

0.0041

2.2

2.2

0.03

0.015

Oil-fired dryer:

Uncontrolled
Fabric

filter

Source:

USEPA document AP-42

tonne of asphalt produced, includes

(1995),^ Factor units are


botti parallel

66

kg of PM^^ emitted per

and counter flow asphalt plants.

IRC:90-2010
Typical Hot Mix Asphalt Plant Emission Control Technologies

Emission
Control Technique

Pollutant

Typical Efficiency (%)

Source

50-75
\J\J
1

PM^o

Miiltinip

rurlnnpQ

Spftlinn

rharnhpr

<J

< 50

Ranhf)ii<5P

QQ _ qq 7

Vpntiiri "^rriihhpr

qn - qq s

Process

Drvpr anfi rnmhii<?tinn

nrnrp*;*; mndifiratifin*;

86

VOCs
1

50

imp;tnnp

SO,

....

Low

80

sulfur fuel

60-99

Paving maintenance

Wetting

Fugitive dust

&

70-80

crusting agents

Crushed reclaimed Asphalt Pavement Material

Adapted from

Gunke., Kathryn. O'C. 1992.

Buonicore, Anthony

J.,

and Wayner

Manual. Van Nostrand Reinhold,

New

T.

Hot-Mix Asphalt Mixing

Davis, Editors.

York, NY,

67

70

USA.

Air Pollution

Facilities.

Engineering

IRC:90-2010

ANNEX-D
(Clause 10.1, 10.2, 10.3)

TYPICAL CHARTS OF HOT MIX PLANT OUTPUT VS


DIFFERENT PARAMETERS

DEPENDENCY OF OUTPUT WITH SALIENT PARAMETERS


Moisture-vs-Output
120.00%
"Parallel-flow"

3?
"Counter-flow"

100.00%

20.00%

a
3

0.00%
'V-

'b-

<o^

iH-

^o\o

oV>

^"A^

^Q^^

\-

<b-

o\o

o\o

^<i^^

<i^^

<b-

o\o

o\o

o\o

(fi^

C?>^

kHz

Moisture (%)

Moisture

in

Output (TPH)

aggregates (%)

2.00%

100.00%

100.00%

3.00%

85.76%

86.67%

4.00%

71.53%

73.33%

5.00%

60.68%

62.33%

6.00%

51.86%

54.00%

7.00%

46.44%

47.67%

8.00%

41.69%

43.00%

40%

100

9.00%

37.63%

38.33%

50%

94

10.00%

33.90%

35.00%

60%

88

11.00%

30.85%

32.33%

12.00%

28.14%

29.67%

70%

82

Dust

Output

content

68

"

IRC:90-2010

Output v/s Dust Content

100

S4
82

If

50

Output

in

Mix

B Output %

40

'

Dust content

M
Dust Content

EFFECT OF ALTITUDE ON PRODUCTION OF MIX


5

Effect of altitude

on the production of mix

in

a Hot Mix Plant on a 7' diameter drum with

300 F (148.9C) mix, 310 F (154.44C) stack temperature and 5 percent moisture

removed.
Factor

Production Rate

TPH
0

1.00

267

500

0.98

262

>
LU

1.000

0.96

257

SEA

1,500

0.94

252

>VE

2,000

0.92

247

<

2,500

0.91

243

EET

3,000

0.89

238

z.

4.000

0.86

230

UDE

5,000

0.83

222

ITIT

6,000

0.80

214

7,000

0.77

205

8,000

0.74

197

9.000

0.71

191

10,000

0.69

184

_l
LU

_l

CO

Ll_

<;

69

IRC:90-2010

ANNEX-E
(Clause 11.6)

CHECKLIST FOR SELECTION OF HOT MIX PLANT


SELECTION PARAMETERS FOR HOT MIX PLANT
Selection item
1)

2)

Capacity

Type

Options available

Selection Criteria

3TPH-650TPH

i)

Volume

ii)

Completion time

iii)

Availability of site

iv)

Quantity required to b produced per day

i)

Purchase cost

ii)

Maintenance cost

iii)

Position of availability

iv)

Gradation

v)

UseofRBP

vi)

Emission norms

vii)

Noise

a)

Batch type/Continuous
type

b)

"

of

Static/Portable/Mobile

restriction

viii)

Vahation of Mixes

i)

Size of the Plant

ii)

Volume

and

"

after sales service

C;

of mix to be

uonvenuonai layouu

uj

r didlicl rlUW/L'Uuf llcJl

a)

Plain tank/Specialized

oiie area avaiiauie

ii)

Ease of erection

I)

rUiuildbc OUol vib-d-Vlb iUcI odViily

ii)

Position of availability

iii)

UseofRBP

i)

Requirement of using

Multicyclone/Bag

House

Filter

straight run or modified

Position of availability

and

after sales service

Ease

of maintenance

ii)

Locai

fire

i)

Need

to

ii)

Local emission control norms

/Wet Scrubber

after sales service

i)

Heater
4) Pollution Control

and

bitumen
ii)

Direct Heating/Hot Oil

requiremeni

\)

tank for modified bitumen

b)

locai

Cost of erection vis-a-vis transportation

Flow/Double Barrel

Bitumen Tanl<

meet

produced and the period

iii)

Tower type layout

System

area

'

inereoT lo

3)

work

70

safety/emission control norms

use recuperated fines

IRC:90-2010

(Clause 11,7)

SAMPLE PROCEDURE FOR CALCULATION OF RATE OF USAGE


CHARGES OF HOT MIX PLANT
'

Assumptions

'

"

'^'^

'''''v^:--^-^.^'''^-?

a)

Salvage value = 15 percent of the cost of equipment

b)

Storage charges =

percent of

total

investment to be depreciated, spread

over the economic


c)

at site

life

..

Repair and maintenance charges per hour including replacement of


tyres ~ 150 percent of total investment to be depreciated spread over the

economic
d)

life

Over head charges

@ 5 percent of the sum of wages per hour + Servicing

charges (Manpower and material cost)


1.

For Equipments Used Departmentally

1.1

Ownership charges
A)

work (This includes A/T

Total investment at site of

cost, sales tax,

excise/custom and other duties, transport expenses consisting of


freight

by ocean or

insurance, loading/ unloading charges,

rail,

= Rs.

erection and commissioning on receipt)

@ 15 percent of

B)

Deduct salvage value

C)

Total investment to

D)

Economic

E)

Depreciation per hour

life

of

total

in

(say)

investment = 0.15X

= 0.85X

be depreciated

machine

hours

hours

= Rs. 0.85 XA'


per hour

F)

Storage charges per hour


the

economic

Total
1.2

(1

percent of "C" spread over = 0.01 x Rs.0.85

life)

X/Y
= (E) +

ownership charges

(F)

Operation charges

G)

Repair and maintenance charges per hour (including maintenance and

replacement of tyres)
life

= 1.5x(C)/(D)

is

150 percent of "0" spread over the economic


II

71

IRC:90-2010

Overhead charges

1.3

5 percent of ownership and operation charges

0.05x

Rs

Operation charges per hour

Rs.

Overhead charges per hour

Rs.

Ownership charges per hour

>
.

(l+ll)

III

Running charges

1.4

Operating staff/labour wages

Designation
i)

Operator

ii)

Helper

iii)

Cleaner

iv)

Misc.

Total

No.

Unit

wage per month

Wages

per month

.:

Expenses

wages

required for Operating staff and labour per

Sum

month =

of

wages per

month
H)

Total

wages

required for Operating staff and labour per hour = Total

wages

required for Operating staff and labour per month/Hours per month
I)

Servicing charges

Servicing charges includes

Designation
i)

Mechanic

ii)

Cleaner
Total

wages

Total

wages

No.

Unit

cost

wage per month

Wages

per month

required for servicing staff per month = Rs.


required for servicing staff per hour = Total

servicing staff per


J)

man power

wages

required for

month/Hours per month

Servicing charges (Material cost)

Fuel/!ubricant

i)

Fuel

ii)

Lubricants

Rate per

litre

Consumption
per month

72

(!n litre/kg)

Expenditure
per month

IRC:90-2010
iii)

Grease

iv)

Hydraulic

v)

Gear

vi)

Cotton waste

vii)

Furnace

"

/
oil

oil

oil (In

case of hot mix

Total expenditure per

Total servicing

plant)

month = Rs

charges (material cost) = Total expenditure per month/Total hours

per month
K)

Cost of lubricating

L)

Total running

oil,

fuel

consumed per hour

charges per hour = H+l+J+K

Over head charges

@ 5 percent of

total

IV

= 0.05x(L)

Hire charges = l+ll+lll+IV+V


2.

For Equipments Given to Contractor and Outside Agencies

When

the equipments are issued to contractors,

10 percent of the average investment per year

and insurance charges

interest
will

be calculated as under and

added.

M)

100

1500

on 5 years

100

Rs.
Interest

and insurance charges per hour

Therefore the

total

charges

in

that

case would be as

Ownership charges (E+F+M)

follows:

Operational charges

II

Running charges

IV

l+ll+IV+V

Overhead charges
charges per hour

Hence

hire

@ 5 percent of total

(l+ll+IV)

charges per hour

73

>

IRC:90-2010

ANNEX-G
(Clause 8)

DO'S AND DON'TS FOR MAINTENANCE OF HOT MIX PLANTS


Do's:

^.

Maintain proper gap between Skirt rubber and Auxiliary belt

Ensure

Gate opening of

Greasing of bearing and

Rubber guard should be

Slinger belt should be center run and greasing of bearing

belt center run position

..r-.-.

...

bins should be as per requirement

all

oil

checking

gear boxes

in all

,;.

'

properly and greasing of bearing.

fitted

and

checking

oil

in

gear

box.

Load

cell

frame should be free during operation and locked when plant

is

not

working

Check the

Proper setting of thrust wheel of drum

Greasing of

Ensure the trunion wheel adjustments.

Tighten the nuts and adjustments bolts.

Ensure proper adjustments/tighten of drum drive gear Motor chain.

Ensure proper

Pre-heat the

Start burner with zero

Before starting burner, clean both the ignition electrode

Observe the smoke

level in

oil

all

all

gear boxes.

bearings.

"

>

"

'

'

^-^
;

'

lubrication of

Drum

drum

'

'

''y/.,''\./:v--\\:'^/''\''\-'

'
;

drive chain.

before feeding of aggregates

damper

position

of burner during operation to

ensure that the burner operates

properly.

..

Ensure leakage free operation of pump and solenoid and pressure

Ensure photocell working

for

auto

mode

of burner

exhauster with close position of exhauster

Start the

Belt tightening of

Watch out

Monitor the differential pressure during operation.

Monitor the

for

exhauster

'

belt.

any black smoke

smoke temperature

at

chimney

outlet

while running.

74

relief

valve

IRC:90-2010

Ensure continuous operating

Grease the

Check

Clean the

Check the Compressor pressure

Ensure clean

Carry out maintenance at regular intervals

Water earth

Follow safety rules.

Maintain Generator, monitor Voltage and Frequency

Keep the

Keep panel power

Keep

Remove

Check the

advised to undertake calibration


of load cells for the measurement of flow rate of aggregates, bitumen and filler on
regular intervals (say one month)

Operate the bitumen transfer pump only


beyond the 120

Check alignment/tighten

Close the main valve

of the

cascading

ring.

vibrating screen daily before the start

up of the plant

'

the cylinders before start up of the plant

ail

air filter

and

oil fiter daily.

air inlet to

the

air

daily

'

i^^^^^'

--^

compressor.

^.
-

^
^

all

'^^^'^'^^^^^

pits regularly

control

-^^

room clean and remove


off

all

.-.^....y::-

unwanted materials

while carrying out any welding work

in

the plant

panels under shelter, water should not enter the panels.


all

material from the plant before shut

calibration at regular intervals. Also

it

down
is

bitumen temperature reaches

after the

at regular intervals

at the fuel tank before servicing fuel pipeline;

place suitable container or vat under pipe joint before loosening

Disconnect the load

work

is

...
.

carried out

cell,

in

inverters

and other

electrical

it.

when

the welding

the plant.

Stop the operation of the plant when you see the


thunder and also shut off the electrical lightning.

Adjust

Do

all

devices

prepare and

the vibrator weights to the

lighting

same phase and

the checking of the Level of the Hot

oil in

hot

oil

the

near by or hear clap of

same mass.

tank

Don'ts:

Do

not operate Bin Vibrator

Do

not allow the level of bitumen

Don't close bin gate

Don't operate Vibrating Screen

when

when

Plant

bin
in

is

empty

the Bitumen tank to

is in

operation:

in idle

mode.

75

fall

below safety

level
^

IRC:90-2010

Drum

Don't feed the higher size of Aggregates

Don't stop the

Don't disturb the burner working pressure during operation

Do

not operate the Burner without operating exhauster

Do

not

Do

not operate Exhauster with Full

Don't touch the hot

Do

not operate the plant without proper knowledge. This could be dangerous.

Do

not start

fully

drum

till

it

in

reaches the ambient temperature.


'

and Drum

open the Damper gate while running.

pipe line by hand directly

oil

Drum motor

drum before power

is

open Exhaust Damper

directly

switched

on load

try to

remove load or give momentum

to

ON

Do

Never use wires instead

Do

not

Do

not run the plant at

Do

not run without proper earthing

Do

not run the panel without proper supply

Do

not touch the panel without wearing shoes

Do not close the breaker on


damage your eyes

Do

not try to carry out the maintenance with

Do

not bypass safety of any equipment with

Do

not use under size cables or motors .This can result

Never touch the metal parts of terminal with your finger

Do

not start or stop the bigger motor frequently on load

not

of fuse links.

Spare fuse

provided

links are

in

the panel

power the panel without proper earthing

smoke

in

more than

power condition

load without cover or arc chutes ;the flash

the vicinity of the

tank and fuel pipe

rated capacity

HMP

line

and

ON
power ON
power

fire

in

hazards.

certainly not within 5

<:v'-..

76

may

..

meters of

fuel

IRC:90-2010

ANNEX-H
(Clause 11.6)

SAMPLE CALCULATION FOR OUTPUT ANALYSIS


OF A HOT MIX PLANT
Time period
by 60-90
SI.

1)

No.

for

completion of

TPH Drum Mix

Type

75

of

Km

Pavement

mm BM

Quantum

work involved

2 lane (7.00 m)

in

cum

to

NH Road

in

mx1x1000

Tonnes/Km.

= 525x2.2

=11 55 Tonnes

cum

7 mxO.025

tonnes of aggregates

Quantity of aggregate

assuming density 2.2

7 mxO.075

25mmSDBC
Total

of

in

= 175
3)

Bituminous Pavement Construction

Plant

= 525
2)

(2 lane)

mxIxlOOO

=175x2.2
= 385 Tonnes

cum
be prepared

Hot Mix Plant: 1155+385 = 1540

in

Tonnes
4)

Average output

5)

Assume

6)

Total

7)

Time required

of Plant

60-90

TPH

Plant working hours per day

Tonnage produced

1540

for

in

a day

Plant

Say) 75

- 7.5 Hrs

TPH
;^

75x7.5 = 562.5 Tonnes

producing 1540 tonnes aggregates.

2.73 days

(Say) 3 days

562.5

77

IRC:90-2010

ANNEX-I
-

(Clause 11.7)

SAMPLE CALCULATION TO WORK OUT REQUIREMENT


OF HOT MIX PLANT
Assumption

Km of 2 lane
SDBC in a year.

200

i)

road (7.00

m width) to

be strengthened with 50
/

Quantity of aggregates for 50

mm BM

for

200

Km

= 7

mm BM and 25 mm

x 0.050

m x 200 x

1000

= 70,000 cum.

Assume

density of aggregates

Quantity of

11)

BM

2.2

70,000 x 2.2 = 1,54,000 Tonnes.

mm SDBC

Quantity of aggregates for 25

for

200 Km. = 7

m x 0.025 x 200 x

000

= 35,000 cum.

Assume

density of aggregate

Quantity of

iii)

SDBC

2.2

= 35,000 X 2.2 = 77,000 Tonnes

aggregate

Total quantity of

to

be prepared

in

Hot Mix Plant

1,54,000 + 77,000

= 2,31,000 Tonnes
iv)

Suppose the work


output = 75

v)

will

be executed with 60-90

TPH Drum

TPH

Total working

hours of Plant

in 1

year

1500

Hrs.(

assuming 200 working days

@ 7.5 working hours per day)


vi)

No. of Plant required to produce mix 2,31 ,000

Mix Plant, Average

2,31,000
'

75 x 1500

1.71

=2

Plants

in

a year

IRC:90-2010

ANNEX-J
(Clause 11.8)

CALIBRATION OF HOT MIX PLANTS


Calibration

is

the process of adjusting the settings for

measurement is made or a process


an expected result. Because of random and

time a

is

known

levels of accuracy. Every

performed, there

is

an actual

result

and

variability with a definite pattern, the actual

from the expected result. Calibration is done to either identify/


the non-random variability or account for it in such a way that the difference

result usually differs


rectify

between the actual and expected

results

is

negligible.

done for the Cold bin feeders. Temperature measuring devices and
load cells to measure the flow rate of aggregates and the Bitumen. The details of the
procedure of calibration vary with the type of plant and the manufacturer.
Calibration

is

Calibration, for

example, of a load

a drum mix plant

cell in

is

undertaken

for three to

four control settings covering the production range anticipated for the material.

Calibration of the

The

load

cell in

Load

Cell

Drum Mix

Bitumen. The calibration

Plant

is

is initially

used

done

measure the flow rate of aggregates and the


the static mode and then in dynamic mode.

to

in

a)

The default settings (factory settings)

b)

Thereafterthestaticcalibrationoftheloadcell(beneaththeslingerconveyor)

be checked.
If there is any change, there is a
requirement to calibrate. The speed
of the slinger conveyor is checked which is LN/60 where L is the length
of the slinger conveyor and N is the RPM.
of the load cells are to

needs to be done with the help of a standard weight .Therefore theoretical


value of the TPH is equal to Weight (Kg) x Speed of the slinger conveyor
(m/sec)x (3600/1000) TPH
c)

The

plant

is

To undertake the dynamic calibration of the load cell the Slinger


conveyor, gathering conveyor, load out conveyor and thermodrum
have to be started. The gate opening of the cold bin feeder is set as per
the manufacturer's recommendation. Only one feeder is kept in open
position. Also a trolley or a truck with known tare weight is selected and
is kept under the loadout conveyor.

allowed to run for a fixed time duration and the output

The weight of the material is calculated after


loaded truck. The actual TPH is calculated from the weight

trolley/truck.

is

collected on the

calculating the weight of the

of the material output from a

given feeder, time of output and percentage of this aggregate (from the job Mix formula).

79

IRC:90-2010
This process

followed for at least three control settings.

is

(Actual TPH/Theoretical

TPH)

is

The Load

cell

constant

then calculated.

Calibration of the Bitumen Flow Rate

The Plant is allowed to run at 100 percent load and 3 percent (say) of Bitumen
The arrangement to collect the discharge of bitumen pump in a vessel is made. The
system is allowed to run for duration of 30 seconds. The actual weight of the output
is calculated by subtracting the difference between the empty vessel and the vessel
filled with bitumen. The theoretical weight of the output for a Plant with output of 45
.

Tons per Hour

is

(TPH*(1000/3600)*30*(3/100)). This process

three observations.

speed
In

of the

pump

the actual weight

If

is

is

repeated

for at least

less than the theoretical weight then the

is

increased.

the case of Batch Mix Plant the load

Bitumen. The details have to

and
be followed as per the manufacturer's recommendations
cell is

calibrated for Aggregates,

Filler,

Manuals.
For the sake of

aggregates

An example
chart
1)

is

to

illustration.

be used

in

Manufacturers prepare a calibration chart for each of the

the hot mix.

of determining the control settings for

each cold feed using the

as follows:
Mix Design Criteria

Coarse Aggregate

20 percent (Cold Feed #1)

Intermediate Coarse Aggregate

40 percent (Cold Feed #2)

Fine Aggregate

30 percent (Cold Feed #3)

Filler

10 percent (Cold Feed #4)

Binder Content

5.0 percent

Flow Rate Per Cold Feed

TB

Required Flow Rate per Bin

Plant's Mix Production

Rate

Percent of Aggregates

in

P
(t/h)

(t/h)

Mix (as decimal)

80

calibration

IRC:90-2010

P = Percent by Weight

of Total Mix (as decimal)

Plant Production of 350

t/h

Q(Cold Feed #1) = 350\

.95 X .20 = 66.5 t/h

(Cold Feed #2) - 350 X .95 X .40 = 133

(Cold Feed #3) = 350 X .95 X .30 = 99.8

t/h

(Cold Feed #4) = 350 X .95 X .10 = 33.2

t/h

The

3)

t/h

calibration chart to determine the control settings for

each cold feed

is

used by locating the production rate for each cold feed on the vertical scale,
moving horizontally to the appropriate control line and then vertically down
to locate the control setting. The approximate bin settings are:
Bin

= 23 percent

Bin 2 = 53 percent
Bin 3 =

43 percent

Bin 4 = 18 percent

By making these determinations, the discharge rate of each cold feed supplies a balanced
flow of material. This balance

is critical

as

it

provides a uniform flow of material.

X
c

Percent Max.

81

RPM

(The

Official

amendments

published by the IRC


shall

in its

document would be

periodical, 'Indian

be considered as

code/guidelines/manual,

to this

etc.

effective

and as

Highways' which
part of the

from the date specified therein)