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CHAPTER 20- INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT AND SYSTEMS ANALYSIS

1. Five Phases of the Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC)

Systems analysis- tahap ketika seluruh informasi yang dibutuhkan untuk


membeli, mengembangkan atau memodifikasi sistem dikumpulkan. Karena
terbatasnya sumber daya yang dimiliki, permintaan pengembangan harus
disaring dan diprioritaskan. Jika tujuannya adalah untuk membuat sistem lebih
baik, maka:
o (initial investigation)
sifat dan ruang lingkup proyek yang diajukan harus diidentifikasi
o (systems survey)
lakukan survey terhadap sistem yang ada saat ini untuk mengidentifikasi
o
o

yang dibutuhkan untuk memilih atau mengembangkan sistem yang baru


(deliver system requirement)
Siapkan laporan system analysis dan laporkan kepada information system

steering committee
Conceptual design menentukan bagaimana memenuhi keinginan users.
o (design alternatives)
pilih antara membeli software, develop-in-house, outsource
o (design specifications)
sistem seperti apa yang ingin dibuat dan bagaimana pengendalian atas
o

keunggulan dan kelemahan sistem


(feasibility study)
tentukan apakah proyek tersebut feasible
(information needs and system requirements)
jika proyek feasible, identifikasi dan dokumentasikan seluruh informasi

sistem tersebut
(conceptual design requirements)
permintaan desain secara konseptual dilaporkan pada information system

steering committee
Physical design
o mengartikan permintaan desain konseptual lebih spesifik seperti detail
sandi dan uji program komputer, pembuatan dokumen input dan output,
pembuatan file dan databases, pembuatan prosedur dan pengendalian
o

atas sistem yang baru.


(developed system)
Hasil physical design kemudian dilaporkan kepada information system

steering committee
Implementation and conversion penggabungan seluruh sistem dan aktivitas
pembangunan sistem

o
o
o
o
o
o

perencanaan dibuat dan dilaksanakan (planning),


hardware dan software diinstal dan diuji
pegawai direkrut, detraining atau direlokasi
prosedur diuji dan dimodifikasi
standar dan pengendalian telah terbentuk dan dokumen sudah siap
organisasi menggunakan sistem baru, membuat beberapa penyesuaian,

dan melakukan evaluasid an koreksi atas implementasi sistem baru.


membuat laporan operational system dan melaporkannya kepada

information system steering committee


operations and maintenance sistem bar uterus direview dan dimodifikasi.
Jika terjadi modifikasi besar-besaran atau perubahan sistem dalam tahap ini,
maka proses akan kembali ke tahap pertama

2. People involved in systems development and the role they played

Management - menekan pentingnya keterlibatan

users dalam proses

pembuatan sistem, mendukung dan mendorong proyek pengembangan


sistem, menyelaraskan sostem dengan tujuan perusahaan, menetapkan
tujuan pembangunan sistem, memilih dan melakukan penilaian atas kinerja
dari pimpinan system department, menetapkan kebijakan atas proyek yang
terpilih, dan berpartisipasi dalam kepuntusan penting terkait sistem tersebut.
User management menentukan informasi yang dibutuhkan, mendampingi
analis dengan pertimbangan cost dan benefit, menempatkan staf dalam
proyek pengembangan tersebut, dan mengalokasikan dana untuk proyek

terkait.
Accountants and other users
o sebagai pengguna : menentukan informasi yang dibutuhkan
o sebagai anggota tim proyek atau anggota steering committee
o

membantu pengembangan sistem


jika diminta, akuntan dapat membantu membuat, menguji dan mengaudit

kontrol yang memastikan keakuratan dan kelengkapan pemrosesan data


information system steering committee membuat perencanaan dan
mengawasi
memastikan

information
keterlibatan,

system
arahan

function,
dan

membuat

kontrol

dari

kebijakan

AIS,

top-management

memfasilitasi koordinasi dan integrasi aktivitas dalam sistem.


Project development team mengarahkan pengembangan, merencanakan
proyek, mengawasi untuk memastikan ketepatan waktu dan efektifitas biaya
penyelesaian, memastikan pertimbangan yang tepat dalam pemilihan

personel, mengkomunikasikan status proyek ke top management dan


steering committee dan memfasilitasi penerimaan pengguna atas sistem

baru.
System analyst and programmers
o system analysts: mempelajari sistem yang ada, mendesain sistem baru,
mempersiapkan detail yang dibutuhkan programmer, menjembatani gap
antara manusia dan teknologi dengan sering berinteraksi dengan pegawai
terkait pengembangan sistem, dan memastikan bahwa sistem yang baru
o

dapat memenuhi kebutuhan users.


computer programmer: membuat program berdasarkan detail yang
diberikan sistem analyst dan memodifikasi atau menjaga program yang

masih ada.
External players pelanggan, vendor, auditor eksternal, dan pemerintah.

3. The importance of system developments planning and planning techniques


Kenapa harus ada planning?

memudahkan untuk menyelaraskan tujuan pembuatan atau pembangunan

sistem dengan tujuan perusahaan secara keseluruhan


sistem lebih efisisen, subsistem saling terhubung, dan terdapat dasar untuk

memilih aplikasi baru dalam pengembangan sistem


perusahaan update dengan perubahan terbaru dalam IT
sistem menjadi less costly dan lebih mudah digunakan
manajemen siap untuk sumber daya yang dibutuhkan dan pegawai siap atas
perubahan yang terjadi.

Bentuk planning:

Project development plan disiapkan oleh tim proyek; berisikan analisis


cost/benefit, permintaan developmental dan operasional (orang, dana,
hardware,

software),

dan

jadwal

aktivitas

untuk

membangun

dan

mengoperasikan sistem yang baru.


Master plan dibuat oleh steering committee, menspesifikasikan apa saja
yang

terdapat

dalam

sistem,

cara

pengembangan,

siapa

yang

mengembangkan, bagaimana mendapatkan sumber daya yang dibutuhkan,


dan tujuan AIS tersebut.
Teknik Perencanaan:

Program Evaluation and Review Techniques (PERT)


seluruh aktivitas dan hubungan antara aktivitas sebulum dan sesudahnya
harus diidentifikasi untuk menggambarka PERT diagram yang menunjukan
mana aktivitas yang memerlukan pengeluaran sumber daya dan waktu yang
paling banyak, penyelesaian dan awal mula suatu proyek. Setelah waktu
penyelesaian

ditentukan,

tentukan

pula

critical

path

(proses

yang

memerlukan waktu pengerjaan paling lama).


Gantt charts
diagram batang yang terdiri dari aktivitas di bagian kiri dan satuan waktu
pada bagian atas. Diagram batang digambarkan sepanjang waktu pengerjaan
(starting-ending).
berdasarkan

Diagram

tingkat

batang

diiisi

penyelesaiannya.

sepanjang

pengerjaan

Keuntungannya

proyek

diagram

ini

memperlihatkan keseluruhan progress aktivitas. Kelemahannya : diagram ini


tidak dapat menunjukan hubungan antar aktivitas
4. Various types of feasibility analysis and calculate economic feasibility
Kenapa

harus

nalisis

feasibility?

untuk

menentukan

menghentikan

proyek,

melanjutkan proyek tanpa syarat apapun atau melanjutkan proyek jika suatu
masalah telah terselesaikan. Makin lama proyek berjalan makin sulit untuk
dibatalkan, sehingga keputusan ini harus ditetapkan sedini mungkin.
Jenis feasibility analysis:

economic feasibility berapa waktu, uang dan sumber daya yang dibutuhkan
untuk implementasi sitem (bandingkan biaya dengan payback period, NPV

dan IRR)
technical

dikembangkan

dan

diimplementasikan dengan teknologi yang ada saat ini


legal feasibility apakah sistem telah mengikuti aturan yang berlaku
scheduling feasibility apakah sistem dapat dikembangkan

dan

diimplementasikan dalam waktu yang telah ditetapkan


operational feasibility apakah organisasi memiliki akses terhadap orang

feasibility

apakah

sistem

dapat

yang mendesain, mengimplementasikan dan mengoperasikan sistem ini?


apakah sistem ini akan digunakan?
5. Why systems changes behavioral reactions, form of resistance and how to
minimize the problem

Mengapa terjadi?

Fear-

kehilangan status, kegagalan, teknologi, dan ketidakpastian


top management support- ketika kurang dukungan top mmanagemenmt ats

muncul

mdar

ketidak

tahuan,

ketakutan

kehilangan

pekerjaan,

perubahan yang dilakukan, mereka akan memopertanyakan mengapa

mereka harus menyetujui perubahan tersebut


experience with prior change ketika mereka pernah memiliki pengalam

buruk pada perubahan sebelumnya


communication-pegawai tidak mau mendukung perubahan kecuali ada

penjelasan mengapa perubahan tersebut terjadi


disruptive nature of change permintaan informasi dan interview membuat
mereka

menggangu

dan

menambah

beban

bagi

pegwai

sehingga

menimbulkan kesan negatif


manner in which chang is occurred alasn perubahan yang diterma top

management bisa jadi tidak dpt diterima oleh lower level


biases and emotions jika sisi emosional terpengaruh
personal characteristic and background semakin muda dan semakin
berpendidikan lebih mudah menerima perubahan

Bentuk penolakan:

aggression
perilaku yang merusak, melumpuhkan dan melemahkan sistem, seperti
meningkatnya kesalahan atau sabotase.
projection
menyalahkan sistem jika suatu hal berjalan tidak sesuai.
avoidance
mengacuhkan sistem yang baru dengan harapan sistem tersebut tidak akan
digunakan lagi.

Bagaimanan mencegah hal tersebut terjadi?


dapatkan dukungan manajer, penuhi kebutuhan users, libatkan users dalam proses
pembuatan, menekankan keuntungan sistem baru, bersikap loggis, megadakan
training, evaluasi kinerja sistem baru, selalu membuka komunikasi dengan users,
menguji sistem, dan humanize sistem.
CHAPTER 21 AIS DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES

Purchasing software
canned software-djual pada pengguna yang memiliki kesamaan kebutuhan, turnkey
software-software yang dijual sepaket dengan hardware nya. ASP merupakan
pnyedia jasa penyewaan software mellaui internet.
Tahap :

pemilihan vendor-bisa mellaui konferensi, internet, majalah, buku telepon, dll.


acquiring hardware-software untuk pembelian yang banyak dan complex
maka gunakan RFP agar: menghemat waktu )tanpa harus interview
berulang), menyederhanakan proses pembuatan keputusan (semua respons
berdasarkan format dan info yang sama), mengurangi eror (tidak perlu
overlook), dan mengurangi kemungkinan ketidakcocokan (masing2 pihak
sudah memiliki ekspektasi tertentu). Kekurangannya : vendor tidak dapat
menyarankan alternatif lain, masalah teknis yang menjadi urusan vendor sulit

dianalisa dan mnambah biaya yang dikenakan.


evaluating proposal and select system proposal yang menyediakan
informasi yang kurang, tidak memenui permintaan dasar dan ambigu akan
ditolak. Jika lolos dalam paper screening, proposal dicocokan dengan sistem
requirement. vendor kemudian diminta untuk mendemonstrasikan sisrem
tersebut. Membandingkan vendor dengan menggunakan point scoringdimana tiap-tiap kriteria diberikan berat brebeda berdasarkan tingkat
kepentingannya.

Setelah

itu

membandingkan

biaya

yang

dibutuhkan

(purchasing cost + requirement cost)..


Development in house
End user developed software
end user computing pengembangan, penggunaan dan pengendalian sistem
dilakukan oleh users
Keuntungan:

user creation, control and implementation-user mengendalika proses

pengembangan
system that meet user needs

timeliness- menghemat waktu


freeing up of system resources sumberdaya dapat digunakan untuk

pengembangan sistem lain


versatility and ease of use mudah dipahami, dapat dimodifikasi, dan
dpat digunakan diamana saja

Kelemahan :

logic and development error- user yang mengembangkan sistem tidak


memiliki pengetahuan IS yang baik, sehingga seringkali mereka banyak

melakukan eror atau tidak menyadari adanya eror tersebut


inadequately tested application jarang dilakukan tes yang menyeluruh

karene tidak mengetahui kegunaan tes tersebut


inefficien systems
poorly controlled and documented system:
system incompatibilities
wasted resources ada duplikasi sistem
increased cost- update

Cara mengatasi kelemahan : help desk (menyelesaikan masalah, evaluasi hardware


software baru, melakukan training, menyediakan bantuan teknis dan pendampingan
dalam pembuatan aplikasi
OUTSOURCING
Merupakan kegiatan merekrut perusahaan luar untuk menangani seluruh aktivitas
pemrosesan data organisasi.
Keuntungan:

a business solution agar perusahaan lebih fokus pada bisnis utamanya


asset utilization menjual aset pada outsourcer
access to greater expertise and better technology diserahkan pada ahlinya
lower cost mengurangi biaya labor, instalasi, dll
less development time perusahaan outsourcer yang baik dapat

mengerjakan pengembangan lebih cepat


elimination of peaks and valley usage mengurangi penggunanaan untuk

mengurangi operational cost


facilitation of downsizing merampingkan struktur

Kelemahan :

inflexibility kontrak berkisar 10 tahun, jika ada ketidak[uasan dari pelnggan

sangat sulit proses untuk pembatalan kontrak tersebut


loss of control terutama kontrol atas system dan data
reduce competitive advantage karena tidak mengetahui proses
locked in system pengeluaran cukup besar, sehingga harus tetap

menggunakan sistem yang dibangun


unfulfilled goals banyak tujuan yang tidak terpenuhi
poor service outsourcer kurang responsive terdapat perubahan yang terjadi
increased risk ope, fin, tech, strategy , personnel, legal dan regulatory risk

BUSINESS PROCESS MANAGEMENT


Business process reengineering (BPR) is the analysis and redesign of business
processes

and

information

systems

to

achieve

significant

performance

improvements. Karena dinilai kurang efektif maka proses ini dikembangkan menjadi
BPM dengan pengembangan yang m=berkelanjutan untuk mengoptimalkan proses
bisnis dalam organisasi. Prinsip penting di bawah BPM :

Proses bisnis dapat menciptakan competitive advantage


Proses bisnis harus dikoordinasikan dan dikomunikasikan dengan baik.
business proses harus dapat beradaptasi mennyesuaikan perubahan yang

terjadi
bisnis proses harus selaras dengan tujuan dan kebutuhan perusahaan

empat komponen utama BPM :

proses untuk membuat dan menjalankan aplikasi, termasuk peraturan dalam

bisnis
analisa bisnis untuk mengidentifikasi isu, tren dan kesempatan
integrasi seluruh aktivitas
menyetorkan dan mengamankan dokumen dan file penting lainnya

PROTOTYPING
Four steps are involved in developing a prototype:
1. STEP ONE: Identify basic requirements
The first step is to identify basic requirements by meeting with users to agree on
the size and scope of the system and decide what it should include and exclude.
Developer and users also determine decision-making and transaction processing

outputs and inputs and data needed to produce those outputs. The emphasis is on
what outputs should be produced rather than how. The developer must ensure user
expectations are realistic and their basic information requirements are met. The
designer uses the information requirements to develop cost, time, and feasibility
estimates for alternative AIS solutions
2. STEP TWO: Develop an initial prototype
The second step involves developing an initial prototype that meets the agreed-on
requirements. The emphasis is on speed and low cost rather than efficiency of
operation. The goal is to implement the prototype within a short time period.
Because of time constraints, some aspects are sacrificed. For example, at this point,
there is ignorance of non-essential functions, system controls, exception handling,
validation of input data, processing speed, and efficiency considerations. Users
must see and use tentative versions of data entry display screens, menus, input
prompts, and source documents. They must also respond to prompts, query the
system, judge response times, and issue commands. When the prototype is
finished, the developer returns to the users and demonstrates the system. Users are
instructed to experiment and comment on what they do and do not like.
3. STEP THREE: Repeated iterations
The third step involves repeated iterations of users identifying changes, developers
making the changes, and the system being turned back to users for next round. This
step continues until users are satisfiedusually 4 to 6 iterations.
4. STEP FOUR: Use the system
The final step involves using the system approved by the users. An approved
prototype is typically used in one of two ways. Half of the prototypes are turned into
fully functional systems referred to as operational prototypes. To make them
operational, the developer must add needed controls, improve operational
efficiency, provide backup and recovery, and integrate the prototype with the
systems with which it interfaces. Changes may be necessary to allow the program
to accept real input, access real data files, process data, make necessary
computations and calculations, and produce real output. When its not practical to

modify the prototype to make a fully functional system, non-operational or


throwaway prototypes can be used in several ways. They may be discarded, and the
systems requirements identified in the process of building them can be used to
develop a new system. If so, the SDLC is followed to develop the system, and the
prototype is a model. Alternately, they may be used as the initial prototype for an
expanded system designed to meet needs of many users. As a final alternative, if
users and developers decide the system is unsalvageable, the prototype can be
discarded completely.
There are some advantages of prototyping :
1. Better definition of user needs -- Because of intensive end-user
involvement
2. Higher user involvement and satisfaction
3. Faster development time -- It may take days or weeks to get a
prototype up vs. a year or more for a traditional system
4. Fewer errors -- Errors are detected early because the users experiment
with each version. Its also easy to identify and terminate an infeasible
AIS early
5. More opportunity for changes
6. Less costly -- Some for 1020% of the cost of traditional systems
Despite its advantage, prototype also has several disadvantages :
1. Significant user time
2. Less efficient use of system resources -- Shortcuts in developing the system
may result in poor performance and reliability and high maintenance and
support costs
3. Incomplete system development
4. Inadequately tested and documented systems

5. Negative behavioral reactions -- If the prototype is discarded, users may be


upset about using it and losing it. Users may also be dissatisfied if all their
suggestions are not incorporated or if they have to go through too many
iterations
6. Never-ending development -- If not managed properly, the development
could get stuck in a terminal loop
CASE TOOLS
Computer-aided software (or systems) engineering (CASE) tools are an integrated
package of computer-based tools that automate important aspects of the software
development process. It is used to plan, analyze, design, program, and maintain an
information system. It is also used to enhance efforts of managers, users, and
programmers in understanding information needs.
There are several advantages of CASE technology :
1. Increased

productivity

--

Can

generate

bug-free

code

from

system

specifications and automate repetitive tasks


2. Improved program quality -- Can simplify enforcement of structured
development standards, which improves quality of development and reduces
threat of serious design errors; can check internal accuracy of design and
detect inconsistencies
3. Cost savings -- Cost savings of up to 8090% are possible
4. Improved control procedures -- Encourages development early in the design
process of system controls, security measures, system auditability, and error
handling procedures
5. Simplified

documentation

--

Automatically

documents

as

the

system

development progresses
Despite its advantage, CASE technology also has several disadvantages :
1. Incompatibility -- Some tools dont interact effectively with some systems

2. Cost -- Some packages > $360,000


3. Unmet expectations -- Only 37% of CIOs believe they achieved expected
benefits
CHAPTER 22 SYSTEM DESIGN, IMPLEMENTATION AND OPERATION
Conceptual Systems Design
In the conceptual systems design phase, a general framework is created for
implementing user requirements and solving the problems identified in the analysis
phase. The three main steps are :
1. Evaluate design alternatives
The steering committee evaluates the alternatives. Following are some design
considerations and alternatives:

How should the communications channel be configured? -- Point-to-point,


Multi-drop, or Line-sharing

What type of communications channel should be used? -- Phone lines,


Coaxial cable, Fiber optics, Microwave, or Satellite

What type of communications network should be used? Centralized,


Decentralized, Distributed, or Local area

What type of storage media should be used for data? Tape, Disk,
Diskette, Hard drive, CD, or Paper

What type of data storage structure should be used? Files or Database

How should files be organized and accessed? Random, Sequential,


orIndexed-sequential access

What media should be used to input data? Keying, OCR, MICR, POS, EDI,
or Voice

What format will the input take? -- Source documents, Turnaround


documents, Source data automation, or Screen

How will the system be operated? -- In-house or Outsourcing


How frequently will outputs be produced? Instantly, Hourly, Daily,
Weekly, or Monthly

What media will be used for output? Paper, Screen, Voice, Diskette, CD,
or Microfilm

How will output be scheduled? -- On demand or at predetermined times

What format will the output take? Narrative, Table, Graph, Electronic file
or communication

What form will printed output take? -- Pre-printed forms, Turnaround


documents, or System-generated forms

What processing mode will be used? Manual, Batch, orReal time

What

type

of

processor

will

be

utilized?

--

Personal

computer,

Minicomputer, or Mainframe

How will software be acquired? Canned, Custom, or Modified

How will transactions be processed? -- By batch or Online

How frequently will updates occur? Instantly, Hourly, Daily, Weekly, or


Monthly

2. Prepare design specifications


Once a design has been selected, the project team develops the conceptual design
specifications for the following elements:

Output -- Because output is what goes to the user and the system must be
designed to meet user needs, the output specifications are prepared first

Data storage -- How will data be stored to produce the desired outputs?

Input -- What types of data must be entered to produce the desired


outputs?

Processing procedures and operations -- How will data be processed and in


what sequence to produce the desired outputs?

3. Prepare the conceptual systems design report.


A conceptual systems design report is prepared at the end of the conceptual design
phase to guide physical system design activities, communicate how management
and user information needs will be met, and help the steering committee assess
system feasibility.
Physical System Design
1. Output Design
The objective of output design is to determine the nature, format, content, and
timing of printed reports, documents, and screen displays. Important design
considerations include :

Use of the output -- Who will use it and why?, when is it needed?, and what
decisions will it facilitate?

Output medium Paper, Screen, Voice response, Diskette, Microfilm, and


Other

Output format -- Should select the format that clearly conveys the most
information. It could be table, narrative, or graphic.

Pre-printed -- Should paper output be on preprinted form and/or turnaround


document?

Location -- Where is the output to be sent?

Access -- Who should be able to access hard-copy and screen output?

Detail -- Lengthy output should be preceded by an executive summary and a


table of contents. Headings and legends organize data and highlight
important items. Detailed info goes in an appendix.

Timeliness -- How often should the output be produced?

Outputs usually fit into one of the following four categories:

Scheduled reports -- have pre-specified content and format, are prepared on


a regular basis, for examples: weekly sales analysis and monthly financial
statements

Special-purpose analysis reports -- no pre-specified content and format,


typically prepared in response to a management request, for example:
analysis of impact of a government mandate on profitability

Triggered exception reports -- have pre-specified content and format,


prepared only in response to abnormal conditions, i.e., the trigger, for
example: cost overruns

Demand reports -- have pre-specified content and format and prepared only
on request.

2. File and database design


Important file and database design considerations include:

Storage medium -- Hard drive, Disk, Diskette, CD, Tape, or Paper

Processing mode Manual, batch or real time

Maintenance -- What procedures are needed to effectively maintain the


data?

Size -- How many records and how big are they? and how fast are they
expected to grow?

Activity level -- What portion of records are added or deleted each year?
and what portion needs to be updated?

3. Input design
There are two principal types of data input,

forms and computer screens.

Considerations in input design include:

Input medium Keyboard, OCR, MICR, POS terminal, EDI, and Voice
input

Input source Computer, Customer, and Remote location

Input format -- Source or turnaround document, screen, and source


data automation

Input type -- What is the nature of the data?

Volume -- How much data are to be entered?

Personnel -- What functions and expertise do the data entry


operators have? and is additional training necessary?

Frequency -- How often is data to be entered?

Cost -- How can costs be minimized without adversely affecting


efficiency and accuracy?

Error detection and correction -- What errors are possible? and how
can they be detected and corrected?

4. Form design
Following are important principles for designing new forms and evaluating existing
ones:

General considerations -- Preprint as much data as possible; use


appropriate weight and grade of paper; use bold type, double-thick lines, and
shading to highlight different parts of the form; use a standard size and one
that is consistent with requirements for filing, binding, or mailing; if mailed to
external parties, position the address for placement in a window envelope;

have copies of the form printed in different colors to facilitate accurate


distribution; and include clear instructions for completing the form.
Introductory section of form -- Place the form name at the top in

bold type; have the forms pre-numbered consecutively; and if distributed to


external parties, have company name and address pre-printed on the form.
Main body of form -- Group together logically related information

(e.g., info about the customer, info about the product); provide sufficient
room to record each item; order the data items consistent with the sequence
in which the data is likely to be gathered; use codes and check-offs in places
where standardized explanations are likely.
Conclusion section of form -- Provide space for recording final

disposition of the form, approval signatures, dates of approval and final


disposition, and a dollar or numeric total ; clearly indicate the distribution of
each form.
Computer screens are most effective when the following principles are used:

Organize the screen for quick, accurate, and complete entry of the data -Minimize input by retrieving as much as possible from the system. Example: If
the customer number is entered, retrieve his name/address data from the
system.

Enter data in the same order it appears on the document

Complete the screen from left to right and top to bottom, grouping logically
related data together

Design the screen so users can jump from one data entry location to another
or use a single key to go directly to screen locations

Make it easy to correct mistakes -- Use clear and explicit error messages that
are consistent on all screens and provide a help feature for online assistance

Avoid clutter by restricting the amount of data on one screen -- Limit the
number of menu options on a single screen

5. Program design
The following slides discuss the eight steps for developing software and where these
steps take place in the SDLC.

STEP ONE: Determine user needs -- Occurs during the systems analysis
stage of the SDLC.

STEP TWO: Develop and document a plan -- Occurs during the conceptual
design phase and the beginning of physical design.

STEP THREE: Write the program code -- Design in increasing levels of


detail, known as hierarchical program design. It begun during systems
design and completed during systems implementation.

STEP FOUR: Test the program code -- Debugging is discovering and


eliminating program errors. Desk checking happens after a program is
coded and involves a visual and mental review to discover programming
errors. Programs are tested for logic errors using test data that simulates
both valid transactions and all possible error conditions. Large programs
are often tested in three stages, such as individual program modules, the
linkages between the module and the control module, and the interfaces
between the program being tested and other application programs. Errors
need to be found as soon as possible in the development process. Errors
discovered late cost 801000% more to fix than those found early.

STEP FIVE: Document the program -- Documentation explains how


programs work and helps correct and resolve errors. It includes flowcharts,
record layouts, E-R diagrams, REA data models, narrative descriptions of
the system, etc., organized in a manual.

STEP SIX: Train program users -- Often uses the program documentation.

STEP SEVEN: Install the system -- All components are brought together,
and the company begins to use the system.

STEP EIGHT: Use and modify the system -- Program maintenance is a


response to any factors that require program revision. It includes requests
for new or revised reports; changes in input, file content, or values such as
tax rates; error detection and correction; and conversion to new hardware.

6. Procedure design
Individuals who interact with a newly-designed AIS need procedures to cover input
preparation, transaction processing, error detection and correction, controls,
reconciliation of balances, database access, output preparation and distribution,
and computer operator instructions. Procedures may take the form of system
manuals, user instruction classes, training materials, and online help screen. The
procedures may be written by development teams; users; or teams representing
both groups.
7. Controls design
Improperly

controlled

input,

processing,

and

database

functions

produce

information of questionable value. Controls must be built into an AIS to ensure its
effectiveness, efficiency, and accuracy. These controls should minimize errors and
detect and correct errors when they do occur. Accountants play a vital role in this
area. Important control concerns that must be addressed include:

Validity -- Are all interactions valid?

Authorization -- Are input, processing, storage, and output activities


authorized by the appropriate managers?

Accuracy -- Is input verified to ensure accuracy? and what controls


ensure that data is not lost when passing between processing
activities?

Security -- Is the system protected against unauthorized physical


and logical access to prevent improper use, alteration, destruction,
or disclosure of information and software and theft of system
resources?

Numerical control -- Are documents pre-numbered to prevent errors


or intentional misuse and to detect when documents are missing or
stolen?

Availability -- Is the system available as set forth in agreements?


and can users enter, update, and retrieve data during those times?

Maintainability -- Can the system be modified without affecting


system availability, security, and integrity?; Are only authorized,
tested, and documented changes made to the system and data?;
Are resources available to manage, schedule, document, and
communicate changes to management and authorized users?

Integrity

--

Is

processing

authorized?;

Is

it

free

complete,
from

accurate,

unauthorized

or

timely,

and

inadvertent

manipulations?

Audit trail -- Can data be traced from source to output and vice
versa?

8. Physical system design report


At the end of the physical design phase, a physical systems design report is
prepared, summarizing what was accomplished. This report serves as the basis for
managements decision whether to proceed to implementation.
Systems Implementation and Conversion
Systems implementation is the process of installing hardware and software and
getting the AIS up and running. Phases include
1. Developing a plan
An implementation plan consists of implementation tasks, expected completion
dates, cost estimates and specification of the person(s) responsible for each task.
The plan specifies when the project should be complete and operational. The
implementation team should identify risk factors that decrease the likelihood of
successful implementation, and the plan should contain a strategy for coping with

each of the risks. AIS changes may require adjustments to the companys
organizational structure, including creation of new departments; elimination or
downsizing of existing departments; and changes even in the data processing
department.
2. Preparing the site : Installing and testing hardware and software
A large computer may require changes such as new electrical outlets; data
communications facilities; raised floors; humidity controls; special lighting; airconditioning; security measures, such as fire protection and emergency power
supply; space for equipment, storage, and offices. Site preparation is a lengthy
process and should begin well ahead of the installation date.
3. Selecting and training personnel
Employees can be hired from outside or transferred internally. Hiring from within is
usually more effective and less costly, because the employees already understand
the business. Transferring displaced employees can enhance loyalty and morale.
Companies take training shortcuts because effective training is time-consuming and
expensive and those who understand the system are maintaining and upgrading it.
When training is insufficient, the company will not achieve the expected return on
investment. The hidden cost is that users will turn to their coworkers who have
mastered the system for help. It results in less productive coworkers and increased
costs. Effective training includes hardware and software skills and orientation to
new policies and operations. The training should be scheduled just before systems
testing and conversion. Types of training include technical training from vendors,
self-study manuals, computer-aided instruction, videotape presentations, roleplaying, case studies, and experimenting with the AIS under the guidance of
experienced users.
4. Completing documentation
Three types of documentation must be prepared for new systems:

Development documentation -- Describes the AIS and includes a


system description;

copies of output, input, file, and database

layouts; program flowcharts; test results; and user acceptance


forms.

Operations documentation Includes operating schedules; files and


databases accessed; and equipment, security, and file retention
requirements

User documentation -- Teaches users how to operate the AIS. and


includes a procedures manual and training materials.
5. Testing the system

Inadequate system testing has contributed to the failure of systems. Three common
forms of testing include:

Walk-throughs -- Step-by-step reviews of procedures or program


logic : Attended by the development team and users early in
system design; focus is on organization input, files, outputs, and
data

flows;

subsequent

walk-throughs

are

attended

by

programmers; and address logical and structural aspects of


program code.

Processing test transactions -- Determines whether the program


operates as designed; requires both valid and erroneous data; the
correct response for each test should be specified in advance.

Acceptance tests -- Uses copies of real transactions and files rather


than hypothetical ones; users develop acceptance criteria; and then
make final decision whether to accept.

Conversion is the process of changing from the old AIS to the new. Many elements
must be converted, including hardware, software, data files, and procedures. The
process is complete when the new AIS has become a routine, ongoing part of the
system. Four conversion approaches are used to change from an old to a new
system:
1. Direct conversion

Immediately terminates the old AIS when the new one is introduced. Appropriate
when the old AIS has no value; or the new AIS is so different that comparisons
between the two are meaningless. Main advantage to direct conversion is
inexpensive, but the main disadvantage is it provides no backup AIS. There is a high
risk of failure unless the new system has been very carefully developed and tested.
2. Parallel conversion
Operates the old and new systems simultaneously for a period of time. You can
process transactions with both systems, compare output, reconcile differences, and
make corrections to the new AIS. Main advantage to parallel conversion is it
protects the company from errors but the main disadvantage is it is costly and
stressful for employees to process all transactions twice. Because companies often
experience problems during conversion, parallel processing has gained widespread
popularity.
3. Phase-in conversion
Gradually replaces elements of the old AIS with the new one. The new system is
often phased in a module at a time. The main advantage is data processing
resources can be acquired over time, but the disadvantages are costs of creating
temporary interfaces between old and new AIS and time required to make the
complete conversion.
4. Pilot conversion
Implements a system in just one part of the organization, e.g., a branch office or a
single store. When problems with the system are resolved, the new system could be
implemented at the remaining locations. The advantages of this conversion is it
localizes conversion problems and allows training in a live environment. But the
disadvantages are long conversion time and need for interfaces between old and
new systems.
Data conversion can be time-consuming, tedious, and expense. The difficulty and
magnitude is easy to underestimate. Data files may need to be modified in three
ways, there are files may be moved to a different storage medium (e.g., tape to

disk), data content may be changed (e.g., fields added or deleted), and a file or
database format may be changed. Steps in the data conversion process:
1. Decide which data files need to be converted.
2. Check files for completeness and data inaccuracies, and
remove any inconsistencies.
3. Do the actual data conversion.