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Chapter I

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND


This

chapter

presents

the

background

of

the

study,

statement of the problem, hypothesis, significance of the


study and the scope and delimitations.

Introduction
Diversity among learners had long been thought to cause
adversity

in

the

learning

processes

and

academic

achievements. The differences between people are just too


vast

that

it

is

always

considered

as

hindrance

for

achieving a consensus of equality. With the difficulties


brought about by diversity, it is still an idea that the
educational institution embraces and values nonetheless.
The

educational

institutions

had

always

been

an

instrument to level the playing field between students and


people from the minorities and the majorities, between those
that

are

financially

financially

stable,

challenged

and

among

and

learners

those
with

that

are

different

preferences, abilities, styles and habits.


In

any

classroom,

may

it

be

homogenous

or

heterogeneous class, diversity would always be prevalent. It


is best seen through the students differences in abilities,
styles and habits. Each and every learner learns in their
1

own distinct ways which is certainly seen most prevailingly


in

the

learners

manner

of

processing

information.

Some

would learn a lesson better through hands-on activities than


through listening to the teacher. Some even prefer to study
in groups than working alone to learn the lesson better.
Some students prepare for class and exams while others dont
even read their notes. Nonetheless the goal of creating
life-long effective learners is still an objective that is
continuously being strived upon.
It is from the observations of the learners that the
researchers

came

up

with

the

three

concepts

which

most

likely give distinctness in a student or an individual; the


Multiple Intelligences, the Learning Styles and the Study
Habits.
The

Multiple Intelligences Theory proposed by Howard

Gardner,

believes

that

different

intelligences

may

be

independent abilities - a person can be low in one domain


area

but

high

in

another.

All

of

us

possess

the

intelligences but in varying degree of strength and skills


(Lucas

&

Corpuz,

2011).

The

varying

levels

of

intelligences dictate the preference of the students as to


what they need to learn.
Learning
internalizes

Style
and

is

the

studies

new

way
and

person

processes,

challenging

material.

(Salandanan & Corpuz, 2013). A students learning style has


to do with the way he or she processes information in order
to learn and then apply it. As cited by Vega and Prieto
(2006) learning style as described by Litzinger and Ozif
(1992) refer to the different ways in which children and
adult think and learn. while Ellis (1985) described a
learning style as the more or less consistent way in which a
person perceives, conceptualizes or organizes and recall
information. Though many meaning had been given, they all
point out that a learning style dictates how the learners
process and retains information best.
While each student has their own unique intelligence
and style, they too, have their own study habits. A study
habit is a students own way of managing his/her time and
own way of doing activities and preparations in such a way
that he/she can learn and study his/her lessons regularly
and effectively. According to Good (1973), the term study
habits is: the students way of study whether systematic,
efficient
perceived

or

inefficient

to

be

performance.

That

determinants

of

the
is

the

etc.,

good

determinants

why

efforts

academic

are

study
of

the

made

performance.

habits

are

academic

to

be

the

That

is

why

efforts are made to develop and improve study habits of


students. Furthermore, Armstrong (1956) declares the study

habits as the connection between learning readiness with an


activity

of

process.

In

addition,

study

habits

are

the

methods of learning or acknowledgement which has been used


by students.
The Multiple Intelligences, Learning Styles and Study
Habits of the learners all contribute to their differences
and to their learning.
In

this

light,

the

study

aims

to

determine

the

correlation of the Multiple Intelligences, Learning Styles


and Study Habits of selected grade 8 students of Pasig City
in

order

approaches

to

understand

to

improve

not

and

recommend

just

the

strategies

students

learning

outcomes but also the teachers teaching strategies.

Learning Style:
Visual
Auditory
Tactile/Kinaesthetic

Multiple Intelligence:
Verbal-Linguistic
Conceptual
Framework
Logical-Mathematical
Spatial
Bodily Kinaesthetic
Musical
Interpersonal
Intrapersonal
Naturalist

and

Study Habits:
Time Management
Study Environment
Test-taking/Preparation
Note-taking Habits
Reading Habits
Writing Habits

Figure 1. The Correlation of the Multiple Intelligences, Learning


Styles and Study Habits

In

this

study,

the

researchers

use

three

variables

which are the multiple intelligences, learning styles, and


study habits. They look for the correlation present between
these

variables.

testing.

The

They

first

set

make
is

three
the

sets

of

correlation

correlation
of

multiple

intelligences and learning styles. The second set is the


correlation of learning styles and study habits. The last
set

is

the

correlation

of

study

habits

and

multiple

intelligences.
The three variables of this study are composed of subvariables. The multiple intelligence has eight sub-variables

which are verbal-linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial,


bodily

kinesthetic,

musical,

interpersonal,

intrapersonal

and naturalist. On the other hand, learning style has three


sub-variables

which

are

visual,

auditory,

and

tactile/kinesthetic. The study habit has six sub-variables


which

are

time

management,

taking/preparation

habits,

study

environment,

note-taking

habits,

testreading

habits, and writing habits.


The

first

set

is

the

correlation

of

multiple

intelligence and learning style. This set is composed of


eight sub-sets. The first sub-set is the correlation of the
following: verbal-Linguistic and visual, verbal-Linguistic
and auditory, and verbal-Linguistic and tactile/kinesthetic.
The second sub-set is the correlation of the following:
Logical-Mathematical

and

visual,

Logical-Mathematical

and

auditory, and Logical-Mathematical and tactile/kinesthetic.


The

third

sub-set

is

the

correlation

of

the

following:

Spatial and visual, Spatial and auditory, and Spatial and


tactile/kinesthetic. The fourth sub-set is the correlation
of

the

following:

kinesthetic

and

bodily-kinesthetic
auditory,

and

and

bodily

visual,

bodily

kinesthetic

and

tactile/kinesthetic. The fifth sub-set is the correlation


the following: musical and visual, musical and auditory, and
musical and tactile/kinesthetic. The sixth sub-set is the

correlation

the

interpersonal

following:

and

interpersonal

auditory,

and

and

visual,

interpersonal

and

tactile/kinesthetic. The seventh sub-set is the correlation


of the following: intrapersonal and visual, intrapersonal
and auditory, and intrapersonal and tactile/kinesthetic. The
eight

sub-set

Naturalist

is

and

the

visual,

correlation

of

Naturalist

and

the

following:

auditory,

and

Naturalist and tactile/kinesthetic.


The second set is the correlation of learning style and
study habits. This set is composed of three sub-sets. The
first sub-set is the correlation of the following: visual
and time management, visual and study environment, visual
and test-taking/preparation habits, visual and note-taking
habits, visual and reading habits, and visual and writing
habits.

The

second

sub-set

is

the

correlation

of

the

following: auditory and time management, auditory and study


environment,
auditory

and

auditory

and

note-taking

test-taking/preparation

habits,

habits,

reading

auditory

and

habits, and auditory and writing habits. The third sub-set


is the correlation of the following: tactile/kinesthetic and
time management, tactile/kinesthetic and study environment,
tactile/kinesthetic
tactile/kinesthetic

and

test-taking/preparation
and

note-taking

habits,
habits,

tactile/kinesthetic

and

reading

habits,

and

tactile/kinesthetic and writing habits.


The third set is the correlation of study habit and
multiple intelligence. This set is composed of six sub-sets.
The first sub-set is the correlation of the following: time
management

and

verbal-linguistic,

logical-mathematical,
management

and

time

bodily

time

management

kinesthetic,

management

and

spatial,

time

management

and

and

time

musical, time management and interpersonal, time management


and intrapersonal, and time management and naturalist. The
second sub-set is the correlation of the following: study
environment

and

verbal-linguistic,

study

environment

and

logical-mathematical, study environment and spatial, study


environment and bodily kinesthetic , study environment and
musical,

study

environment

and

interpersonal,

study

environment and intrapersonal, and study environment and


naturalist. The third sub-set is the correlation of the
following:

test-taking/preparation

habits

linguistic,

test-taking/preparation

habits

mathematical,

test-taking/preparation

habits

and

verbal-

and

logical-

and

spatial,

test-taking/preparation habits and bodily kinesthetic, testtaking/preparation


taking/preparation
taking/preparation

habits
habits
habits

and
and

and

musical,
interpersonal,

intrapersonal,

and

testtesttest-

taking/preparation habits and naturalist. The fourth sub-set


is the correlation of the following: note-taking habits and
verbal-linguistic,

note-taking

habits

and

logical-

mathematical, note-taking habits and spatial, note-taking


habits

and

bodily

kinesthetic,

note-taking

habits

and

musical, note-taking habits and interpersonal, note-taking


habits

and

intrapersonal,

and

note-taking

habits

and

naturalist. The fifth sub-set is the correlation of the


following:

reading

habits

and

verbal-linguistic,

reading

habits and logical-mathematical, reading habits and spatial,


reading habits and bodily kinesthetic, reading habits and
musical, reading habits and interpersonal, reading habits
and intrapersonal, and reading habits and naturalist. The
sixth sub-set is the correlation of the following: writing
habits and verbal-linguistic, writing habits and logicalmathematical, writing habits and spatial , writing habits
and bodily kinesthetic , writing habits and musical, writing
habits and interpersonal, writing habits and intrapersonal,
and writing habits and naturalist.

Statement of the Problem

10

This study aims to determine the correlation of


the Multiple Intelligences, Learning Styles and Study Habits
of selected Grade 8 students of Sta. Lucia High School.
Specifically, it aims to answer the following subproblems:

1. What are the profile of the respondents in terms of:


1.1
1.2
2. What

is

Age; and
Gender?
the

level

of

Multiple

Intelligence

of

the

respondents in terms of:


2.1 Verbal-Linguistic Intelligence;
2.2 Logical-Mathematical Intelligence;
2.3 Spatial Intelligence;
2.4 Bodily Kinesthetic Intelligence;
2.5 Musical Intelligence;
2.6 Interpersonal Intelligence;
2.7 Intrapersonal Intelligence; and
2.8 Naturalist Intelligence?

3.

What is the extent of practice of students Learning

Styles in terms of:


3.1 Visual;
3.2 Auditory; and
3.3 Tactile/Kinesthetic?

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4. What is the extent of practice of students Study Habits


in terms of:
4.1 Time Management;
4.2 Study Environment;
4.3 Test-taking/Preparation Habits;
4.4 Note-taking Skills;
4.5 Reading Habits; and
4.6 Writing Habits?

5. Is there a correlation between:


5.1 Multiple Intelligences and Learning Styles
5.2 Multiple Intelligences and Study Habits
5.3 Study Habits and Learning Styles

Hypothesis
There is no correlation between:
1. Multiple Intelligences and Learning Styles;
2. Multiple Intelligences and Study Habits; and
3. Study Habits and Learning Styles.

12

Significance of the Study


This study will be significant to:
School Administrators. The result of this study will
lead to proposals of new teaching materials and strategies
for better instructions.
Teachers.

Upon

Intelligences,
students,

knowing

learning

they

will

the

styles

be

able

correlation
and

study

to

vary

of

habits
their

Multiple
of

the

teaching

strategies and given learning activities.


Students. They will be able to discern as to how they
should formulate their own study habits according to the
category of their multiple intelligence and learning style.
Parents. Will be able to support and enhance the study
habits of the students by giving them the time to study and
the learning materials that their children needs.
Future

Researchers.

This

study

will

serve

as

their

reference in producing their own work.

Scope and Delimitation


This

study,

the

Correlation

of

the

Multiple

Intelligences, Learning Styles and Study Habits of selected


Grade 8 students of Sta. Lucia High School, aims to show the
correlation between the three variables. The study will be
delimited

to

the

one

hundred

eighty-five

(185)

selected

13

students

of

Grade

of

Sta.

Lucia

High

School.

The

demographic profile of the respondents is not significant to


the study and is indicated for the sake of profiling.
The study is delimited to the scope of
Multiple

Intelligences

particularly;

eight

Verbal-Linguistic

Intelligence,

Logical-Mathematical

Intelligence,

Spatial

Intelligence,

Bodily

Intelligence,

Musical

Intelligence,

Interpersonal

Kinesthetic

Intelligence,

Intrapersonal

Intelligence and Naturalist Intelligence, the three Learning


Styles; visual learning styles, auditory learning style and
tactile learning style and lastly, the Study Habits with its
sub-variables;

Time

taking/Preparation

Management,
Habits,

Study

Note-taking

Environment,
Skills,

Test-

Reading

Habits and Writing Habits.


The Multiple Intelligences questionnaire by Howard
Gardner, Learning Styles questionnaire by Linda Wong and the
Study Habits by Virginia Gordon were used to determine the
correlation of multiple intelligences, learning styles and
study habits.
The study is only for the purpose of recommending
possible

actions

that

head

administrators,

teachers,

students and parents of Sta. Lucia High School could take to


develop better learning outcomes.

14

Definition of Terms
The

researchers

believe

that

some

terms

need

clarifications in order to impart their ideas clearly. These


terms are defined as they are used in this research.

Auditory Learning Style. The auditory learning style is


for students who learn best by hearing information. They
accurately

remember

detail

of

information

heard

in

conversations and lectures.


Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence. It encompasses fine,
precise body rhythms, body movements, motor coordination
skills, an acute sense of timing, balance, flexibility, and
possibly strength and speed.
Existentialist Intelligence. Individual is learning by
seeing

the

big

picture.

This

intelligence

seeks

connections to real world understanding and application of


new learning.
Interpersonal
interpersonal

Intelligence.

communication

It

emphasizes

skills,

social

effective
skills,

leadership ability, and cooperative team work.


Intrapersonal

Intelligence.

It

focuses

on

personal

growth, self-understanding, personal reflection, intuition,


spirituality and motivation to achieve personal potential.

15

Learning Style. It refers to the general way people


prefer to problem, solve, process, learn, and remember new
information. In this study it refers to distinction of a
leaner to the other in terms of information acquisition.
Logical-Mathematical Intelligence. It involves the use
of

logic,

sound

identification

reasoning,

of

problem

patterns,

solving,

sequential

analysis,

thinking,

and

mathematical calculations.
Multiple Intelligence. It defines intelligence as areas
of human potential. Under this theory, individuals have a
wide range of distinct aptitudes, talents, and abilities,
each of which can be cultivated and expanded.
Musical

Intelligence.

People

with

these

developed

abilities may exhibit strong auditory memories and may use


vocal

or

instrumental

music

to

express

creativity,

imagination, and human emotions.


Naturalist

Intelligence.

People

who

belong

in

this

intelligence are sensitive to the physical world and aware


of the balance (or imbalance) of plants, animals, and the
environment.
Note-taking Habits. It is the act of how students take
down

notes.

It

deals

with

the

system

and

regularity

students note-taking and their organization of ideas.

16

Reading Habits. It is the act of how students read


their notes. It talks about the type of reading materials
students read, style or system of reading students uses,
and the regularity of students reading habits.
Study Area. Study area is an ideal place for students
to review and study their lessons. The physical arrangement
of study area may be modified by the students.
Study Habit. It refers to anything done at home or
outside

school

assignment,

hours

community

that

includes

projects

and

work

on

strictly

school

individual

problems
Tactile Learning Style. This learning style is for the
learners who work well with their hands in areas such as
repair work, sculpting, art, or working with tools.
Test-taking Preparation Habits. It is the act of how
students prepare and study for their examinations. It deals
with the amount of days and hours they offer in studying a
particular subject.
Time Management. Time management is the act of how
students make use of task-list and time schedule. It guides
and helps students to finish task on time.
Verbal/Linguistic Intelligence. It includes verbal and
written language abilities. Common characteristics of this

17

intelligence

include

love

of

language-

curiosity

and

fascination with words, meanings, and structure.


Visual-Spatial
accurate,

precise

including

sizes,

Intelligence.
perceptions
shapes,

of

textures,

It

involves

keen,

the

physical

world,

lines,

curves,

and

angles.
Visual Learning Style. Visual learning style is for
students who have a keen awareness of aesthetics, the beauty
of the physical environment, and visual media.