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# Department of Physics

IIT Kanpur

Aug-Dec 2014

## 1. For small oscillations the period of a pendulum is approximately T 2

dent of the amplitude, 0 .

p
l/g, indepen-

(a) For finite oscillations, use dt = dx/v to show that the exact expression for T is
s Z
8l 0
d

T =
.
g 0
cos cos 0
(b) Find an approximation to this T , unto second order in 0 (i.e. upto 02 ). The final
s 

02
l
1+
+ ... .
T = 2
g
16
Hint if needed: Make use of the identity, cos() = 1 2 sin2 (/2), to write T
in terms of the of sines (which go to 0 as 0). Then make a substitution
sin(x) sin(/2)/ sin(0 /2). Finally expand your integrand in powers of 0 , and
evaluate the integral.
2. The equation of motion of a particle (of unit mass), which starts from rest at x = 0, is
given by
x = 1 x .
(a) Identify x at which the velocity will again become zero. How long would it take to
reach there.
(b) Consider the phase space of the particle. Identify the fixed points of the system.
Which of them is are stable and which of them are unstable.
(c) Write down the equation for the phase space trajectories and sketch the phase space
trajectories.
3. A small ping-pong ball of mass m, is placed on top of a basketball of mass M , of
diameter d [see Fig. 1a)]. The bottom of the basketball is at a height h above the
ground. How high does the small ball rise after the collision. Assume that the balls
bounce off elastically, and that m  M . To make the problem clean, assume that the
balls are separated by a small distance, and that they bounce off instantaneously.

## Phy102: Introduction to Mechanics

Phy102

Page 2 of 2

HW6

4. A super-ball of mass m bounces back and forth between two surfaces with speed v0 [see
Fig. 1b)]. Gravity is neglected and the collisions are perfectly elastic.
(a) Find the average force, F exerted by the ball, on each wall.
(b) If one surface is slowly moved towards the other with a speed V  v,
5. A mass M moving in the positive x-direction collides elastically with a stationary mass
m. The collision is not necessarily head-on, so the masses may be scattered off at angles.
Let be the angle of ms resulting motion. What should be so that m has the largest
possible speed in the y-direction? It may help to think of the collision in the CM frame.
6. N men, each with mass m, stand on a railway flatcar of mass M . They jump off one end
of the flatcar with velocity u relative to the car. The car rolls in the opposite direction
without friction.
(a) What is the final velocity of the flatcar, if all the men jump at the same time?
(b) What is the final velocity of the car, if they jump one at a time? (The answer can
be left in the form of a sum of terms.)