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DISCOVERIES

MATHEMATICS,
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RECENT

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the

VMIVER8ITT

YORK.

July

betoro

NEW

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the

by

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formolo

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paper,

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8TAXX

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and

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with

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at.

mathematician,

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BbDUCS

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explained

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those

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facilitate

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aloel^ra,

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power

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the

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case

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19

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page

PRINCIPLE8.

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discoveries

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the

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before

prominently

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of

University

to

Profeeaor

merits

the

members,

the
the

of
and

si

of

Convention

Maryland,

of

Marylai

of

author,

Pr

to

Teaohers

for

in

Stato

bring

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of

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honorable

dealrimr

thia

In

nnezpeoled

preeentation

be

Smithsonian

interest

Washington

the

to

work

the

of

deep

before

it

prevented

author

Hikbt.

Jonra
manlletted

the

invitlnff

the

the

thanks

Schools

the

of

publication,
of

Wafthinffton,

deaired

of

Sehool

introduction
their

his

present

to

Md"

late
at

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kindness

introduction

of

Normal

State

Association

The

Colleffe,

the

eoui

useful.

of

for

brinirinff

beff

personal

Cumberland

by

the

Superintendent
the

before

Teachers

tion

for

Chanoellor

the

also

State

President

at

thanks

York,

thereby

would

Nkwbll.

A.

and

more

now

finished

Gonvooation.

University

M.

of

and

far

Professor

New

of

attention

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of

his

Alcrebra

any

Altfebra

formerly

City

nuperiority

hicrhir

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t""

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To

of

lu

\%

Prinoiplo

Principio

To

Himilarity

KqiMUons...
A

Quantittich.

or

Alffobra

thiH

To

pa^o

11

Ik"able

by

Incbbaab

Introduction

soe

Formulir

Contmctod

MnltiplictttlonA

Equal

Hethodn.

Old

tV

Cond"^nAfittonf",

it

Hquarinir

DifT.

St

Hum

of

Hoot,

Square

tlio

Fantoni

Examples

with

19
21

23,

%i

W.

30

'

Difforonce
Powers
And

To

Baise

New

between

anr

Formula

OootrMi

38

Fai^ors

their

Examples

34
35

Power

Anf

to

Cubing

Numbers,

etc

Powers
Now

of

of

to

37

'

ao

ao

"

33

GoTDminc
between

Formuloi

for

finding

Power

Any

CoeiBcienta

Series,

Arithmetioai
Law

of

Sum

'

Becupitulation
Law

Nombeni

two

the

on

with

Higher

Hquarinir
of

Squares

Number
for

for

of

depondont
Boot*

Anf

Formula

New

the

Boots

To

Illustration

S9

showing

Kzpunents
the

the
and

Newtonian

Coeflloient

of

and

Anr

Term

84

Siirns
new

XonnukB

i
f

"

.1

VOShKSHATtaXH,

AtMKHIiMV
Abbrevlatloiui

of

M"(a-f

Let

N-(b-f-v), then

x). then

Httltiplylnff
of

briefer

when
N

the

will

M,

tli"*lr

a-\-uHa-\-x)^"H

'

thiM value

(VTKn

6-t u)\

f^r.jxu-a

oru)-f-

az+J(/=eKN

\a^v,n

M+y,

And

we

"

etc
"^i^

pirmeileml tmXrmtmHmm
known.

made

FOHMt

Tboa.

L.ii,

t^/ t-ry,

1- x)\xy

(M-/MN

i y) }-3iiz+zi/~a(N-i

Formui"jb.

Gkhbbai*

4 z)+yy,

M":K.

2jr) ! ly-

b^aa.
6^:^J".

4.

MXN,

when

6=4"i.

i.

MxN.
MvN,

whrn

6=^ifl. C

f-tf)(a-iz)-a('Wi-ftfHa"ur+zi/"a(N{3/)4ari/
MXN.
^

i 4/) rjy

(ia+w)(atz)^rt(l"+V)4-Jar-^3ri/=a(N+ii)-iiw=:"
i";+yv=a\N-l-Jjr)-raru=

1.

".

when

f i/Ka+7)-a"'2a

Oia

-I /y-fl(N

l.
6=

If
whon

Via

(4a-hW)(tt farJ-^aC*/!i w) Ua/

of

followlnir

the

produce

hh4

TEUn.

or

Romomber

Hi"|"n"*ation aro

CfPNTHA

( h\y){a'\x)^n(

GowdbitsaTION

z.

mtttkemmtUmi

fitter f"r
of

Bt

a=M"

nod

a-fv. 9a4y.
fitic(i*HHlvel)r,
valu"*fi
of
N.
by M.

equal

difforont

furmuUB,

times

M.

a+z"

ri-taditionn

the

Formvlae

Algvbrale

Ix^t

II

when

a.

6=J",

7.

(i"+l/Ma4/)='

a(N+3x)+zw.

when

I"=Ja.

8.

(ia-f-vHa-'-z)^

a(N4i7)+zv.

when

b=}"

t.

(Ja-f i/Ka

/)^-a)l"4-wH

a-^M"

As

T"^N+z

ka

",

th"Mi

formula

which

If^urii. (hut.

wo

Wten

hro

any

(luiintitlos

other

fteo

of

or

Hen""

any

Two

fr/u'r/i

nuioberit

tiiinuf

Nuinbens

ll"nci*

tliat,

ho

oQuidlHtiint
M

and

Hence.
^ny

two

and

both

am

The

ftven faetmra
As

bear

(a+f/Ha"

of

Awff
^rhich

to

(a),

wo

jry.

bettor

will

oontinue

system

of

Tiro

yHndtrm,

itt

the

^qual

that

etc..

whi"*h

pro(bui

of

y.

ttte

to

frotn
OP
^rhith

will

tnese

for

lyfUKAHK

by

the

Uiem,
THK
both

rymidbdmmt

similar

hereafter
now

those
;

/H(*tom

ami

of

one

iMiih

t""

dtgermnm

of

mtvy

Jiiffn,

AND

show

oould

and

of

relatire

on"

the

nwvdktrw

of

rrtrrerlif ^qttidUtant

are

by

Jlrnl ttifferenre.
*emH"
differenrt

""i"twi"on

by

witli

giren

Prwh

leave

rtt9uT

to

or

aT+zy.

")=:aT"

the

the

{a\. ami

mMults

next.

a=ar"

f*om|"tir"Ml

minun

or

from

M"

dlfrcr'*n(*(*H

the

product

the

N~o=u~

DiMlNVTlON

ptu$

yKA-"H"iT+zv.

but
^^xamples

ithow a

diminished

the

n)(N*n)=/(/-

it Is

whou

EQUAL

an

(a+i/)(a+z)"

(a"

(a),

numberg^

FACTOHM),

the

oxpruHH

Prodnet

other

'^produced by
OiVKS

y,

nuni)M*rH

(M"

oxpressod

And

will

wo

thon
thi'H

^^o-f-v.
M=a4/.

As
As

(/)

In

fguhiiflant

whioh

xy,

fqnnl

reverm^y

are

of

value

tM

UlMIStHHKn

KQVALLY

a#f

any

T.

and

N)

and

or
nuiiiiM^r
quantity
Ik? rerfrnely
equifiiftntiifaHnrn

will

Prmlnrt

The

pftM

by

N+A

and

(M

/aclorn,

lUfmKAHKU

ANiP

beeomen

(3)

aT-^xy.

ia-^vHa^x)--'

by

numUir

asoninir.

bf" illustrated

tne"irieA

contraetinir alitv^braic formula*.

flrst. In order
Thus

that

With
to

CAMCBLLATtOn

1:1

ExprefM
of

the

et^h

that

HO

terms

under

OnwW

the

MMCAaOM,

T"

of

th*9

which

we

products
and

addinic

"aT-4zy,
This

For

by

a+x.

and

the

multiplications

proceedinir
tho

Hence

many

multiplications

80

of

that

see.

we

multiplications
not

result

the

unlike

Wo

the

"

term
I

must

add

that

notice

by two

double
the

set

and

multiplier

differont

a+y-N.

Let

a4-x"M.thena

them
a-4

by

and

xy,
are

alHO

are

a-i /.

discani

useless,

and

would

only

useless.

aHav-^"ar-{-Tv,

'performlnff

so

four

with three
we
dispense
in
required
multiplying
that

claim

we

double

by

alKobraic
tw".

any

equations,

equations

of

produoe"l

are

numbers

by

equivalents.

Thus

iriven

the

N4-x

to
is

(a), to form

the

repeated, while

second
the

increas-

firstly, by
quantity

same

(x). to
T.

produoinir
f^wstors

to

Mso+x,
of

set

muldpUcand

and

the

flrst

and

And

couplets,

Is ezpieased.

a+iH^

"

besides.'

N+"

-T,

then

-T-x-a+y

M-x

"=a.

then

airaJn.
"aj-xa"a-l-x

4"y
aH-"H-"4"y-a("+y4^BH"/-"=(M-"XN-fxHxy"MN"aT

(a+yK"+a)-""N4"H"y

T,

+XV-N1I.

NxM"(ll*sKN-HB)+xy"*a(N+sH-xyaT-HEy

'

and

equivalents.

then

Let

aT.
they

aUrebralc multiplications, but obtain


superfluous
and
multiplying
only
by oancelllnff the like terms

these

flrst

the

T^x

discarded.

equations
nfasf"n,

of

first term

irct without

can

afterwards

this

and

x*

we

multhem.

because

they

also

are

"z4art/.

without

of

term

both
by comparing
Secondly,
a.
produoinir
have
N==a-|-y. and
of the muhiplier
ia), we

WB

ox-i-Tx"

last

oecauso

them

which

the

produced

the

is

remain.

that

dirainishinff

produce

retain

and

oz-f-ax-Hry

multiplication

mulitpli^ation

as-f syH-ox.

afv,

aUrobraio

-^ax+Tx-^x",

which

to

times

multipliod.

rotain

of

the

a.
z

aT"

direct,

the

in

by

onlf

which

thus.

boon

only

the

in

every

many

which

be

will

e"tuals. eithei
their
by equals,

unnncctsarr

that
we

produced

double

immediately,

notice

Inir and

H"

avoid

only

we

the

equa"

are

{ 1/

is obtained

tiirms

only

bo

of

for

many

find

of

aT"

to

bv

have

nmult

z".

we

value,

out

and

equivalents,

Tory

that

times

disappoars,

tcmiH

the

terms

any

y.

unlikt)

result

require
is equal

thof
multiplied

bo

multiplications

produ"*ts of

aT+xy

the

T-7.

mulUpIr

T-x

tu

unlike

which

yield

find

we

find

a*-f ay+ox+xy.

19

three

the

and

now

we

but

then

following

the

"+

"

eqaiTalent
and

terms,

liittor. b(N*uuHo

equals

"T-ax+Tx"

we

the

if

and

throe

AiOiin,

the

but

equation,

useless

which

the

curious

is

aro

the

arrange

like

flrst

we

sT-ox

wo

ox.

which
tiie

T-^

""

of

and

umUkf,

tM

T-r.

for

double*

discard

term

Tliea

preforimr

avoided,

are

and

usoksss.

under

timos

only

only

not

repeat

muliipUoHtlon
t

aT"

that

so

is

will
stand

obtain

equal

it to

tiplif"tions

by

bo

different

mtiMpip

take,

can

will

oquiralento,

two

mQUATiint.

equivalents.

and
the

M"0"RLE

we

(s \-r) timos

forranr, is

BV

shall

terms.

two

a4ae.

l^"mplote

to

z,

times

terms

anr

For
of

br
eontaln

^-i-wta, mnA

of

TKMMH

which

a+A

like

thmUkm

term

them

unliko

produ"*t

lint

of

multlplter

tione.

MJKM

malUpllAAiid,

make

Mn"l

OF

is fenDola
:

as

formula

K".

Ma

".

IS

We

wish

now

multiplied,
which

terms

the

we

and

the

and

by

that

vast

this

tione

to

and

obtolnliiK
and

cy,

and

this

enable

ealenlote

to

me

without

AvpuGATioN

and

Hhe

Sum

ef

EQUAL

firotn

if

TO

diminiBh

one

this

Uifflcult

fully,

cf

ean-

other

ALL

eo

THE

ADVANCEa,

producing

disoover

we

tens,

EQUAL

twenties,

974-

99-^llmJOO

g^=fe.1

7+i""

will

and

have

that

Huad

to

of

WU"

sas^mMiT

will

40

=s40

the

combinations

thorn

into

therefore

of
series

simplify

which

numbers

in*tabular
any

of

the

form.
moot

ocour.

ever

Tables

all

arranired
and

learn,

BrobT-HaITD
bt

M.

7-t-i""

disoover

we

followinc

easier

thiitlea.

Thos

^-laa^

Nbxskm'S

othere,

inereaee

to

ae

DIMINUTIONS,

TUE

"^l*'

additions

o"

ie,bif
there

when

others,

or

other

by
thmi

INCtUSASB,

0+lalO

to

two

any

numbere,

given

0+islO

easy

the
and

by

numbers

snbtraetlnff

and

T+Ss/O

principle,

are

'

will

and

are

IH-lsiO

involves,

addition

of

man

the

numbere,

aa-H^mSii

Notice

Multiplication*

disappears

N,

the

to

from

the

ALL

intuitively,

even

MM-0:=rfO

enwr*
oeeavo-

basis,

and

AND

more

or

OF

numbers.

eqnaliaed

J;

to

add.

OF

a"1d.

to

equal

ineremee

AMOUNT

AMOUNT

TUE

Which

both

calevla^

their

same

U)

to

equidielant

to

to

THE

numbers

By

proTe

Additioii.

of

but

DIMINUTION

nmmher

one

we

MAKING

or

OF

numbers

several

For

only

Addition.

value

adding

Nmmbere,

rerereely

are

QVANTtTT

uiMng

by

n""t

liability

To

N+H=afT.

M.

Two

Any

which

numbere

are

and

also

logarlthoM.

of

the

also

Therefor*

H"

from

frotp

miuidistant

that

but

ean

of

lAir

bers,
num-

cation,
Multipli-

wanteftel

the

to

Pbincipub

lIL-x^a,

to

discover

wo

This

are

OMaroaee

all
vee

we

manr

reduces

the

Or

N+x^T.

add

If we
celation,

which

numbers,

of

and

all

irv^oter

principle,

Roots

and

that

therefore

with

resalta,
the

is

Powers

but

two

Addition,

AUrobra

and

decree,

of

multiplications,

of

by

al"M". that

prinripU,

numbers

Arithmetic

ellmlnatliiip

direct

that

the

that

avoided,

of

the
are

roultiplir*ation

INGRKAHK

eame

vrry

that

is.

quantities,

two

show

to

alrendr

have

we

that

the

for

alffcbraio

many

remarkable

ordor

in

Roots

and

of

a"ldition

AND

the

hy

Powers

be

con

thin,

whieh

T,

addition,

requlrod

aro

only

not

extent,

principle,

abbreviated

the

DIMINUTION

curtail

to

and

mUiMff

for

do

we

BQUAI*

can

simplify

tomm

whieh

which

terms

saron

AN

of

the

thoMt

roquirod

bo

quantitloA.

principle

that

prore

exactljr
mar

identically
those

to

are

and
O"inl"in"tioni,
36* and
tec
3S*
45,
Mget
whicli
thb
Miliiicct n
trcau
AniTBMBno
uacful
and
not
iattfttttof.
eoly curious, but vary
'

ADDinwr

airrtcuLT

facjutatmo

TWto

UW

HHlM

af

Om

"

Oh

OK

dMlnMli,

manv

9U999999
1

lo~30~so

40

f"6

70

so

9+

9+

8-^

ffrt

50

^0

^0

6.7

_8

JO

10

_6_7

30

Ifi BQ

eo

70"

J.
TO

so

so

^v

so

so

Mfcir

a*

Or

Explanations

of

complement

the

As

the

thn*

decimal,

Tabm

number,

any

of

complement

that
it

because

2,

Gombinationa.

require*

number

takes

with

of

the

make

tn

it

numberN,

they

much

We

call

therefore

evidently

contain

sum

require

90*

30.

tngether,

of

complements
make

to

which

fl"rure.

thorn

make

i"j

a"l"lition8
that

and

inution

in

made,

subtraction

th"m

all

JHtninUh

rrmtitM

the

In

Notice

Notice
to

added

for

simple

three

of

Combinations

l*hese

tribiing,

etc.

fur

three

the

of

groups

number

additional

the

also

can

combinations

Table

dim-:

equal

Hteim

msM

i'1,

page

Hmt

and

many

7*3,

uniln

"

learned,

the

by

4,

there

of

\%

scries,
fCfif

many

simple
such

10,

to

at

nines

\ 3^30.

84-84-4*

uniu

two

mdfh

are

Ac,

unit

mt

as

of

procrst

94-1,

doubling,
N

f 0,

"

equals

nines

and

ones,

and

is

therefor

twier.

M-H+4=ao,

equals

a^elshts

and

twus,

and

is

therefor

twic"

(H4a),

74-74-6=90,

equals

threes,

thi^refor

Iw1"h)

(7 f 3).

84-8-i-8=20,

equals

therefor

twice

(644).

949-1-9+3=30,
84-8+84Hi=30,
7+7-^74-9=30.

and

nines

and
and

sixes

nines

and

equals

equals

3 ei^rhts and

equals
make

and

8 sefens

90.

fours,

and

ones,

8
t

twos,

threes,
nines

and
and

is
is

(ofi).

is therefor

times

(94

and

is therefor

times

(h42).

and

is therefor

times

(748).

and

make

tkf

J%un,

ittdieale,

amount

each

begins

thut,

of

number

Oi-^4

Combinations,

of

and

equal

an

Thus,

which

8*3,

be

tuM

9404-1=30,

sevens

Y^

aimrle

Mcj*

examples

teno.

group

nines

which

of

tieritmnlm

1"ecause

this

first

t,

it,

amount

Arittantiie,

of

and

ninen

the

for

of

neeetnary

Src

number

in

nine,
in

complement
nines,

two

the

figure

every

the

principle

in

remembered,

same

as

subtraction

Mkerm
an

total,

nwn

be

can

the

to

arfrml

Hhitrt-Hand

on

firitt Hcries
amount

Vor

added

for

from

taking

Hence

often

an

the

work

author*!*

will

imrrmtie

fn

mf

frnpUmniUm

ike

Ramo

the

dicate.
in-

ADDinOK.

KOK

optratinn

vMntmeH

The

1.

units,

to

thin

flifffs

ifmoHWiW
other"i

ntntthrr,

one

repeat

ami

evident.

RITI^K

mf

the

to

they

; because

sjgniflicant figures

decimalM

hoo""ni"f

"M|ual

the

mtmt

the

Im

canct^ls.

becomes

Inorease.

Uiem,

decimals

400,

which

the

Mrprrmn

with

it

and

decimals,

of

number

nxiuiru

Murplufl

10.

as

number

rombining

they

the

numbers

certain

nf"if

otherm,

wbatovor

such

Wheuk

Hrii"r.
mfrrmi

and

the

is
all

decimals.

become

f)f

how

showing

numbers,

th"^

scTeral

of

complement

the

Then

mak*

to

H,

an

ten.

ed

whatever

i"
Is

DaoiMAii

Or

30.

et4^.

See

Notics

1).

1,

vil.

Doobltnff

t-KH^-OS.

we

get

4+H-H."4f"40.

At

ComMaaliMi

No

Dmibliiur

S-HH-f"",

we

get

"f8+84-H't"40.

At

ONnbinatimi

No

M.

OoutOiDir

4+T+f"",

we

get

"+7+T+H-f"40.

At

Dmibllllir

T+0"1B,

we

get

T+7+8+8aBao.

comMnadon

No

M.

Duubllnff

H-f

we

get

"+"+"4fs'aO.

""

conbiaacioo

No

ts.

"-f-74"-}

Ifl twice

"*"

of

order
For

=1A.

ochrm,

18.

8, and

T,

i,

tM

"*f

47

Nsisni's

SboBT-HaND

COMBniATIONfl

INTO

8-8+1.

then

"+8+8s"f4-8-|-(an

As

8=t8+8.

then

f^f 848+6=8+8+84

As

6"4+l,

then

84-8+8+8

A"

8i,

the

by

nataral

9,

poge

RnOLTIIIO

ItomembenHl

("ff)+a+8).

No

CoMMaatlo"

AbITHMCTKI.

C^MPOIIBrT

TRHB

TbHS.

l)=(H-l)+(8+8)=80
(34-8)=""^-8+3H"(8+8)="+l0-80.

"8+8f

U)=(9fl)+(8+8+4)=10+""8ll.

U4

'

f+8+8^(8+[l)4(4]+8)"90.

AffAln

Eto.

"f8U^8f(84C"+al=".

8o

that

only

"

of

Hinirle

theec

of

from

term

flad

two

liow

or

each.

and

(i"mblnation8,

To

difficult

romblnationw.

Kfcat

"*("mblnation

Let

he

wlU

the

tho

In

leiim

to

mmembcr

of

any

onlinary
by

nnoM.

imiii)

eanily

nine*,

maay

add

to

Hlmplo

mom

aiw

way.

oondensatton

conntnK^

of

Home

them.

ronablnatloiM

th^fi"

iihonid

contaia.
f

When

tkerv

It

of

complement

lUHffie

it

9,

thtf

Tak^

with

aK"iociated

figure

any

fl/ 9.

romptnnrtU

than

greater

It

(which

A*Ofn

9)

the

the

figure

which

rambin^

v^

exreedt

tens

\^Xx

Thv8

the

In

at

atui

it,
that

y^ith

tecond

boiniT

4+8,

(he

rmaiwitr

series
9

witl

the

mnd

figitre,

Ich-hand

the

at

than

mora

hnw

deeignate
make

will

9,

of

the

nvmbor

of

table.

aiwoolate

9+8

nin^f

tnany

c(*rtatn

ftoo

ninee,

get

we

4+8+9+9=30.
Whem
the

ihtre

eightt,

tW0

mre

of

complement

(which

8"

is

associated

with

Take

4,)

figure

any

(the

i.

than

greater

cf

9um

ttte

twice

amtplemeniti

of

nrnnbrr
will

make

than

frarn

eighin,)

"(f fifio

Hint

alfi^ii. wMr/t,
a

eniHhknifd

only

TBAiwfoiTioy

trantpoaitioB
at

"wne,

Nodoe.
That

"iae,

of

"+"+8a98.
Some

of

figures

difficult

of

tome

to

add,

thot

them,

to

add
Some

to

tack
of

9i9|9i9i8i8

more

8+8+8+9s80.

FiovBn.

Of

can

84

Ibond

be

8+9.

tMt

In

84-8+9.

or

table,

by
to

aaMuat

the

4+9+f+8-9+9+8+4="30.
tbcto

oombinatioot

caa

""

atv"a"

tkcae

maka

tkoM

coaibinatloat,
b

abo

bt

oqual

to

caa

Hmcb

if

all

dgbtt

bo

fetaembcrtd
9*

wHk

lako

w"

aad

t-M

fiva

by
:

tbo

by

icmtwbcrcd

becante,

f+f++T+T+8=94^H-9+7+T"Ma,

Notice.

Tk",

of

Combination

Any

shnpie

eightn.

two

being

8^8+8.

get

we

Vtf

deeignaU

the

and

figure

Thus

tens.

nine,

one

will

remainder
that

with

of

number

eertain

aesoelate

4+8+8.

the

and

figure,

"Qwd

unit,

dgbu
a

nest

Iroia

aqaal

taUo.
Mch
88.

muhiplkatioa.
to

88+"+8"

aad

These
endless

bo

recognized
if

For.

form

series

an

of

bulic

any

is

of

Decimals,

is

or

quantity.

work

all

of
like

10.

90.

Because.
and
then

Because

for

OF

aoo,

400,
full

THBSI

It

as

which

by

meaaored

be

900,

or

weights,

of

can

loo.

leaps,

over
were.

to

by
See

etc..

wel^

Scale

of

the

author^s

of

addtttoiai

treatment

COMBZHATIOKa.

as

more

as

9+9+3,
9+9-1-4,

is

9+9+4=99.

iS

"

more

than
than

as

9+9+6,

is

"

more

than

as

9+9+i

iS

more

9+9+7.
9+9+i,

is

more

is

"

mora

as
as

than
than
than
than

less
less
less
less
loss

than

96.

is

lesa

than

97.

is

than

98,

,9+8=17.
9+8+3=90.
9+8+4=91.

is

is

is

0+8+5=99.

is

9+8+6=93.

is

9+8+7=94.
9+8+8=96,

9+7+4=94-^=90,
9+7+6=9^-*=9i.

then

amount

nines

amount

three

times

to

times

eight

As

or

to

eight

39.

etc

"=95

9+9+7=97"

9+9+6=97"^=24
9+9+6=97-4=98
9+9+4=97"^=99

As

9+9-4-f.

9+9+9.

9+9+9.

90,
93.
94.
96.

Is

97,
or

or

three

or

less

tlmea

than

mors

than

nine,
eights

four

eto.,

94,

altfitiu

9Q,

and
wiU

is

is

'

is

is

is

less
less

less
les"
less

than

nines,

than
than
than
than

nines.

nines.

nines.

nines.

As

7+7+7"9l,

then...

7+7+6-91"

or

9+9+9+9=86,

STeTS^*i^

"-H+i-l"-l.

IS

amownt

tXli

1-90,

9+9+9+7s"8*-#.

9+9+8=30-4a96.

three

7+7+^tt+l"

8+8+8+9""+i.

9+9+8+8=38

Then

eto.

8+8+8=94.
8+8+7=94"1=98
g+8+6=9^-""9a
8+8+9a94+ia9l

then

than

than
than

EtO.

9+0+9=97.
9+9+8=97"1=96

then

9+9+9,
9+9+1.
9+9+a.

A=9X

9+7+6=96"

three

9+7

as

9+7+7=97"4=98,

As

by

gained

Is

power

9+9+3=91.
9+9+6=93,
9+9+6=94.
9+9+7r='i6.
9+9+8=96,

four

fonned

9+9+3=90,

then

As

va$t

scale

Abithmbtic,
USBS

bofw

flgnrea,

ten

be

can

strides

by

etc..

40.

ean

wonderfuL

magnitudes,

FUBTHBB

Because

like

only

combinations,

performed

80,

Sbobt-Hand

on

is

ci
aacHv

order.

by

formed

elassiHoation

transposition)

systematic

Combinations.

addition

nnmbers

So

Decimals,

be

of
It

(by

their

can

Decimal

of

; and

Scale

numbers

flgnros?

Scale

this

By
nnmbors

which

by

combinations

of

combinations

of

millions

and

arrangement,

oombinations,

remembered,

and

millions

many

methodical

of

Tarioty

(1+1+*)

-4=34.
Eto.

Sla

lesa

than

tana^

thMi

eights
lo

11
rACILtTATKD

ADDtnOJf

DZMimsHiiia

^iMf

UmM

We

eaoh

"maii1i"".

ram

NUMBKRa.

EQUAL

Thtti
7

"

"

"

ft

"

"

54

IS

iS

li

t. bocatue
of luldition

by

multiply

xmcbbau

to

mmk"

thu"

UBl

egiMi/

which

obbatbb.

ram

KUXMUSMA

MQUAZtMiKa

BY

eotumn

91

tlm

(3) indicates
oontalne.

19

1/

number

5
1
i#"

if

of

figures

of

flinirm

#8785
4

tinm

equal
We
which

Xt

99

9k

to

multiplr
by
each
column

Ume9

We
eaoh

of

StimM

Multiply

by

by

7.

cnmtains.

.1

99

99

90

5.

IS

90

indicating

as

5
9S

the

90

9S

.1
90

number

of

f.

which

ft

87

si

as

90

iS

IS

90

before,

for

10

the

9S

90

9S9OU

given

n^ason

for

the

for

the

reason

given

above.

equal
by

figures

87

tiiaee

Muhiply

Of

"

equal

MS

90

oontains.

times

Multiply

IS

"

iO

equal

number

the

(4) indicates

addition

eC

by

multiply

19

eoloma

i9

because
addition

4.

#giMi"

reason

as

before.

90

al"ov"*.

1
90

fs

i^

\
SimiiiBmr

HaTinff
and

Or

Ih

Aoditioii

N+x

that

seen

alwo

Tmm

M"

that

NowAdd*maltlplr.

N+M=(M-x)+(N+x)=""+T.

but

NXM=(M-x)X(N+x)="aXT.-fxv.
The

upon

which

the

inoreaso

also, the
of

one

The

other

product
thoAO

of

either

one

of

one

the

-fx

sy.

Ji

t.

-z"

Naaiben"

Two

Anj
of

pfiduct

the

versr

mf

Nttmken,
y*hirh

Xtmihrrt,

the

of

Wmon

II.I.raTSATE

TMK

squzoistavt

rAOZZiZTATE

A"D

OmSAT

wbioh

the
both

fkolon

bear

TEBM8"

O^MM^ir

T#

8QUABXVO,

40.

ru"9veKm

bt

'

SUBTRAOTXOV;

N+a;=T

then

N=

T"

then

11=

a4-"=

S2-2=

er

69+i=

10

62=

M
tlw

MB*

"""

'

a5=

a+
a+

NxMsaxl;

60

68-i=

'

OAZiOUXJkTXOirf.

M"

=a+T,

br

or

uires
req-

Afl

N+M

and

product

As

fl;=a

Sum

KQU4Li,T

uruBERa,
; but

vubkbeas,

ADDXTXOV

by

numben^

MUZiTZPUEOATXOir,

that

be formed

other

difforpnces,

equidistant

e^tial io ths

ig

either

to

Therefore

before.

qivks

the

roquirea

boar

factors

can

the

Increase

to

product

SQUAXi

Hence,

baiwd

are

qnaatltleii"

Muao

iriven numbom,

both

explained

as

Ttro

Anp

the

of

which

lycttKA^isQ

ADDXTXOir,

Taka

of

nnmbcrR.

them,

those

of

KXAMPLES

mmmwrniQ

]ixN""T+

difforcncos

Other

Ajm

from

the

but

J*rodurt

Tiro

Ahv

besides,
to

ciiuidiRtant

Dunna/iunfa

taking

beatdea
rBpoa"""d

mnltiplieatlon

the

of

tind

Sutn

Product

aa

Prodnot

and

M="tt4-g"a4-g

from
the fsiren numben.
br wqmmtt^
equidiHtont
revoreely
tind
the giren
nmmkerm,
by takinjr from
inereanlmg
or
one

aro

ilhuinUhing
to

and

Sum

addition

N"T*g"i"4y

and

it

"=T

Thrrpfore

the

and

=".

a-iT.

"

M+N"

Hrnoe.

aiT,
y

M+N

set

we

Henee.

Xoi"TiPLi04noy.

amd

la ailHlM

y
x

+^

6O-H^g"0-h

f)

Qw

OmramoA*

H7

w.|s

rr

I8-^=
9+i=

70

70-lgW-

/
^

63"3=5390

=i-t7

86-i=

8S

"89+7=

40

16=

85+1=0+48

40-1=0"
19^
SS^-84!ew

=125

125

77+1=10+

"48

72-5=

70

70+t=tt+48

284-g=

SO~.f=$fi-

JOO

^0=2100

=100

-84

S:

^+1=68

68-1=0+89
4S+l=0+

113

80^=80^+

=118

4-""

67-"=

"5

67=

8S+i'.

78+g=

80

78=

")-^:

14s

62^=5200+

=148

89+")=69

89=
29=

29-JO=-i
"ew

Im-18=
87+i"=
2371^

^"

1=^"

1"

^-i=-i+^

82=

82"^=

+"ff

"Saisiaoo

=68

yf+80=117

119

=119

88+t^ll7"

80+t=

3084^2SPO+

"+tt
a"f

674

687=

674+

18=700"

18

700

687=

700"

18=700"

18

=1874

471969ss471800+

+i6"

LoiMBimBa

Ffom

the

of

Sum

fgurth,

the

mnltiplyinf

or,

and

numbcn.

thone
liear

ben

T"

But

the

to

ikote

ud

fmrth,

toyarUhMl*

METHOD
1

tS,

ntnnter

Iht

for

68=
69=

ae

85=

6*0+"5

67=

70-3

SS+

85=

BB-^-XS

67=
67=
67=

70-2

85=
85=

60+^3+8

85=83+62-""
85=83+42

11

28="""

IS

23=*?-""""

St*

tlif

86+t

37'
82'

80+%

119=ii5+4
s

-8

M,

pate

of finding

Metkode

39=

""-^

29=

30"1

68=

70-"

+/

+i=

70"1

117=ii5+"

69=

117=87+*^

69=89+""

69=29+*"

J40+7

70:

70

70+7

77:
77'

70+8-1
78-1

69-8

69+8

77=

-70

78+69-7"9

thefirttU given.
8=7*"

57"

th*

/or

the

/oltmtimt

Second

Differenee,

86+1
86=
.39=-,^+x

78=

45+a

81=

-Izs

-1

8=

46+1

=86-40

46""ff-89

30^t

-47=-^-^

47=

"9"

,8=77"70+1

117-82+"ff

AVERA"S

2=^-""+l

AiHthmelic

lame

-1

fi*-i

2=70"

I?: 70+*

difference^vhen

jr"

"M

70

67=68+69

ft'+2

aoi-

eliowB.

already

147=

the aeoond

int

two

ftrtt

two

ar

ir0~i

70=

find

the

"

HuhiplicBtiea

tlia
have

we

70-8

60

To

Miaben

of

product

TEE

60=

iO

Icavw

fint

foUonatm

two

"a",

Decimal

137=i.*o-"

third

the

dllfereiieci, which

OFFINDnrO

60+f^

83=

the

muitipli":alioa,

finurth

pat*

tt

ef

Omtracted

the

the

complete!

Arithmrtir,

of

Sua

pfoduoee,

ulitfy

to

taUnf

the

iMerly

product

the

third,

Mto

ShorUIland

tiiird, predueet

generalljr wdSdent

i"

numbers,
of

third

bcton,

or

the

to

MoxanuoMnm.

amb

"indwn

two

tnf

added

which

Abdrioii

33=

36-4
+8
"5-"

88=78-4*
83=^-47

Wkett
for

*n"l

bs",

equal

beeoinea

to

formula,

("4s)t="(N-l-/H
We

forniuto.

two

/)

vMai

(at

and

r*.

equal

to

redaoed

are

/)

zHa-f

(at

bwsimoii

(N-x)(N-l-x)+r"

formula

for

and

led

now

equal

at

aud

xy

b""ooiiieN

tlierefoM.

numbers,

squarlnff

formnla

xy

(N-aeMN-l-/)+zi

to

th#-

which

1h

Fdrmula

lOCh

to

once

fobmulx

caimucTiNa

to

(a-t x)",

"--

a(N+z)-}

that,

no

(M-/HN-}-x)4-arw

z*.

thus

are

Tbuii.

beoomos

"(N-f-x)4-3C", and
"eeond

flrnt

the

v*3r,

nambern.

sqiiarinir

for

tub

powers

kumbkrb,

of

("+z)t=a"4-laz+z"=a(a+u)4-x"=a(Ca+xl+z)+z"=a(N-l-z)-fx"=(N-x)(N4-*)+x"
In

which

we

times

N+x.

N"

by

And

By

similar

which

case,

which

will

ThB

roosonini;.

mf

N+x.

and

miMBKR

that

bofore

the
the

these

that

of

and

heo

any

U).

nam-

equidistance

numbers,

and

JNCRKAaiNO

therefore.

are

in

it by

that

of

equidistant

/.

express

we

x)*-aT+x*

(a"

product

AND

by

formula

Henee

square

MMtSIHHlKQ

HQUARED,

usual
if

diminishinc

values.

to

plu"

beintf

T,
TMK

rerer$ely

equi-

numbers.
lb

Ueaee.

square

VThen

f^.
is

x,

numbers,
of

Notice

comparatively

the

then

of

rerer$elv

the

illustrate

rules

for

add

the

6fi7.

reeersely

required,

and

19,

then

of

of

by

687

and

square

prrMluct

square

x=l.

product

diminish

toirethor.
the

equidistant

beoominir

so.

the

as

Ns=aT+i3as+9a+l"(a+D".
equidistant
Hmiee

aT4-xs=a*+8ax-|-xs.

because

oH-aox.

the

Let

the

that

multi|"ly

small,

equal

almost

also,

and

augment
we

47i800+Ut9=47itM9.

diminishes.

will

We

which

making

must

value

We

^'T^,

and

of

"87,

AgMmr

700

obtain

to

show,

show

equal

x.

and

(a+x)s=aT+zt.

exohanire

in

that

so

have

(x).

eqttitlhtant,

i"

also

BR

TO

plus
;

which

the

of

terms

also

by

and

RQVALLY

by

produced

dintani

it

will

number

Numhfr,

Any

two

a=N^x

could

we

which

flrst

a+ax

to

equal,

its

(a-l-2x)

then
we

e"iual

Im

(N)

number

ffifen

1-2 will

times

the

T.

the

make

only

between

N~x.
are

by

increase

Bqumre

berf.

as

a+x=N.

NHx

and

a.

be

(a'-iaax).

produces

squarlnir.

thon

therefore

the

contains

aM-Sox.

N=a+x,

as

must

multiplied,
for

thiit

nee

because,

times,

(a)

numbers,

cubing,

squaring,

is

equal

aT^oH-^ax,
by

etc..

examples

hereafter.
the

By

Ust

example,
that

principle

"ame

of

multiplieation

we

e^ual

"74.MT--7O0+"7i
which
of

ply

shows,
the
for

that

square,

its

square.

is

that

and

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page

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ef

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187.

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;

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become

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hy PO-arranffing the

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teinu.

reduce

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the

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to

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3axN

(a+i)""

6aae(aH-xsH-ioaszt(a+z)

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(a-")"

for the

; and

formula

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the

of

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ers,
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in the same
produce
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: and
fourth powers
multiplying the contracted
and
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that of the seventh
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of the eeoond
; the
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unity.
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be
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6
a
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ilnt

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for

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three,

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continuing
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the

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the

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numbers

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column

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number

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numbers

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to

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contain

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9

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than

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next

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9.

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number

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of

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all

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80

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14

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97

49

8
9

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power

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the

sum

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sum

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1+90=97

equals

equals

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7=16

14+16=30

column

head

9^

the

"

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the

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the

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the

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the

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X.

4u^

ik'