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PETR 5308

Pressure Transient Analysis

GL_5

Recall: The infinite reservoir solution


Solution in Dimensionless form
rD 2
PD 0.5Ei
4t D

Solution in field units


P(r , t ) Pi 70.6

qB 948ct r
Ei
kh
kt

rD

r
rw

tD

0.0002637 kt
crw 2

PD

0.00708khPi P
qB

If the reservoir is ideal (S=0) and the log approximation is valid:


2
70.6qB 1688ct rw

Pi Pwf
ln

kh
kt

2
70.6qB ln(10) 1688ct rw

Pi Pwf
log

kh
kt

That means:

For

948ct r 2
0.02
kt

Because:

Or also

ln X ln 10* log X

1688ct rw 2
162.6qB

Pi Pwf
log

kh
kt

Formation damage

Infinite reservoir solution

Infinite reservoir solution


Representation of formation
damage in a vertical well

Formation damage
Infinite reservoir solution
Representation of formation damage in a vertical well

Formation damage and skin


Damaged zone representation

Formation damage and skin


Damaged zone representation

Skin factor
Hawkins Model
qB
Ps 70.6
2S
kh

Ps 141.2

Or

k
rs
S 1 ln
k s rw

qB
S
kh

For ks<k

S >0 Damage

For ks>k

S <0

Stimulation

Example
k = 10 md
rw= 0.33 ft

In this case:
and:

or:

and:

ks= 4 md
rs= 10 ft

q = 200 stb/d
B = 1.26

10 10
S 1 ln

4
0.33

Ps 2 * 70.6

200 *1.26 *1.5


* 5.12
10 *100

Ps 136.5

psi

h = 100 ft
= 1.5 cp

or: S 5.12

Infinite reservoir solution


Representation of formation damage in a vertical well

2
70.6qB 948ct rw
Ps
Pi Pwf
Ei

kh
kt

2
rs
70.6qB 948ct rw 70.6qB k

Pi Pwf
Ei

2 1 ln

kh
kt
kh
k s rw s

2
rs
70.6qB 948ct rw k

Pi Pwf
2 1 ln
Ei

kh
kt
k s rw

Or:

Or:

Drawdown equation with Skin


For

948ct rw
kt

<0.02

70.6qB 1688ct rw
2S
Pi Pwf
ln

kh
kt

Recall: the skin S is:


k
rs

S 1 ln
k s rw

And the pressure drop related to this skin S, is:


qB
Ps 70.6
2S
kh

damage and skin


Ps 70.6

qB
2S
kh

k
rs
S 1 ln
k s rw

Bounded Reservoirs

Bounded Cylindrical Reservoir solution with Bessel term:

Or:

qB 2t D
3
2 ln reD
P(rw , t ) Pi 141.2

kh reD
4

with

When t is large

Is negligible and we will have:

qB 2t D
3
2 ln reD
P(rw , t ) Pi 141.2
kh reD
4

Different flow regimes

Drawdown equation for an ideal reservoir S=0


Assuming t very large
re 3
qB 0.000527kt
Pwf Pi 141.2
ln
2

kh ct re
rw 4

rD

r
rw

tD

0.0002637 kt
crw 2

PD

0.00708khPi P
qB

0.0744qB
qB re 3
Pwf Pi
ln E1
Or:
t 141.2
2

kh rw 4
ct re h

0
.
0744
qB
qB re 3

Pwf Pi
t 141.2
ln

kh rw 4
V p
ct

After deriving with respect to t


P(rw , t )
0.0744qB

t
ctV p

Or:

P(rw , t )
0.234qB

t
ctV p

P(rw , t )
0.234qB

t
ctVP
Where VP is the Pore volume.
This expression of the slope shows that the rate of pressure
decline is proportional to q and inversely proportional to the
pore volume Vp
After extending a drawdown test, the slope can be estimated
from the plot Pwf vs t and therefore, Vp can be estimated.
Notice:
This can be used as a reservoir limit test

Drawdown period

Different flow regimes

Also, since we have:


VP
c
~
VP ( Pi P )
~
Where P the is average pressure
~ VP 5.615qB(t / 24)
Pi P

2
ctVP
ctre h

or

~ 0.0744qBt
Pi P
2
ct re h
Recalling the draw down equation derived previously E1

0.0744qB
qB re 3
Pwf Pi
ln
t 141.2
2

kh rw 4
ct re h

E1

0.0744qBt
Replacing :
2
ct re h
We obtain :

In E1 by

qB re 3
~
Pwf Pi Pi P 141.2
ln

kh rw 4

~
Pi P

Or:

qB re 3
~
P Pwf 141.2
ln

kh rw 4

In the case of skin damage, this equation can be written:

qB re 3
~
S
P Pwf 141.2
ln

kh rw 4

~
P

Is the average pressure and


is the skin damage

The equation with the skin damage:

qB re 3
~
P Pwf 141.2
ln S

kh rw 4

Can be also written as:


qB re 3
~
P Pwf 141.2
ln

k j h rw 4

kj is an average permeability of the damaged reservoir


After combining, we obtain:
re 3
ln
r 4
kj
w

k re 3

ln S
r 4

Or:

re 3
ln
r 4
w

kj k
re 3

ln S
r 4

Recall
The Productivity Index PI for a bounded circular reservoir

q
PI ~
P Pwf

stb / d
PI
psi

From previous relation, we have:


PI

k jh
re 3
141.2 B ln
rw 4

or

~
P

Is the average pressure and

Pwf

Is the flowing pressure

PI

kh
re 3

141.2 B ln S
rw 4

Bounded Reservoirs with a given shape


In a bounded Reservoir with other non-circular shape , we have:

141.2 Bq 1 10.06 A 3
~
S
P Pwf
ln
2
4
2

kh
C
r
Aw

The productivity index J can be written as:


q
J ~
P Pwf

or:

A Drainage Area sq ft
CA Shape Factor

q
J ~

P Pwf

0.00708kh
1 10.06 A 3

S
B ln
2
4
2

C
r
A
w

Bounded Reservoirs
Example of Shape Factors:
For a circle with the well centered in the middle:

CA = 31.62

Notice
= (31.62/10.06)
A= re2

Bounded Reservoirs
Example of Shape Factors:
For a square with the well centered in the middle:

CA = 30.8828

For a Triangle:

CA = 27.6

Bounded Reservoirs
Example of Shape Factors:
For a square with a well off center - located in just one quarter of
the square:
CA = 4.5132
For a rectangle 2/1 and similar situation:
CA = 2.0769

Bounded reservoirs

Bounded reservoirs

Maximum time a reservoir is infinite acting


ct At DA
0.000264kt
Or
t
Since: t DA
0.000264k
ct A
Upper limit of time
We can use the infinite system solution with less than 1%
error as long as t is smaller than an upper limit of time.

t<

ct At DA
0.000264k

tDA is given in the tables

Time required for the PSS solution to be accurate within 1%

t>

ct At DA
0.000264k

Meaning of this lower limit of time


The Pseudo Steady State solution (PSS) is accurate within
1% as long as t verifies the inequality above

tDA is given in the tables

Example
Bounded reservoir
h
Pav
Pwf
re
rw
q

ct
B

10 ft
2000 psia
1500 psia
1000 ft
0.25 ft
100 stb/d
0.5 cp
0.000072 1/psia
1.5 Rb/stb

Productivity Index
q
100
PI

Pav Pwf 2000 1500

stb / d
PI 0.2
psi

Bounded reservoirs
qB re 3
k j 141.2
ln
hP rw 4
100 *1.5 * 0.5 1000 3
ln
k j 141.2

10(2000 1500) 0.25 4

k j 16md

If the estimation of k is k=25 md. How do you estimate S:


we have seen that:

re 3
ln

rw 4
k j k

r
3
ln e S
r 4

or

re 3

re 3
k j ln S k ln
rw 4

rw 4
kj

re 3 k j
ln

r
4
w
k

re 3

S ln

r
4

or

Or also

kj

re 3 k j

S ln

r
4

re 3
ln

rw 4

or

kj

re 3 k j

S ln 1

r
4
k

Or also

re 3 k
S ln 1
k

r
4
w
j

1000 3 25
S ln
1
0.25 4 16
Or also

S 4.24

This shows that this well is damaged.

Questions:
What is the difference between kj and ks
What is rs
Can we find rs for instance

Flow equations for generalized reservoir geometry

qB 1 10.06 A 3
~

P Pwf 141.2
ln

kh 2 C A rw 2 4

where:
A
Drainage area sq ft
CA
Shape factor

PI

0.00708kh
1 10.06 A 3

S
B ln
2
4
2

C
r
Aw

Application: Flow equations for generalized geometry


In the previous example:
The PI equation is:

PI

0.00708kh
1 10.06 A 3

S
B ln
2
4
2

C
r
Aw

For instance, for a bounded circular reservoir:


A
CA

*(re)2 Drainage area in sq ft


31.62

Example Bounded reservoir with a square shape

h
Pav
Pwf
re
rw
q

ct
B

10 ft
2000 psia
1500 psia
1000 ft
0.25 ft
100 stb/d
0.5 cp
0.000072 1/psia
1.5 Rb/stb

A *(1000)2
CA 30.8828

In this case, We will have:


A
CA
rw

3,141,500 sq ft
30.88
0.25ft

PI equation case of bounded reservoir with a given shape:

PI

0.00708kh
1 10.06 A 3

S
B ln
2
4
2

C
r
Aw

We will have:

Applying the PI equation with skin:

PI

0.00708 * 25 *10
1 10.06 * 3.14 *106 3

4.24
1.5 * .5 ln
2
2 30.8828 * (.25) 4

We get:

stb / d
PI 0.2
psi

This shows that a reservoir with a square shape behaves almost like a
circular reservoir

Another example:
Bounded reservoir with a square shape and a well in the first quarter of
the square

h
Pav
Pwf
re
rw
q

ct
B

10 ft
2000 psia
1500 psia
1000 ft
0.25 ft
100 stb/d
0.5 cp
0.000072 1/psia
1.5 Rb/stb

A *(1000)2
CA 4.5132

Applying the PI equation with skin:

PI

0.00708 * 25 *10
1 10.06 * 3.14 *106 3

4.24
1.5 * .5 ln
2
2 4.5132 * (.25) 4

We get:

stb / d
PI 0.185
psi

This shows that a reservoir with a square shape and a well in the first
quarter behaves slightly differently from a centered circular reservoir