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Instructor: Prof. Dr. Ahmet ARAN


1. Definitions
2. Purposes of Non-Destructive Testing
3. Classification of NDT Methods
Visual Inspection
Liquid (Dye) Penetrant Method
Magnetic Particle Method
Eddy Current Testing
Ultrasonic Inspection
Acoustic Inspection


Experimental Procedure
1. Objective
2. Examination
a. Eddy Current Inspection
i. Equipments
ii. Experiment
b. Ultrasonic Inspection
i. Equipments
ii. Experiment
c. Liquid Penetrant Method
i. Equipments
ii. Experiment
d. Magnetic Particle Method
i. Equipments
ii. Experiment


Data Analysis
1. Eddy Current Inspection
2. Ultrasonic Inspection
3. Liquid Penetrant Method
4. Magnetic Particle Method


1. Eddy Current Inspection Experiment
2. Ultrasonic Inspection Experiment
3. Liquid Penetrant Method Experiment
4. Magnetic Particle Method Experiment


1. Advantages and Disadvantages of Each Method Performed






Non-destructive testing, NDT (also called NDE, non-destructive evaluation, and
NDI, non-destructive inspection) is the testing performed on materials without destroying the
test objects and impairing its future usefulness. It is used for in-service inspection and for
condition monitoring of operating plant. It is also used for measurement of components and
spacing and for the measurement of physical properties such as hardness and internal stress.
The essential feature of NDT is that the test process itself produces no deleterious effects on
the material or structure under test; therefore it is vital for constructing and maintaining all
types of components and structures.
The subject of NDT has no clearly defined boundaries; it ranges from simple
techniques such as visual examination of surfaces, through the well-established methods of
radiography, ultrasonic testing, magnetic particle crack detection, to new and much
specialised methods. NDT methods can be adapted to automated production processes as well
as to the inspection of localised problem areas.
Since the 1920s, nondestructive testing has developed from a laboratory curiosity
to an indispensable tool of production. No longer is visual examination the principal means of
determining quality. Nondestructive tests in great variety are in worldwide use to detect
variations in structure, minute changes in surface finish, the presence of cracks or other
physical discontinuities, to measure the thickness of materials and coatings and to determine
other characteristics of industrial products. Modern non-destructive tests are used by
manufacturers to:
- ensure product integrity, and in turn, reliability
- avoid failures, prevent accidents and save human life
- make a profit for the user
- ensure customer satisfaction and maintain the manufacturer's reputation
- aid in better product design
- control manufacturing processes
- lower manufacturing costs
- maintain uniform quality level
- ensure operational readiness. (The American Society for NDT)
There is much kind of non-destructive test methods performed on various
materials including metals, plastics, ceramics, composites, cermets, and coatings in order to
detect flaws, cracks, internal voids, surface cavities, defective welds and other defects inside
and on the surface of the materials.
There are some principal factors used to characterize the methods:
energy source or medium used to probe the test object (such as X-rays, ultrasonic
waves or thermal radiation)


nature of the signals, image or signature resulting from interaction with the test object
(attenuation of X-rays or reflection of ultrasound, for example)
means of detecting or sensing resulting signals (photo emulsion, piezoelectric crystal
or inductance coil)
method of indicating or recording signals (meter deflection, oscilloscope trace or
basis for interpreting the results (direct or indirect indication, qualitative or
quantitative, and pertinent dependencies).
The objective of each test method is to provide information about the following
material parameters:
Discontinuities (such as cracks, voids, inclusions, delaminations)
Structure or microstructure (including crystalline structure, grain size, segregation,
Dimensions and metrology (thickness, diameter, gap size, discontinuity size)
Physical and mechanical properties (reflectivity, conductivity, elastic modulus, sonic
Composition and chemical analysis (alloy identification, impurities, elemental
Stress and dynamic response (residual stress, crack growth, wear, vibration)
Signature analysis (image content, frequency spectrum, field configuration).
(The American Society for NDT)
Although very special tests have been developed for specific applications,
following methods are universal NDT methods.

Visual inspection is the one NDT method used extensively to evaluate the
condition or quality of an item. It is easily carried out, inexpensive and usually doesn't require
special equipment. It is widely used for inspections of macroscopic surface flaws; welding
qualities, dimensional damages and changes, surface finish quality, delaminations, large
cracks, cavities, and dents etc.
The method requires good vision, good lighting and the knowledge of what to look
for. Visual inspection can be enhanced by various methods ranging from low power
magnifying glasses through to boroscopes. These devices can also be used with television
camera systems. Surface preparation can range from wiping with a cloth to blast cleaning and
treatment with chemicals to show the surface details.
Visual inspection can sometimes identify where a failure is most likely to occur
and identify when a failure has commenced. Visual inspection is often enhanced by other
surface methods of inspection, which can identify flaws that are not easily seen by the eye.

Dye penetrant inspection, also known as liquid penetrant examination, is a type of

nondestructive testing used generally in the detection of surface breaking flaws in
nonmagnetic materials for which magnetic-particle inspection is not possible. It can also be


used for the inspection of ferrous materials where magnetic-particle inspection is difficult to
apply. In some cases it can be used on non-metallic materials, too.
The ability of the liquid penetrant to be pulled into surface-breaking defects by
capillary action is employed in this technique to locate cracks, porosity, and other defects that
break the surface of a material and have enough volume to trap and hold the penetrant
material. Liquid penetrant testing is used to inspect large areas very efficiently and works on
most nonporous materials.

Magnetic particle inspection is an NDT method that can be used to find surface,
near surface and layer flaws in ferromagnetic materials such as steel and iron by employing
the principle that magnetic flux will be distorted by the presence of a flaw in a manner that
will reveal its presence. The flaw (for example, a crack) is located from the "flux leakage"
following the application of fine iron particles to the area under examination. There are
variations in the way the magnetic field is applied, but they are all dependent on the above
The most common method of magnetic particle inspection uses finely divided iron
or magnetic iron oxide particles, held in suspension in a suitable liquid (often kerosene). This
fluid is referred to as carrier. The particles are often colored and usually coated with
fluorescent dyes that are made visible under a UV light. The suspension is sprayed or painted
over the magnetized specimen during magnetization with a direct current or with an
electromagnet, to localize areas where the magnetic field has protruded from the surface. The
magnetic particles are attracted by the surface field in the area of the defect and hold on to the
edges of the defect to reveal it as a build up of particles.
Surface irregularities and scratches can give misleading indications. Therefore it is
necessary to ensure careful preparation of the surface before magnetic particle testing is

Eddy current testing is an electromagnetic technique and can only be used on

conductive materials. The technique is based on the principle that alternating electrical current
passes through a coil producing a magnetic field. When the coil is placed near a conductive
material, the changing magnetic field induces current flow in the material. These currents
travel in closed loops and are called eddy currents. Eddy currents produce their own magnetic
field that can be measured and used to find flaws and characterize conductivity, permeability,
and dimensional features.
This method is used to detect surface and near-surface flaws in conductive
materials, such as the metals. Eddy current inspection is also used to sort materials based on
electrical conductivity and magnetic permeability, and measures the thickness of thin sheets of
metal and nonconductive coatings such as paint.

In this method high frequency sound waves are sent into a material by use of a
transducer. Ultrasonic very short pulse-waves of frequencies ranging from 0.5-15 MHz and


occasionally up to 50 MHz are used. The sound waves travel through the material and are
received by the same transducer or a second transducer. The amount of energy transmitted or
received and the time the energy is received are analyzed to determine the presence of flaws.
Changes in material thickness and material properties can also be measured.
It is used to locate surface and subsurface defects in many materials including
metals, plastics, and wood. Ultrasonic inspection is also used to measure the thickness of
materials and otherwise characterize properties of material based on sound velocity and
attenuation measurements.


Radiographic inspection is primarily used to find sub-surface flaws in materials.

High voltage x-ray machines produce X-rays whereas gamma rays are produced from
radioactive isotopes such as iridium 192. The chosen radiation source is placed close to the
material to be inspected and the radiation passes through the material and is then captured
either on film or digitally.
The choice of which type of radiation is used (x-ray or gamma) largely depends on
the thickness of the material to be tested and the ease of access to area of inspection. The
sensitivity of the x-rays is nominally 2% of the materials thickness. Gamma sources have the
advantage of portability, which makes them ideal for use in construction site working. High
energy portable x-ray machines are available for special applications such as concrete
X-rays and gamma rays are very hazardous. Special precautions must be taken
when performing radiography. Therefore the method is undertaken under controlled
conditions, inside a protective enclosure or after assessment with appropriate barriers and
warning systems to ensure that there are no hazards to personnel. This effect of the method
makes it less popular.
Advantages of this method are:

Can be used to inspect virtually all materials.

Detects surface and subsurface defects.
Ability to inspect complex shapes and multi-layered structures without disassembly.
Minimum part preparation is required.

Disadvantages of the radiographic testing are following:


Extensive operator training and skill required.

Access to both sides of the structure is usually required.
Orientation of the radiation beam to non-volumetric defects is critical.
Field inspection of thick section can be time consuming.
Relatively expensive equipment investment is required.
Possible radiation hazard for personnel.

Acoustic Emission is used as a type of nondestructive testing technology is in the

ultrasonic regime, typically within the range between 100 kHz and 1 MHz. This range is not
absolute, Acoustic Emissions can be monitored and detected in frequency ranges less than


1 kHz and have been reported at frequencies up to 100 MHz. This method is used for the
detection of the subsurface flaws in the materials being good conductor o sound.
A commonly accepted definition for AE is a transient elastic waves within a
material due to localized stress release. Hence a source which generates one AE event is the
phenomenon which releases elastic energy into the material, which then propagates as an
elastic wave. AE events can also come quite rapidly when materials begin to fail, in which
case AE activity rates are studied as opposed to individual events. AE events that are
commonly studied include the extension of a fatigue crack, or fiber breakage in a composite
material among material failure processes. Examples of AE events generated from sources not
involving material failure include leakage, cavitations and impact.
Transducers are attached to the material in order to detect these waves. Most of
these sensors are in the frequency range of 20 kHz to 650 kHz. Some geophysical studies with
AE use much lower frequency sensors, while sensors in the MHz range are also available
AE analysis is used successfully in a wide range of applications including:
detecting and locating faults in pressure vessels or leakage in storage tanks or pipe systems,
monitoring welding applications, corrosion processes, partial discharges from components
subjected to high voltage and the removal of protective coatings. Areas where research and
development of AE applications is currently being pursued, among others, are process
monitoring and global or local long-term monitoring of civil-engineering structures (e.g.,
bridges, pipelines, off-shore platforms, etc.). Another area where numerous AE applications
have been published is fiber-reinforced polymer-matrix composites, in particular glass-fibre
reinforced parts or structures. (e.g., fan blades). AE systems also have the capability of
detecting acoustic signals created by leaks.
The disadvantage of AE is that commercial AE systems can only estimate
qualitatively how much damage is in the material and approximately how long the
components will last. So, other NDE methods are still needed to do more thorough
examinations and provide quantitative results. Moreover, service environments are generally
very noisy, and the AE signals are usually very weak. Thus, signal discrimination and noise
reduction are very difficult, yet extremely important for successful AE applications.
(Nondestructive Testing Encyclopedia)


The objective of the experiment is to examine the types, advantages, and
applications of various non-destructive testing methods to gain the ability of choosing the best
method for a given material.
i. Equipments:
During this experiment, a Magnefest ED-51 0 type unit is used to supply
alternating current, and a pencil type ferrite probe is used for the inspections of the part. The
inspection is performed with a frequency of 2 MHz. (See the Figure II.2.1.)


Figure II.2.1 Eddy Current Inspection Method

ii. Experiment:
As the first step applied during the experiment, the inspected area of the part is
examined whether it is clean and free from any paint, dirt, grease or there is any visible
damage or discontinuity on the surface. Then the probe is placed on the surface of the part
with an angle of 90 and it is moved slowly on the surface paying attention not to change the
angle and cut the contact between the probe and inspected area. (See the Figure II.2.1.)

i. Equipments:
For this experiment, a
(pulser/receiver), an oscilloscope
for monitoring the changes, a
probe supporting to work at
frequency of 5MHz, and because
the inspected surface of the is not
flat a supporting fitting tool (shoe)
is used. To transmit the ultrasonic
waves from the transducer to the
test part, glycerin is used as
couplant. (See the Figure II.2.2.)


Figure II.2.2 Ultrasonic Inspection Equipments

ii. Experiments:
As the first step of the experiment, the transducer is adjusted to a frequency of 5
MHz. Because the inspected surface is not flat, a prepared supporting fitting tool (shoe) is
used between the probe and inspected surface. Then, both between the probe and tool, and
between the inspected surface and tool glycerin is applied as couplant to transmit the
ultrasonic waves and prevent any cavities that affect the transmission in a negative way. Then
the probe is placed in the corresponding space in the tool with a specified angel, and then the
tool is moved on the inspected surface to detect any discontinuity. (See the Figure II.2.2.)


i. Equipments:
Three types of sprays in different colors of cans are used during the experiment for
different applications. The white can containing the cleaner/remover spray is applied to clean
the surface of the part and to remove excess residues on the surface. The red can contains the
liquid penetrant spray which infiltrates to the surface defects such as cracks and splits. The
yellow can includes the developer spray that absorbs the infiltrated liquid penetrant and reacts
with it. (See Figure II.2.3)

Cleaner/Remover Spray

Liquid Penetrant Spray

Developer Spray

Figure II.2.3 Sprays Used in Liquid Penetrant Inspection

ii. Experiment:
Cleaning the surface from any dirt, dust etc. is the first step of the experiment, and
this application is done using a special chemical cleaner/remover (white spray can). The
spray is applied to the inspected surface of the part and waited about 10 minutes for the
infiltration of the liquid penetrant to the defects. Then the excess penetrant on the surface is


cleaned with a clean textile paying attention not to give some additional damage to the
surface. As the last step the yellow can, developer spray, is applied to the surface.
i. Equipments:
For the experiment, a strong U shape magnet, a fluorescent magnetic spray, and
UV light is used. The magnet provides the necessary magnetic field, and the spray and light is
employed to higher the visibility of the flaws, cracks for the ease of the inspection.
ii. Experiment:
Because the surface of the part is examined, a clear surface is required for the
experiment. Therefore, the surface of the part is applied cleaner/remover spray or wiped with
a clean textile according to the surface quality of the part. The surface cleaned, fluorescent
spray is applied on the inspected surface of the part to make the defects more visible under
UV light. Then, according to the normal procedure of the experiment a magnetic field created
by a strong magnet should be used; however, the magnet of the laboratory was lost and could
not be found during experiment. Therefore, the experiment was continued without using a
magnet. After waited for a while for fluorescent to cover the surface, the surface is examined
under UV light.


As a result of the electromagnetic induction principle, some currents swirl and
magnetic waves occur. The inspection of the discontinuities is done by observing the changes
in the scale of the apparatus. When the probe comes to a discontinuity, such as a crack,
magnetic field and thus the current reduces which can be observed on the scale. This
procedure is applied all sections of the parts and the indications is recorded.
For data analysis of the experiment, the principle of the echo is employed to detect
the flaws. When an ultrasonic sound energy is produced by the transducer, it propagates
through the part in the form of sound waves until it reaches the opposing surface of the part or
any discontinuity such as a crack. When the waves encounter a crack, it interrupts the
propagation of the waves and reflects a portion of them. Therefore, the amount of the energy
and the time spent for return of the waves gives information about the presence and location
of defects. This operation is done by observing the monitor of the oscilloscope.

Kasrga, 10
For inspection, the ability of liquid penetrant to infiltrate into surface defects,
capillary action is employed. This infiltrated penetrant is absorbed by developer with principle
of the atomic attraction forces, and they reacts with each other. As a result of this reaction,
there occurs some color differences on the different sections of the part. Two main colors are
observed on the surface: pink/red areas indicate for the surface defects such as cracks and
white areas indicates for the clear areas from any cracks.
When the magnet is placed on the surface of the part, there occur magnetic fluxes
around the part. If there is a discontinuity on the surface of the part, magnetic flux is broken
and a new polarization exists between the edges of the discontinuity. As a result of this
polarization, the edges of the discontinuity behaves like poles of a magnet and they attract
some iron particles of which clusters make the discontinuity more visible than the actual one.
The fluorescent magnetic spray and the UV light contribute to this inspection by improving
this visibility.

Some cracks have been detected on the surface of the part and more of these
cracks were concentrated around the projections on the part, and sections close to the edges of
the part.
Some cracks inspected in the part. One of them can be seen in the following figure.
(Figure IV.2.1)


Kasrga, 11

Figure IV.2.1 A Crack Detected During the Experiment

Pink areas indicate for the defects, cracks and when the part examined it is seen
that they are concentrated around the holes and canal on the part. (See the Figure IV.3.1)

Figure IV.3.1 Result of Liquid Penetrant Experiment


When the surface of the part is examined it is seen there is some big cracks
concentrated around the bolt holes and the edges of the part. This is because the possibility of
a crack is higher around the holes and edges in a formed part due to the high inner stresses
and stress concentrations around these areas. (See Figure IV.4.1)

Kasrga, 12

Figure IV.4.1 Magnetic Particle Inspection Method



i. Advantages:


Detects surface and near surface defects.

Test probe does not need to contact the part.
Method can be used for more than flaw detection.
Minimum part preparation is required.

ii. Disadvantages:

Only conductive materials can be inspected.

Ferromagnetic materials require special treatment to address magnetic permeability.
Depth of penetration is limited.
Flaws that lie parallel to the inspection probe coil winding direction can go
Skill and training required is more extensive than other techniques.
Surface finish and roughness may interfere.
Reference standards are needed for setup.


i. Advantages:

Depth of penetration for flaw detection or measurement is superior to other methods.

Only single sided access is required.
Provides distance information.
Minimum part preparation is required.
Method can be used for much more than just flaw detection.

ii. Disadvantages:

Surface must be accessible to probe and couplant.

Skill and training required is more extensive than other technique.
Surface finish and roughness can interfere with inspection.
Thin parts may be difficult to inspect.

Kasrga, 13

Linear defects oriented parallel to the sound beam can go undetected.

Reference standards are often needed.


i. Advantages:
o Large surface areas or large volumes of parts/materials can be inspected rapidly and at
low cost.
o Parts with complex geometry are routinely inspected.
o Indications are produced directly on surface of the part providing a visual image of the
o Equipment investment is minimal.
ii. Disadvantages:

Detects only surface breaking defects.

Surface preparation is critical as contaminants can mask defects.
Requires a relatively smooth and nonporous surface.
Post cleaning is necessary to remove chemicals.
Requires multiple operations under controlled conditions.
Chemical handling precautions are necessary (toxicity, fire, waste).

i. Advantages:
Large surface areas of complex parts can be inspected rapidly.
Can detect surface and subsurface flaws.
Surface preparation is less critical than it is in penetrant inspection.
Magnetic particle indications are produced directly on the surface of the part and form
an image of the discontinuity.
o Equipment costs are relatively low.

ii. Disadvantages:

Only ferromagnetic materials can be inspected.

Proper alignment of magnetic field and defect is critical.
Large currents are needed for very large parts.
Requires relatively smooth surface.
Paint or other nonmagnetic coverings adversely affect sensitivity.
Demagnetization and post cleaning is usually necessary.


Kasrga, 14

Modern nondestructive tests contains useful methods used by manufacturers for

the purposes to ensure product integrity, and in turn, reliability; to avoid failures, prevent
accidents and save human life; to make a profit for the user; to ensure customer satisfaction
and maintain the manufacturer's reputation; to aid in better product design; to control
manufacturing processes; to lower manufacturing costs; to maintain uniform quality level; and
to ensure operational readiness.

[1] American Society for Non-Destructive Testing, retrieved from, on
October 31, 2006.
[2] Non-destructive Testing Encyclopaedia, by R. Diederichs and E. Ginzel
[3] The British Institute of Non-Destructive Testing, retrieved from, on
November 1, 2006.
[4] Canadian Institute for NDT, retrieved from, on
November 1, 2006.
[5] WIKIPEDIA, retrieved from, on November 1, 2006.
[6] Material Measurements Ltd, retrieved from, on
November 3, 2006.
[7] CD International Technology, retrieved from, on
November 4, 2006.
[8] NDT Resource Centre, retrieved from, on November 4, 2006.
[9] Material Testing Laboratory Manual, ITU, 2006.