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Mathematics

Learners Module 6

reviewed by educators from public and private schools,

colleges, and/or universities. We encourage teachers and

other education stakeholders to email their feedback,

comments, and recommendations to the Department of

Education at action@deped.gov.ph.

We value your feedback and recommendations.

Department of Education

Republic of the Philippines

Mathematics Grade 8

Learners Module

First Edition, 2013

ISBN: 978-971-9990-70-3

Republic Act 8293, section 176 indicates that: No copyright shall subsist in

any work of the Government of the Philippines. However, prior approval of the

government agency or office wherein the work is created shall be necessary for

exploitation of such work for profit. Such agency or office may among other things,

impose as a condition the payment of royalties.

The borrowed materials (i.e., songs, stories, poems, pictures, photos, brand

names, trademarks, etc.) included in this book are owned by their respective

copyright holders. The publisher and authors do not represent nor claim ownership

over them.

Published by the Department of Education

Secretary: Br. Armin Luistro FSC

Undersecretary: Dr. Yolanda S. Quijano

Consultant: Maxima J. Acelajado, Ph.D.

Authors: Emmanuel P. Abuzo, Merden L. Bryant, Jem Boy B. Cabrella, Belen P.

Caldez, Melvin M. Callanta, Anastacia Proserfina l. Castro, Alicia R. Halabaso,

Sonia P. Javier, Roger T. Nocom, and Concepcion S. Ternida

Editor: Maxima J. Acelajado, Ph.D.

Reviewers: Leonides Bulalayao, Dave Anthony Galicha, Joel C. Garcia, Roselle

Lazaro, Melita M. Navarro, Maria Theresa O. Redondo, Dianne R. Requiza, and

Mary Jean L. Siapno

Illustrator: Aleneil George T. Aranas

Layout Artist: Darwin M. Concha

Management and Specialists: Lolita M. Andrada, Jose D. Tuguinayo, Jr.,

Elizabeth G. Catao, Maribel S. Perez, and Nicanor M. San Gabriel, Jr.

Office Address:

2nd Floor Dorm G, PSC Complex, Meralco Avenue.

Pasig City, Philippines 1600

Telefax:

(02) 634-1054, 634-1072

E-mail Address:

imcsetd@yahoo.com

Table of Contents

Unit 3

Module 6: Reasoning .................................................................................315

Module Map ....................................................................................................... 316

Pre-Assessment ................................................................................................ 317

Lesson 1: If then Statements ....................................................................... 321

Activity 1 ........................................................................................................ 321

Activity 2 ........................................................................................................ 322

Activity 3 ........................................................................................................ 325

Activity 4 ........................................................................................................ 327

Lesson 2: Inductive and Deductive Reasoning ............................................. 329

Activity 1 ........................................................................................................ 329

Activity 2 ........................................................................................................ 330

Activity 3 ........................................................................................................ 331

Lesson 3: Writing Proofs ................................................................................ 333

Activity ........................................................................................................... 339

iii

REASONING

I.

REASONING CONCLUSION

Do you think it is possible to make a valid conclusion without even going through the

process of investigation? What would you do if you were asked to make a decision that

will affect many people? Many aspects in our life involve decisions.

Geometry deals with logical reasoning to prove a certain statement. In this module

you will find the answer to the questions: How do you make a valid conclusion? and

How can you show that your conclusion is valid?

In this module, you will go through the following lessons:

Lesson 1 If-then Statements

Lesson 2 Inductive and Deductive Reasoning

Lesson 3 Writing Proofs

In these lessons, you will learn to:

Lesson 1

Lesson 2

of statements.

Formulate the inverse, converse, and contrapositive of an

implication.

Distinguish between inductive and deductive reasoning.

315

Lesson 3

a situation.

Use syllogism in writing formal arguments as a series of statements

that make up a proof.

Explain the need and importance of defined terms previously

learned.

Differentiate between postulate and theorem and give the

importance of each.

Module Map

Map

Module

Here is a simple map of the lessons that will be covered in this module:

If-then

Statements

Inductive and

Deductive

Reasoning

Writing

Proofs

EXPECTED SKILLS:

To do well in this module, you need to remember and do the following:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Explore websites that would be of great help for your better understanding of the

lessons.

Take down notes on important concepts in your journal.

Perform and complete the exercises provided.

Collaborate with your teacher and peers.

316

III. PRE-ASSESSMENT

1.

a.

b.

c.

d.

2.

accepting the meaning of a term without definition

defining mathematical terms in relation to physical objects

inferring a general truth by examining a number of specific examples

Francisco is proving the theorem above by contradiction. He began by assuming

that in ABC, A and B are both obtuse. Which theorem will Francisco use to

reach a contradiction?

a.

b.

c.

d.

If two angles of a triangle are congruent, the sides opposite the angles are

congruent.

If two supplementary angles are congruent, each angle measures 90.

The largest angle in a triangle is opposite the longest side.

The sum of the measures of the angles of a triangle is 180.

3. If mR + mM = 90, then

a. R M.

b. R and M are right angles.

c. R and M are complementary.

d. R and M are supplementary.

4.

The converse of the statement: "If you are in love, then you are inspired, is

a.

b.

c.

d.

5.

The If-then form of the statement "Parallel lines never intersect, is:

a.

b.

c.

d.

If you are inspired, then you are in love.

If you are not inspired, then you are not in love.

if you are in love, you are not inspired.

If two lines are parallel, then they never intersect.

If two lines are not parallel, then they intersect.

If two lines intersect, then they are not parallel.

317

6.

What is the inverse of the statement "If the number is divisible by 2 and 3, then it

is divisible by 6.

a.

b.

c.

d.

7.

If the number is not divisible by 2 and 3, then it is not divisible by 6.

If the number is not divisible by 6, then it is not divisible by 2 and 3.

If the number is divisible by 2 and 3, then it is not divisible by 6.

a.

b.

c.

d.

Reflexive Property

Symmetric Property

Transitive Property

Addition Property

8.

4 (a + b) = _________.

a. 4a + b

b. b + 4a

c. 4a + 4b

d. 4 + a + b

9.

Supply a valid conclusion for the given hypothesis: if OM bisects LON, then

a.

LOM NOM

b. LOM LON

c

MON NOL

d. no valid conclusion can be made

10.

a.

b.

c.

d.

11.

What do you call the underlined portion in this conditional statement?

direct proof

formal proof

indirect proof

two column proof

a. conclusion

b. hypothesis

c. argument

d. the converse

318

Figure 1

Figure 2

Figure 3

13. Which of the following statements is true?

a.

If 1 has a measure of 90, then 1 is obtuse.

b. If 1 has a measure of 140, then 1 is acute.

c.

If 1 has a measure of 35, then 1 is acute.

d.

If 1 has a measure of 180,then 1 is right.

a.

b.

c.

d.

A plane contains at least 3 non-collinear points.

Any two lines intersect at a point.

Through two given points we can draw three lines.

15. Rewrite the statement "A quadrilateral is a figure with four sides." in the If-then

form.

a.

b.

c.

d.

If a figure is a quadrilateral, then it has four sides.

If a figure has four sides, then it is a quadrilateral.

A figure is a quadrilateral if and only if it has four sides.

Given: JB = 28

Conclusion: JB + 4 = 32

a.

b.

c.

d.

Multiplication property of equality

Reflexive property

Transitive property

If m3 = 49, find m2.

319

Given:

m1 = m3, m2 = m3

Prove:

m1 = m2

3

Statement

Reason

1. m1 = m3, m2 = m3

1. Given

2. m1 = m2

2. _______

Given: m1 + m2 = m2 + m3

Prove: m1 = m3

1

3

Statement

Reason

1. Given

1. m1 + m2 = m2 + m3

2. _______________

2. Reflexive Property

3. Subtraction property

3. m1 = m3

20. Show that the sum of the measures of the interior angles of a triangle is 1800.

320

Lesson

If-then

Statements

What to

to Know

Know

What

Let us begin this lesson by accomplishing the activity sheet below called INBOX

OUTBOX sheet.

A ctivity 1

Description:

Direction:

This activity is intended to elicit your prior knowledge regarding the lesson.

Answer the question below and write your answer in the space provided IN

THE BOX.

What conclusions can you give why some students are faced with

problems in life such as failing grades, difficulties in meeting deadlines, and

even troubles with their love life?

IN THE BOX

321

You gave your initial ideas on how to make conclusions based on given situations. If

you move further, the things that you will learn will enable you to do the final project which

involves mathematical investigation.

What to

to Process

Process

What

Your goal in this module is to learn and understand key concepts on reasoning and

proving. If-then statement, deductive and inductive reasoning, and writing proofs will be

discussed.

A ctivity 2

JUDGE US!

Description:

Direction:

Many statements that we encounter are logically constructed but NOT valid

or acceptable. This activity deals with determining which statement is valid

or not.

Tell whether the second statement is a valid consequence of the first

statement.

1. Students who are good in mathematics are smart.

Enchong is smart, then he is good in mathematics.

2.

Young actresses, are health conscious.

Kim is a young actress then she is health conscious.

3. If it rains, then the sports fest will be cancelled.

It rains therefore the sports fest is cancelled.

4. If the lines are parallel, they do not intersect

Line x and line y do not intersect; therefore, they are parallel.

5. If two angles are right angles, then they are congruent.

A and B are congruent, then they are right angles.

For item 6, complete the statement and justify your answer

Miss Jaybee is a candidate to the Miss Earth search, therefore

__________________________________________________.

322

QU

NS

ES TIO

a.

b.

c.

Take one of the statements and tell something about it.

What is common to all of the statements?

Write your answers in your journal and have a small discussion with your group.

You have just encountered conditional statements or the if-then statements.

An if-then statement is composed of two clauses: the if-clause and the then-clause. We

can denote a letter for each clause, p for the if-clause and q for the then clause. The statement

is in the form, "If p then q." Conditional statements are formed by joining two statements p and

q using the words if and then. The p statement is called the hypothesis and the q statement is

called the conclusion.

A simple flow of reasoning from the if-clause to the then-clause is called simple

implication.

There are some conditional statements not written in this form but you can rewrite

them using the if-then form. How will you identify the hypothesis and the conclusion? You

can try this.

1.

If-then form ________________________________________

Hypothesis ________________________________________

Conclusion ________________________________________

2.

If-then form ________________________________________

Hypothesis ________________________________________

Conclusion ________________________________________

3.

If-then form ________________________________________

Hypothesis ________________________________________

Conclusion ________________________________________

4.

If-then form ________________________________________

Hypothesis ________________________________________

Conclusion ________________________________________

323

5.

If-then form ________________________________________

Hypothesis ________________________________________

Conclusion ________________________________________

How do you distinguish the hypothesis from the conclusion when the statement is not in

the if-then form? Consider the five statements below.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

National Disaster Risk Reduction Council volunteers are busy during calamities.

An eighteen year-old Filipino can cast his/her vote during election.

All right angles are congruent.

Three non-collinear points determine a plane.

Perpendicular lines are intersecting lines.

Discuss with a partner the underlined part of the sentence and the one in bold letters.

What part of the sentence are the underlined words? What part of the sentence are in bold

letters? Which is the hypothesis and which is the conclusion? Rewrite the statements to if-then

form.

Now that you know what conditional statements are, and can identify the hypothesis

and the conclusion, have more practice by answering the exercises below.

Exercise 1

Convert each statement to if-then form, then identify the hypothesis and the conclusion.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

Filipinos are God-fearing people.

The sum of the measures of complementary angles is 90.

Opposite sides of a rectangle are parallel.

A triangle is a polygon with three sides.

A quadrilateral has four sides.

Two points determine a line.

The intersection of two lines is a point.

Two intersecting lines lie in one plane.

The sum of angles forming a linear pair is 180.

Now that you are well-versed in converting conditional statement to if-then form and

can easily identify the hypothesis and the conclusion, when do you say that the implication

is true or false?

324

The implication p q is always true except in the case that p is true and q is false. See

the truth table for the implications below.

p

pq

T

T

F

F

T

F

T

F

T

F

T

T

A ctivity 3

DESCRIBING TRIANGLES

Possible answer:

A triangle is a polygon.

Let us consider your answer. We can convert it to if-then form, then we can

form its converse, inverse, and contrapositive.

Study the table below.

Statement

If-then form

Converse

Inverse

A triangle is If a shape is a If a shape is a If a shape is

a polygon. triangle, then polygon, then not a triangle

it is a polygon. it is a triangle. then it is not a

polygon.

Contrapositive

If a shape is

not a polygon,

then it is not a

triangle.

Discuss with your group how the converse, inverse, and contrapositive of a

given statement is written.

If p: If a shape is a triangle

then q is: then it is a polygon

What happens to p and q in the converse?

Compare the inverse and the original statement. What did you do with p?

What did you do with q?

325

Summarize your observation in terms of p and q.

Lets take another statement: An even number is divisible by two.

If-then form

Converse

Inverse

Contrapositive

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

the table below.

If p, then q

If q, then p

If not p, then not q

If not q, then not p

Statement

Converse

Inverse

Contrapositive

Exercise 2

A.

If two angles are congruent, then they

have the same measure.

Statement

Converse

Inverse

Contrapositive

B.

1. Three non-collinear points determine a plane.

2. A rectangle has four right angles.

3. Perpendicular lines intersect.

Go back to Activity 3.

Converse

If q, then p:

Analyze the converse. Is it true? If not, give a counter example.

The converse is false because a square is also a polygon. It is not

necessarily a triangle.

326

If q, then p: If a number is divisible by two, then it is even.

The converse is true.

What can you conclude about the converse of each statement?

Is the converse of a given statement always true?

A ctivity 4

PICTURE ME

Observe the set of pictures. Describe the pictures using conditional statements. State

the converse, inverse, and contrapositive of the conditional statements.

Classify each as true or false and justify.

Go to other groups, share your answers, and come up with a common conclusion.

Now that you can identify the hypothesis and the conclusion in the If-then statement,

and form its converse, you are now ready to study the kinds of reasoning in the next

lesson.

327

REFLECTION

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_

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rne

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328

Lesson

A ctivity 1

Inductive and

Deductive Reasoning

WHY OH WHY?

1.

2.

3.

My previous mathematics teacher was strict.

Tita's mathematics teacher is strict too.

Tita's previous mathematics teacher was also strict.

What can you say about mathematics teachers?

4.

1 10 = 10

2 10 = 20

3 10 = 30

5 10 = 50

24 10 = 240

2345 10 = ______.

5.

Every time Jackie visits her doctor, she receives excellent services. With this she

believes that ____________________________________.

How did you arrive at your answer?

Did you agree at once on your answer?

Were there arguments between you and your partner?

What you have experienced is inductive reasoning. Give 3 examples of

inductive reasoning.

Based on the activity, what is inductive reasoning?

Inductive reasoning uses specific examples to arrive at a general rule, generalizations,

or conclusions.

329

A ctivity 2

CUBRA CUBE

Statement

1. Filipinos are hospitable.

Bonifacio is a Filipino.

Conclusion

the same plane

Points R, M, and N are collinear .

3. A quadrilateral is a polygon with four

sides. A parallelogram is a quadrilateral.

4. Smoking can cause cancer. Tomas

smokes.

5. An angle is acute if its measure is

between 00 and 900. Angle B is acute.

You have just experienced deductive reasoning. Can you give the difference between

inductive and deductive reasoning?

Hypothesis the statement which is accepted or known at the beginning

Conclusion the statement drawn from the hypothesis.

Exercise 3

Draw a conclusion from each given situation and identify the kind of reasoning used.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Coplanar points are points on the same plane. X,Y, Z are coplanar.

Therefore, ___________________.

A regular polygon is equilateral. BELEN is a regular pentagon.

Therefore, ___________________.

A childs teacher in pre-school was a female. In his grades 1 and 2, his teachers

were both female. The child may say that __________________.

Filipinos are a peace-loving people. Julia is a Filipino. Therefore, ______________.

330

A ctivity 3

LET'S CONCLUDE

B.

1. If 1 2, then __________.

2. If AB = CE, then __________.

3. If B and E are complementary, then __________.

4. If m3 + m5 = 180, then __________.

5. If A and X form a linear pair, then __________.

Supply a valid conclusion for the given hypothesis on the first blank and the corresponding

reason on the second blank

6. If B is a right angle,

then _______________. ______________

7. If m3 + m4 = 180,

then _______________.

______________

8. If PM bisects APO,

then _______________.

______________

9. If BP BC,

then _______________. ______________

10. If BOS is isosceles,

then _______________. ______________

From the hypothesis you formulate another statement, that is, the conclusion. Where

do you base the conclusion?

Recall the undefined terms, definitions, and postulates we have discussed. You will be

using them in the next lesson.

331

REFLECTION

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332

Lesson

Writing Proofs

In writing proofs, the properties of equality and congruence are used as bases for

reasoning.

Properties of Equality

For all real numbers a, b, c, and d, if a = b and c = d,

then a + c = b + d.

If a = b and c = d, then a c = b d.

If a = b, then ac = bc.

Division Property of Equality (DPE)

a b

If a = b and c 0, then = c .

c

Substitution Property of Equality

If a = b, then "a" may be replaced with "b" at any time.

Distributive Property

a(b + c) = ab + ac.

Reflexive Property

a = a (Anything is equal to itself.)

Symmetric Property

If a = b, then b = a.

Transitive Property

If a = b and b = c, then a = c.

333

Properties of Congruence

Reflexive Property

AB AB, (An angle or a segment is congruent to itself.)

Symmetric Property

If A B, then B A.

Transitive Property

If A B and B C, then A C.

Aside from the properties of equality and congruence, you should be equipped with the

knowledge on undefined terms, definitions, postulates, and theorems in geometry. These are

necessary to successfully support the statement of a proof.

Exercise 4

Justify each statement by giving the Property of Equality or Property of Congruence

used.

If TX = BK, then BK = TX

8(m + n) = 8m + 8n

mHIT = mHIT

If S P, B S, then P B

One of the tools used in proving is reasoning, specifically deductive reasoning.

Deductive reasoning is a type of logical reasoning that uses accepted facts to reason in a

step-by-step manner until we arrive at the desired statement.

A proof is a logical argument in which each statement is supported/justified by given

information, definitions, axioms, postulates, theorems, and previously proven statements.

Remember:

A theorem is a statement accepted after it is proved deductively.

Proofs can be written in different ways

334

1.

Paragraph Form

The paragraph form is one way of proof where you write a paragraph to

explain why a conjecture for a given situation is true.

Given:

L

are complementary

Prove: LO OV

O

2.

Proof: Since LOE and EOV are complementary, then mLOE + mEOV = 90

by definition of complementary angles. Thus, mLOE + mEOV = mLOV

by angle addition postulate and mLOV = 90 by transitive property. So,

LOV is a right angle by definition of right angles; therefore, LO OV by

definition of perpendicularity.

Two-Column Form

S

Given:

mSEP = mTER

Prove :

m1 = m3

1

2

3

P

R

Proof:

Statement

1. mSEP = mTER

Reason

1.

2. mSEP = m1 + m2

3. mTER = m2 + m3

3.

4. m1 + m2 = m2 + m3

4. Substitution Property

5. m2 = m2

5.

6. m1 = m3

6. Subtraction Property

Study carefully the proof. How do you derive the statements and the

reasons?

335

3.

Flowchart Form:

The flow chart form is another way of writing proof where a series of

statements are organized in logical order using boxes and arrows. Each

statement together with its justification is written in a box. Arrows are used to

show how each statement leads to another.

E

Example:

Given:

RA RE

CE CA

Prove:

E A

1. RA RE

Given

2. CE CA

Given

4. RAC REC

SSS Congruence

3. RC RC

5. E A

Corresponding

angles of congruent

triangles are

congruent.

Reflexive Property

If you want to watch a video lesson on this kind of proof, you may visit the

following link:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=3Ti7-Ojr7Cg

336

Indirect Proof

An indirect proof is a method of reasoning usually written in paragraph form. The

opposite of the statement to be proven is assumed true until the assumption leads to a

contradiction.

Example:

Given:

Points D, G, and E are collinear with G

between D and E

Point F is not on DE

Proof:

Assume that mDGF = 180. It is given that points D, G, and E are collinear with G

between D and E. Hence, DGF and FGE form a linear pair. If two angles form a linear

pair, then they are supplementary. It follows that DGF and FGE are supplementary.

By the definition of supplementary angles,

mDGF + mFGE = 180

By substitution, 180 + mFGE = 180. Solving the equation, whe have mFGE = 0.

By the Angle Measurement Postulate, an angle measures between 0 and 180. But

since mFGE = 0, this means that there is no angle formed. This implies that F is on

DE. This contradicts the given that F is not on DE. Therefore, the assumption is false.

So, mDGF 180.

In this lesson, the discussion was about proofs.

Go back to the previous lessons and compare your initial ideas with the ideas

discussed. How much of your initial ideas are found in the discussion? Which of your ideas

are not yet discussed?

Now that you know the important ideas about this topic, let us go deeper by moving on

to the next activity.

337

REFLECTION

____

_

_

_

_

_

_____

_

_

____

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

ar...__ ___________ _______

f

o

s

d

rne

___

____

a

_

_

e

_

_

l

_

_

e

_

_

v

_

_

____

a

_

_

_

h

_

_

_

_

I

_

_

_

_

t

_

_

_

a

_

Wh

______ __________ __________ _______

_

_

_

_

_

_____

______ __________ __________ _____

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

__

__

______ __________ __________ ___________ ____

__

__

__

__

______ __________ __________ ___________ ____

__

__

__

__

______ __________ __________ ___________ ____

__

__

__

__

______ __________ __________ ___________ ____

__

__

__

__

______ __________ __________ ___________ ____

__

__

__

__

______ __________ __________ ___________ ____

__

__

__

__

______ __________ __________ ___________

__

__

__

______ __________ __________ _________.

_

__

__

______ __________ ___________

__

__

______ __________

__

______

338

What to

to Transfer

Transfer

What

In this activity, you will be applying your understanding of inductive and deductive

reasoning in a given situation.

A ctivity

IMBESTIGADOR

Math Magazine will release its November issue with the theme MATH

INVESTIGATES.

As one of the investigators you were tasked to make a mathematical

investigation on a certain mathematics concept. The written output of your investigation will

be submitted to the head writer, writers, and editor-in-chief of the magazine for evaluation

using the following rubric:

Rubric for Mathematical Investigation

CRITERIA

Mathematical

Reasoning

Outstanding

4

Satisfactory

3

Developing

2

Beginning

1

The explanation

Explanation is

Explanation

Explanation

is in-depth and

comprehensive.

is vague but

is vague and

comprehensive.

The use of

the use of

the use of

The use of

appropriate

appropriate

appropriate

appropriate

and sufficient

and sufficient

and sufficient

and sufficient

statements

statements

statements is

statements

is evident in

is evident in

NOT evident in

is extremely

the process of

the process of

the process of

evident in the

proving.

proving.

proving.

process of

proving.

339

RATING

CRITERIA

Outstanding

4

Satisfactory

3

Developing

2

Beginning

1

Acceptable

Acceptable

Acceptable

Statements are

statements are

statements are

statements

NOT logical

are logical

Coherence

are no errors

are no errors in

major errors in

in the process

the process of

minor errors in

the process of

of proving. The

proving.

the process of

proving.

procedures

proving.

were strictly

utilized.

Clarity

The proving

The proving

Some parts

process and

process is

in the proving

proving process

acceptable

clearly written

process are

are vaguely

statements

which facilitates

somehow

written which do

are clearly

a straightforward

unclearly

not facilitate a

written which

understanding.

written

straightforward

facilitates a

which do not

understanding.

straightforward

facilitate a

understanding.

straightforward

understanding.

340

RATING

CRITERIA

Conclusion

Outstanding

4

Satisfactory

3

Developing

2

Beginning

1

A valid and

A valid and

A valid and

An invalid and

acceptable

acceptable

acceptable

unacceptable

conclusion was

conclusion was

conclusion

conclusion was

derived from

derived from

was derived

derived from

proving thus,

proving thus,

of the proving

proving thus,

but was

unable to give

enlightenment

enlightenment to

moderately

enlightenment to

to others and

others.

able to give

others.

create an

enlightenment

innovative

to others.

statement/

formula for

future use in

Mathematics.

OVERALL RATING

341

RATING

REFLECTION

____

_

_

_

_

_

_____

t

a

____

_

h

t

_

_

d

_

o

_

dersto __________ _______

n

u

e

v

___

I ha

_

,

_

_

_ _ _ _ _ _ ______

n

_

_

o

_

s

_

s

_

_

e

_

_

l

_

_

In this ___________ __________ ___________ ____

_

__

__

__

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __________ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

_

__

__

__

_ _ _ _ _ _ __________ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

__

__

__

__

______ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

_

__

__

__

______ ___________ __________ __________ ____

_

__

__

__

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ____

_

__

__

__

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___________ _ _ _ _

_

__

__

__

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __________ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ____

_

__

__

__

_ _ _ _ _ _ __________ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___________ _ _ _ _

__

__

__

__

______ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __________ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

_

__

__

_ _ _ _ _ _ __________ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

__

__

______ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

_

______ ___.

__

______

342

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