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I N T E G R AT E D R E S E R V O I R S O L U T I O N S

CORE LAB

he Integrated Reservoir Solutions Division of Core Laboratories was created to conduct specialized projects
involving the multiple disciplines and service capabilities of numerous Core Lab divisions. We are supported
by our staff of senior-level geologists, geophysicists, engineers, and petrophysicists who apply proprietary and
state-of-the-art techniques from the earliest phases of exploration through the final phases of production.
Some of the products and services provided by our division include:

Regional Geological and Petrophysical Studies


Over 100 major regional multi-company projects have been completed. These projects address regional
distribution of depositional systems, definition and prediction of reservoir facies, reservoir quality
evaluation, improved log evaluation and drilling/completion prognoses and recommendations.

I N T E G R AT E D R E S E R V O I R S O L U T I O N S D I V I S I O N O F F I C E S :

Core Laboratories
6316 Windfern Road
Houston, TX 77040
Te l e p h o n e : 7 1 3 - 3 2 8 - 2 6 7 3
Fax: 713-328-2190

Integrated Reservoir Solutions


Bay13, 19 Aero Drive NE
C a l g a r y, A l b e r t a , C a n a d a T 2 E 8 Z 9
Canada
Te l e p h o n e : 4 0 3 - 2 9 5 - 3 2 8 4
Fax: 403-295-3159

INTEGRATED RESERVOIR SOLUTIONS DIVISION

U.S. & CANADA

Rock Property Databases

For more information regarding Regional Reservoir and Rock Property Studies contact; IRS@corelab.com

Rock-Log Calibration and Petrophysics


Well log calibration using measured and analog rock properties data is the first step toward development
of trained logs and petrophysical models. Our petrophysical staff provides capillary pressure and
saturation modeling, porosity and permeability cut-offs, identification of pay criteria, and assessment
of production potential.

The geo-engineering staff uses analyses of rock-fluid compatibility, flow back efficiency, regained
permeability, proppant embedment properties, and geomechanical laboratory testing to provide evaluation
of borehole stability and recommendations for completions and fracture stimulation optimization.
2014

w w w. c o r e l a b . c o m / i r s

Integrated Studies
Our geoscientists provide expert reservoir characterization through reservoir description, rock and
fluid analyses and completion/stimulation technology. Factors controlling reservoir quality and
performance are identified and scaled upward from the microscopic scale, to the zone of interest,
to the well bore, to the regional setting.

Completions and Stimulations

I N T E R N AT I O N A L
Core Laboratories
Unit 23, Ormside Way
R e d h i l l , S u r r e y, R H 1 2 L W
United Kingdom
Te l e p h o n e : + 4 4 - 1 7 3 - 7 8 5 - 9 6 6 0
Fax: +44-173-785-9661

Several rock catalogs specific to formations, trends, or regions have been compiled. These catalogs
provide analog geological, petrophysical and engineering data for a spectrum of rock types in
searchable digital databases. The most comprehensive of these catalogs is the 35-member company
Worldwide Rock Catalog, which is the largest systematic rock properties database in the world.

Database Management RAPID


The Reservoirs Applied Petrophysical Integrated Data (RAPID) service is a web-enabled database
application for organizing, archiving, retrieving, and summarizing geological and petrophysical data. Initially
developed to provide a method of delivering large volumes of data from regional geological studies, RAPID
database technology provides centralized, consistent, and accessible data storage in a secure format. When
coupled with Core Labs Worldwide Rock Catalog, RAPID can be used to search for reservoir analogs when
conventional core material is unavailable. Many of our past reservoir characterization projects are currently
available in RAPID and all currently active projects utilize RAPID as their method of data delivery.

I N T E G R AT E D R E S E R V O I R S O L U T I O N S
CORE LAB

he Integrated Reservoir Solutions Division of Core Laboratories was created to conduct specialized projects
involving the multiple disciplines and service capabilities of numerous Core Lab divisions. We are supported
by our staff of senior-level geologists, geophysicists, engineers, and petrophysicists who apply proprietary and
state-of-the-art techniques from the earliest phases of exploration through the final phases of production.
Some of the products and services provided by our division include:

Regional Geological and Petrophysical Studies


Over 100 major regional multi-company projects have been completed. These projects address regional
distribution of depositional systems, definition and prediction of reservoir facies, reservoir quality
evaluation, improved log evaluation and drilling/completion prognoses and recommendations.

I N T E G R AT E D R E S E R V O I R S O L U T I O N S D I V I S I O N O F F I C E S :

Core Laboratories
6316 Windfern Road
Houston, TX 77040
Te l e p h o n e : 7 1 3 - 3 2 8 - 2 6 7 3
Fax: 713-328-2190

Integrated Reservoir Solutions


Bay13, 19 Aero Drive NE
C a l g a r y, A l b e r t a , C a n a d a T 2 E 8 Z 9
Canada
Te l e p h o n e : 4 0 3 - 2 9 5 - 3 2 8 4
Fax: 403-295-3159

INTEGRATED RESERVOIR SOLUTIONS DIVISION

U.S. & CANADA

Rock Property Databases

For more information regarding Regional Reservoir and Rock Property Studies contact; IRS@corelab.com

Rock-Log Calibration and Petrophysics


Well log calibration using measured and analog rock properties data is the first step toward development
of trained logs and petrophysical models. Our petrophysical staff provides capillary pressure and
saturation modeling, porosity and permeability cut-offs, identification of pay criteria, and assessment
of production potential.

The geo-engineering staff uses analyses of rock-fluid compatibility, flow back efficiency, regained
permeability, proppant embedment properties, and geomechanical laboratory testing to provide evaluation
of borehole stability and recommendations for completions and fracture stimulation optimization.
2014

w w w. c o r e l a b . c o m / i r s

Integrated Studies
Our geoscientists provide expert reservoir characterization through reservoir description, rock and
fluid analyses and completion/stimulation technology. Factors controlling reservoir quality and
performance are identified and scaled upward from the microscopic scale, to the zone of interest,
to the well bore, to the regional setting.

Completions and Stimulations

I N T E R N AT I O N A L
Core Laboratories
Unit 23, Ormside Way
R e d h i l l , S u r r e y, R H 1 2 L W
United Kingdom
Te l e p h o n e : + 4 4 - 1 7 3 - 7 8 5 - 9 6 6 0
Fax: +44-173-785-9661

Several rock catalogs specific to formations, trends, or regions have been compiled. These catalogs
provide analog geological, petrophysical and engineering data for a spectrum of rock types in
searchable digital databases. The most comprehensive of these catalogs is the 35-member company
Worldwide Rock Catalog, which is the largest systematic rock properties database in the world.

Database Management RAPID


The Reservoirs Applied Petrophysical Integrated Data (RAPID) service is a web-enabled database
application for organizing, archiving, retrieving, and summarizing geological and petrophysical data. Initially
developed to provide a method of delivering large volumes of data from regional geological studies, RAPID
database technology provides centralized, consistent, and accessible data storage in a secure format. When
coupled with Core Labs Worldwide Rock Catalog, RAPID can be used to search for reservoir analogs when
conventional core material is unavailable. Many of our past reservoir characterization projects are currently
available in RAPID and all currently active projects utilize RAPID as their method of data delivery.

Index
All S tu d ies :

Absaroka Geochemistry Study


50
Anadarko Basin Regional Study
36
Antler Basin Source Rock Study
50
Apalachicola Embayment Regional Study
20
Arkansas Louisiana State Line Smackover Study
11
Arkansas Louisiana Lower Cretaceous Study
10
Australia Shale
83
Avalon Wolfcamp Shale Regional Study
40
Bangladesh
73
Bolivia Sub-andean Basins
88
Bone Spring Sandstones Regional Study
41
Brazil Central offshore Basins Petroleum Geology
89
Brazil Cretaceous Carbonates of Se Margin
90
Brazil Deepwater Campos Basin
90
Brazil Equatorial Margins
91
Brazil Santos Basin
91
Brushy Canyon Sandstones Study
42
Caballos
92
Codell Sandstone Dj Basin
51
Cte Divoire Regional Reservoirs and Seals
59
Cte Divoire Regional Reservoirs and Seals: Update
59
Cotton Valley Regional Study
11
Deep Frio of South Texas Regional Study
21
Deep Frio Regional Study
20
Deep Shelf Gulf of Mexico Regional Study
17
Deepwater Gulf of Mexico Core Study
18
Delaware Mountain Group Regional Study
42
Denver Basin I and II Paleozoic Oil/Source Rock Study 50
Duvernay Regional Study
7
Eagle Ford Regional Study
21
Eaglebine Regional Study
22
East Texas Lower Cretaceous Regional Study
12
East Texas Smackover Regional Study
12
Gabon/North Congo Reservoirs
60
Gas Shales Reservoir Characterization and Production
Properties of North America
2
Global Gas Shale
98
Global T ight Gas Sands
100
Granite Wash Regional Study
37
Gulf of Thailand Cambodia and The OCA
79
Gulf of Thailand Thailand and The OCA
78
Haynesville and Bossier Shale Study
13
Haynesville Core Study
22
Hydrocarbon Potentialof The Arbuckle Group
Oil and Gas Study
37
Indonesia Coal
73
Indonesia East Indonesia Foreland Basins
75
Indonesia East Natuna
74
Indonesia Shale Reservoirs
77
Indonesia Tarakan Basin
76
Indonesia/Philippines Deepwater Reservoirs Phase I 74
Irian Jaya and Papua New Guinea
78
James Lime
13
Kenya East Africa Reservoirs and Seals Phase II
60
Libya Pre-Upper Cretaceous Reservoirs of Onshore
Sirt Basin
62
Libya Reservoirs of offshore Basins-Phase II
61
Libya Reservoirs of Onshore Basins-Phase I
61
Lobo Regional Study
23
Louisiana W ilcox Regional Study
24
Lower Smackover Brown Dense Exploration
Reconnaissance Study
14
Lower Tuscaloosa Formation Regional Study
25
Mafla Smackover Regional Study
26
Marcellus Shale Study
4
Mississippi Lime
38
Missourian T ight Oil Reservoirs Anadarko Basin
39
Montney Regional Study
8
Morrow Regional Study
43
Morrow Sequence Stratigraphy and Petrophysical Study 44
Mozambique East Africa Reservoirs and Seals:
Phase Iv
63
Namibia and The Orange Basin Reservoirs and
Seals South Atlantic Margin
63
Niger Delta Geochemistry Study
64
Niger Delta Reservoir Study
65
Niobrara Regional Study
51
Norphlet Reservoir Study
27
North Slope Alaska Source Rock Study
56
Offshore/Texas Louisiana MioceneCore Study
19
Oklahoma Geochemistry Study
39
Oligocene Regional Study
27
Onshore South Louisiana Miocene Regional Study
28
Paradox Basin Regional Study
52
Pearsall Group Reservoir Evaluation
28
Peru Reservoirs and Seals
93
Post Salt Reservoirs and Seals of The South
Atlantic Margin
67

Prairie Du Chien Regional Study and Rock Catalog


35
Pre-Salt South Atlantic, Phase III: Pre-Salt
Carbonates West
66
Queen Sandstones Regional Study
45
Rapid Spotfire Analytics
101
Relative Permeability Database
102
Sakhalin Island Miocene and Oligocene
Geochemistry Study
85
Sakhalin Reservoir Study
85
San Joaquin Basin Petroleum Potential Regional Study 56
San Juan Basin Regional Study
53
San Juan Basin Rock Catalog
54
Senegal, Agc and Guinea Bissau Central Atlantic
Margins West Africa Phase I
67
Smackover Reservoir Study
29
South Atlantic Margins Pre-Salt Phase I West Africa 68
South Atlantic Margins Pre-Salt Phase II Brazil
94
Southern California Oil Study
56
Stevens Reservoir Study
57
Sub-andean Basins Oil Geochemistry
95
Tanzania East Africa Reservoirs and Seals Phase I
69
Tanzania East Africa Reservoirs and Seals:
Phase I Update
68
Tatum Basin Regional Study
45
Temblor Regional Study
57
Thanksgiving Field Study
29
T ight Gas Sands Fracture Optimization
3
T ight Oil Reservoirs of The Midland BasinWolfberry,
Strawn, and Mississipian
46
Transform Margins Reservoirs and Seals II:
The Equatorial Basins of Brazil
96
Travis Peak- Hosston Sandstones
14
Uganda East Africa Reservoirs and Seals: Phase III
71
Upper Cretaceous T ight Oil Reservoirs Powder
River Basin
53
Upper Devonian Shales
5
Utica Regional Study
4
V icksburg Regional Study and Rock Catalog
30
V ietnam Reservoirs and Seals of The Cuu Long,
Nam Con Son and Malay Tho Chu Basins
80
West Africa Geochemistry Study
70
West Siberia Reservoir Rock Catalog
86
W ilcox Provenance Study
19
W ilcox Regional Study In South Texas
31
W ilcox Reservoir Study
32
W illiston Basin Regional Study
55
W ilrich Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin
8
Wolfcamp Regional Study
47
Wolfcamp Reservoir Study
48
15
Woodbine Regional Study
46
Woodford Shale Midland Basin
Woodford Shale Oklahoma
48
Worldwide Rock/Pore Catalog
103
Yegua Regional Study
33
Yemen Rock Catalog
81

CONTENTS
NORTH AMERICA
North America

Gas Shales Reservoir Characterization and Production


Properties of North America
Tight Gas Sands Fracture Optimization

Appalachian Basin
Marcellus Shale Study
Utica Regional Study
Upper Devonian Shales

Canada

Duvernay Regional Study


Montney Regional Study
Wilrich Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin

2
3
4
4
5
7
8
8

East Texas/Northern Louisiana/Southern Arkansas


Arkansas Louisiana Lower Cretaceous Study
Arkansas Louisiana State Line Smackover Study
Cotton Valley Regional Study
East Texas Lower Cretaceous Regional Study
East Texas Smackover Regional Study
Haynesville and Bossier Shale Study
James Lime
Lower Smackover Brown Dense Exploration Reconnaissance Study
Travis Peak Hosston Sandstones
Woodbine Regional Study

Gulf of Mexico Offshore

Deep Shelf Gulf of Mexico Regional Study


Deepwater Gulf of Mexico Core Study
Offshore/Texas Louisiana Miocene Core Study
Wilcox Provenance Study

Gulf of Mexico Onshore

Apalachicola Embayment Regional Study


Deep Frio Regional Study
Deep Frio of South Texas Regional Study
Eagle Ford Regional Study
Eaglebine Regional Study
Haynesville Core Study
Lobo Regional Study
Louisiana Wilcox Regional Study
Lower Tuscaloosa Formation Regional Study
Mafla Smackover Regional Study
Norphlet Reservoir Study
Oligocene Regional Study
Onshore South Louisiana Miocene Regional Study
Pearsall Group Reservoir Evaluation
Smackover Reservoir Study
Thanksgiving Field Study
Vicksburg Regional Study and Rock Catalog
Wilcox Regional Study in South Texas
Wilcox Reservoir Study
Yegua Regional Study

Michigan Basin

Prairie Du Chien Regional Study and Rock Catalog

Mid Continent

Anadarko Basin Regional Study


Granite Wash Regional Study
Hydrocarbon Potentialof The Arbuckle Group Oil and Gas Study
Mississippi Lime
Missourian Tight Oil Reservoirs Anadarko Basin
Oklahoma Geochemistry Study

Permian Basin

Avalon Wolfcamp Shale Regional Study


Bone Spring Sandstones Regional Study
Brushy Canyon Sandstones Study
Delaware Mountain Group Regional Study
Morrow Regional Study
Morrow Sequence Stratigraphy and Petrophysical Study
Queen Sandstones Regional Study
Tatum Basin Regional Study
Tight Oil Reservoirs of The Midland BasinWolfberry,
Strawn, and Mississipian
Woodford Shale Midland Basin
Wolfcamp Regional Study
Wolfcamp Reservoir Study
Woodford Shale Oklahoma

Rocky Mountains

Absaroka Geochemistry Study


Antler Basin Source Rock Study
Denver Basin I and II Paleozoic Oil/Source Rock Study
Codell Sandstone DJ Basin

10
11
11
12
12
13
13
14
14
15
17
18
19
19
20
20
21
21
22
22
23
24
25
26
27
27
28
28
29
29
30
31
32
33
35

36
37
37
38
39
39
40
41
42
42
43
44
45
45
46
46
47
48
48

Niobrara Regional Study


Paradox Basin Regional Study
Upper Cretaceous Tight Oil Reservoirs Powder River Basin
San Juan Basin Regional Study
San Juan Basin Rock Catalog
Williston Basin Regional Study

West Coast

North Slope Alaska Source Rock Study


San Joaquin Basin Petroleum Potential Regional Study
Southern California Oil Study
Stevens Reservoir Study
Temblor Regional Study

51
52
53
53
54
55
56
56
56
57
57

I N T E R N AT I O N A L
Africa

Cte Divoire Regional Reservoirs and Seals


Cte Divoire Regional Reservoirs and Seals: Update
Gabon/North Congo Reservoirs
Kenya East Africa Reservoirs and Seals Phase II
Libya Reservoirs of Onshore Basins Phase I
Libya Reservoirs of offshore Basins Phase II
Libya Pre-Upper Cretaceous Reservoirs of Onshore Sirt Basin
Mozambique East Africa Reservoirs and Seals: Phase IV
Namibia and The Orange Basin Reservoirs and Seals
South Atlantic Margin
Niger Delta Geochemistry Study
Niger Delta Reservoir Study
Pre-Salt South Atlantic, Phase III: Pre-Salt Carbonates West
Post Salt Reservoirs and Seals of The South Atlantic Margin
Senegal, AGC and Guinea Bissau Central Atlantic
Margins West Africa Phase I
South Atlantic Margins Pre-Salt Phase I West Africa
Tanzania East Africa Reservoirs and Seals: Phase I Update
Tanzania East Africa Reservoirs and Seals Phase I
West Africa Geochemistry Study
Uganda East Africa Reservoirs and Seals: Phase III

Asia

Bangladesh
Indonesia Coal
Indonesia/Philippines Deepwater Reservoirs Phase I
Indonesia East Natuna
Indonesia East Indonesia Foreland Basins
Indonesia Tarakan Basin
Indonesia Shale Reservoirs
Irian Jaya and Papua New Guinea
Gulf of Thailand Thailand and The OCA
Gulf of Thailand Cambodia and The OCA
Vietnam Reservoirs and Seals of The Cuu Long, Nam Con Son
and Malay Tho Chu Basins
Yemen Rock Catalog

Australia

Australia Shale

Commonwealth of Independent States

Sakhalin Island Miocene and Oligocene Geochemistry Study


Sakhalin Reservoir Study
West Siberia Reservoir Rock Catalog

South America

Bolivia Sub-Andean Basins


Brazil Central offshore Basins Petroleum Geology
Brazil Cretaceous Carbonates of Se Margin
Brazil Deepwater Campos Basin
Brazil Equatorial Margins
Brazil Santos Basin
Caballos
Peru Reservoirs and Seals
South Atlantic Margins Pre-Salt Phase II Brazil
Sub-Andean Basins Oil Geochemistry
T r a n s f o r m M a r g i n s Reservoirs and Seals II:
The Equatorial Basins of Brazil

GLOBAL

Global Gas Shale


Global Tight Gas Sands
Rapid Spotfire Analytics
Relative Permeability Database
Worldwide Rock/Pore Catalog

59
59
60
60
61
61
62
63
63
64
65
66
67
67
68
68
69
70
71
73
73
74
74
75
76
77
78
78
79
80
81
83
85
85
86
88
89
90
90
91
91
92
93
94
95
96
98
100
101
102
103

50
50
50
51

For more information regarding Regional Reservoir and Rock Property Studies contact: IRS@corelab.com

north america
North America
particular play, but also on other operators wells
in other gas shale formations. The project will be
focused on evaluating numerous different gas shales
in a variety of North American basins.
Specific project objectives include:
Geologically characterize the cored gas

GAS SHALES RESERVOIR


CHARACTERIZATION AND
PRODUCTION PROPERTIES
OF NORTH AMERICA

R E S E R VO I R CHA RA CTERI ZATI O N A N D P R ODUCT ION


PR O PE R T I ES O F GA S SHA LES

Understanding the similarities and differences

in gas shales is key to optimized exploitation.


Therefore the primary objective of this project
is to provide operators with measured geological,
petrophysical, geomechanical, geochemical, and
production properties of numerous gas shales in
order to improve their formation evaluation and
to optimize stimulation and production.
This project consists of the characterization
and evaluation of numerous conventional cores
taken from multiple gas shale formations. Gas shale
reservoirs are being analyzed for their geological,
petrophysical, geomechanical, geochemical, and
production properties. These data are integrated
with well logs, stimulation designs, and production
test information.
The resulting database and complete case
histories will provide operators with valuable information not only on their own wells in a

shales in terms of depositional facies


environment of deposition, and rock types
Characterize and classify gas shales
in terms of their lithology, mineralogy,
clay content, clay types, and pore structure
including macro- and micro-fractures
Measure and characterize the various
petrophysical properties
Measure and characterize the organic
content of gas shales in terms of total
organic content (TOC), Rock Evaluation,
pyrolysis, and vitrinite reflectance
Determine the gas desorption associated
with kerogen and adsorption isotherm
for gas storage capacity as a function of
reservoir pressure
Measure and profile the key geomechanical
properties
Core-log calibration of open-hole logs for
the development of petrophysical models
to determine gas shale properties
Integrate the core data with well logs,
fracture stimulation techniques, and
production test results to aid companies
in their evaluation and exploitation of gas
shale reservoirs
Utilize and integrate the core and production
data to perform production forecasts
Develop relationships from the database
to aid in evaluating and comparing various
gas shale rock properties
Develop a Gas Shale Rock Catalog in order
to aid in the evaluation of gas shale properties
from drill cuttings and logs
Provide operators with a searchable database
for various gas shales and their associated
properties that can be used as analogs to aid
in the appraisal and exploitation of unknown
or newly discovered gas shales

AS SHA LE CHARACTERIZATIO N & PRODUCTION PROPER TIES OF NOR T


CA TIGHT GAS SANDS FRACTURE OPTIMIZATION ARKANSAS LOU

north america
North America
test information. These integrated data sets and
case histories will provide operators with the
critical parameters to optimize their exploitation
of these reservoirs and reduce finding and
development costs.
Core Laboratories is conducting a major industry
study of the reservoir characteristics and fracture
stimulation response of tight gas sands. This
project provides member companies with a
comprehensive database consisting of laboratory
rock property measurements, well log and
production information from contributed wells,
and case histories of production response to
fracture stimulation from numerous formations and
basins throughout North America. From the pore
system through the 3-D Frac design and post-frac
evaluation this project relates reservoir facies,
reservoir quality, petrophysical properties and
geomechanical properties to stimulation methods
and production performance in tight gas sands.
Major objectives of the project include
the following:

TIGHT GAS SANDS


FRACTURE OPTIMIZATION
G E O L O G I CA L, P ETRO P HYSI CA L & GEO MECH ANICAL
PR O PE R T I ES O F TI GHT GA S SA N D S A DATABASE
F O R R E S ER VO I R CHA RA CTERI ZATI O N A ND
F R A C T UR E STI MU LATI O N O P TI MI ZATI O N

Currently, numerous oil and gas companies

are directing their efforts toward the exploration


and exploitation of tight gas sand reservoirs. These
reservoirs have proved to be challenging in terms
of reservoir characterization and optimizing fracture
stimulation techniques. Many companies do not
have key rock property data that are crucial for
understanding these reservoirs and for designing
optimal fracture stimulations. Many treatment
options are available and operators are often left
with very expensive trial and error field testing
of various fracture stimulation techniques. No
hydraulic fracture design can be optimized, or in
many cases, successfully performed or pumped in
the field without the rock property data. Therefore,
in order to properly evaluate and exploit tight gas
sands, appropriate types of rock property
data need to be measured and integrated with
log data, stimulation techniques, and production

Geologically characterize tight gas


reservoirs in terms of depositional facies,
environment of deposition, and rock types
Characterize and systematically classify the
rock types and factors controlling reservoir
quality
Describe and characterize fractures
Provide laboratory measured petrophysical
properties for log calibration and pay
recognition criteria
Develop saturation and permeability models
Determine the rock-fluid compatibility,
regained gas permeability, and water block
susceptibility
Measure the key geomechanical properties
required for 3-D Frac design
Facilitate calibration of open-hole geomechanical logs with static geomechanical
laboratory data
Integrate core data with well logs, fracture
stimulation techniques and production
test results

SHALE CHARACTERIZATION & PRODUCTION PROPER TIES OF NOR TH A


TIGHT GAS SANDS FRACTURE OPTIMIZATION ARKANSAS LOUISIAN

north america
Appalachian Basin
PENNSYLVANIA

MARCELLUS SHALE STUDY


RESER VO I R CHA RA CTER IZAT ION
A N D P RO D U C TI O N P RO P ER T IES

WEST
VIRGIN I A

umerous oil and gas companies are


directing their efforts toward the exploration and
exploitation of the Marcellus Shale. This gas shale
reservoir has proved to be challenging in terms of
reservoir characterization, predicting producibility
potential, estimating ultimate recovery, and
optimizing fracture stimulation techniques. Many
companies either do not have or have limited rock
property data that is crucial for understanding these
reservoirs. Therefore, in order to properly evaluate
and explore the Marcellus Shale, appropriate types
of rock property data need to be measured and
integrated with log data, stimulation techniques and
production test information. These integrated data
sets and case histories provide operators with
the critical parameters to optimize their exploitation
of the Marcellus Shale and reduce finding and
development costs.

Core Laboratories is conducting a multi-company,


geo-engineering study of the Marcellus Shale. This
project consists of the characterization and evaluation
of numerous conventional cores, rotary sidewall
cores, and drill cutting samples taken from multiple
wells targeting the Marcellus Shale. Specifically,
the Marcellus Shale will be analyzed for geological,
petrophysical, geomechanical, geochemical, and
production properties. The data is integrated with
well logs, stimulation designs, and production test
information. This large and searchable database will
provide operators with valuable information not only
on their own wells within the Marcellus Shale, but
also on other operators wells. The project will be
focused on evaluating numerous different Marcellus
Shale wells in the Appalachian Basin located in
Pennsylvania, New York, West Virginia and Ohio.
On goin g study with over 120 committed we l l s

NEW YORK

PENNSYLVANIA

WEST
VIRGIN I A

UTICA REGIONAL STUDY


RESER VO I R C HA RA C TERIZAT ION
A N D P RO D U CTI O N P RO P ER T IES

The Utica Shale is an upper

Ordovician-aged, calcareous, black shale


that extends across the Appalachian Plateau from
New York and Quebec, Canada, south to Tennessee.
It therefore, underlies the Marcellus and extends
farther west providing another shale reservoir target
in Ohio, New York, Pennsylvania and West Virginia.
The Utica Shale produces oil in Ohio and gas in the
deeper portions of the basin to the east. In the near
term, most activity is expected to be in the liquids-rich
portion of the play in Ohio and western Pennsylvania.
The Utica Shale has very different reservoir
properties than the Marcellus and should be
challenging in terms of reservoir characterization,
predicting producibility potential, estimating
ultimate recovery, and optimizing fracture
stimulation techniques. Many companies either
do not have or have limited rock property data

that are crucial for understanding this reservoir.


Therefore, in order to properly evaluate and explore
this resource, appropriate types of rock property
data need to be measured and integrated with log
data, stimulation techniques, and production test
information. These integrated data sets and case
histories will provide operators with the critical
parameters to optimize their exploitation of the Utica
Shale and reduce finding and development costs.
The primary objective of this project is to
provide operators with measured geological,
petrophysical, geomechanical, geochemical, and
production properties of the Utica Shale in order to
improve their formation evaluation and to optimize
stimulation and production. Our work suggests
that understanding the similarities and differences
in these shales on a regional basis is the key to
successful exploration and exploitation. The resultant
database will be an invaluable tool to operators in
evaluating, comparing, and designing completion
and stimulation methods for the Utica Shale.

AS SHALE CHARACTERIZATION & PRODUCTION PROPER TIES OF NOR TH


MERICA TIGHT GAS SANDS FRACTURE OPTIMIZATION ARKANSAS

north america
Appalachian Basin
PENNSYLVANIA

OHIO

WEST
VIRGIN I A

UPPER DEVONIAN SHALES


RESER VO I R C HA RA C TERIZAT ION
A N D P RO D U C TI O N P RO P ER T IES

everal members of our successful


Marcellus Shale Project have encouraged
Core Lab to initiate a similar project in organic-rich,
Upper Devonian black shales in the gas and liquidsrich maturity windows in the vicinity of northwest
Pennsylvania and possibly in New York State. The
sequence of Upper Devonian shales include, (in
ascending stratigraphic order) the Burket, Geneseo,
Middlesex, Rhinestreet, and Huron. Numerous
companies are evaluating the Upper Devonian
shales for oil, condensate, and gas production;
and have either drilled or are planning to
drill pilot wells with the acquisition of cores.

The Upper Devonian shales are variable in terms


of reservoir properties; displaying similarities and
gross differences when compared to Marcellus shale.
These Upper Devonian shales are challenging
in terms of reservoir characterization, predicting
producibility potential, estimating ultimate
recovery, and optimizing fracture stimulation
techniques. Many companies either do not have or
have limited rock property data that are crucial for
understanding this reservoir. Therefore, in order
to properly evaluate and exploit this resource,
appropriate types of rock property data need to be
measured and integrated with log data, stimulation
techniques, and production test information. These
integrated data sets and case histories will provide
operators with the critical parameters to optimize
their exploitation of the Upper Devonian shales
and reduce finding and development costs.

SHALE CHARACTERIZATION & PRODUCTION PROPER TIES OF NOR TH A


TIGHT GAS SANDS FRACTURE OPTIMIZATION ARKANSAS LOUISIAN

CANADA

north america
BRITISH

Canada

COLUMBIA

DUVERNAY REGIONAL STUDY

provide operators with the critical parameters to


optimize their exploitation of the Duvernay Shale
and reduce finding and development costs.
The Integrated Reservoir Solutions Division of
Core Laboratories is conducting a multi-company,
geo-engineering, regional study of the Duvernay
Shale. This project consists of the characterization
and evaluation of numerous conventional cores and
rotary sidewall cores samples taken from multiple
wells targeting the Duvernay Shale. Specifically,
the prospective section will be analyzed for
geological, petrophysical, geomechanical,
geochemical, and production properties. These
data will be integrated with well logs, stimulation
designs, and production test information.

SA

SK

AT

CH

EW

AN

ALBERTA

RESER VO I R C HA RA C TERI ZAT ION


A N D P RO D U C TI O N P RO P ER T IES

urrently, numerous oil and gas


companies are directing their efforts toward the
exploration and exploitation of the Duvernay Shale
following extensive lease sales in 2009 and 2010.
Many companies are beginning pilot programs
to acquire core, logs, and conduct preliminary
stimulation operations. Companies either do
not have or have limited rock property data
that are crucial for understanding this potential
reservoir. Therefore, in order to properly evaluate
and explore the Duvernay Shale, appropriate
types of rock property data need to be measured
and integrated with log data, stimulation
techniques, and production test information.
These integrated data sets and case histories will

AS SHALE CHARACTERIZATION & PRODUCTION PROPER TIES OF NOR TH


A TIGHT GAS SANDS FRACTURE OPTIMIZATION ARKANSAS LOUIS

north america
Canada

NORTHWEST
TERRITORIES

BRITISH

MONTNEY
REGIONAL STUDY

COLUMBIA

KA

TC

HE

AN

ALBERTA

reservoirs. Therefore, in order to properly evaluate


and explore these gas shales and mudstones,
appropriate types of rock property data need to be
measured and integrated with log data, stimulation
techniques, and production test information.
These integrated data sets and case histories will
provide operators with the critical parameters
to optimize their exploitation of the Montney,
thereby, reducing finding and development costs.
This project consists of the characterization
and evaluation of numerous new conventional
cores, rotary sidewall cores, and drill cutting
samples taken from multiple wells targeting
the Montney. Specifically, these prospective
shale and mudstone sections will be analyzed
for geological, petrophysical, geomechanical,
geochemical, and production properties. These
data will be integrated with well logs, stimulation
designs, and production test information. This
large and searchable database will provide
operators with valuable information not only on
their own wells within these shale and mudstone
sections, but also on other operators wells. The
project will be focused on evaluating numerous
Montney wells in British Columbia and Alberta.

RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

A N D P RO D U C TI O N P RO P ER TIES

urrently, numerous oil and gas companies are


directing their efforts toward the exploration and
exploitation of the Triassic Montney Formation
in northeastern British Columbia and western
Alberta. Major facies include fine-grained shoreface
sandstones, shelf siltstones and shales, fine-grained
turbidites and organic-rich phosphatic shale. This
project focuses on the evaluation of gas shale and
mudstones (shales and siltstones) in this formation.
Both the B.C. and Alberta governments have
performed limited studies of the Montney, but
these studies have been directed at estimating the
size and potential of the resource play in terms of
original-gas-in-place. In contrast, this project is
designed to improve 1) reservoir characterization,
2) development of core-calibrated petrophysical
log models, 3) prediction of potential producibility,
and 3) optimizing fracture stimulation techniques
in order to maximize production. Many companies
either do not have or have limited rock property
data that are crucial for understanding these
BRITISH
COLUMBIA
ALBERTA

WILRICH - WESTERN CANADIAN


SEDIMENTARY BASIN

SA

SK

AT

CH

EW

AN

ALBERTA

RESER VO I R C HA RA C TERI ZAT ION


A N D P RO D U CTI O N P RO P ER T IES

umerous oil and gas companies in the Western


Canadian Sedimentary Basin are directing their
efforts toward the exploration and exploitation of
gas and liquids-rich gas from the sandstone and
siltstone of the Wilrich Member in the Lower
Cretaceous Spirit River Formation. The Wilrich play
ranks as one of the most economic natural gas plays
in North America. Core Lab has been conducting

highly successful joint industry projects evaluating


analogous tight reservoirs for over 20 years. Several
companies have cored and evaluated the Wilrich
potential on their leases over the years, with a
marked increase in interest the last year. In order to
properly evaluate and exploit this target, appropriate
types of rock property data need to be measured and
integrated with log data, stimulation techniques, and
production test information. These integrated data
sets and case histories will provide operators with
the critical parameters to optimize their exploitation
and reduce finding and development costs.

S SHALE CHARACTERIZATION & PRODUCTION PROPER TIES OF NOR TH


A TIGHT GAS SANDS FRACTURE OPTIMIZATION ARKANSAS LOUISIA

NORTHERN LOUISIANA
SOUTHERN ARKANSAS
EAST TEXAS

north america
E a s t Te x a s / N o r t h e r n L o u i s i a n a / S o u t h e r n A r k a n s a s
ARKANSAS

TEXAS

LOUISIANA

ARKANSAS LOUISIANA
LOWER CRETACEOUS
STUDY

REGI O N A L GEO LO GI CA L STUDY OF


THE LO WER CRETA CEO U S P ET T ET,
J A MES, A N D RO D ESSA FA CI ES IN T H E
S O UT H A RK A N SA S- N O R TH LO U I SI A NA AR EA

he south Arkansas-north Louisiana (Arkla)


area has long been the site of active exploration
for structural and structural-stratigraphic traps.
As most known structures have been extensively
drilled, the focus is now centered on oil and gas to
be found in subtle, stratigraphically controlled traps
in the Pettet, James, and Rodessa. Study members
are provided with the only available exploration
and producing oriented study of the Arkla area that;
provides a practical database which can be utilized
for local prospect generation and regional trend
evaluation, relates lithofacies and diagenesis to
reservoir development, developed the depositional
models needed to discover and evaluate similar
stratigraphic and structural-stratigraphic traps, and
assess completion and production techniques for
these Lower Cretaceous carbonates and sandstones.

The analytical techniques utilized to characterize and evaluate nineteen (19) conventionally cored
wells in the Pettet, James, and Rodessa consisted
of conventional core description with continuous
core color photography and extensive thin section
petrology (including whole thin section photomicroscopy). Scanning electron microscopy (including
pore cast analysis), mercury injection capillary
pressure, and X-ray diffraction were done on selected
reservoir rock type samples. Porosity, air permeability, and grain density were measured for all core
plugs geologically analyzed.
Results from these detailed geological characterizations were correlated to logs in the cored wells.
Numerous other wells were integrated into the
study using existing logs and this information was
then used as an aid to correlate between cored and
uncored wells. Facies and isopach maps, cross
sections, depositional models, etc. were constructed
and formulated by utilizing the core-to-log and
log-to-log correlations. The study contains individual
well reports and a final report which synthesizes
the data in terms of the geological and petrophysical
implications for reservoir quality trends in the
study area.
Nin eteen ( 19) con ven tion ally cor ed wells
Well logs f r om n on -cor ed sur r oun din g wells
Pettet, James an d R odessa For mation s

The south Arkansas - north Louisiana


(Arkla) area has long been the site
of active exploration for structural
and structural-stratigraphic traps.

10

AS SHALE CHARACTERIZATION & PRODUCTION PROPER TIES OF NOR TH


MERICA TIGHT GAS SANDS FRACTURE OPTIMIZATION ARKANSAS

north america
E a s t Te x a s / N o r t h e r n L o u i s i a n a / S o u t h e r n A r k a n s a s
ARKANSAS

TEXAS

LOUISIANA

Determine the petrophysical properties of


reservoir rocks for improved formation
evaluation.

ARKANSAS LOUISIANA
STATE LINE SMACKOVER
STUDY

REGI O N A L GEO LO GI C STU DY AND


RESER VO I R EVA LU ATI O N O F T H E
SMA CK O VER FO RMATI O N A RKANSASLO U I SI A N A STATE LI N E TREN D

he Arkansas-Louisiana State Line Trend


Smackover Core Study provides a synthesis of the
observations and conclusions drawn from analysis
of 1,546 feet of conventional core from twenty
(20) wells.
The objectives of this study are to completely
characterize, geologically and petrophysically,
Smackover reservoir rocks from conventional cores.
Methodology included:
Describe and sedimentologically analyze the
cored intervals, leading to the development
of a depositional model with emphasis
placed on improved delineation of
Smackover reservoirs
Identify porous zones, pore types, pore system
properties, and diagenetic alterations that
affect reservoir potential

An individual report on each of the twenty (20)


wells is included in this study. Each well report
contains text sections that include descriptions,
interpretations, and evaluations of reservoir potential,
core-to-log and facies-to-log correlations, detailed
core descriptions and core photography, whole thin
section photographs, thin section and SEM photomicrographs, routine core analysis data for the entire
cored interval, and a log-derived petrophysical evaluation of cored zones.
The final report provides an executive summary
of the study results, discussion on the geological
setting and major facies and depositional environments encountered. There is a section that focuses on
stratigraphic relationships and depositional models,
diagenesis and controls on reservoir quality. A separate section addresses petrophysical properties and
advanced rock properties from the twenty (20) wells.
Twen ty ( 20) wells
1,546 f eet con ven tion al cor e

ARKANSAS

TEXAS

LOUISIANA

reservoir quality, and integrates rock petrophysical


properties and rock type information with well log
evaluation to develop criteria for the recognition of
pay intervals.
The study consists of data generated on sixty (60)
rotary sidewall sandstone samples from 12 wells
located in Rusk, Panola, Harrison and Cass Counties,
Texas and Bienville Parish, Louisiana. These wells
represent nine (9) separate fields and all tested gas
from one or more intervals. In addition to the petrographic and advanced rock property data, composite
data files were created for measured and calculated
well log curves covering approximately 10,000 feet
of wellbore.

COTTON VALLEY
REGIONAL STUDY

A STU D Y O F GEO LO GI C AL
A N D P ETRO P HYSI CA L
P RO P ER TI ES O F CO TTO N
VA LLEY SA N D STO N ES I N EA ST
T EXA S A N D N O R TH LO U I SI A N A

ore Laboratories completed a study of


Cotton Valley Sandstones in east Texas and north
Louisiana to identify and provide data on the
spectrum of Cotton Valley reservoir rock types to
be applied in the discrimination of commercially
viable reservoirs. The study defines the rock
properties which control the preservation and/or
development of pore space, delineates rock types
and their associated pore structure as they relate to

Twelve ( 12) wells


R otar y sidewall cor es
R usk, Pan ola, H ar rison an d Cass Coun ties, Te x as
Bien ville Parish , Louisian a

11

ARKANSAS LOUISIANA LOWER STATE LINE SMACKOVER STUDY AM


CA COTTON VALLEY REGIONAL STUDY EAST TEXAS LOWER CRETA

north america
ARKANSAS

E a s t Te x a s / N o r t h e r n L o u i s i a n a / S o u t h e r n A r k a n s a s
In addition, selected cores from Alabama Ferry Field
and Fort Trinidad Field (Upper Glen Rose Formation, Mooringsport Member) were included.
The study contains geologically and petrophysically evaluated conventional cores from forty-six
(46) wells, and electric logs from 358 wells. Regional
facies maps and isopach maps were generated for
each of the Lower Glen Rose Members. In addition, five (5) regional facies cross sections (three dip
sections and two strike sections) were constructed,
combining core and well log information.
The data and interpretations for this study are
presented in three comprehensive well summary
reports. A two-volume final report provides a summary and regional synthesis of geological and petrophysical aspects of the various producing formations.

EAST TEXAS LOWER


L O U I S I A N A CRETACEOUS REGIONAL
STUDY

TEXAS

REGI O N A L GEO LO GI C A L ST UDY


O F GLEN RO SE CA RBO N ATES
A N D SI LI C I C LA STI C S I N THE EAST
T EXA S BA SI N

P t

Core Laboratories completed a study of Glen

Rose strata in the East Texas Basin, to address


problems related to exploration, reservoir evaluation, and exploitation of these Cretaceous Age
reservoirs. The objective of the study is to provide
participating companies with detailed geological
analysis and well log evaluations of the Pettet,
James and Rodessa members of the Lower Glen
Rose Formation on both a local and regional scale.

For ty -six ( 46) wells


Logs f r om 358 wells
Con ven tion al cor e
Pettet, James an d R odessa For mation s

ARKANSAS

LOUISIANA
TEXAS

pore types, pore system properties, and diagenetic


alterations that affect reservoir potential, and 3) determine the petrophysical properties of reservoir rocks for
improved formation evaluation. These objectives were
met through a combination of detailed core description,
thin section petrography, special core analysis (resistivity
measurements and air-mercury injection capillary pressure tests), scanning electron microscopy, and through
the construction of a combined facies/diagenetic cross
section. Observations and conclusions derived from the
analyses of these wells are provided in a five (5) volume
final report that synthesizes and integrates the geological
and petrophysical data.

EAST TEXAS SMACKOVER


REGIONAL STUDY

GEO LO GI C STU D Y A N D
RESER VO I R EVA LU ATI O N
O F THE EA ST TEXA S BA SI N
S M A C K O VER FO RMATI O N

ore Laboratories is offering a completed study


of Jurassic Smackover Formation strata in east
Texas. The study area includes Rains, Limestone,
Van Zandt, Freestone, Henderson and Wood Counties with sixteen (16) conventionally cored wells.
The objectives of this study are to: 1) describe
and sedimentologically analyze the cored intervals,
leading to the development of a depositional model
with emphasis placed on improved delineation of
Smackover reservoirs, 2) identify porous zones,

Sixteen ( 16) wells


Con ven tion al cor e
R ain s, Limeston e, Van Zan dt, Fr eeston e,
H en derson an d Wood Coun ties, Texas

12

EAST TEXAS SMACKOVER REGIONAL STUDY EAST TEXAS LOWER CR


WOODBINE REGIONAL STUDY ARKANSAS LOUISIANA LOWER CRET

north america
E a s t Te x a s / N o r t h e r n L o u i s i a n a / S o u t h e r n A r k a n s a s

TEXAS

HAYNESVILLE AND BOSSIER


SHALE STUDY

LOUISIANA

RESER VO I R CHA RA CTERIZAT ION AND


P RO D U CTI O N P RO P ER TI ES

umerous oil and gas companies are directing


their efforts toward the exploration and exploitation
of the Haynesville and Bossier Shale in East Texas
and Northern Louisiana. This gas shale reservoir
has proved to be challenging in terms of reservoir
characterization, predicting producibility potential,
estimating ultimate recovery and optimizing
fracture stimulation techniques. Many companies
either do not have or have limited rock property
data that is crucial for understanding these reservoirs.
Therefore, in order to properly evaluate and explore
these gas shales, appropriate types of rock property
data need to be measured and integrated with log
data, stimulation techniques, and production test
information. These integrated data sets and case

LOUISIANA

JAMES LIME

TEXAS

REGI O N A L, P ETRO P HYSI CAL AND


P RO D U CTI O N STU D Y FO R IM PR OV ED
FO RMATI O N EVA LU ATI O N AND OPT IMA L W ELL C O MP LETI O N S

his project is designed to optimize operators


exploration and exploitation of James Lime
reservoirs in the East Texas and North Louisiana
areas, with a possible extension to south Mississippi.
This play is maturing with mixed results from the
horizontal wells in tight sections and a general
poor understanding of what makes a good well.
Recent discussions with several operators in the
trend indicate that many operators are having
common problems in locating the sweet spots
for production in the trend and in their formation
evaluation and reservoir characterization. These
technical issues that the project addresses
include but are not limited to the following:
What is controlling production in the James
Lime? Is it depositional facies, natural fractures,
thin permeable sweet zones, or a combination?

histories provide operators with the critical parameters


to optimize their exploitation of the Haynesville and
Bossier Shale and reduce finding and development costs.
Core Laboratories is conducting this multi-company,
geo-engineering study of the Haynesville and Bossier
Shale. This project consists of the characterization
and evaluation of numerous conventional cores,
rotary sidewall cores, and drill cutting samples taken
from multiple wells targeting the Haynesville and
Bossier Shale. Specifically, these prospective shale
sections will be analyzed for geological, petrophysical,
geomechanical, geochemical, and production
properties. This data will be integrated with well logs,
stimulation designs, and production test information.
This large and searchable database will provide
operators with valuable information not only on
their own wells within these shale sections, but also
on other operators wells. The project will be focused
on evaluating numerous Haynesville and Bossier
Shale wells in East Texas and Northern Louisiana.
On goin g pr oject with over 100 wells

How can we differentiate good reservoirs and


areas from the non-commercial areas?
What are pay recognition criteria from logs for the
James Lime and how much gas is in place? Where
is the water coming from?
If production is related to natural fractures, what
are the fracture spacing, orientation and areas
favorable for development?
What is the optimal fracture stimulation design(s)
to maximize production?
How can production performance be predicted to
aid in completion decisions?

These problems can only be solved from the


geological, petrophysical and completion/stimulation
analysis and evaluation of wells with either
conventional cores or rotary sidewall cores. The
resultant data is used to calibrate open-hole logs in
order to better predict rock types and petrophysical
properties essential for formation evaluation and
proper well completion and stimulation designs.
The rock types and their measured petrophysical
properties can also serve as analogs when evaluating
new reservoirs in wildcats or field step outs.

13

COTTON VALLEY WOODBINE REGIONAL STUDY ARKANSAS LOUISI


EAST TEXAS LOWER CRETACEOUS REGIONAL STUDY WOODBINE REG

north america
E a s t Te x a s / N o r t h e r n L o u i s i a n a / S o u t h e r n A r k a n s a s

ARKANSAS

TEXAS

LOUISIANA

LOWER SMACKOVER BROWN


DENSE EXPLORATION
RECONNAISSANCE STUDY

ne of the most prolific source rocks in


the Gulf Coast Basin area is the Lower Smackover
Brown Dense section. It is the source rock for
the overlying Upper Smackover carbonate-shoal
conventional reservoirs. This organically-laminated,
carbonate mudstone section rims the Gulf Coast
Basin from Florida to East Texas. It may contain
liquid hydrocarbons that might be economically
produced with horizontal drilling and fracture
stimulation. Several companies are currently

TEXAS

LOUISIANA

evaluating the potential of the Lower Smackover


looking to become a first mover in the play.
This project is offered to interested companies
who are interested in a reconnaissance project
involving the screening of reservoir properties from
legacy cores. This project consists of the reservoir
characterization of several cores that Core Lab has
obtained from the public domain. The primary area of
interest is the Arkansas-Louisiana State Line Trend,
but other areas in Texas and Alabama are included.
The primary objective of this project is to provide
operators with geological, petrographic, geochemical,
and pore space properties of the Lower Smackover
section by the analysis of conventional cores.

What are pay recognition criteria for the Travis


Peak Hosston and how do these criteria change
regionally?
What are the optimal completion and stimulation
fluids?
What is the optimal fracture stimulation
design(s) to maximize production?
How can production performance be predicted
to aid in completion decisions?

TRAVIS PEAK HOSSTON


SANDSTONES

GEO LO GI CA L, P ETRO P HYSICAL


A N D C O MP LETI O N S STU DY FOR
I MP RO VED FO RMATI O N EVALUAT ION
A N D O P TI MA L WELL C O MP LET IONS

This project was designed to optimize

operators exploitation of Travis Peak - Hosston


reservoirs in the East Texas and North
Louisiana areas. Many operators have common
problems in the formation evaluation, well
completion, stimulation and production aspects
of Travis Peak - Hosston reservoirs. Technical
issues addressed in the project include:
What are the various reservoir rock types and
their petrophysical properties, and how do they
vary regionally?
What is Rw and the appropriate water
saturation model for the reservoir and does
it change by zone and/or regionally?

These problems are solved from the geological,


petrophysical and completion/stimulation analysis
and evaluation of wells with either conventional cores
or rotary sidewall cores. The resultant data is used
to calibrate open-hole logs in order to better predict
rock types and petrophysical properties essential for
formation evaluation and proper well completion
and stimulation designs. The rock types and their
measured petrophysical properties can also serve as
analogs when evaluating new reservoirs in wildcats or
field step-outs.
Nin eteen ( 19) wells
Con ven tion al an d r otar y sidewall cor e

14

EAST TEXAS SMACKOVER REGIONAL STUDY EAST TEXAS LOWER CR


WOODBINE REGIONAL STUDY ARKANSAS LOUISIANA LOWER CRET

north america
ARKANSAS

E a s t Te x a s / N o r t h e r n L o u i s i a n a / S o u t h e r n A r k a n s a s

LOUISIANA

TEXAS

Core Laboratories strongly feels that oil companies


will benefit in both an exploration and production
sense by acquiring the Reservoir Evaluation of the
Woodbine Formation Study. A study which geologically and petrophysically characterizes conventional
cores and cuttings from forty-four (44) wells will
enable members to:

WOODBINE REGIONAL
STUDY

REGI O N A L GEO LO GI C STUDY


A N D RESER VO I R EVA LU AT ION
O F THE WO O D BI N E FO RMAT ION
EA ST TEXA S

The Woodbine of upper Cretaceous Age has

been one of the most prolific oil and gas targets in


the East Texas Basin. Exploration for Woodbine
production in east Texas has been intensive since
the first discovery was made at Mexia in October
of 1920. The majority of Woodbine exploration and
production has been confined to an area north of
the Angelina-Caldwell flexure and the Edwards
reef trend. Production from the Woodbine interval
in this area has been from depths of between 3,000
to 6,000 feet. Recent discoveries of Woodbine gas,
however, south of the Angelina-Caldwell flexure have
extended the area of exploration. The Woodbine
in this area is encountered at depths of 10,000 to
greater than 15,000 feet. For purposes of this study,
these two areas are referred to as the shallow and
deep Woodbine of East Texas. The Late
Cretaceous continental shelf and the beginning of
the continental slope in east Texas are marked by
the Angelina-Caldwell flexure and Edwards reef
trend. The shallow Woodbine, therefore, represents
deposition north of the shelf edge and the deep
Woodbine represents deposition south of the shelf
edge. This regional geologic study encompasses
both areas of Woodbine deposition.
Exploring for Woodbine production within the
East Texas Basin is complex. Depositionally, the
formation is complex. The sand bodies that form
reservoirs are erratically distributed in the section
and represent various environments from fluvial to
marine. No single, simple, depositional model can
be used for exploring for Woodbine traps. A regional
study of the depositional environment for Woodbine
clastics within the East Texas Basin provides valuable information to the petroleum explorationists.

Select drilling fluids which are compatible


with the reservoir conditions and minimize
formation damage
Define reservoir units within the Woodbine
based on depositional patterns, reservoir
geometries, and reservoir continuity
Define the regional distribution of various types
of sandstone mineral, textural, and pore space
properties in Woodbine reservoir rocks,
particularly those associated with diagenetic
clay phases
Properly locate development wells within a
Woodbine field
Effectively interpret hydrocarbon-bearing
Woodbine sandstones which appear wet
on electric logs due to the presence of
diagenetic clays in the pore network
Design proper well stimulation and/or
fracturing treatments to efficiently produce
hydrocarbons from Woodbine reservoirs
Aid in lease acquisition and in overall exploration
and exploitation efforts for Woodbine wells
Assist in the selection of the number and
location of injectors, composition of enhanced
recovery fluids, and the treatment of injection
and production wells for Enhanced Recovery
programs within Woodbine fields

The study contains individual well reports and a final


report which summarizes the results.
For ty -f our ( 44) wells
Con ven tion al cor e an d drill cuttin gs

15

COTTON VALLEY WOODBINE REGIONAL STUDY ARKANSAS LOUISI


EAST TEXAS LOWER CRETACEOUS REGIONAL STUDY WOODBINE REG

OFFSHORE

GULF OF MEXICO

ONSHORE

north america
LOUISIANA

Gulf of Mexico Offshore

TEXAS

DEEP SHELF GULF OF


MEXICO REGIONAL STUDY
RESER VO I R Q U A LI TY RESER V OIR
Q U A LI TY P RED I CTI O N A N D
SEA L RO C K EVA LU ATI O N ,
D EEP SHELF GU LF O F MEXI C O

Operators in the Gulf of Mexico are directing

their efforts toward the exploration and exploitation of deep reservoirs in the shelf area of the Gulf
of Mexico. These reservoirs range in depth from
15,000 to 30,000 feet and are primarily Pliocene,
Miocene, and Oligocene in age. These reservoirs
present a challenge to operators and have an inherently high risk and cost. Traditional AVO seismic
methods have yielded mixed results for identifying
prospective target reservoirs. Explorationists must
currently rely on identifying and evaluating prospects by projecting sand distribution from regional
well control, identifying structural traps seismically,
assessing the risk of reservoir quality, and evaluating the risk of seal integrity. All are challenging and
aid significantly to the risk in drilling these wells.
Our project focus is on three key areas to help
reduce operator risk and increase success rates.
Characterize the reservoir quality and petrophysical properties of deep shelf reservoirs: As

geological characterization of deep shelf reservoirs


is critical to effective exploration, exploitation and
reservoir quality prediction. Data on depositional
facies, environment, rock types, mineralogy, pore
structure, clay types, and petrophysical properties

will be determined on conventional, rotary and percussion sidewall cores and/or cuttings as applicable.
Seal rock evaluation: Seal and potential seal rock
material from conventional cores, rotary sidewall
cores, percussion sidewall cores, and drill cutting
samples will be evaluated in terms of seal rock
properties. Methods used to determine seal capacity
are: mercury injection capillary pressure, thin section,
x-ray diffraction, and SEM analysis. An evaluation
of seals in terms of lithology, log response, pressure
regime, thickness, facies, areal extent, etc. from
multiple wells and horizons will provide critical
information needed to evaluate seal risk.
Predict reservoir quality of deep shelf reservoirs
in prospective (undrilled) areas: Geocosm will work

with the Integrated Reservoir Solutions Division


to provide reservoir quality predictions using the
Touchstone reservoir quality analysis and prediction system. Touchstone incorporates an integrated
suite of diagenetic and petrophysical models that
simulate sandstone reservoir properties through
geologic time and can be used to predict reservoir
quality away from well control. Important controls on
model results include sandstone depositional texture
and composition and subsequent temperature,
depth, and fluid overpressure histories. Touchstone
incorporates process models that are calibrated using
petrographic, core analysis, and burial history data for
analog samples. Calibration model development
will be included as part of the project and will be
performed by Core Laboratories.

Our project focus is on the three


key areas to help reduce operator
risk and increase success rates.

17

EEP SHELF GULF OF MEXICO DEEPWATER GULF OF MEXICO WILCO


ROVENCE STUDY OFFSHORE TEXAS/LOUISIANA MIOCENE CORE ST

north america
Gulf of Mexico Offshore

LOUISIANA

TEXAS

DEEPWATER GULF OF
MEXICO CORE STUDY
REGI O N A L C O RE A N D
BI O STRATI GRA P HI C STU D Y
O F THE D EEP WATER BLO C KS
GU LF O F MEXI CO

ore Laboratories is conducting one of the


largest regional geological and petrophysical
studies of conventional core wells in the deepwater blocks of the Gulf of Mexico available to
the industry.
This study focus is on determining the depositional facies of slope and deepwater sandstone
reservoirs, along with their petrographic and petrophysical properties in the deepwater blocks of the
Gulf of Mexico. In addition, detailed paleontological analysis is performed on core and drill cutting
samples in order to place the cored intervals into a
stratigraphic framework. These types of data and
interpretations, integrated into a regional database,
significantly enhance operators understanding of
these deepwater reservoirs for improved exploration and exploitation efforts. All of this data, besides being provided in individual well reports, can
be accessed in an Oracle database application via
the Internet.

CHANDELEUR
AREA

BRETON SOUND
AREA

MAIN PASS
AREA

The study area encompasses the blocks extending


from the East Breaks Area to the Desoto
Canyon Area. Participants in the project are required
to contribute conventional cores from four (4) wells
located within these deepwater areas. Conventional
cores from existing wells may be contributed, as well
as cores that are taken from exploration and exploitation wells that will be drilled in the near future.
Newly-cored wells provide material suitable for
the measurement and determination of an extensive
array of petrophysical properties. The spectrum of
deepwater reservoir rock types and their geological
and petrophysical properties have been compiled
into a catalog format to serve as reference analogs
for more accurate estimates of formation parameters
when evaluating non-cored reservoir intervals. Frequent core workshops and a series of technical talks
are conducted so that the participants can meet with
Core Laboratories deepwater team and examine,
firsthand, the cores and associated data.
In addition to the geological and petrophysical
evaluation of cored reservoir intervals, this project
also examines the seal characteristics of a spectrum
of Deepwater GOM fields. The objective of this
component of the study is to enhance evaluation of
seal rock quality and aid in the calculation of seal capacity. The resulting database aids operators in their
risk assessment of hydrocarbon columnar heights.
Samples have been taken from fifty (50) deepwater
fields from cores in the study. Data used to evaluate
these deepwater seals are: high pressure mercury
injection capillary pressure, thin-section petrography,
x-ray diffraction, SEM analysis and Laser Particle
Size analysis. These data along with reservoir parameters are used to determine seal capacity of the
underlying reservoirs and will provide critical parameters for determining seal capacity of deepwater oil
and gas seals in their depositional context.
In addition, Core Lab has compiled a Wilcox
provenance dataset from our Texas and Louisiana
Wilcox Regional Studies and from Mexican outcrop
samples. This dataset will allow operators to conduct
proprietary sandstone provenance studies in the
Deepwater Gulf of Mexico for Paleocene to Lower
Eocene sandstone reservoirs expected
to be
CONVENTIONAL CORES
encountered in the Alaminos Canyon and Walker
Ridge areas.
Tahoe

Petronius

Virgo

Neptune

Nile

Marlin

Ram Powell

VIOSCA KNOLL

EAST CAMERON
AREA

WEST CAMERON AREA

S. PELTO
AREA

SOUTH
MARSH
ISLAND
AREA
HIGH ISLAND AREA

WEST DELTA
AREA

VERMILION AREA

EUGENE ISLAND AREA

HIGH ISLAND AREA

Pompano

SOUTH PASS
AREA

GRAND ISLE
AREA

Amberjack

Kings Peak

Horn Mtn

Cognac
Matterhorn

Camden Hills
Gemini

SHIP SHOAL AREA


SOUTH TIMBALIER AREA

Rigel

Fourier

S. S. 208

Zia
Anstey
Medusa

East Anstey
GALVESTON AREA

Andouin

Devils Tower
Gomez

Midway
E. C. 332

Goose

S. S. 331

Tanzanite
Mohogany

Sunrise

S. V. 362

BRAZOS AREA

Mars

Lobster
Morpeth
EWING BANK

MISSISSIPPI CANYON

G. C. 60

GB 70
Shasta
GB 147

Champlain

G. C. 154

Enchilada

Snapper

REA

Lorien

Merganser

Genesis

Jolliet

Tick

Aspen

Bald Pate

Front Runner

S. Front Runner
Llano
GB 387

Lost Ark

Cooper

Fuji

Auger

K-2

Dawson Deep
Falcon

Nansen

Neptune
Gunnison

Marco Polo
Constitution
Atlantis

Magnolia

Ticonderoga
Diana

PUS CHRISTI AREA

EAST BREAKS

Rockefeller

GARDEN BANKS

GREEN CANYON

Thunder Hawk

ATWATER

Hoover
South Diana

INDEX MAP OF

DEEPWATER
GULF OF MEXICO
Regional Study

LEGEND

PROJECT WELLS RELEASED

PROJECT WELLS IN PROGRESS

PORT ISABEL AREA

ALAMINOS CANYON

Trident

KEATHLEY CANYON

CORES ON DISPLAY
(11-10-2005)

WALKER RIDGE

18

DEEP S HELF GULF OF MEXICO REGIONAL STUDY DEEPWATER GULF


MEXICO OFFSHORE TEXAS/LOUISIANA MIOCENE CORE STUDY W

north america
LOUISIANA

Gulf of Mexico Offshore

TEXAS

High-resolution foram and calcareous


nannofossil paleontology
Define and evaluate Miocene sandstone
reservoir quality in terms of texture,
mineralogy, diagenesis, and pore system
properties
Log-derived petrophysical properties were
determined for cored Miocene sandstones
and correlated and calibrated to measured
core data
The spectrum of Miocene reservoir rock
types and their geological and petrophysical
properties are compiled in a catalog format
to serve as reference analogs for more
accurate estimates of formation parameters,
when evaluating non-cored reservoir intervals.
Regional synthesis of all data in terms of
reservoir quality and architecture

OFFSHORE/TEXAS
LOUISIANA MIOCENE
CORE STUDY

Galveston

REGI O N A L C O RE A N D
BI O STRATI GRA P HI C STU D Y
O F THE MI O CEN E O FFSHO RE
T E X A S A N D LO U I SI A N A

Core Laboratories conducted one of the

industrys most comprehensive regional geological


and petrophysical study of the offshore Miocene
from over one hundred wells with conventional
cores in the Gulf of Mexico. This large project
consists of two separate, but compatible, studies
of the Miocene divided between offshore Texas
and offshore Louisiana. These studies are focused
on determining the depositional environment(s),
along with petrographic and petrophysical properties of productive and potentially productive
reservoir sandstones. In addition, paleontological
analysis has been performed on core and cuttings
in order to place the cored intervals into a stratigraphic framework.
The study provides participants with the
following analyses, data, and interpretations:

The various geological and petrophysical data


generated on the Miocene conventional cores
(wells) are compiled, interpreted, and presented
in well data reports and in a final report. Individual
offshore Texas and Louisiana well reports are available for each project well. A final report summarizes
the data and provides a regional overview of the
Miocene section in terms of significant aspects and
conclusions regarding improved exploration and
exploitation activities.

Core description, core photography, and


sedimentological interpretation of depositional
environments

101 wells
Con ven tion al cor e
Of f sh or e Texas an d Louisian a

TEXAS
Galveston

MEXICO

WILCOX PROVENANCE
STUDY
WI LC O X P RO VEN A N CE DATABASE
FO R SO U RCE I D EN TI FI CATION

Core Laboratories compiled a Wilcox prove-

nance dataset from our Texas and Louisiana Wilcox


Regional Studies. This dataset will allow operators
to conduct proprietary sandstone provenance studies in the Deepwater Gulf of Mexico. This dataset
consists of Paleocene to Lower Eocene sandstone
reservoirs expected to be encountered in the Alaminos Canyon and Walker Ridge areas. These sandstones have several possible fluvial-deltaic sediment
source areas along the Texas and Louisiana coeval
shelf, with Mexico also being a candidate. Some
19

of the possible source areas are the Rio Grande,


Carrizo, Corsair, Houston, Red River and Mississippi depositional axes.
The database contains the quantitative petrographic analysis of selected sandstone thin sections
from twenty-two (22) wells located in the onshore
shelf rimming the Gulf of Mexico. The composition
of deepwater sandstones can then be compared and
contrasted (i.e., matched) with the shelf (onshore)
sandstones to determine the most likely source
area(s) for similarly aged deepwater sandstones,
using this database.
In addition, thirty-seven (37) Mexican outcrop
samples from the La Popa, Tampico/Misantla, and
Burgos Basins have been collected and added to
the Texas and Louisiana dataset. Shale samples
were collected for age verification on these outcrop
samples.

FFSHORE TEXAS/LOUISANA MIOCENE CORE STUDY DEEPWATER G


WILCOX PROVENCE STUDY DEEP SHELF GULF OF MEXICO EMBAYME

north america
Gulf of Mexico Onshore
GEORGIA

ALABAMA

FLORIDA

APALACHICOLA
EMBAYMENT REGIONAL
STUDY

A GEO LO GI CA L STU D Y O F T H E SM ACKO VER, N O RP HLET, EA GLE


MI LLS A N D HAYN ESVI LLE FO RM AT IONS
I N THE A PA LA CHI C O LA A REA

Conventional core and drill cuttings from

ten (10) wells in the Apalachicola Embayment


area of northwestern Florida were examined and
petrographically described to determine lithological
properties, reservoir quality, and exploration
potential in the Smackover Formation. The report
contains detailed geological analysis of conventional

TEXAS

core and drill cutting samples from the


Jurassic Smackover and associated sandstone
(Norphlet, Eagle Mills, Haynesville) Formations
in the Apalachicola Embayment.
The final report contains complete descriptive
and interpretive well reports for each of the ten (10)
wells studied. The report also presents a Results and
Interpretation section summarizing the data
collected from the ten (10) study wells. Included
in this section are two cross sections schematically
illustrating the Smackover/Sandstone intervals
studied and a plan view map of the Apalachicola
Embayment which delineates the general trends of
the more favorable Smackover Reservoir potential.
Ten ( 10) wells
Con ven tion al cor e an d drill cuttin gs
Smackover, Norph let, Eagle M ills an d
H ay n esville For mation s

LOUISIANA

These data are provided in a graphic core


description, along with core and depositional
facies correlated to open-hole logs. In addition,
all cores were photographed in color to provide
a permanent reference of the cored sequence.
Define and evaluate Frio sandstone reservoir
quality in terms of texture, mineralogy, diagenesis, and pore system properties. Conventional
core, sidewall core, and drill cutting samples
from productive and potentially productive
sandstones were subjected to thin section
petrographic characterization, point count
modal analysis (conventional core and rotary
sidewall cores only), and color photomicroscopy.
In addition, the samples were analyzed by
scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to identify
diagenetic clays and characterize pore systems.
X-ray diffraction analysis was utilized to
determine bulk and clay fraction mineralogy.
A series of petrophysical measurements were
performed on conventional core samples to
determine important parameters for formation evaluation. The sample suite represented
the spectrum of Frio reservoir rock types.
These rock types and associated data serve
as reference analogs for more accurate
estimates of formation parameters when
evaluating non-cored reservoir intervals.

DEEP FRIO
REGIONAL STUDY
RESER VO I R EVA LU ATI O N
O F D EEP FRI O SA N D STO N ES
A LO N G THE SO U THEA ST
T EXA S C O A ST

Core Laboratories conducted a geological and

petrophysical study of Deep Frio sandstones on


the southeast Texas coast. The study is directed
at analyzing conventional cores from multiple
wells located primarily in Brazoria and Galveston
counties. The technical objective of this study is to
provide each participating company with detailed
geological and petrophysical characterization and
evaluation of productive and/or potentially productive Frio sandstones. The study also provides
companies with a strong database and understanding of the Deep Frio sandstones, to aid in their
exploration and exploitation efforts, and it contains
conventional core from 6 (six) wells.
The analytical program consisted of
the following:
Core description, core photography, and
sedimentological interpretation of depositional
environments. All conventional cores were
described in detail in terms of lithology, grain
size, physical and biogenic sedimentary
structures, contacts, and vertical sequence.

Six ( 6) wells
Con ven tion al cor e
Brazoria an d Galveston Coun ties, Texas

20

EEP FRIO REGIONAL STUDY APALACHICOLA EMBAYMENT REGIONAL


AYNESVILLE CORE STUDY THANKSGIVING FIELD STUDY LOBO REGI

north america
Gulf of Mexico Onshore
TEXAS

Galveston

DEEP FRIO OF SOUTH


TEXAS REGIONAL STUDY
SO U TH TEXA S FRI O SA NDST ONES
GEO LO GI CA L, P ETRO P HYSICAL, AND
GEO MEC HA N I C A L P RO P ER TIES FOR
I MP RO VED FO RMATI O N EVA LUAT ION
A N D O P TI MA L W ELL C O MP LETIONS

MEXICO

This project was designed to optimize operators

exploitation of down-dip, geopressured, Frio gas


reservoirs in south Texas. Operators in this trend
indicate that are having problems in the formation
evaluation, well completion, stimulation and production aspects of down-dip Frio gas wells. These
problems include but are not limited to the
following:
Recognition of pay versus non-pay (lowresistivity contrast) as a result of pore
system clays, shaly bioturbated reservoirs,
and/or thin-bedded reservoirs
Petrophysical evaluation and reserve
estimates
Prediction of permeability for the assessment of formation damage and production
performance

Casing collapse associated with rock


compressive strength failure after fracture
stimulation and drawdown
Rock-fluid compatibility, well completion
and stimulation designs
Reduced permeability and porosity
associated with pore volume compressibility during production

These problems have cost companies millions


of dollars and can only be solved from the geological, petrophysical and geomechanical analysis and
evaluation of either conventional cores or rotary
sidewall cores. Cores from sixteen (16) wells were
thoroughly analyzed in this fashion. The resultant data was used to calibrate open-hole logs and
dipole sonic logs (e.g. MAC) in order to better
predict rock types and properties essential for
formation evaluation and proper well completion
and stimulation designs. These rock types and
their measured petrophysical and geomechanical
properties serve as analogs when evaluating new
reservoirs in wildcats or field step-outs.
Eigh teen ( 18) wells
Con ven tion al an d r otar y sidewall cor e

TEXAS
Galveston

EAGLE FORD
REGIONAL STUDY

RESER VO I R C HA RA C TERI ZAT ION


MEXICO

A N D P RO D U CTI O N P RO P ER TIES

his gas and oil producing shale reservoir has


proved to be challenging in terms of reservoir
characterization, predicting producibility potential,
estimating ultimate recovery, and optimizing
fracture stimulation techniques. Many companies
either do not have or have limited rock property
data that are crucial for understanding these
reservoirs. Therefore, in order to properly evaluate
and explore these gas and oil producing shales,
appropriate types of rock property data need to be
measured and integrated with log data, stimulation
techniques, and production test information.

These integrated data sets and case histories will


provide operators with the critical parameters
to optimize their exploitation of the Eagle Ford
Shale and reduce finding and development costs.
The primary objective of this project is to
provide operators with measured geological,
petrophysical, geomechanical, geochemical,
and production properties of the Eagle Ford
Shale in order to improve their formation
evaluation and to optimize stimulation and
production. Understanding the similarities
and differences in these shales on a regional
basis is the key to successful exploration and
exploitation. The resultant database will be
an invaluable tool to operators in evaluating,
comparing, and designing completion and
stimulation methods for the Eagle Ford Shale.

21

AYNESVILLE CORE STUDY LOBO REGIONAL STUDY YEGUA REGIONA


EEP FRIO REGIONAL STUDY HAYNESVILLE CORE STUDY OLIGOCENE

north america
Gulf of Mexico Onshore

LOUISIANA

TEXAS
Galveston

recovery, and optimizing fracture stimulation


techniques. Many companies either do not have
or have limited rock property data that are crucial
for understanding these reservoirs. Therefore,
in order to properly evaluate and explore these
gas and oil producing reservoirs, appropriate
types of rock property data need to be measured
and integrated with log data, stimulation
techniques, and production test information.
These integrated data sets and case histories will
provide operators with the critical parameters to
optimize their exploitation of the Eaglebine
and reduce finding and development costs.

EAGLEBINE REGIONAL
STUDY

RESER VO I R CHA RA CTERI ZAT ION


A N D P RO D U C TI O N P RO P ER TI ES

he Eaglebine section is the interval in


East Texas from the base of the Austin Chalk
to the top of the Buda limestone. It consists of
the Woodbine sandstones and the underlying
Eagle Ford Shale both of which are targets
for horizontal completions. These liquids-rich
reservoirs have proved to be challenging in terms
of drilling, reservoir characterization, predicting
producibility potential, estimating ultimate

ALABAMA
ISSISSIPPI

HAYNESVILLE CORE STUDY


STU D Y O F THE N O R TH FR ISCO
CI TY A N D N O R TH RO ME FIELDS
HAYN ESVI LLE CO RE STU D Y

The Haynesville core study focuses is on two

fields. The Frisco City Member of the Jurassic


Haynesville Formation at North Frisco City Field
and North Rome Field in Alabama. Project components include detailed sedimentology on 680 feet
of core from eight (8) wells. Mineralogy, texture,
grain fabric and pore system properties were
described and documented from thin sections,
X-ray diffraction and SEM analyses. These data
provided the basis for a discussion on diagenetic
alterations and their effect on reservoir potential.

Laboratory measured permeability, porosity,


saturations and electrical properties performed
on the cored wells were tabulated to be used for
improved formation evaluation using wireline logs
and appear in individual well reports. Display
panels are provided that illustrate core-to-log
correlations that incorporate depositional environmental interpretations and core data. Stratigraphic
cross sections summarize and illustrate lateral
facies relationships across each field and exploration
guidelines are presented based on the
integration of a detailed depositional model with a
paleogeographic reconstruction of the study area.
Eigh t ( 8) wells
Con ven tion al cor e
Nor th Frisco an d Nor th R ome f ields, Alabama

22

OBO REGIONAL STUDY MAFLA SMACKOVER REGIONAL STUDY LOUI


EGIONAL STUDY OLIGOCENE REGIONAL STUDY APALACHICOLA EMB

north america
Gulf of Mexico Onshore
TEXAS

LOBO REGIONAL STUDY


GEO LO GI C A L, P ETRO P HYSICAL,
A N D EN GI N EERI N G STU DY OF
THE LO BO (LO WER WI LC OX)
SA N D STO N ES WEBB A N D ZAPATA
C O U N TI ES, TEXA S

ore Laboratories initiated this study to address problems related to exploration, reservoir
evaluation, exploitation and completion of Lobo
sandstone reservoirs. The objective of the study
was to provide participating companies with detailed geological, petrophysical, and engineering
characterization, and evaluation of productive and
potentially productive reservoir sandstones on
both a local (field) and regional scale.
There are twenty-four (24) project wells with the
majority of these wells located in Webb County.
Of the twenty-four (24) project wells, thirteen
(13) contain conventional cores that comprised
2,117 feet of Lobo section. The Lobo sandstones
in the remaining eleven wells were represented
by either sidewall cores or drill cuttings. Cored
Lobo sequences were analyzed in terms of lithology, sedimentary structures, vertical sequence, and
depositional environments. Depositional environments for wells with only sidewall cores or drill cuttings are also interpreted based on gamma-ray log
signatures, petrographic criteria, and comparison to
conventional core analogs.
Reservoir sandstone properties such as texture,

mineralogy, diagenesis and pore structure were


determined petrographically. Special emphasis was
directed at both depositional and diagenetic controls on reservoir quality and the influence of clays
on petrophysical properties and log response.
Detailed petrophysical measurements and evaluations of sandstone reservoir parameters were performed. These include porosity, permeability, grain
density, porosity and gas permeability as a function
of overburden pressure, electrical properties, effective gas permeability, immobile water saturation,
and capillary pressure. Each zone that was geologically evaluated in a particular well was also evaluated petrophysically by log analysis. Log-derived
petrophysical properties were then compared to
core analysis data where available.
Each of the project wells was evaluated by a
well completion engineer in order to assess drilling
and completion procedures and potential formation damage problems. In addition several drilling,
completion and fracturing fluids used by operators
in the trend were tested for their compatibility
with Lobo reservoir sandstones.
The generated data and interpretations for the
project wells are provided in three comprehensive
well summary reports. A final report provides a
summary and regional synthesis of the geological,
petrophysical and engineering aspects of the Lobo
Reservoir sandstones.
T h ir teen ( 13) wells con ven tion al cor e
Eleven ( 11) wells sidewall cor es or cuttin gs
Webb an d Zapata Coun ties, Texas

23

MAFLA SMACKOVER REGIONAL STUDY LOUISIANA WILCOX REGIONA


CE NE REGIONAL STUDY APALACHICOLA EMBAYMENT NORPHLET RES

north america
LOUISIANA

Gulf of Mexico Onshore

LOUISIANA WILCOX
REGIONAL STUDY
Galveston

REGIONAL GEOLOGICAL,
ENGINEERING, AND PETROPHYSICAL
CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION
OF THE LOUISIANA WILCOX

The Louisiana Wilcox Regional Study contains a

complete geological, petrophysical, and engineering


study from data on drill cuttings and conventional
cores on thirty (30) wells.
The conventional cores were used to describe,
document, and interpret Wilcox sandstone lithology, vertical sequences, and the character of various
lithofacies present within the cored intervals.
Sandstone minerology, textural, and pore space
properties for Wilcox pay and potential pay zones
were defined, documented, and evaluated. Various
rock-logging and fluid-flow parameters for selected
Wilcox sandstone samples and zones representative
of the spectrum of reservoir-quality rock types were
measured in the laboratory.

The geological, petrophysical and engineering data were compiled and evaluated to provide
a regional synthesis and summary of Wilcox rock
properties significant to exploration and exploitation activities.
The final report contains regional information
and conclusions regarding:
Regional setting and stratigraphy
Depositional environments and models,
log response, sand body geometry, and
vertical/lateral relationships
Sandstone mineralogy, texture, and
pore types
Quantification of Wilcox rock types
Petrophysical evaluation of Wilcox
sandstones
Detailed drilling and completion evaluations
and recommendations

T h ir ty ( 30) wells
Con ven tion al cor e an d cuttin gs

24

LOBO REGIONAL STUDY MAFLA SMACKOVER REGIONAL STUDY NOR


LOUISIANA WILCOX REGIONAL STUDY THANKSGIVING FIELD YEGUA

north america
RKANSAS

MISSISSIPPI
LOUISIANA

Gulf of Mexico Onshore


AL

LOWER TUSCALOOSA
FORMATION REGIONAL
STUDY
REGI O N A L GEO LO GI C STU DY
A N D RESER VO I R EVA LU ATI O N
OF THE LO W ER TU SC A LO O SA
F ORMATI O N I N SO U THW EST
MI SSI SSI P P I A N D LO U I SI A N A

veston

he Lower Tuscaloosa Regional Study


addresses problems related to the exploration,
reservoir evaluation, and production of Lower
Tuscaloosa sandstone reservoirs. Some of the major
difficulties encountered by operators in the trend
have been understanding and predicting the type,
geometry, distribution, and stratigraphic trapping
mechanism of Lower Tuscaloosa sandstone
reservoirs. Differentiating pay from non-pay zones
due to low resistivity contrasts and evaluating
production characteristics and associated proper
completion procedures, especially concerning potential water production, are also major difficulties.
Therefore, the overall objective of this study
has been to provide participating companies with
detailed geological, petrophysical, and engineering characterization and evaluation of productive
and potentially productive reservoir sandstones on
both a local (field) and regional scale. The study
contains approximately 6,000 feet of conventional
core from ninety (90) project wells located in an
8,800 square mile area encompassing ten (10)
counties in southwest Mississippi and six (6)
parishes in Louisiana.

The cores were geologically evaluated with


special emphasis placed on productive and/or
potentially productive reservoir sandstones. All
cores were slabbed, photographed in color, and
described in detail in terms of lithology, grain
size, physical and biogenic sedimentary structures, contacts, and vertical sequence in order to
interpret depositional environments. Thin section
petrography, scanning electron microscopy, and
X-ray diffraction were utilized to characterize such
sandstone reservoir properties as texture, mineralogy, clay types, and pore space. Special emphasis
was placed on the types and mode of occurrence of
the various diagenetic minerals (especially clays)
in the pore system and their influence on reservoir properties and log response. Productive and/
or potentially productive Tuscaloosa sandstone
cores were also petrophysically evaluated. Porosity, permeability, and grain density were measured
for all samples that were geologically analyzed
and selected key samples were analyzed to obtain
advanced rock property measurements.
The generated data and interpretations for the
individual project wells are provided. The wells
are conveniently indexed on regional base maps.
A final report was prepared that summarizes the
results and conclusions pertaining to exploration
and development on a regional scale. Included in
the final report are nine regional facies cross
sections that cover the entire area.
Nin ety ( 90) wells
Appr oximately 6,000 f eet of con ven tion al co r e
Louisian a an d M ississippi

25

MAFLA SMACKOVER REGION AL STUDY LOUISIANA WILCOX REGION


OCENE REGIONAL STUDY APALACHICOLA EMBAYMENT NORPHLET RE

north america
MISSISSIPPI

Gulf of Mexico Onshore


ALABAMA

MAFLA SMACKOVER
REGIONAL STUDY

Core Laboratories conducted a

study of the Jurassic Smackover


Formation in the Mississippi-AlabamaFlorida (MAFLA Region). This study completely
characterizes Smackover reservoir rocks from a
geological and petrophysical evaluation of
seventy-two (72) conventionally cored wells.
Study objectives included:
Describe and document Smackover lithologies,
textures, sedimentary structures, and interpret depositional environments
Delineate rock constituents, cements,
and pore types, with special emphasis on
therelationship between diagenesis, facies,
and reservoir quality
Measure the petrophysical properties of
reservoir rocks for improved formation
evaluation
Provide a regional overview of Smackover
properties significant to current exploration
and production activities

The results of this study provide operators with


data and interpretations that have applications for
exploration and exploitation activities in the
MAFLA region. Ten (10) facies were identified
within a sequence of interpreted depositional environments that relate reservoir quality to distance
from the Paleozoic shoreline. Diagenetic events
with positive and adverse effects on reservoir
quality have been documented and summarized.
Core-derived porosity values were compared with
log-derived porosity values in order to establish the
reliability of standard porosity logs in the Smackover. As a result of special core analysis tests that
were conducted on fourteen (14) samples from
reservoir facies, a water saturation equation was
derived for saturation model development. Considerations for drilling and completion have been
offered, along with techniques for stimulation. A
final overview addresses exploration and production
trends, noting trap types, facies distribution patterns and targeted reservoir facies. Our Smackover
Regional Study compliments and can be combined
with our Smackover Reservoir Study.
Seven ty -two ( 72) wells
Con ven tion al cor e

26

VICKSBURG REGIONAL STUDY LOWER TUSCALOOSA FORMATION RE


RESER VOIR WILCOX SMACKOVER RESER VOIR STUDY ONSHORE SOU

north america
ALABAMA
MISSISSIPPI

Gulf of Mexico Onshore


NORPHLET RESERVOIR
STUDY

orphlet Reservoir Study is a


comprehensive stratigraphic and
petrographic study utilizing thirty-six (36)
wells that represent 3,800 feet of Norphlet section
from onshore and offshore Alabama, eastern Mississippi, and the Florida panhandle. A total of 349
samples were studied in thin section, eighty-five
(85) of which were analyzed by scanning electron
microscopy (SEM), with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and by X-ray diffraction (XRD),

and incorporated with routine rock property measurements. Sample depths range from 9,430 feet
near the updip limit to 21,960 feet.
The objective of this study is to characterize the
environments of deposition, petrology, rock types,
and diagenetic features of the Norphlet Formation
and to determine the extent of their effect on reservoir quality. Regional trends and local variations
in reservoir quality are also delineated. Recommended precautions for drilling completion as well
as well-log analyses are discussed.
T h ir ty -six ( 36) wells
3,800 f eet of con ven tion al cor e

LOUISIANA

OLIGOCENE
REGIONAL STUDY

EXAS

Galveston

D EEP O LI GO CEN E C O RE ST UDY


O F SO U THW ESTERN LO U I SIANA

eological and petrophysical evaluations


were conducted on conventional cores from thirtyone (31) wells, extending from Jefferson County,
Texas, to St. Martin Parish, Louisiana. The entire
Oligocene database is evaluated to provide facies
relationships, petrographic data, and petrophysical
properties characteristic of Oligocene sandstones
irrespective of biostratigraphic units.
The study is based on the detailed examination of
2,595 feet of conventional core, representing
over 3,000 feet of Oligocene section. Cores
were provided from both the Frio and Anahuac
Formations, with the major emphasis being on
middle to upper Frio Strata. Conventional cores from
each of the project wells were analyzed and evaluated to determine:
Core to log correlations, lithologies, sedimentary structures, vertical sequences, and
depositional environments
Foraminifera and nannofossil content, age,
and Paleozoic water depth
Sandstone reservoir quality in terms of
texture, mineralogy, diagenesis, and pore
system characteristics
Sandstone petrophysical properties based
on log evaluations and conventional core
analysis data

Individual well reports contain detailed core


descriptions, core photographs, well logs through
the zones of interest, and conventional core
analysis data, as well as the results of micropaleontological evaluations, petrographic analyses,
and log evaluations. The final report evaluates the
compiled Oligocene database first with respect to
individual biostratigraphic units and then in terms
of the entire Oligocene section in southwestern
Louisiana. Sections of the final report deal with a
separate biostratigraphic unit, providing a concise
summary of depositional environment, petrography, diagenesis, and petrophysical properties for
eight (8) different target horizons. Each discussion
incorporates a series of summary tables, figures
including a type-log, type-section, and depositional
model, and photographic plates. One chapter of
the report is devoted to special core analysis and
engineering recommendations. A total of fourteen (14) sandstones were selected to cover the
spectrum of reservoir rock types throughout the
examined Oligocene section. For each of these
samples, a variety of petrophysical parameters were
measured in the laboratory. A complete suite of
petrographic, advanced rock properties, and fluid
compatibility test results for each sample is provided in a rock catalog format. The last chapter is
essentially an overview or regional synthesis of
all data generated.
T h ir ty -on e ( 31) wells
2,595 f eet of con ven tion al cor e
Jef f erson Coun ty, Texas to
St. M ar tin Parish , Lousian a

27

OLIGOCENE REGIONAL STUDY DEEPWATER GULF OF MEXICO OFFSHO


IELD HAYNESVILLE CORE OL IGOCENE REGIONAL APALACHICOLA EM

north america
MISSISSIPPI

Gulf of Mexico Onshore

LOUISIANA

ONSHORE SOUTH
LOUISIANA MIOCENE
REGIONAL STUDY

Galveston

REGI O N A L C O RE STU D Y O F T H E
MI O C EN E I N SO U TH LO U I SI ANA
A N D CO A STA L WATERS

he reservoir quality of Miocene sandstones


is highly variable and dependent on depositional
environment and burial diagenesis, with the latter
of these two factors being rather pronounced considering the wide range in burial depths (i.e., 2,000
to 23,500 feet). The depositional and reservoir
quality aspects of the Miocene section can best be
addressed by the analysis of conventional cores.
The objective of this study is to provide operators
with detailed geological, petrophysical, and engineering characterization and evaluation of the Miocene
section of onshore and coastal waters in south
Louisiana from specific biostratigraphic zones. The
following analyses were conducted and evaluated on
conventional cores from fifty (50) wells.

TEXAS

PEARSALL GROUP
RESERVOIR EVALUATION

Galveston

REGI O N A L C O RE STU D Y OF T H E
P EA RSA LL GRO U P I N SO U TH T EXAS

MEXICO

nitial results of the exploration and exploitation of the Pearsall Group in South Texas are
very encouraging; with reported initial production
rates ranging from 450 to 740 BOPD with 4 to 6
MMCFGPD of associated gas. The play appears to
be expanding to the northeast in South Texas and
underlies the Eagle Ford Shale. This mixed shale
and carbonate reservoir has proved to be challenging in terms of reservoir characterization, predicting
producibility potential, estimating ultimate recovery, and optimizing fracture stimulation techniques.
Many companies either do not have or are starting
to acquire rock property data that are crucial for
understanding this reservoir, which is very different
from the overlying Eagle Ford Shale. Therefore, in
order to properly evaluate and explore this reservoir,
appropriate types of rock property data need to be

Core description, core photography, and


interpretation of depositional environments
Definition and evaluation of Miocene sandstone texture, mineralogy, diagenetic, and
pore system properties
The calibration of log-derived petrophysical
properties to core-derived data
Measure and evaluate, through a series
of special core analysis tests, various log
and fluid-flow petrophysical properties

Individual well reports are provided and a final


report. The final report addresses the geological,
petrophysical, and engineering data that have been
compiled and evaluated to provide an overview and
summary of Miocene rock properties significant
to exploration and exploitation activities. Specific
attention has been given to the definition and
understanding of the spectrum of reservoir rock
types and the factors that control reservoir quality,
including lithofacies, depositional environments,
and sandstone diagenesis.
Fif ty ( 50) wells
Con ven tion al cor e

measured and integrated with log data, stimulation


techniques, and production test information. These
integrated data sets and case histories will provide
operators with the critical parameters to optimize
their exploitation of the Pearsall Group and reduce
finding and development costs.
This project is a follow-on study to our highly
successful Eagle Ford Shale project and will allow operators to have consistent data sets for both of these
reservoirs. The Pearsall project consists of the characterization and evaluation of numerous conventional
cores and rotary sidewall cores taken from multiple
wells targeting the Pearsall Group. Specifically, this
prospective mixed shale and carbonate section will
be analysed for geological, petrophysical, geomechanical, geochemical, and production properties.
These data will be integrated with well logs, stimulation designs, and production test information. This
large and searchable database will provide operators
with valuable information not only on their own wells
within the Pearsall, but also on other operators wells.
The project will be focused on evaluating numerous
Pearsall wells in South Texas.

28

OLIGOCENE REGIONAL STUDY DEEPWATER GULF OF MEXICO OFFSHO


ONSHORE SOUTH LOUISIANA MIOCENE REGIONAL STUDY SMACKOVE

north america
MISSISSIPPI

Gulf of Mexico Onshore


ALABAMA

SMACKOVER RESERVOIR
STUDY
SMA CK O VER RESER VO I R
STU D Y MA FLA A REA

Even though it is a major producer, drilling

costs to the Smackover Formation are considerable and success rates are often low. A major reason
for the low completion rate of wildcat wells is the
complexity of Smackover reservoirs which make
porosity predictions difficult. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the geologic reservoir facies
is required for exploration success. In addition, an
understanding of reservoir petrophysical characteristics of these highly variable Smackover reservoirs
is essential for exploitation. As a result, Core
Laboratories initiated the Smackover Reservoir
Study which is a regional, sedimentological,
petrographic, and petrophysical study of
Smackover reservoirs in Mississippi, Alabama,
and Florida. The Smackover Reservoir Study
comprehensively defines the interrelationships
of depositional environments, diagenesis, and
reservoir quality.

MISSISSIPPI

LOUISIANA
eston

Depositional environments were interpreted


through detailed core description and thin section
petrography. One-hundred (100) conventionally
cored wells were selected according to location,
quality, completeness, and client requests.
Sedimentary facies were defined from the combination of core and thin section descriptions.
Diagenesis was analyzed and evaluated through
detailed petrographic analysis including x-ray
diffraction and scanning electron microscopy.
Advanced rock property measurements performed
on the selected core samples were used to further
characterize reservoir quality by defining reservoir
performance and petrophysical parameters
according to pore type.
The combination of petrographic analyses,
conventional and advanced rock property data
allows for improved evaluation and downhole
electric log calibrations. The data is presented in
individual well reports. The final report contains
a synthesis of these data and detailed discussions
of the controls on reservoir quality and trends
of high reservoir within the study area. Our
Smackover Regional Study compliments and can
be combined with our Smackover Reservoir Study.
100 wells
11,099 f eet of con ven tion al cor e
M ississippi, Alabama an d Florida

AL

depositional environments, petrographic and


mineralogical analysis and a petrophysical evaluation for each well was used to delineate trends
of high reservoir quality and define what controls
reservoir quality in this field. The documentation of diagenetic minerals, their geographic and
stratigraphic distribution are discussed in the field
summary report.

THANKSGIVING FIELD
STUDY

study of the Lower


Tuscaloosa Formation in the
Thanksgiving Field, Amite County,
Mississippi was conducted consisting of
seventeen (17) conventionally cored wells.
Detailed core descriptions, interpretation of

Seven teen ( 17) wells


Con ven tion al cor e
Tuscaloosa f or mation

29

LIGOCENE REGIONAL STUDY SMACKOVER RESER VOIR STUDY THAN


EGUA REGIONAL STUDY THANKSGIVING FIELD STUDY NORPHLET R

north america
TEXAS

Gulf of Mexico Onshore


Measurement, documentation, and interpretation in a catalog format, an extensive array
of geological and petrophysical properties
commonly used to evaluate the producibility
of potential Vicksburg gas-bearing sandstones

VICKSBURG REGIONAL
STUDY AND ROCK
CATALOG

MEXICO

GEO LO GI C STU D Y A N D RESER V OIR


EVA LU ATI O N O F THE VI C K SBUR G
FO RMATI O N , SO U TH TEXA S

The data and interpretations for the individual


project wells are provided as well as a final report
that contains a regional summary derived from the
evaluation and integration of data obtained from
project wells. Results from special core
analysis tests and rock-fluid compatibility tests
are also included in the final reports with specific
recommendations regarding drilling and completion practices.
The Vicksburg Rock Catalog analytical program
was designed to characterize the geological, petrophysical, and rock-fluid compatibility properties of
the various Vicksburg reservoir types observed in the
regional study wells. The rock catalog entries will
serve as reference analogs for more accurate estimates of formation parameters and producibility of
non-cored zones of interest. The catalog data can be
applied to many aspects of Vicksburg exploration
and exploitation, some of which include:

his study was initiated to provide a detailed


geological, petrophysical, and engineering characterization and evaluation of Vicksburg sandstones
from conventional cores. This project is base on
approximately 5,000 feet of core from thirty-nine
(39) project wells with cores that span subsurface
depths ranging from 6,100 feet to 16,200 feet.
Thirty-eight (38) of the wells are located in
the South Texas counties of Nueces, Kleberg,
Jim Wells, Kennedy, Brooks, Starr and Hidalgo.
One well is located in Chambers County in the
Houston Embayment.
The objectives of the study were to provide
participating companies with detailed geological,
petrophysical, and engineering characterizations
and evaluations of productive and potentially
productive Vicksburg reservoir sandstones.
More specifically, the study provides participants
with data and interpretations regarding:
Sedimentary characteristics, depositional
environments, vertical sequences, and
lateral relationships of Vicksburg reservoir
sandstones
The textural, mineralogical, diagenetic, and
pore space properties of reservoir sandstones
and the factors controlling reservoir quality
and producibility
Integration of rock matrix and pore space
properties with special core analysis test
results and log properties to more accurately
interpret and evaluate hydrocarbon-bearing
sandstones from wireline logs in the
Vicksburg Region
Rock-fluid compatibilities to better determine
the most compatible completion and/or frac
fluid to be used in stimulating the reservoirs
Regional geological data to aid in further
exploration or production endeavors for the
Vicksburg sandstones within the study area

Selection of the least damaging fluids necessary


for the various phases of well operations
Causes of formation damage in previously
completed wells and suggested remedial action
Identification of damaged versus non-productive
intervals
Assessment of post-completion/stimulation
well performance
Evaluation of well test data (i.e., DST and
pressure build-up)
Characterization of Vicksburg sandstone
reservoir quality and expected producibility

Each Vicksburg rock type in the catalog is


presented in a format which characterizes, as
completely as possible, the rock types various
geological and petrophysical properties. Other
support data, such as open-hole logs, drilling and
completion procedures, and production test data,
are provided for each rock-type entry.
T h ir ty -n in e ( 39) wells
5,000 f eet con ven tion al cor e
R egion al R ock Catalog

30

LIGOCENE REGIONAL STUDY DEEPWATER GULF OF MEXICO OFFSHORE


CKSBURG REGIONAL STUDY AND ROCK CATALOG WILCOX PROVENC

north america
Gulf of Mexico Onshore
TEXAS
Galveston

MEXICO

WILCOX REGIONAL STUDY


IN SOUTH TEXAS

REGI O N A L GEO LO GI C A L,
P ETRO P HY SI CA L, A N D EN GINEER ING
STU D Y O F THE D O W N D I P WILCOX
GRO U P I N SO U TH TEXA S A N D
R O C K CATA LO G

vertical/lateral relationships
Sandstone mineralogy, texture, and pore types
Quantification of Wilcox rock types
Petrophysical evaluation of Wilcox sandstones
Detailed drilling and completion evaluations
and recommendations

The above geological, petrophysical and engineering


data are compiled and evaluated to provide a
regional synthesis and summary of Wilcox rock
properties significant to current exploration and exploitation activities.
The Wilcox Rock Catalog analytical program was
designed to characterize the geological, petrophysical,
and rock-fluid compatibility properties of the various
Wilcox reservoir types observed in the regional study
wells. The rock catalog entries will serve as reference analogs for more accurate estimates of formation
parameters and producibility of non-cored zones of
interest. The catalog data can be applied to many
aspects of Wilcox exploration and exploitation, some
of which include:

ormation evaluation, recognition of pay versus


not pay and completion challenges are inherent to
this prolific south Texas formation. This project
was to designed to address these issues and aid
participating companies in their exploration and
exploitation activities in the trend. A full spectrum
of geological and petrophysical analyses have been
performed on 171 wells with drill cuttings and
conventional cores. The major objectives of this
study are as follows:
Describe, document, and interpret Wilcox
sandstone lithology, vertical sequences,
and the character of various lithofacies
present within conventional cores
Define, document, and evaluate sandstone
mineral, textural, and pore space properties
for Wilcox pay and potential pay zones
Measure and evaluate various rock logging
and fluid-flow parameters for selected Wilcox
sandstone samples and zones representative
of the spectrum of reservoir-quality rock
types

Selection of the least damaging fluids necessary


for the various phases of well operations
Causes of formation damage in previously
completed wells and suggested remedial action
Identification of damaged versus non-productive
intervals
Assessment of post-completion/stimulation
well performance
Evaluation of well test data (i.e., DST and
pressure build-up)
Characterization of Wilcox sandstone
reservoir quality and expected producibility

The above geological, petrophysical and engineering data are compiled and evaluated to provide
a regional synthesis and summary of Wilcox rock
properties significant to current exploration and
exploitation activities.
Individual well reports for each well are
provided. The final report combines, correlates,
and evaluates all of this information on a regional
basis and contains information and conclusions
regarding:

Each Wilcox rock type in the catalog is


presented in a format which characterizes, as
completely as possible, the rock types various
geological and petrophysical properties. Other support
data, such as open-hole logs, drilling and completion
procedures, and production test data,
are provided for each rock-type entry.
171 wells
Con ven tion al cor e, per cussion sidewall cor es
an d cuttin gs
Fr om V ickbur g R egion al Substitute W ilcox
R egion al R ock Catalog

Regional setting and stratigraphy


Depositional environments and models,
log response, sand body geometry, and

31

OLIGOCENE REGIONAL STUDY DEEPWATER GULF OF MEXICO OFFSHO


THANKSGIVING FIELD STUDY WILCOX REGIONAL STUDY IN SOUTH TE

north america
Gulf of Mexico Onshore
TEXAS
Galveston

WILCOX RESERVOIR STUDY


RESER VO I R C HA RA C TERIZAT ION
STU D Y THE W I LC O X FO RM AT ION
O F SO U TH TEXA S

MEXICO

Recent drilling activity in the Wilcox

Formation has demonstrated that this prolific


horizon continues to offer new exploitation
opportunity. Opportunity comes with inherent
risks in a formation where pay is not obvious
on well logs and prediction of potential productivity from logs with limited core analysis data
leaves the engineer or geologist with uncertainty.
The objective of this project is to generate a large
database of laboratory measured rock properties,
critical to expensive pipe setting decisions, on a
systematically selected group of samples which
might be expected to be encountered in Wilcox
drilling activity throughout the South Texas region.
The samples tested will serve as a collection of
analogs with supplied petrographic and petrophysical data for use as comparators with similar rock
samples or cuttings that have no measured data.
Log response associated with each analog rock
type will be provided. The database can then serve
as a tool to assess production potential in a time
frame required for completion decisions.
The project scope requires rotary sidewall
samples or plug samples obtained from conventional core from multiple wells in the region,

along with associated log data (both standard logging


suites and NMR tools) to comprise the inputs into
the study. Rotary sidewall cores provide the operator
with the freedom to extract representative samples
from the wellbore after logging has been completed.
A comprehensive series of tests designed to extract
the maximum amount of information from the cores
is designed to specifically address the following:
Fluid saturations
Porosity and Klinkenberg permeability as a
function of net overburden stress
Pore geometry variability through hydraulic
unit analysis
Mineralogic variability through thin section
and X-ray diffraction
Location and morphology of clay minerals
through scanning electron microscopy
Water salinity estimation for Rw from core
water extraction (where appropriate)
NMR T2 variability and calibration with
pore geometry
Formation resistivity factor and resistivity
index for cementation and saturation exponents,
m and n
Permeability to gas at initial water saturation
Capillary pressure characteristics as a function
of pore geometry
Creation of an NMR log based
permeability model
Twen ty -eigh t ( 28) wells
R otar y sidewall cor es

Opportunity comes with


inherent risks in a formation
where pay is not obvious.

32

OLIGOCENE REGIONAL STUDY WILCOX RESER VOIR STUDY TEXAS/LO


SANA MIOCENE THANKSGIVI NG FIELD VICKSBURG REGIONAL STUD

north america
LOUISIA

TEXAS

Gulf of Mexico Onshore


Paleontological data for both age determination and paleo water depth
Sandstone properties, such as texture,
composition, mineralogy, pore system
characteristics, and diagenesis from the
analysis of thin section petrography, SEM,
and X-ray diffraction
Petrophysical data that includes porosity,
permeability, grain density, porosity as a
function of confining stress, specific gas
permeability as a function of stress,
specific brine permeability at stress,
formation factor, cementation exponent,
resistivity index, saturation exponent,
effective gas permeability, immobile water
saturation, capillary pressure, and cation
exchange capacity
Log evaluation with a comparison and
calibration of log-derived petrophysical
properties to core petrophysical properties
A review of engineering and completion
practices along with recommendations
for such procedures in light of pore system
properties, diagenetic clays, and compatible
completion fluids

YEGUA REGIONAL STUDY


Galveston

GEO LO GI C A L A N D P ETROPH YSICAL


EVA LU ATI O N O F D O W N D IP
Y EGU A SA N D STO N ES TEXAS
A N D LO U I SI A N A

The focus of the study is on the geological,

petrophysical, engineering and completion aspects


of Yegua sandstones. A total of 3,668 feet of
conventional core from thirty-four (34) wells were
analyzed and evaluated with respect to 1) depositional environments, 2) paleontology, 3) reservoir
petrography and mineralogy, 4) diagenesis,
5) petrophysical properties, 6) log evaluation
and 7) engineering and completion. These data
and interpretations are compiled for each well
and are included along with an overview of the
studys findings in a final report. The results of
this study will significantly aid geologists, petrophysicists, and engineers in their Yegua exploration
and exploitation activities.
The study provides detailed geological, petrophysical, and engineering characterization and
evaluation of Yegua sandstones. Specifically, the
following data and interpretations are provided:

A regional overview and summary of the studys


findings with emphasis directed towards application
to current exploration and exploitation
activities in the trend is included in the study.

Core description, core photography and


interpretation of depositional environments
along with the construction of depositional
models for predicting sandstone geometries
and trends

T h ir ty -f our ( 34) wells


Con ven tion al cor e
Jackson Co., T X to Calcasieu Parish , LA

33

EGUAs REGIONAL STUDY DEEP FRIO REGIONAL STUDY LOBO REGION


PALACHICOLA EMBAYMENT REGIONAL STUDY HAYNESVILLE CORE ST

MICHIGAN BASIN

MID-CONTINENT

PERMIAN BASIN

north america
Michigan Basin
N

Study results are as follows:

PRAIRIE DU CHIEN
REGIONAL STUDY
AND ROCK CATALOG

MICHIGAN

The objective of the study is

O H I O

to address problems related to the


exploration, reservoir evaluation, and production
of PdC sandstone reservoirs in the Lower
Peninsula of Michigan. A total of thirty (30)
wells with conventional core were analyzed
and evaluated. A total of 3,428 feet of PdC
conventional core has been geologically described
and depositional environments have been interpreted. Particular attention is also directed at
defining lithofacies which are mappable stratigraphic units identifiable both in conventional
cores and on well logs.
In addition to conventional core descriptions
some 250 samples were selected from productive and or potentially productive PdC sandstone
units for detailed mineral, texture and pore space
analysis utilizing thin section petrography, scanning
electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Particular emphasis was placed on the types and mode
of occurrence of various diagenetic minerals and
pore space types with respect to their influence on
reservoir quality and log response.
Representative productive Prairie du Chien
reservoir rock types were also analyzed and evaluated utilizing various advanced rock property
techniques to formulate the Prairie du Chien Rock
Catalog which contains geological and petrophysical properties used to evaluate the producibility of
potential Prairie du Chien gas-bearing sandstones.

Mappable Prairie du Chien stratigraphic


units have been established and defined
on the basis of conventional core lithology
and wireline log character.
Regional cross sections have been constructed
incorporating twenty-seven (27) of the thirty
(30) project wells which correlate mappable
PdC units, including Glenwood Clastics,
St. Peter, Upper PdC (C), Upper PdC (B),
Upper PdC (A), and Massive PdC. Included in
these cross sections are depositional environment interpretations of lithofacies for each of
the mappable units.
A depositional model for the various PdC
lithofacies described and delineated in this
study, as recognizable in cored intervals has
been developed.
Sand body trends in the basin with respect
to gross thickness, lithofacies changes, and
porosity development have been identified for
various PdC stratigraphic units in specific
geographic areas.
A comprehensive, computerized data base of
mineral, texture, and pore space properties
(PdC Rock Catalog) for PdC reservoir and
potential reservoir rock types has been
developed. Particular emphasis has been
placed on the use of these data to better
understand controls on sandstone porosity,
permeability, and log response.
In-situ PdC reservoir rock parameters (i.e.,
advanced rock property data) have been defined
and evaluated to provide improved knowledge
of reservoir performance and behavior and more
accurate calibration of wireline logs will detail
advanced rock property mearsurements.
T h ir ty ( 30) wells
R egion al R ock Catalog

35

PRAIRIE DU CHIEN REGIONAL STUDY AND ROCK CATALOG GRANITE


BRUSHY CANYON SANDSTONES STUDY MORROW REGIONAL STUDY

north america
Mid-Continent
OKLAHOMA

environments are given along with thin section


and SEM analyses. Mineral composition was
determined by X-ray diffraction analysis.
A two-volume final report was prepared that
combines, correlates, and evaluates on a regional
basis all the information provided in the quarterly
summary reports. This includes microscopic
re-examination of thin section samples and obtaining visual estimates of the principal granular and
intergranular material. The mineral, textural, and
pore space properties which control reservoir quality are given in the appendices in the final report.
From the large rock property database that
was assembled, seven (7) major rock types were
identified. Definitions of the rock types are based
on detrital and diagenetic mineralogy, and the resultant pore space and reservoir quality properties.
The rock types are presented in a catalog format
to serve as reference analogs. Samples were also
selected from conventional core material for cation
exchange capacity (CEC) and capillary pressure
tests (CPC).
The geological data, in combination with the
petrophysical measurements, provide a better
understanding of the rock types and their physical
characteristics for each of the six (6) major units.
Engineering recommendations are also supplied
as a result of the evaluation and integration of
these data and interpretations.

ANADARKO BASIN
REGIONAL STUDY
TEXAS

CHA RA CTERI ZATI O N A N D


EVA LU ATI O N O F RO CK MAT R IX
P RO P ER TI ES FO R MA J O R
P RO D U C TI VE FO RMATI O N S (R ED
F O RK , ATO K A , MO RRO W, SP RI N G ER ,
G OD D A RD ) I N THE A N A D A RK O BASIN,
O KLA HO MA A N D TEXA S

ore Laboratories is offering a completed


project that addresses specific problems and
questions related to mineralogy, diagenesis,
petrophysical, and engineering properties of the
Pennsylvanian section in the Anadarko Basin.
Data and evaluations are provided to aid in the
exploration of the six clastic units, with emphasis
on an understanding of variations in reservoir
quality due to porosity variations, and the
relationship of reservoir characteristics to
completion and stimulation practices.
Drill cuttings, conventional core, and core
chips representing 101 wells were analyzed and
interpreted. Data from all submitted wells were
compiled into four (4) quarterly reports which
were supplied to the member companies over the
course of the study. Each quarterly report contains
descriptions of the sandstones sampled for the
different zones of interest along with a listing of
sample intervals and their associated log response.
Member companies also supplied drilling,
completion and production histories. Where
applicable, interpretations of depositional

101 wells
Con ven tion al cor e, cuttin gs an d cor e ch ips
R egion al R ock Catalog

36

ELAWARE MOUNTAIN GROUP REGIONAL STUDY ANADARKO BASIN R


ND ROCK CATALOG OKLAHOMA GEOCHEMISTRY STUDY ANADARKO

north america
S

XICO

OKLA

TEXAS

Mid-Continent
maximize productivity. A systematic approach to well
evaluation, pre-stimulation testing, treatment design
and optimum production practices have been developed to optimize the exploitation of the Granite Wash
reservoirs. The study data was also used to benchmark
well performance in terms of completion efficiency
and reservoir quality in the study wells and serve as
case histories for other Granite Wash potential plays.

GRANITE WASH
REGIONAL STUDY

GEO LO GI CA L, P ETRO P HYSICAL


A N D CO MP LETI O N S STU D Y
FO R I MP RO VED FO RMATI O N
EVA LU ATI O N A N D O P TI MA L
W ELL C O MP LETI O N S

The objective of this project is to optimize

operators exploitation of Granite Wash reservoirs


in the Texas panhandle and Oklahoma areas.
Common problems in the trend are: formation
evaluation, well completion, stimulation and
production aspects of Granite Wash reservoirs.
These problems can only be solved from the
geological, petrophysical and completion/stimulation analysis and evaluation of wells with either
conventional cores or rotary sidewall cores. Twelve
(12) wells with core were thoroughly analyzed
geologically and petrophysically, including
competion/stimulation analysis. The resultant data
has been used to calibrate open-hole logs in order
to better predict rock types and petrophysical
properties essential for formation evaluation and
proper well completion and stimulation designs.
The rock types and their measured petrophysical
properties also serve as analogs when evaluating
new reservoirs in wildcats or field step outs.
This data has also been utilized to produce
optimum fracture stimulation designs and to

Twelve ( 12) wells


Con ven tion al an d r otar y sidewall cor es
Completion & stimulation evaluation
Post Frac Evalutaion

OKLAHOMA

HYDROCARBON POTENTIAL
OF THE ARBUCKLE GROUP
OIL AND GAS STUDY
TEXAS

Hydrocarbon source rock potential

determined from cuttings, cores, and gases


from ten (10) wells in the Arkoma Basin and source
rock evaluation of cuttings and cores from fifteen
(15) wells and correlations of seventy-five (75) oils.
G as s t udy t en (10) wells
S o u r c e r ock eva lua t i on fi ft een (15) wells
w i t h s e vent y- fi ve (75) oi ls

37

GRANITE WASH REGIONAL STUDY BONE SPRING SANDSTONE REGIO


HYDROCARBON POTENTIAL OF THE ARBUCKLE GROUP OIL & GAS S

north america
Mid-Continent
KANSAS

MISSISSIPPI LIME

OKLAHOMA

GEO LO GI CA L, P ETRO P HYSCIAL


A N D CO MP LETI O N S STUDY FOR
I MP RO VED FO RMATI O N EVALUAT ION
A N D O P TI MA L W ELL C O MPLET IONS

his project is designed to optimize operators


exploitation of Mississippi Lime reservoirs in the
Oklahoma and Kansas areas. The Mississippi Lime
section is currently the target of horizontal drilling
by numerous operators on the Anadarko Shelf.
The primary productive interval in the section
is the Mississippian Chat, which comprises the
upper 50 to 100 feet in some areas. In this interval
porosity has developed as a result of subareal
erosion creating a complex mixture of rock types
that include chert, limestone and dolomite. This
results in lateral and vertical variations in reservoir
properties. Production may be driven by matrix
properties in some areas, whereas, in other areas
fractures play a dominant role. These changes
in reservoir properties may have a significant
impact on horizontal completion strategies, such
as horizontal well directions and the type of
stimulation design. Also, water cuts vary regionally,
as do initial production rates from horizontal
wells (50 boepd to over 500 boepd). There does
not seem to be any known oil-water contact.

esis or both? How do these change regionally?


What are the various reservoir rock types and
their petrophysical properties, and how do they
vary stratigraphically and regionally?
What is driving reservoir performance?
Matrix permeability vs open natural fractures?
If fractures are a key in understanding
the reservoir, what are the fracture orientation,
frequency, spacing, and contribution to
permeability?
With the complexity of this reservoir in
terms of lithology and porosity development a
log petrophysical model needs to be developed
based on core data to determine more
accurately porosity, water saturation, hydrocarbon pore volume, permeability, water cut
(relative permeability), net pay and volumetrics.
Will the Mississippi Lime and/or Chat sections
be a candidate for water flood in the future?
What primary and secondary recovery can be
expected?
What are the optimal completion and
stimulation fluids?
What is the optimal fracture stimulation
design(s) to maximize production?

Where the Chat section is absent, operators


are targeting the Mississippian Lime limestone
section. This section has lower matrix reservoir
quality but may contain natural fractures. This
section requires hydraulic fracture stimulation
of horizontal wells for commercial production.

How can production performance be predicted


to aid in completion decisions?

Operators are currently in the process of


actively coring the reservoir sections to
understand the reservoir complexities.
Reservoir characterization and improved
formation evaluation techniques are required to
optimize the exploitation of this reservoir. Some
of the technical challenges to be solved are as
follows:
What is controlling reservoir quality development? Is it related to depositional facies, diagen-

These problems can only be solved from


the geological, petrophysical and completion/
stimulation analysis and evaluation of wells with
conventional cores. The resultant data can be
used to improve 1) reservoir characterization,
2) calibrate open-hole logs in order to better
predict rock types and petrophysical properties
essential for formation evaluation, 3) proper
well completion and stimulation designs, and
benchmark production performance. The resultant
data sets can also serve as analogs when evaluating
new areas in wildcats or field step outs.

38

LOUISA NA WILCOX REGIONAL STUDY

VICKSBURG REGIONAL STUDY

i n toerr
i oenra
tn
h aatm
i cla
Mid-Continent
OKLAHOMA

Recent activity in the Missourian section has


targeted the Cleveland, Checkerboard, Kansas
City (Hogshooter), Lansing and Cottage Grove
horizons. Initial horizontal wells from the Kansas
City or Hogshooter section have produced at rates
of 2000 to 5000 BOPD with significant NGL. The
project will also entertain core contributions from
the Tonkawa. These reservoirs have tremendous
reserves and will be drilled for years to come.

MISSOURIAN TIGHT
OIL RESERVOIRS
ANADARKO BASIN

TEXAS

his project is designed to


optimize operators exploitation of liquids-rich,
Missourian reservoirs in the Texas Panhandle
Area and Oklahoma. It is a follow-up to our
highly successful Granite Wash Study of the
Desmoinesian section.
OKLAHOMA

Oklahoma and far north Texas were analyzed using


routine geochemical techniques. The oils are from
Arbuckle, other Ordovician, Silurian-Devonian,
Mississippian, Pensylvanian, and Cretaceous
reservoirs. The possible source rock samples
range in age from Cambro-Ordovician (Arbuckle)
to Pennsylvanian.

OKLAHOMA
GEOCHEMISTRY STUDY
TEXAS

This study geochemically

characterizes crude oil reservoirs


in the Cambro-Ordovician Arbuckle
Group of Oklahoma and determines their relationships with younger oils and potential source rocks.
Ninety-five (95) crude oils, oil seeps, and 1,050
cuttings and cores from forty-one (41) wells in

For ty -on e ( 41) wells


Nin ety -f ive ( 95) cr ude oils an d oil seeps
1,050 cuttin gs an d cor es

39

KLAHOMA GEOCHEMISTRY STUDY GRANITE WASH REGIONAL STUDY


NADARKO BASIN REGIONAL STUDY WOLFCAMP REGIONAL STUDY W

north america
Permian Basin

OKLAHOMA

TEXAS

AVALON WOLFCAMP SHALE


REGIONAL STUDY

D ELAWA RE BA SI N

n the Delaware Basin numerous oil and gas


companies are directing their efforts toward the
exploration and exploitation of Tight Oil from the
Avalon Wolfcamp, and Bone Spring Sandstones
in the Delaware Basin. Production is from the
Avalon Wolfcamp, organic-rich mudstones above
the 1st Bone Spring Sand. Companies are also
targeting the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Bone Spring Sands.
This study will focus on the Avalon Wolfcamp
intervals, although other Bone Spring, Wolfcamp
and Penn intervals are also considered targets.
This unconventional oil reservoir has proved to be
challenging in terms of reservoir characterization,
predicting producibility potential, estimating
ultimate recovery, and optimizing fracture
stimulation techniques. Many companies either
do not have or have limited rock property data

that are crucial for understanding these reservoirs.


Therefore, in order to properly evaluate and
explore the Avalon Wolfcamp, appropriate types
of rock property data need to be measured and
integrated with log data, stimulation techniques,
and production test information. These integrated
data sets and case histories will provide operators
with the critical parameters to optimize their
exploitation of the Avalon Wolfcamp and
reduce finding and development costs.
This multi-company, geo-engineering, regional
study of the Avalon Wolfcamp consists of the
characterization and evaluation of numerous
conventional cores, rotary sidewall cores, and
drill cutting samples taken from multiple wells
targeting the Avalon Wolfcamp. Specifically,
the prospective section will be analyzed for
geological, petrophysical, geomechanical,
geochemical, and production properties. These
data will be integrated with well logs, stimulation
designs, and production test information.

40

LOUISA NA WILCOX REGIONAL STUDY

VICKSBURG REGIONAL STUDY

north america
Permian Basin
NEW MEXICO

BONE SPRING SANDSTONES


REGIONAL STUDY
GEOLOGICAL AND PETROPHYSICAL
EVA LU ATI O N O F BO N E SPR ING
SA N D STO N ES ED D Y A N D LEA
CO U N TI ES, N EW MEXI CO

ore Laboratories has conducted a regional


study of the Permian, Bone Spring Formation in
Eddy and Lea Counties, New Mexico to provide
geologic, petrographic and petrophysical data for
improved formation evaluation of the Bone Spring
sandstones. Included in this study are fourteen
(14) wells from which both conventional and
rotary sidewall cores were supplied. Production
data suggests that wells completed in these
horizons may have recoverable reserves of
200,000 to 500,000 BO and 0.5 to 3.0 GCFG. In
order to properly exploit the vast potential of
these reservoirs, improved formation evaluation
techniques are required.
Standard log evaluation techniques may

fail to consistently identify Bone Springs pay


sands which commonly have low resistivities,
low permeabilities, and high calculated water
saturations. As a result, the primary objective of
this study is to improve formation evaluation by
providing operators with key formation evaluation
parameters measured from numerous cores
and by correlating these data to log response.
The extensive database created for this study
includes: detailed core descriptions, core
photographs, routine and sidewall core analysis
reports, petrographic data, basic rock property
measurements, special core analysis test results,
rock-fluid compatibility test results, and digital
well log files. In this fashion, pay and non-pay
criteria are established, resulting in improved
formation evaluation. The comprehensive final
report includes all generated and supplied data,
as well as an interpretation and synthesis of the
data directed specifically towards improving
formation evaluation.
Four teen ( 14) wells
Con ven tion al an d r otar y sidewall cor es
Lea an d Eddy Coun ties, New M exico

41

BONE SPRING SANDSTONE REGIONAL STUDY BRUSHY CANYON TA


QUEEN SANDSTONES REGIONAL STUDY OKLAHOMA GEOCHEMISTRY

north america
Permian Basin
NEW MEXICO

advanced rock property data were measured and


integrated with log and well test information from
each well in order to establish sets of pay and
non-pay criteria for the represented rock types.
Where available, conventional cores approximately
sixty (60) feet in length from each of the fields
represented in the study, were photographed in
color and sedimentologically analyzed to determine
depositional facies. Core description panels were
provided that directly correlate core description,
depositional facies and core analysis data to openhole logs. These provide reference type-sections of
the reservoirs for the member companies.
The establishment of this database in the area
will allow for improved formation evaluation and
result in:

BRUSHY CANYON
SANDSTONES STUDY
EVA LU ATI O N O F LO W RESIST IV IT Y
BRU SHY CA N Y O N SA N D STONES
ED D Y A N D LEA C O U N TI ES,
N EW MEXI CO

he Brushy Canyon sandstones are commonly


difficult to petrophysically evaluate in terms of
differentiating pay from non-pay zones using standard log evaluation techniques. The sandstones
often exhibit low resistivity and low contrast pay
and have high calculated water saturations. In
addition, the sandstones generally have low permeabilities and are sensitive to formation damage.
As a result, formation evaluation is a major problem
for operators in the trend. Based upon interest
expressed by operators in solving the aforementioned reservoir evaluation problems, Core
Laboratories has conducted a geological and
petrophysical study for improved formation
evaluation of Brushy Canyon sandstones.
Using conventional and rotary sidewall cores
appropriate rock types where chosen in which

Limiting bypassing of productive intervals


Minimize the unnecessary testing of wet zones
Differentiate skin-damaged pay zones from
non-pay zones
Provide more accurate reserve calculations
Twen ty -six ( 26) wells
Con ven tion al an d r otar y sidewall cor es
Lea an d Eddy Coun ties, New M exico

Permian Basin
NEW MEXICO

study were to provide participating companies with


detailed geological, petrophysical, and associated
engineering characterization and evaluation of
DMG sandstones cored in the Delaware Basin.
The project contains conventional cores and cuttings from fifty-three (53) wells from the Bell Canyon, Cherry Canyon, Brushy Canyon, Yates, Queen
and San Andres formations. Yates, Queen and San
Andres formations.

DELAWARE MOUNTAIN
GROUP REGIONAL STUDY
REGI O N A L GEO LO GI C STUDY
RESER VO I R RO C K P RO P ER T IES
O F D ELAWA RE MO U N TA I N GR OUP
SA N D STO N ES, D ELAWA RE BASIN

he Delaware Mountain Group Study was


designed to geologically study and evaluate
Delaware Mountain Group sediments in the
Delaware Basin of west Texas and southeast
New Mexico. The objectives of the regional

Fif ty -th r ee ( 53) wells


Con ven tion al cor e an d cuttin gs
Bell Can y on , Ch er r y Can y on , Br ush Can y on ,
Yates, Queen an d San An dr es f or mation s

42

RANITE WASH REGIONAL STUDY DELAWARE MOUNTAIN GROUP OK


OMA GEOCHEMISTRY STUDY MORROW REGIONAL STUDY BRUSHY

north america
Permian Basin
NEW MEXICO

Select drilling fluids and procedures which


are most compatible with various Morrow
reservoir types in order to minimize
formation damage
Design well completion and/or stimulation
treatments for more successful and efficient
production of hydrocarbons
Optimize development well locations within
a particular Morrow field
Provide an overall geological database for both
lease acquisition and exploration/exploitation
efforts for Morrow sands within the general
study area

MORROW REGIONAL
STUDY
REGI O N A L GEO LO GI C STUDY
RESER VO I R EVA LU ATI O N OF
THE MO RRO W SA N D STO N E,
D ELAWA RE BA SI N

he Morrow Regional Study was designed to


provide participating companies with detailed
geological, petrophysical and engineering characterization and evaluation of reservoir rock samples
from 128 wells with conventional core or cuttings
penetrating the Morrow Clastic Section within the
Delaware Basin.
The results of this study provide participating
companies with data to:
Better define sandstone reservoir units from
the standpoint of depositional patterns,
reservoir geometries, and vertical/lateral
reservoir continuity
Define the regional distribution of various types
of sandstone mineral, textural, and pore space
properties for reservoir-quality Morrow rocks,
particularly those associated with cements and
diagenetic clay components
More accurately interpret and evaluate
hydrocarbon-bearing Morrow sandstones
from wireline logs

43

A final summary report contains a complete


compilation, synthesis, and regional interpretation
of all geological, petrophysical, and engineering
data generated. This final report provides a
comprehensive database yielding significant
observations and conclusions concerning
Morrow sandstone reservoir properties applicable to improved exploration, exploitation, and
drilling, completion and stimulation activities.
128 wells
Con ven tion al cor e an d cuttin gs
M or r ow Clastic Section Delawar e Basin

PRAIRIE DU CHIEN REGIONAL STUDY AND ROCK CATALOG GRANITE


MORROW SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY & PETROPHYSICAL STUDY REG

north america
Permian Basin
NEW MEXICO

productivity of Morrow Sandstones by


integrating the core-measured petrophysical
properties, well log data, and well production
test data
Evaluate current drilling and completion
methods and determine the compatibility
of the various drilling and completion fluids
with Morrow Sandstones

MORROW SEQUENCE
STRATIGRAPHY AND
PETROPHYSICAL STUDY
SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY
AND PETROPHYSICAL STUDY
FOR THE MORROW SANDSTONES
DELAWARE BASIN

his study was designed to address current


problems that operators are encountering in the
exploration, development, and formation evaluation of these complicated Morrow sandstone
reservoirs in Lea and Eddy Counties. The project
provides operators with important geological, reservoir rock property data and interpretations gathered from recent drilling activity and incorporates
technological advancements that the industry has
experienced during the last two decades.
The project objectives are as follows:

The project has been divided into two separate


but concurrent studies.
SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHIC STUDY

This portion to the study utilizes the sedimentological analysis of numerous conventional cores in
identifying depositional facies, parasequences, and
major stratigraphic surfaces. These data are correlated to well logs and presented in cross sections
to define the sequence stratigraphy of the Morrow
Formation on a regional basis.

Develop a regional sequence stratigraphic


model of the Morrow Formation to aid
companies in identifying the regional
distribution of the various Morrow
sandstone reservoirs
Develop a depositional and reservoir architectural model of Morrow Sandstones for an
improved success rate of delineation wells
Improve formation evaluation by identifying
the various Morrow reservoir rock types
in core and measuring the petrophysical
properties
Improve operators ability to predict the

RESERVOIR PETROPHYSICAL PROPERTIES

This portion focuses on identifying the various


reservoir rock types, measured petrophysical properties, and integrating these data with well logs and
well test data.
Companies may participate in the Sequence
Stratigraphy Database and/or in the Reservoir Petrophysical Properties Database.
For ty -th r ee ( 43) wells
Con ven tion al cor e
Lea an d Eddy Coun ties, New M exico

44

GRANITE WASH REGIONAL STUDY DELAWARE MOUNTAIN GROUP


HOMA GEOCHEMISTRY STUDY MORROW REGIONAL STUDY BRUSH

north america
Permian Basin
database that is integrated with log and well test
information in order to establish sets of pay and
non-pay criteria for the various Queen Sandstone
rock types. Besides improving formation
evaluation, this study provides participating
companies with data and interpretations for a
better understanding of geological concepts, and
prediction of reserves
and producibility.
Reservoir rock types from conventional and
rotary sidewall cores and their measured
petrophysical properties are correlated to log
parameters and production test data. With
this approach, pay and non-pay criteria is
established resulting in improved formation
evaluation. Additionally, rock-fluid compatibility
tests are performed on selected samples to
determine which drilling, completion, and/
or injection fluids can be safely utilized
without causing formation damage.

QUEEN SANDSTONES
REGIONAL STUDY
TEXAS

ueen Sandstones have recently


been the target of new drilling
programs, especially along the southern
margins of the Central Basin Platform. This
activity, coupled with continued development of
the more established Queen Fields, indicates that
the Queen Sandstones deserve the focus of this
integrated formation evaluation study.
The Queen Sandstones are very fine-grained,
arkosic, and contain variable amounts of anhydrite,
dolomite, and problematic clay minerals making
them difficult to petrophysically evaluate.
Consequently, operators need to acquire and
utilize rock property data to aid them in their
formation evaluation.
This integrated formation evaluation
approach consists of establishing a rock property

Eigh teen ( 18) wells


Con ven tion al an d r otar y sidewall cor es

NEW MEXICO

TATUM BASIN
REGIONAL STUDY

A regional geologic and petro-physi-

cal study of Virgilian (Late


Pennsylvanian) and Wolfcampian (early Permian) carbonate rocks within the Tatum Basin of
New Mexico was conducted with special emphasis
placed on the Bough A, B, C, and D zones
and the informal Lower Wolfcamp Members of the
Cisco and Hueco Formations.
The study area includes the northern part of
Lea County and the southern portion of Roosevelt
County in New Mexico. This basin is bounded on
the north by the Roosevelt Uplift and on the south
by the Artesia-Vacuum Trend which coincides with
the northern edge of the Delaware Basin. Project
results include:
The description, documentation and delineation of the carbonate facies in the Permo
Pennsylvanian strata of the Tatum Basin
of southeastern New Mexico in developing
a depositional model for the study area

The characterization of porous intervals


and the delineation of depositional and
diagenetic controls on porosity
The production and refinement of conventional
core to wireline correlations
A lithologic data base to be utilized by the
exploration and/or development geologists,
along with participating companys own
structural data and stratigraphic correlations,
to aid in prospect delineation

Over 1,800 feet of conventional core has been


geologically described and photographed. Thin
section petrographic analysis, routine core analysis
(porosity, permeability, and grain density) and special core analysis (stressed porosity and permeability
at confining pressure), effective oil permeability,
electrical properties and mercury capillary pressure
were performed. The samples analyzed by special
core analysis techniques were also examined with
the scanning electron microscope and through
X-ray diffraction. A final report summarizes the
geological observations and petrophysical results
from the analyses performed on the conventionally
cored wells in this study.
1,800 f eet con ven tion al cor e
Late Pen n sy lvan ian Early Per mian
Cisco an d H ueco f or mation s

45

TATUM BASIN REGIONAL STUDY QUEEN SANDSTONES REGIONAL


STUDY WOLFCAMP RESER VOIR STUDY OKLAHOMA GEOCHEMISTRY

north america
Permian Basin
NEW
MEXICO

TEXAS

TIGHT OIL RESERVOIRS


OF THE MIDLAND BASIN
WOLFBERRY, STRAWN,
AND MISSISSIPIAN

MEXICO

R E S E R V O I R CHA RA CTERI ZATI O N A N D


PR O DUC T I O N P RO P ER TI ES

il and gas companies active in the Midland


Basin are directing their efforts toward the
exploration and exploitation of Tight Oil from
the Spraberry, Dean, Wolfcamp, Strawn and deeper
Paleozoics in the Midland Basin. Production is
co-mingled from these zones following multistage, hydraulic fracture stimulation of siltstones,
carbonates and organic-rich mudstones spread
out over a 2000 to 4000 foot depth range. Activity
is centered in 10 counties in the Midland
Basin and will spread to adjacent areas.
These unconventional oil reservoirs have
proved to be challenging in terms of 1) reservoir
characterization, 2) identifying the many potential
pay intervals that are interbedded in long intervals of
indistinguishable shale, organic mudstone, siltstone

NEW
MEXICO

TEXAS

WOODFORD SHALE
MIDLAND BASIN

The exploration and

exploitation of Tight Oil reservoirs


from the Spraberry, Dean, Wolfcamp,
Strawn, Cline, and deeper Paleozoics in the
Midland Basin has been a recent focus of many oil
and gas companies. Core Lab has been conducting
a highly successful joint industry project evaluating
these reservoirs for 39 member companies over
the past two years. However, the underlying
Woodford Shale is also in the liquids window across
the majority of the Midland Basin and has been
relatively under explored even though it ranges in

MEXICO

and carbonate, 3) predicting producibility potential,


4) optimizing fracture stimulation techniques for
maximum production, and 5) estimating ultimate
recovery. Due to the thick section, many companies
either do not have or have limited rock property
data that are crucial for understanding these reservoirs.
Therefore, in order to properly evaluate and exploit
the thick section, appropriate types of rock property
data need to be measured and integrated with log
data, stimulation techniques, and production test
information. These integrated data sets and case
histories will provide operators with the critical
parameters to optimize their exploitation and
reduce finding and development costs.
The primary objective of this project is to provide
operators with measured geological, petrophysical,
geomechanical, geochemical, and production
properties of the prospective formations in order to
improve their formation evaluation and to optimize
stimulation and production. Understanding the
similarities and differences in the section on a
regional basis is the key to successful exploration
and exploitation. The resultant database will be an
invaluable tool to operators in evaluating, comparing,
and designing completion and stimulation methods.

thickness from 50 to 200 feet. This stratigraphic


section is not included in the current Midland
Basin consortium. Several companies are starting
to core and evaluate the Woodford Shale potential
on their leases in the Midland Basin, Central Basin
Platform, and Eastern Shelf. Therefore, in order
to properly evaluate and exploit the Woodford
Shale section, appropriate types of rock property
data need to be measured and integrated with
log data, stimulation techniques, and production
test information. These integrated data sets and
case histories will provide operators with the
critical parameters to optimize their exploitation
and reduce finding and development costs.

46

GRANITE WASH REGIONAL STUDY DELAWARE MOUNTAIN GROUP


HOMA GEOCHEMISTRY STUDY MORROW REGIONAL STUDY BRUSH

north america
Permian Basin
TEXAS

WOLFCAMP REGIONAL
STUDY

MEXICO

GEOLOGICAL AND PETROPHYSICAL


EVALUATION OF WOLFCAMP
SANDSTONES PECOS AND TERRELL
COUNTIES,TEXAS

he Wolfcamp Sandstones in the Val Verde


Basin have recently been the target of new drilling
programs, especially in Pecos and Terrell Counties,
Texas. This activity, coupled with continued
development extensions of the more established
fields, indicates that the Wolfcamp Sandstones
warrant a focused and integrated formation evaluation study. Opportunities abound for increasing
Wolfcamp Sandstone productivity through an
improved understanding of the controls on permeability distribution, water saturation, and relative
pay contribution, which will reduce risk and
increase the success of their exploration and
development programs.
This approach to accomplishing these goals consists of establishing a rock property database that
are integrated with log and well test information in
order to establish sets of pay and non-pay criteria
for the various Wolfcamp Sandstone rock types.
Besides improving formation evaluation, this study
will provide participating companies with data
and interpretations for a better understanding
of geological concepts, prediction of reserves
and producibility.
The project is designed to augment and coincide
with operators Wolfcamp drilling programs by

providing them with formation evaluation data on


their own wells, as well as data from other operators wells. Participating companies supply either
rotary sidewall cores or conventional core samples
from two wells, along with open-hole logs for
analysis and inclusion in the study. Conventional
cores are sedimentologically described in detail
and interpreted for depositional environments.
White light (color) photographs of the conventional
cores and rotary sidewall cores are provided.
Selected samples are analyzed by thin section
petrography, scanning electron microscopy, and
X-ray diffraction. Additional advanced rock property tests will determine porosity, specific gas
permeability, Klinkenberg gas permeability,
grain density, formation factor (F), cementation
exponent (m), resistivity index (RI), saturation
exponent (n), capillary pressure, and effective
permeability to gas at immobile water saturation.
Acoustic measurements of compressional and
shear wave velocities will allow determination of
Youngs modulus, Poissons ratio, and shear and
bulk moduli.
Reservoir rock types and their specific petrophysical properties are correlated to log parameters
and production test data. With this approach, pay
and non-pay criteria are established resulting in
improved formation evaluation. Additionally, rockfluid compatibility tests are performed on selected
samples to determine which drilling, completion,
and or frac fluids can be safely utilized to minimize
formation damage.
T h ir ty -th r ee ( 33) wells
Con ven tion al an d r otar y sidewall cor es
Pecos an d Ter r ell Coun ties, Texas

47

OKLAHOMA GEOCHEMISTRY STUDY WOLFCAMP REGIONAL STUDY


GRANITE WASH REGIONAL STUDY HYDROCARBON POTENTIAL OF THE

north america
Permian Basin
TEXAS

from thirty-four (34) wells. Petrographic thin


section description analysis, scanning electron
microscopy and X-ray diffraction were incorporated
in the geological portion of the study. Routine
core analysis, brine capillary pressure, electrical
properties, steady-state relative permeability, and
high-pressure mercury-injection capillary pressure
were performed on representative samples.
The project results were delivered in two
volumes. Volume I contains lithologic description
logs, thin section photomicrographs with description, XRD data, core analysis data, and advanced
rock properties data. Volume II provides discussions, conclusions, and recommendations with
figures including photo plates, plots, cross-sections,
maps, and block diagrams.

WOLFCAMP RESERVOIR
STUDY

ore Laboratories has


conducted a comprehensive
sedimentological, petrographic, and
petrophysical study of Wolfcamp Reservoirs of
west Texas. The study area includes Yoakum,
Terry, Borden, Scurry, Glasscock, Howard, Upton,
Pecos, Ector, Andrews, Gaines, Garza, and Reagan
Counties. The objective of the study is to define
the interrelationships of depositional environments, diagenesis, and reservoir quality and to
quantify petrophysical properties according to
porosity type.
The analytical program includes detailed core
descriptions on 2,900 feet of conventional core
MEXICO

T h ir ty -f our ( 34) wells


2,900 f eet con ven tion al cor e

OKLAHOMA

Laboratories is proposing to interested companies


participation in a multi-company (operators consortium), geo-engineering, regional study of the
Woodford Shale in Oklahoma. This project consists
of the characterization and evaluation of numerous
conventional cores, rotary sidewall cores, and drill
cutting samples taken from multiple wells targeting
the Woodford Shale. Specifically, the prospective
Woodford section will be analyzed for geological, geochemical, petrophysical, geomechanical, and production properties. These data will be integrated with
well logs, stimulation designs, and production test
information. This large and searchable database will
provide operators with valuable information not only
on their own wells, but also on other operators wells.

WOODFORD SHALE
OKLAHOMA
ARKANSAS

TEXAS

This play began in the Cano field area


LOUISIANA

and has recently expanded to the South


Central Oklahoma Oil Province (SCOOP). The
play may also expand to the north to include the
Woodford on both sides of the Nemaha Ridge. Exploration and exploitation of the Woodford is expect
to continue for several years and there has not been
a comprehensive regional study of the Woodford that
links reservoir properties to well performance.
The Integrated Reservoir Solutions Division of Core

48

BONE SPRING SANDSTONE REGIONAL STUDY QUEEN SANDSTONES R


GIONAL WOLFCAMP RESER VOIR STUDY MORROW REGIONAL STUDY

WEST COAST

ROCKY MOUNTAINS

north america
Rocky Mountains

MONTANA

ABSAROKA
GEOCHEMISTRY STUDY
WYOMING

H H
H
H C C
H H

ABSAROKA BASIN
NORTHWESTERN WYOMING

Hydrocarbon source rock potential

determined from cuttings from fifteen (15)


wells and oils from fifteen (15) fields.

NEVADA

H
H C H
H

H
H H
H
H H
C C
C
C
H
H C
H H
H H

ANTLER BASIN
SOURCE ROCK STUDY

UTAH

Mississippian rocks from the

Antler Basin in the eastern Great


Basin of Nevada and Utah were evaluated
for their hydrocarbon source rock potential.
A total of 306 outcrop samples from forty-three (43)
sections and 191 subsurface samples from fifteen
(15) wells were utilized in this study. The objective of the study was to assess the organic richness,
organic facies, depositional environment, and thermal maturity of the Mississippian sediments, and
to determine favorable geographic areas for these
potential source rocks.

H
H

H
C

H
C
H
C
C
H
C
H
H
H
H

DENVER BASIN I AND II


PALEOZOIC OIL/SOURCE
ROCK STUDY
COLORADO

DBI contains hydrocarbon

source/rock potential determined


from cuttings and cores from twelve (12) wells
and nine (9) oils.
DB II contains Geochemical characterization
and oil/source correlation using cuttings and cores
from fifteen (15) wells and four (4) oils.

50

BSAROKA GEOCHEMISTRY STUDY DENVER BASIN I PALEOZIC OIL/


OURCE ROCK S TUDY ANTLER BASIN SOURCE ROCK STUDY SAN JU

north america
Rocky Mountains
WYOMING

NEBRASKA

CODELL SANDSTONE
DJ BASIN

UTAH

COLORADO

GEO LO GI CA L, P ETRO P HYSICAL


A N D C O MP LETI O N S STUDY FOR
I MP RO VED FO RMATI O N E VALUAT ION
A N D O P TI MA L W ELL P ERFOR M ANCE

n exploring for and developing the Niobrara


oil reservoirs operators have also been taking a
look at the potential of horizontal wells in the
Codell. The Codell ranges from 20 to 100 feet
thick in the DJ Basin and consists of three marine
depositional facies. Porosity is generally less
than 10% and permeability is typically less than
1md. The oil in the Codell is typically light and
may be sourced from the overlying Niobrara.
An integrated study of the Codell is warranted
and should be directed at geology, formation
evaluation and stimulation-production techniques
to maximize exploitation. Some of the issues to be
addressed in this project include the following:
1 . W h at a r e t he fa ct or s cont r olli ng r eser voir
q u al i t y ? A r e t hey deposi t i ona l fa ci es or
d i ag e n et i c?

2. Wh at is th e r elation sh ip between th e Niobrara


h y dr ocarbon kitch en an d th e Codell?
3. Wh at ar e th e various r eser voir r ock ty pes and
th eir petr oph y sical pr oper ties, an d h ow do the y
var y r egion ally ?
4. Wh at ar e pay r ecogn ition criteria an d th e
appr opriate water saturation model f or th e
r eser voir an d does it ch an ge r egion ally ?
5. Wh at ar e th e optimal completion an d stimu l atio n
f luids?
6. Wh at is th e optimal f ractur e stimulation
design ( s) to maximize pr oduction ?
7. H ow sh ould th e r eser voirs be pr oduced in o r d e r
to maximize liq uids pr oduction ?
8. Can r eser voir q uality be cor r elated or
ben ch marked to pr oduction per f or man ce?

These questions can only be solved from the


geological, petrophysical and completion/
stimulation analysis and evaluation of wells with
conventional cores. The resultant data can be
used to calibrate open-hole logs in order to better
predict rock types and petrophysical properties
essential for formation evaluation and proper well
completion and stimulation designs. The rock
types and their measured petrophysical properties
can also serve as analogs when evaluating new
reservoirs in wildcats or field step outs.

WYOMING
NEBRASKA

NIOBRARA REGIONAL
STUDY

UTAH

RESER VO I R CHA RA CTER IZAT ION


A N D P RO D U C TI O N P RO PER T IES

COLORADO

KANSAS

umerous oil and gas companies


are directing their efforts toward the exploration
and exploitation of the Niobrara Formation in
several basins in the Rocky Mountain region.
Production is from organic-rich, calcareous
mudstones and chalk which locally have a fracture
component. This unconventional oil and gas
reservoir has proved to be challenging in terms of
reservoir characterization, predicting producibility
potential, estimating ultimate recovery, and
optimizing fracture stimulation techniques. Many
companies either do not have or have limited rock
property data that are crucial for understanding
these reservoirs. Therefore, in order to properly
evaluate and explore the Niobrara, appropriate
types of rock property data need to be measured
and integrated with log data, stimulation
techniques, and production test information.
These integrated data sets and case histories will

provide operators with the critical parameters


to optimize their exploitation of the Niobrara
and reduce finding and development costs.
The Integrated Reservoir Solutions Division of
Core Laboratories is conducting a multi-company,
geo-engineering, regional study of the Niobrara.
This project consists of the characterization
and evaluation of numerous conventional cores,
rotary sidewall cores, public domain cores,
and drill cutting samples taken from multiple
wells targeting the Niobrara. Specifically, the
prospective section will be analyzed for geological,
petrophysical, geomechanical, geochemical,
and production properties. These data will be
integrated with well logs, stimulation designs,
and production test information. This large and
searchable database will provide operators with
valuable information not only on their own wells
within the Niobrara section, but also on other
operators wells. The project will be focused
on evaluating numerous Niobrara wells in the
DJ, Piceance, Powder River, North Park, Sand
Wash, Raton, San Juan, and Green River basins.

51

ABSAROKA GEOCHEMISTRY STUDY DENVER BASIN I PALEOZIC OIL


STUDY ANTLER BASIN SOURCE ROCK STUDY SAN JUAN BASIN RO

north america
Rocky Mountains
UTAH

COLORA

PARADOX BASIN
REGIONAL STUDY

Historically much of the geologi-

N Ecal
W

knowledge of the Paradox Basin


has been based on petrologic studies
conducted in the late 1940s and 50s. Major
advances in the understanding of continental
tectonism during Paleozoic times have aided in
deciphering the buried structural history of the
Paradox Basin. Although advances in recent years
in both carbonate and evaporite sedimentology
have been made, many operators in the Paradox
Basin have been employing sedimentological
concepts developed over thirty (30) years ago.
This Study has explained many of the geological
ambiguities of the basin by placing the Paradox
Basin in an accurate global and regional tectonic
and glacioeustatic setting, whereby specific
diagenetic events and subtle depositional environmental changes have been defined and placed
in a predictive model.
This Study has analyzed and interpreted Paradox
Formation lithology, depositional environments
and geological, petrophysical, and engineering
properties gathered from conventional core analysis
of fifty-six (56) wells. These wells contain approximately 4,800 feet of cored interval. Detailed
facies characterization of productive and nonproductive intervals are provided utilizing thin
section petrology, scanning electron microscopy,
X-ray diffraction, and cathodoluminescence

analytical techniques. Particular attention has been


directed toward diagenetic variations in relation to
well productivity within specific lithofacies, including their associated log signatures. In addition,
new stratigraphic terminology is introduced in this
Study which clarifies depositional environments
and their relationship to associated structure.
The regional stratigraphy of the Paradox
Formation, including the Desert Creek and Ismay
stages, has been evaluated in this study through the
correlation of over 1,500 wildcat and development
wells drilled to the Paradox or deeper zones.
Various stratigraphic correlations and relationships
are incorporated into numerous structure maps,
isopachs/lithofacies maps, and cross-sections.
Facies zonation, which was established from
detailed core studies, has been tied to well logs and
correlated within the various cross-sections and
maps, providing a basin-wide distribution
of facies.
The geological and engineering data generated
and the interpretations presented in this study
represent the crux of information necessary for a
owell integrated exploration/development play in
the Paradox Basin. Particular emphasis has been
placed on the uppermost carbonate cycles (Desert
Creek, Lower Ismay and Upper Ismay stages) of
the Paradox Formation because of their known
economic importance as major oil and gas reservoirs
in the Four Corners area.
Fif ty -six ( 56) wells
4,800 f eet of con ven tion al cor e
Stratigraph y utilizin g logs f r om 1,500 wells

52

PARADOX BASIN REGIONAL STUDY ABSAROKA GEOCHEMISTRY STU


DENVER BASIN I PALEOZOIC OIL/SOURCE ROCK STUDY SAN JUAN

north america
NOR

Rocky Mountains

MONTANA

SOUT

WYOMING

UPPER CRETACEOUS TIGHT


OIL RESERVOIRS POWDER
RIVER BASIN

his project is designed to


optimize operators exploitation of
low-permeability, liquids-rich, Upper Cretaceous
reservoirs in the Powder River Basin. Initial activity
in the basin for unconventional reservoirs focused
on the Niobrara with mixed results. Several
operators are becoming bullish on other formations
such as the Teapot, Parkman, Sussex, Shannon,
and Frontier/Turner sandstones. The conventional
reservoirs of these formations are the target of a
previous 83 well core study carried out in the 1980s
by Core Laboratories, which will be included in this
project.
The earlier Powder River Basin Regional Study
was designed to provide participating companies
with detailed geological, petrophysical, and
associated engineering characterization and
evaluation of Muddy-Newcastle, Minnelusa-Leo,
Dakota-Fall River and Frontier-Turner sandstones.
The primary objectives for this study are as follows:
Describe, document, and interpret sandstone
lithology, vertical sequences, and the
character of various lithofacies present within

conventional cores
Describe, document, and interpret sandstone
lithology, vertical sequences, and the
character of various lithofacies present within
conventional cores
Define, document, and evaluate sandstone
mineralogy, textural, and pore space
properties for pay and potential pay
identification
Measure and analyze rock logging and fluidflow parameters for samples representative
of the spectrum of reservoir quality rock types
from each of the four formations studied
Correlate the basin-wide distributions of
formations and zones of interest studied from
normalized depth shifted wireline logs
Analyze geological and petrophysical data
from each formation in order to provide a
better understanding of initial production
performance for wells with DSTs in the
zones of interest and recommend revised
or improved will completion and stimulation
procedures

In addition to the objectives stated above, the


Upper Cretaceous Tight Oil Reservoirs study will
include detailed completion recommendations,
completion and production analysis for all new wells.

COLORADO
UTAH

SAN JUAN BASIN


REGIONAL STUDY

ZONA

NEW MEXICO

A REGIONAL GEOLOGIC STUDY


OF CARBONIFEROUS SANDSTONE
AND CARBONATE INTERVALS IN THE
SAN JUAN BASIN, NORTHWESTERN NEW
MEXICO, NORTHEASTERN ARIZONA, AND
SOUTHWESTERN COLORADO

This study assesses the potential for reservoir-

quality facies within Carboniferous (Mississippian


and Pennsylvanian) rocks of the deeper San Juan
Basin. The numerous wells drilled on the Four Corners platform, including those from proven producing
areas such as Tocito Field, plus outcrop exposures
of equivalent facies, provide an excellent framework from which to develop exploration models and
exploitation data for deeper portions of the San Juan
Basin. In order to provide this geological information
Core Laboratories did the following:
Correlate the Carboniferous intervals and

analyze available rock information from


approximately 600 wells drilled in the
San Juan Basin and Four Corners platform,
and generate a series of maps, crosssections, and correlation nets for equivalent
Carboniferous facies in the basin
Study and evaluate available conventional
cores, core chips, and drill cuttings from wells
both on the Four Corners platform and in the
central portions of the San Juan Basin
Measure, describe, and interpret outcrop
sections of equivalent Carboniferous
sandstone and carbonate facies located
on the northern (San Juan Mountains) and
southeastern (Nacimiento Mountains) edges
of the San Juan Basin
Systematically analyze individual rock samples
to characterize rock properties (e.g.,
mineralogy, pore space properties, logging

53

SAN JUAN BASIN REGIONAL STUDY POWDER RIVER BASIN BASIN


LOG A NTLER BASIN SOURCE ROCK STUDY SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA

north america
Rocky Mountains
parameters) important in evaluating the presence of reservoir-quality facies and, if present
their respective formation evaluation properties for the deeper San Juan Basin areas
Present the results to participating companies
via quarterly summary reports and a final
project report containing completed maps,
cross-sections, rock property data and other
pertinent geological information which may be
applied to San Juan Basin exploration and/or
exploitation endeavors

This study entails information which can be


utilized for improved exploration and exploitation
activities that; (1) provide a set of working maps
and cross-sections depicting sandstone/carbonate
facies and associated paleogeographic trends; and
(2) generate rock geological/petrophysical/engineering data for these facies that defines and characterizes productive and potentially productive rock.
Well cor r elation s usin g 600 wells
R ock pr oper ty data
M aps an d cr oss section s

COLORADO
UTAH

with analog data and parameters for modeling


reservoir behavior and making reservoir management decisions. The San Juan Basin Rock Catalog
systematically classifies and characterizes rock
types encountered in these major producing
formations based on the Worldwide Rock
Catalog classification scheme.
The objectives of the San Juan Basin Rock
Catalog are:

SAN JUAN BASIN ROCK


CATALOG

ZONA

NEW MEXICO

SAN JUAN BASIN ROCK CATALOG


A C ATA LO G O F GEO LO GICAL
A N D EN GI N EERI N G P RO P ER T IES
FO R THE MESA VERD E, P I CTUR ED
C L I FFS A N D D A K O TA FO RMATI O N IN
T HE SA N J U A N BA SI N

he project includes measurement, documentation, and interpretation in a catalog format


of the geological and petrophysical properties of
rock types identified in the Mesa Verde, Pictured
Cliffs, and Dakota Formations. The analyses were
performed on twenty conventional core entries
selected to represent a spectrum of reservoir rock
types encountered in producing and potentially
producing horizons. The various rock types and
associated data in the San Juan Basin Rock Catalog
serves as reference analogs for more accurate estimates of formation parameters, producibility and
reservoir behavior of non-cored reservoir intervals.
The Catalog also supplies geologists and engineers

Provide a reference manual containing


analog sandstone and carbonate rock
types for more accurate estimates of
formation parameters
Establish a comprehensive geological and
engineering data base over a spectrum of
rock types
Define relationships and correlations between
an extensive array of laboratory measured
petrophysical data on each entry and
estimates of reservoir rock properties from
visual observations of core, sidewall, and/or
rock cuttings material

54

DENVER BASIN I PALEOZOIC OIL/SOURCE ROCK STUDY PARADOX


BASIN REGIONAL STUDY SAN JUAN BASIN ROCK CATALOG WILLIS

north america
Rocky Mountains
Evaluation of electrical parameters for
log interpretation
Evaluation of capillary pressure relationships
of each producing region
Evaluation of gas-oil and water-oil relative
permeability relationships
Determination of pore size distributions
Evaluation of acoustic transit times to aid
in log calibration in the subject zones

WILLISTON BASIN
REGIONAL STUDY
MONTANA

U P P ER D EVO N I A N D U P ER OW

N O R T H D A K A N D BI RD BEA R (N I SK U )

RESER VO I RS O F THE W I LLIST ON


BA SI N STU D Y

his report constitutes the results of a


geological and engineering evaluation of the
Upper Devonian Duperow and Birdbear (Nisku)
formations of eastern Montana and western
North Dakota. The principle objectives of the
project are to:

105 wells
Con ven tion al cor e an d outcr op samples

Define and document the depositional facies


of the stratigraphic sequence spanned by
the two formations
Describe the diagenetic features and
sequences characteristic of the two
formations, particularly with respect to
porosity evolution and destruction
Illustrate structural, stratigraphic and
petrophysical characteristics pertinent
to exploration for these carbonate reservoirs

This report contains a data base generated from


more than 2,500 wells, including description of
cored intervals from 105 wells and outcrop sections.
Wireline logs were acquired and used for control
points with the basin with supplemental logs
and production data being obtained from public
domain sources.
Three case histories comprise the engineering
portion of this project. Each well represents major
producing reservoir lithotypes of the Williston Basin. The engineering parameters evaluated include:
Porosity and permeability relationships within
the producing zones
Overburden pressure effects on porosity and
permeability

55

SAN JUAN ROCK CATALOG WILLISTON BASIN REGIONAL STUDY PO


BA SIN ROCK CATALOG WILLISTON BASIN REGIONAL POWDER RIVER

north america
West Coast
geochemical study. A final report is provided that
integrates the geochemical data into the regional
geologic framework of the study area.
An understanding of the location and quality
of potential source rocks in the study area
provides a key to future exploration efforts in
the North Slope.

NORTH SLOPE ALASKA


SOURCE ROCK STUDY
ALASKA

ississippian through Tertiary


rocks from the North Slope of Alaska
were evaluated for the hydrocarbon source
rock potential. Cuttings and core samples from
thirty-four (34) wells, which provide both regional
and stratigraphic coverage, were utilized in this

T h ir ty -f our ( 34) wells


Alaska Nor th Slope

CALIFORNIA

The final report discusses the source rock


potential of Pliocene through Cretaceous sediments in the San Joaquin Basin. The source rock
data is compared with the geochemical data used
to characterize the crude oils to establish possible
crude oil/source rock relationships. In addition, the
generation history is reconstructed for source rocks
in the study area. Lopatin time-temperature plots
indicate the timing of crude oil generation and
migration. From these the distances and directions
of oil migration can be evaluated. Maps and crosssections constructed from geochemical data were
used to determine the locations and volumes of
effective source rocks. These volumes were then
used to calculate the quantities of petroleum
generated from respective source facies.

SAN JOAQUIN BASIN


PETROLEUM POTENTIAL
REGIONAL STUDY

he purpose of this regional study


was to evaluate the petroleum potential
of the San Joaquin Basin by analyzing oils and
potential source rocks from the study area. A total
of fifty-nine (59) oils from thirty-eight (38) fields
that represent Pliocene to Cretaceous sediments
were analyzed. The oils were characterized and
discussed in the San Joaquin Basin Petroleum
Potential Study Crude Oil Report. Sedimentary
sections from the wells were analyzed to evaluate
their hydrocarbon source rock potential. The
analytical data for each of the fifty-eight (58)
wells are provided in the individual well reports.

CALIFORNIA

SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA
OIL STUDY

total of ninety-eight (98) oils


representing fifty (50) fields in the
Santa Maria, San Joaquin, Cuyama, Salinas
and Ventura Basins including the Santa Barbara
Channel area were characterized in the Southern

California Oil Study. The main objective was to


determine the major factors controlling oil
quality and to recommend geologic settings
favorable for the occurrence of high quality oil
in the study area. The ninety-eight (98) oils are
from Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, and Pliocene
sandstone and fractured shale reservoirs ranging in
depth from 460 feet to 20,270 feet
Fif ty ( 50) f ields
Nin ety -eigh t ( 98) oils

56

SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA OIL STUDY DENVER BASIN I PALEOZOIC O


SOURCE ROCK STUDY NOR TH SLOPE ALASKA SOURCE R OCK STUDY

north america
CALIFORNIA

West Coast
A total of 200 samples from forty-eight (48)
wells representing both upper and lower Stevens sandstones were analyzed. Interpretation of
reservoir quality, controls on reservoir quality, and
areas favorable for exploration are provided in this
study. Recommendations concerning precautions
for drilling, completion, and enhanced recovery
methods as well as wireline-log analysis are
also provided.

STEVENS RESERVOIR
STUDY

he primary purpose of this


study was delineate trends of high
reservoir quality and define the petrographic controls of reservoir quality. Additional
objectives include the identification of pay and
non-pay zones of interest. The documentation
of diagenetic minerals, their effect on reservoir
quality, and their geographic and stratigraphic
distribution are also discussed.

For ty -eigh t ( 48) wells


200 samples

Mineral, texture and pore space properties


of upper and lower Temblor sands pertinent
to recognition of pay and important for proper
formation evaluation
Determination of fluid flow and logging
parameters such as electrical property
measurements for wireline log calibration,
completion and stimulation techniques for
a spectrum of Temblor rock types
Geochemistry of the Temblor and equivalent
units for organic richness, source rock
potential and thermal maturity

TEMBLOR REGIONAL
STUDY

CALIFORNIA

ince 1940 the OligoceneMiocene Temblor Formation in


the central portion of the San Joaquin Valley
has yielded more that one billion barrels of oil
and trillions of cubic feet of gas from the general
study area. With renewed interest in the Temblor
sands as a petroleum producer this study provides
a base of information with direct exploration and
exploitation applications. The principle topics of
investigation are as follows:

Regional rock control is provided by 2,289 feet


of conventional whole core from seven (7) wells,
3,181 feet of core chips from seven other wells,
and 35,011 feet of cuttings from fifteen (15) wells.
The study contains individual well summary
reports that allow operators to utilize analytical
data for individual wells, and a final report that
integrates numerous geological variables to provide
the regional perspective needed to successfully
explore for and exploit Temblor reservoirs.

Biostratigraphy of the Temblor and equivalent


units for age determination, time lines, and
chronologic correlations
Identification of lithofacies, their geological
properties, vertical and lateral distribution.
These are defined by available conventional
core, cuttings, and wireline logs.
Depositional environments and plaeobathymetry
of the Temblor and their relationship to the
distribution and geometry of productive and
non-productive lithofacies

Twen ty -two ( 22) wells


Con ven tion al cor e an d cuttin gs

57

ABSAROKA GEOCHEMISTRY STUDY STEVENS RESER VOIR STUDY TE


TEMBLOR REGIONAL STUDY SAN JOAQUIN BASIN PETROLEUM POTE

international
Africa
COTE
DIVOIRE

GHANA

coast, while subsequent offshore exploration


of the shallow shelf, yielded numerous oil and
gas accumulations, such as the Lion, Panthere,
Kudu, Eland, Ibex and Baobab fields.
Despite the large number of wells in the
shallow offshore, the complex geological history
of the Cte dIvoire Transform Basin is not well
understood and there are many questions to
answer regarding the controls on sand distribution,
the lateral extent of multiple unconformities,
the variations in reservoir quality and the oil
and gas migration pathways in the region.
The deepwater province of the Deep Ivorian
Basin is largely undrilled but available public
domain data from ongoing seismic evaluation and
prospect delineation projects suggest that there
is a high possibility of encountering turbidite
plays similar to the Late Cretaceous reservoirs
discovered in the adjacent Tano Basin, Ghana.
The key components of the study are as follows:

CTE DIVOIRE REGIONAL


RESERVOIRS AND SEALS

ore Laboratories is pleased to


announce the first phase of a series
of rock-based, geological studies across
the West African Transform Basins, providing
dataset generation and detailed evaluation of
reservoir and seal rocks across the region; Phase
I Cte dIvoire was completed in early 2011.
The study was undertaken in partnership with
Petroci who have provided access to national
archives of cuttings, conventional cores, fluids,
electric logs and technical geological well
reports for study purposes. Approximately 60
wells were selected for detailed analysis.
The Transform Margin Basins of West Africa
are attracting considerable industry interest
because of well-documented large discoveries
within Ghana and a more recent new oil discovery
in Sierra Leone. This provides renewed hope of
exploiting a large deepwater oil province (700
miles) across four countries in West Africa.
The offshore Cte dIvoire Basin is an excellent
example of a transform margin with high potential
for large volume hydrocarbon discoveries. The
shallow water province of the basin has been
documented by more than 110 wells, an extensive
2-D and 3-D seismic grid and several productive
fields. Exploration drilling began in the 1890s to
evaluate the extensive oil seeps known along the

COTE
DIVOIRE

GHANA

Biostratigraph y /Seq uen ce Stratigraph y


of study wells
Reservoir Description and Rock Property Evaluation
of all major reservoir units
R ock Ty pin g of un cor ed section s
Seal Atlas of major seal lith ologies
Fluid ch aracterization
Paleogeograph ic M aps ( illustratin g sediment
tran spor t path way s an d depocen tr es)
Laboratory and well data loaded to RAPID database
H T M L br owser of th e study dataset an d r epo r t

CTE DIVOIRE REGIONAL


RESERVOIRS AND SEALS:
UPDATE

uring 2013, Petroci and Core


Laboratories extended our 2011 Regional
Reservoir and Seal study by the addition of a
further thirteen wells and four shallow boreholes
across the region, including a number of recently
drilled deepwater wells. The primary objective of
this study update was to undertake fully integrated
reservoir, seal and source rock evaluation of the
full drilled succession in these additional wells in

order to assess the reservoir quality of downdip


and deepwater facies and to extend the regional
geology interpretation and paleogeographic
mapping. High resolution cyclostratigraphy
and biostratigraphy, combined with detailed
sedimentological and petrographical analysis of
core and cuttings material, provides valuable
new information regarding the controls on
sand deposition and reservoir and seal quality
preservation in the deeper water zones. The study
also includes additional geochemical analyses of
source rocks to provide further information on
the petroleum systems of the Ivorian Margin.

59

ABON/NOR TH CONGO RESER VOIRS LIBYA RESER VOIRS OF OFFSHO


ALT PHASE I WEST AFRICA LIBYA RESER VOIRS OF ONSHORE BAS

international
Africa

GABON

CONGO

GABON/NORTH CONGO
RESERVOIRS

n response to increased activity


in West Africa by both Majors and
Independents, Core Laboratories is pleased
to announce a significant update and expansion
of its Gabon and Northern Congo database.
In 1994 Core Laboratories presented a predominantly presalt reservoir study of the area
containing twenty-four (24) cored wells (c.900
meters). The expanded study presented in this
proposal will contain core/cuttings from a further
c.34 wells, enabling description/property studies on
both the pre and post salt reservoirs. Additionally,
a SEAL and Rock Typing analytical program
together with high resolution biostratigraphic
analyses has extended the scope of the study.
The key components of the expanded and
updated study are as follows:

ETH
O P I A description and properties of
IReservoir
pre and post salt reservoirs

UGANDA

KENYA

KENYA EAST AFRICA


RESERVOIRS AND SEALS
PHASE II

orking in cooperation with


National Oil Company, Kenya (NOCK),
in 2012, Core Laboratories completed a second
phase of regional geological evaluation in East
Africa focusing on the major basins of Kenya.
NOCK have provided access to national archives
of cuttings, conventional cores, fluids, electric logs
and technical geological well reports for study
purposes. Over 20 wells have been selected for
detailed analysis. All four major basins in Kenya
(Anza Basin, Mandera Basin, Lamu Basin and
the Western Kenya Rift Basins) are included in
the study. In addition to wells, outcrop sections
have been logged and sampled together with
the inclusion of shallow boreholes and seeps.
The Lamu Embayment includes depocentres
both onshore and offshore southeast Kenya.
Potential reservoirs range in age from the
Permian to the Tertiary. The northwest-southeast
trending Anza Basin extends across much of

Rock typing of uncored sections


Additional thirty-four (34) study wells
SEAL Atlas of major seal lithologies
Biostratigraphy/Sequence Stratigraphy
of key wells
LAS files of electric logs
HTML browser of the study

The study was completed in January 2004.


Participating companies in the study will receive
the following:
The various geological and petrophysical data
generated on the conventional cores and
cuttings samples will be compiled, interpreted,
and presented to each participating company
in a final report.
All project figures, maps and image data
will be provided to participating companies
in browser (HTML) format.
All project figures, maps and data will be
provided on a DATA DISC.
A project website is available for participants
to download data/images.

eastern and northern Kenya. Reservoir targets


include continental deposits of the PaleozoicMesozoic Karroo, Lower Jurassic carbonates
and Cretaceous-Tertiary fluvial, deltaic and
lacustrine sandstones. Only the western flank of
the Mandera Basin extends into (northeastern)
Kenya and is relatively unexplored. Potential
reservoirs are likely to occur as either Jurassic
carbonates or sandstones of the Karroo.
As with Phase I (Tanzania), the key components of
the study are as follows:
Biostratigraph y /Seq uen ce Stratigraph y of s tu d y
wells
R eser voir Description an d R ock Pr oper ties
Evaluation of all major r eser voirs
R ock Ty pin g of un cor ed section s
Seal Atlas of major seal lith ologies
R egion al Sour ce R ock evaluation an d th er m al
maturity
Fluid ch aracterization an d cor r elation
H T M L br owser of th e study dataset an d r ep o r t;
digital data loaded to R APID

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LIBYA

L I B YA R E S E R V O I R S
OF ONSHORE BASINSPHASE I

eservoir characterization data


pertaining to reservoirs in fields and
basins of Libya is critical to many companies
evaluation of opportunities in Libya. This data is
generally not available to companies other than
NOC. With much of the archived data of 1960s and
70s
vintage; a new consistent and compatible dataset,
and evaluation of that dataset has not been previously con-ducted on a regional scale.
Core Laboratories and Petroleum Research
Center, NOC have obtained approval to describe,
sample and analyze cores and cuttings samples from
approximately seventy (70) wells from producing
fields and exploration wells in all of the onshore
basins in Libya. All the major reservoir formations
will be evaluated in this study.
The proposed study will focus on determining the
sedimentological and fracture characteristics of the
reservoirs, along with their petrographic and petro-

LIBYA RESERVOIRS
OF OFFSHORE BASINSPHASE II
LIBYA

ore Laboratories and Petroleum


Research Center present the second
phase of the Regional Reservoir Study of Libya
the Offshore Basins. We have obtained approval
to describe, sample and analyze cores and cuttings
samples from approximately thirty-three (33) wells
from producing fields and exploration wells in the
study area. All the major reservoir formations will
be evaluated in this study.
The proposed study will focus on determining
the sedimentological and fracture characteristics
of the reservoirs, along with their petrographic and
petrophysical properties. In addition, high resolution, quantitative biostratigraphical analyses will be
performed on drill cutting samples in order to place
the reservoir intervals into a regional stratigraphic
framework. The analysis of seal rocks and their

physical properties. In addition, high resolution, quantitative biostratigraphical analyses will be performed on
drill cutting samples in order to place
the reservoir intervals into a regional stratigraphic
framework. The analysis of seal rocks and their hydrocarbon column capacity will compliment the reservoir
description. These types of data and interpretations,
integrated into a regional evaluation, will significantly
enhance participating companies understanding of
these reservoirs for improved exploration and
exploitation efforts.
The final report will be available in hard copy and
HTML formats.The project has been divided into two
phases which are available separately:
West Libya (Ghadames and Murzuq Basins)
East Libya (Sirt Basin)

The primary objective of the project is to provide


each participating company with detailed geological,
biostratigraphical, and petrophysical characterization
and evaluation of numerous conventional reservoir
and seal cores taken in all major basins of Libya. This
large database will significantly improve participating
companies understanding of the reservoirs and result
in more successful exploration and exploitation of
these fields.

hydrocarbon column capacity will compliment the


reservoir description. These types of data and
interpretations, integrated into a regional evaluation, will significantly enhance participating companies understanding of these reservoirs for improved
exploration and exploitation efforts.
The final report will be available in hard copy
and HTML formats.
The primary objective of the project is to
provide each participating company with detailed
geological, biostratigraphical, and petrophysical
characterization and evaluation of numerous
conventional reservoir and seal cores taken in all
major basins of Libya. This large database will
significantly improve participating companies
understanding of the reservoirs and result in
more successful exploration and exploitation of
these fields.
Participating companies in the study will receive
the following:

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The various geological and petrophysical data generated
on the conventional cores and cuttings samples will be
compiled, interpreted and presented to each participating company in a final report. The final report will summarize the data and provide a regional overview of the
reservoirs in terms of significant aspects and conclusions regarding improved exploration and exploitation
concepts. Each participating company will receive one
copy of all reports for the study.

All project figures, maps and image data will be provided to participating companies in browser (HTML)
format.

LIBYA PRE-UPPER
CRETACEOUS RESERVOIRS
OF ONSHORE SIRT BASIN
LIBYA

he Libyan Petroleum Institute


(LPI), a division of the National Oil
Corporation (NOC) and Core Laboratories
performed Reservoir Description and Property
studies of over 130 wells from the offshore and
onshore basins during 2004 and 2005. Following
a phase of further work in the Sirt Basin, we are
pleased to present a new evaluation of the Pdeep
HILIPPINES
plays in the Sirt Basin. This study encompasses
M Aseal
LAYSIA
structural, stratigraphic, reservoir and
Celebes
Sea
components
focused
on
the
Pre-Upper
Cretaceous
TANZANIA
section and was completed in 4Q 2008. I N D O N E S I A
LPI has utilized their in-house seismic/landsat/
field geology database, together with newly
acquired data from operators and NOC, to establish
the structural/tectonic framework for the study
area. An extensive stratigraphic, petrographic and
petrophysical program has been conducted on rock
samples from forty (40) newly-evaluated wells.

The primary objective of the project is to provide


participating companies with a detailed geological
model of the deeper plays in the Sirt Basin,
significantly improving their understanding
of the petroleum geology.
The study provides participants with the following
analyses, data and interpretation:
Str uctur e/Tecton ics
New stratigraph ic f ramework based on ch e
mostratigraph y, suppor ted by paly n ological
age-datin g an d cy clostratigraph ic an aly sis
Cor e Description
Sedimen tological in terpr etation of cor ed an d
un cor ed section s
R eser voir Quality of cor ed section s
An alog petr oph y sical pr oper ties of un cor ed
section s usin g R ock Ty pin g
Log-based Petr oph y sical Evaluation
Seal an d poten tial seal r ock an aly sis
A digital version of th e r epor t an d suppor ting d ata
on a DATA DISK an d pr oject website
R epor t text, f igur es an d ch ar ts in H T M L br o w s e r

VIETNAM

CAMBODIA

South
China
Sea

BRAZIL
PERU

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ZAMBIA

MOZAMBIQUE

MOZAMBIQUE EAST
AFRICA RESERVOIRS AND
SEALS: PHASE IV

ZIMBABWE

Recent major drilling successes have

resulted in renewed industry focus on East


African Basins and the resurgent exploration effort
has yielded interesting new seismic-based ideas
regarding the evolution of basins along the Indian
Ocean Margin.
Following on from our recent rock-based regional
studies in Kenya and Tanzania, this project aims to
provide an overview of the geological datasets generated during the earlier and recent exploration cam-

NAMIBIA

NAMIBIA AND THE ORANGE


BASIN RESERVOIRS AND SEALS
SOUTH ATLANTIC MARGIN

Renewed interest in the South

Atlantic Margin generated by recent


successful drilling campaigns in Brazil,
has led to Core Laboratories to extend its post/
pre salt West African dataset to Namibia.
Core Laboratories is thus pleased to present an
all-new and fully integrated multi-disciplinary study

paigns within the coastal basins of Mozambique,


and aims to demonstrate that, although the number
of wells drilled has been relatively low relative to
the vast acreage in the region, the well log data and
rock samples generated by these multiple drilling
phases constitute a valuable source of geological
information, that can still be closely investigated for
clues to the tectonic evolution of the margin.
The National Institute of Petroleum (INP) have
provided access to cores, cuttings, sidewall cores,
electric logs and technical geological well reports
from these selected exploration wells. A total of c.40
wells have been released for inclusion in this new
study.

of the basins of Namibia. This new geological


sciences and petrophysical dataset incorporates
stratigraphy, geochemistry, reservoir geology,
seal rock analysis and petrophysics, based on
core, cuttings, SWC, well log data and fluids
from approximately 20 wells across Namibia
including c. 20 wells from the Northern Orange
Basin in South Africa, where a substantial
core dataset is available together with fluid
occurrences. Finally we have referenced DSDP
and ODP wells to complete the dataset.

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NIGERIA

Estimation of the relative thermal histories


of the various oil families and their source
rocks based upon the crude oil molecular
and physical properties
Determination of the number of effective
source intervals responsible for the
hydrocarbons found in the Niger Delta and
to some degree in the Benin Embayment
of Nigeria
Determination if the Akata Formation and/or
the Agbada Formation, are the effective
source facies in the offshore and onshore
Niger Delta area, specifically, the western
versus eastern delta area
Determination of the source paleoenvironments of the Tertiary reservoired (primary
Agbada Formation) oils from the Niger Delta
Determination of the kerogen types of the
Akata and Agbada shale source intervals
Determine the oil families from the
Niger Delta are genetically related to the
oils from offshore Cameroon
Determination if there are pre-Tertiary
sourced oils present in the offshore and/or
coastal onshore Niger Delta
Correlation of produced oils with their
effective source areas to identify probable
migration pathways

NIGER DELTA
GEOCHEMISTRY STUDY

ore Laboratories has performed


a non-exclusive oil and source rock
study of the regional petroleum potential
of the Niger Delta, Nigeria.
This study of the Niger Delta involves detailed
geochemical analysis and interpretation of 112
oils from the offshore and onshore Niger Delta,
and offshore Cameroon in the Rio Del Rey area.
A comprehensive analytical program was used to
establish the genetic relationships of the oils. In
addition, 870 rock samples from seventeen (17)
well sections (and two outcrops) representative
of potential source rocks from the offshore and
coastal onshore Niger Delta were obtained, as
well as one outcrop from the Upper Benue
Trough, for geochemical evaluation . Acquisition
of effective source rocks within the Niger Delta
has been difficult due to the unconsolidation of
sediments, non-penetration of effective source
beds (in particular pre-Agbada formations), and
the general lack of available well control in the
Delta area.
The regional geochemical study addresses
several critically important questions, including
the following:

Results of the study are presented in both


analytical and interpretive formats to ensure that all
findings are readily accessible to the explorationists
and research personnel. Data are available in paper,
digital and HTML formats.

Determination of the character, distribution,


and number of genetically distinct oil families
in the Niger Delta area

The study of the Niger Delta involves


detailed geochemical analysis and
interpretation of 112 oils from the offshore
and onshore Niger Delta, and offshore
Cameroon in the Rio Del Rey area.

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NIGERIA

NIGER DELTA
RESERVOIR STUDY

his study examines the Tertiary


clastic sequence from the Niger Delta
Basin containing sediments generally
described as an upward and updip (south-to-north)
transition from marine deep water and pro-delta
sediments (Akata Formation), through alternating
sand/shale paralic deposits (Agbada Formation), to
continental deposits (Benin Formation) [Ejedawe,
et al., 1984]. Production thus far has been
principally from the Agbada Formation, which is at
least 3,000 m thick. It is an alternating sequence
of sands, silts and clays deposited principally in
delta-front, tidal/estuarine, distributary channel,
and delta-plain environments. Reservoir quality
has been shown to be related to depositional
environment (in association with lithology and
geometry) and burial depth. The underlying and
interbedded Akata Formation, which is reportedly
up to 7,000 m thick, includes clays, silts and
sands deposited in deeper water environments by
slump/slide/debris flow, bottom current, turbidity
current, and pelagic/hemipelagic processes, also
locally exhibits reservoir potential (Shanmugam et
al., 1995). The overlying and interfingering Benin
Formation is composed of fluviatile sands and
conglomerates, with local coaly deposits; and is
about 2,000 m thick (Weber and Daukoru, 1975).
The Benin Formation locally contains (heavy) oil
and gas stringers, where the oil-bearing sands are
associated with coal (Avbovbo and Ogbe, 1978).
The sedimentological study, Phase I:
Sedimentology, was completed by Core
Laboratories in 1996. Phase II: Petrophysics,
is the second phase of the sedimentological study
that characterizes the reservoir properties of the
Tertiary Niger Delta reservoirs. The reservoir
quality of each lithofacies will be determined
by analysis of petrophysical properties. Results
of the study together with the Phase I report
results will be integrated to characterize hydraulic
flow units and enhance reservoir modeling
program. Phase II was completed in June 1999.
This reservoir study includes regional coverage of
all of the lithofacies occurring in the Tertiary
reservoirs of the Niger Delta region. More than
6,300 feet of conventional core from both onshore
and offshore areas have been described in detail.

Each lithofacies has been sampled for petrographic, mineralogical, and grain size analysis.
Lithofacies sequences were identified as an aid
in interpreting depositional environment. In
addition, a photographic atlas has been produced
that exhibits the lithofacies present throughout
the region, with their characteristics.
The primary study objectives of Phase I are
as follows::
Description (using a newly created, industryapproved standardized stratigraphic
nomenclature) and characterization of all
lithofacies present in the Tertiary reservoirs
Relationships made between facies and
depositional environments, diagenesis, and
regional variations
Creation of a photographic atlas of lithofacies
with core, thin section, and SEM photographs;
x-ray diffraction and sieve analysis data; and
wireline logs over cored intervals

Other objectives include the identification


of certain formation damage problems, such as
fines migration, clay swelling, water sensitivity,
and sanding that are related to the studied
lithofacies. Sequence stratigraphy will be applied
to a limited degree to the studied cores to fit
them into the regional stratigraphic framework:
Quantify petrophysical characteristics and
reservoir quality for each facies and
depositional environment both regionally
and vertically
Select and characterize hydraulic flow units
using porosity, permeability and capillary
pressure data (pore throat attributes)
Compare horizontal to vertical permeabilities and obtain Kv/Kh relationships for
lithofacies units
Determine degree of compaction with burial
and effects on reservoir quality
Determine the Archie a, m and n values and
CECs for each of the main lithofacies
Illustrate reservoir characteristics with plug
and thin section photographs

A secondary objective of the study is to compare


porosity-permeability measurements made during
this study with those measured immediately
following coring to examine the possibility of
core-shed diagenesis.

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PRESENTATION OF RESULTS:
Phase I

Results of the study is presented in seven volumes. Volumes one (1) through four (4) will include
the analytical database, with a rock catalog page
for each sample, organized by well. XRD data
will be available on CD. Volume five (5) and six
(6) will include the detailed core descriptions, in
log format, showing lithofacies designations,
depositional environment interpretation and
wireline logs.
This information will all be available on CD.
Volume six (6) will contain the interpretation with
integration of all analytical results. It will include
a photographic atlas of lithofacies, summary of

BRAZIL

PRE-SALT SOUTH ATLANTIC,


PHASE III: PRE-SALT
CARBONATES WEST

he deepwater Pre-Salt carbonates


represent a new play type for the South Atlantic
Margin and since little geological data has been
released from the new deepwater wells, it seems
imperative to ensure maximum utilization of legacy
subsurface datasets, in order to fully understand
the controls on carbonate development and
reservoir quality preservation along the margin.
This study integrates previously evaluated well
log and rock data with a comprehensive suite of
newly acquired log, cuttings and key core material.
The main advantages of our study are (1) that
it provides access to core material from key wells
(Abacaxi-1 and Denden-1) in Block 9, Kwanza
basin - cores through the Barremian-Aptian

observations, and recommendations pertaining


to exploration objectives and strategies for
enhanced production.
Phase II

Results of the study will be presented in rock


catalog data volumes that include the petrophysical
data as well as thin section and plug photographs.
All of the data will also be supplied that correlates
the petrophysical results with the lithofacies from
the Phase I study. The hydraulic flow unit results
will be summarized and illustrated in this volume
as well.
Both Phase I and II are now available in
HTML formats.

Toca carbonate which we have analysed in


great detail with petrography, stable isotopes,
CL, fluid inclusions etc. It provides a review of
the Vembo Member Gabon, the carbonate-rich
sequence which separates the sandy Gamba
unit from the main salt. The presence of highenergy oolitic shoals and suite of associated
lagoonal dolomites and evaporites seen in core
from onshore/shallow offshore Gabon wells in
this unit does present the possibility of Aptian
(Tupi age) carbonates being preserved on the
Outer High in deepwater, offshore Gabon.
This extension to our Pre-Salt, West African
Margin Study Report (2006), provides a detailed
and fully integrated regional assessment of the
sedimentological and diagenetic characteristics
of Pre-Salt carbonates and also evaluates the
complex relationship between tectonic and
igneous activity and sedimentation patterns
within the syn-rift basins from this region.

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GABON

POST SALT RESERVOIRS


AND SEALS OF THE SOUTH
ATLANTIC MARGIN

CONGO

ANGOLA

enewed interest in the West African


Atlantic Margin generated by recent and upcoming
Deep Water license rounds in Gabon, Congo,
Angola and also further north in Equatorial Guinea
and Cameroon, has led to many requests to extend
Core Laboratories existing studies in the Pre-Salt
(Gabon to Angolan margin) and Regional Study
of the Gabon/North Congo Margin to include
the full Post-Salt succession across the entire
margin. Therefore Core Laboratories is pleased
to present a new study of the South Atlantic
West African Margin. This new and updated
geological sciences and petrophysical dataset
incorporates stratigraphy, geochemistry, reservoir
geology, seal rock analysis and petrophysics, based
on core cuttings, SWC, well log data and fluids

SENEGAL, AGC AND GUINEA


BISSAU CENTRAL ATLANTIC
MARGINS WEST AFRICA PHASE I

revious studies across the Transform Margin include Cote dIvoire


Reservoir and Seals which was completed in
2011 and Cote dIvoire - Deep Water extension, an
ongoing study scheduled for completion early 2014.
A regional study of the Transform Basins on the conjugate Equatorial Margin of Brazil is also underway
and due for completion in 2014.
The study region across the Central Atlantic
Margin, extending from Guinea-Bissau to the
northern margin of Senegal, displays many of the
complex structural and stratigraphic characteristics
typical of the main Cretaceous Transform Margin
further south, but this (early rifted) margin also

from approximately 50 wells across the margin


from Equatorial Guinea to South Angola.
Concession rates are available for previous
licensees of Core Laboratories Gabon/N
Congo and/or Pre- Salt West Africa Studies.
The primary objective of the Post Salt West
African study was to undertake a full evaluation
of all major Post-Salt reservoir intervals
penetrated in the study wells, combined with
an evaluation of associated seal rock lithologies
and evaluation of regional source units and
thermal maturity. In addition 40+ post salt
sourced fluids are presented and correlated across
the South Atlantic to Brazil. A key finding of
the study was the identification, through high
resolution biostratigraphy, of an additional Mid
to Late Aptian Post-Salt depositional package
in the Kwanza Basin, Angola, which is not
present across the Gabon-Congo margin.

incorporates a number of additional reservoir targets,


trap styles and play types not encountered south of the
Guinea Transfer Fault Zone, including extensive thick
Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary carbonate reservoir
targets on intrabasinal highs, significant salt accumulations which form local hydrocarbon traps and also local
oil-bearing Tertiary sandstone reservoirs.
The study has been undertaken in partnership with
Petrosen, Petroguin and AGC who have provided
access to national archives of cuttings, conventional
cores, fluids, electric logs and technical geological well
reports from over 40 wells for study purposes. In addition several operators have also made available additional wells currently under exclusivity.
The study will include detailed sedimentological and
petrographical evaluation of >1000m of core, in addition to analysis of cuttings material and well log data.

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GABON

CONGO

SOUTH ATLANTIC MARGINS


PRE-SALT PHASE I
WEST AFRICA

ore Laboratories has now built up


extensive expertise in the regional petroleum geology of both the Brazilian and
West African Atlantic Margin Basins. Our recent
geological studies of nine (9) Brazilian basins
(Core Laboratories non-proprietary studies,
2001 - 2003) have established an integrated
geological model for the shelfal and deepwater
areas of the eastern Brazilian Margin. In the
mid-1990s Core Lab completed two land mark
geochemical and reservoir evaluations of the
Pre Salt of West Africa. The Gabon/Congo
areas were substantially updated and expanded
during 2003.
Recent hydrocarbon discoveries in pre-salt
reservoirs have rekindled international interest within the clastic and carbonate rift and pre-rift plays
along both the Brazilian and West African Margins.
The study was undertaken on ditch cuttings,
cores, sidewall cores and fluids from a suite of
wells and oils.
The primary technical objective of the study
is to extend the geological model of pre-salt plays
established for the shelfal parts of the Atlantic
Margin Basins to establish a high-resolution, fully
integrated, geological model for the rift and

TANZANIA

pre-rift reservoirs and source horizons. The study


will primarily focus on sediments of Berriasian
to Aptian age which include a range of fluvialcontinental, shallow lake and re-sedimented
deep lake facies. Interpretation of data will include
high-resolution biostratigraphy, geochemistry and
detailed analysis of depositional environments,
reservoir and seal geometries.
Besides the well-documented fluvial and shallow
lacustrine facies of the Atlantic Margin Basins,
data from our Atlantic Margin studies (Core
Laboratories, 2002/3) suggests the presence of
some deeper water lake turbidite or debris flow
deposits and local pre-rift Aeolian sandstones
with considerable reservoir potential.
In addition to detailed sedimentology, the project
will include full evaluation of reservoir quality
and reservoir fracturing as appropriate through
detailed petrographic analysis of thin sections and
macroscopic analysis of any core fracture systems.
Detailed regional evaluation of the Berriasian to
Aptian succession will provide the integrated
geological dataset required for geological modeling
and optimum reservoir description of all rift plays.
Five (5) bound interpretive volumes of each
margin will be provided. These volumes are
fully illustrated with figures, analytical data and
regional data in the form of maps and cross
sections. Conclusions from the analytical and
interpretative program will be synthesised into
regional interpretations.

Tanzania Petroleum Development Corporation


(TPDC) have provided access to the cuttings,
sidewall core data, geochemistry data, electric logs
and technical geological well reports from these
selected exploration wells. A total of 11 wells have
been released for inclusion in this new study.
The primary objective was to undertake a full
evaluation of reservoir quality of all major reservoir
intervals that are penetrated in the study wells,
integrated with an evaluation of associated seal
rock lithologies, together with analysis and regional
overview of source rocks and thermal maturity.

TANZANIA EAST AFRICA


RESERVOIRS AND SEALS:
PHASE I UPDATE

ore Laboratories is pleased to


present a significant new addition
to our series of rock based geological studies
in East Africa, which provides new dataset
generation and detailed evaluation of reservoir,
source and seal rocks from recent wells
across the coastal basin region of Tanzania, in
addition to a number of wells from the Rukwa
Graben in the Interior Tertiary Rift System.
This study presents an extended database
integrated with data from the 2009 Report.

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TANZANIA

Jurassic, are best represented in the Selous, Ruvu,


Mandawa, and Ruvuma basins of eastern Tanzania,
and in the Rukwa Basin in the southwest. In the
Selous Basin, reservoir targets occur within the
Karoo Group which comprises approximately 10
km of fluvial, deltaic, continental and lacustrine
deposits. In the Mandawa Basin, the reservoir
targets include pre-rift, syn-rift and post-rift
clastic and carbonate sediments. The coastal
basins were established from Middle Jurassic
onwards as the continental shelf of a passive
margin. These basins formed major depositional
depocenters in the Mesozoic and Tertiary,
accumulating greater than 8,000m of deltaic and
marine sediments that provide multiple reservoir
intervals with proven oil-prone sources and seals.
The key components of the study are as follows:

TANZANIA EAST AFRICA


RESERVOIRS AND SEALS
PHASE I

Core Laboratories is pleased to

announce a significant series of rock


based, geological studies in East Africa, providing
dataset generation and detailed evaluation
of reservoir, source and seal rocks across the
region. Our Tanzania study is the first of a series
in the East Africa region in cooperation with
Tanzania Petroleum Development Corporation
(TPDC) and was completed in mid 2009.
TPDC provided access to national archives
of cuttings, conventional core, fluids, electric
logs and technical geological well reports
for study purposes. Twenty-seven (27) were
selected for this study from national archives.
All major coastal basins in Tanzania are covered
in the study, including the Selous and Ruvu
Basins, the oastal Basins (Mandawa, Ruvuma,
Rukwa and offshore basins) and the deepwater
basins. Reservoir targets include continental
deposits of the Paleozoic-Mesozoic Karroo
Group, Lower Jurassic clastics, evaporates and
carbonates and Cretaceous-Tertiary fluvial,
deltaic, lacustrine and marine sediments.
The pre-rift and synrift stratigraphic units,
from the top of basement to the end of Early

Biostratigraph y /Seq uen ce Stratigraph y


of study wells
R eser voir Description an d R ock Pr oper ties
Evaluation of all major r eser voirs
R ock Ty pin g of un cor ed section s
Seal Atlas of major seal lith ologies
R egion al Sour ce R ock evaluation an d
th er mal maturity
Fluid ch aracterization an d cor r elation
H T M L br owser of th e study dataset an d r ep o r t;
digital data loaded to R APID

69

E BASINS PH ASE I YEMEN ROCK CATALOG NIGER DELTA GEOCHEM


RGINS PRE-SALT PHASE I WEST AFRICA WEST AFRICA GEOCHEMIST

international
Africa
GABON
CONGO

ANGOLA

WEST AFRICA
GEOCHEMISTRY STUDY

rilling activity in the Aptian


Salt Basins of equatorial West Africa
has grown substantially during the past
decade. Interest and activity have been encouraged
by a series of significant oil discoveries in both the
onshore and offshore. To help evaluate exploration
opportunities Core Laboratories has developed
a comprehensive geochemical database for
both crude oils and source rocks. The regional
geochemical study of the Aptian Salt Basins
addresses several critically important questions
including the following:
Where are the depocenters of effective
pre-salt source rocks located?
How many oil families are there and what
is their distribution?
What are the migration conduits connecting
effective sources and related oils?
How extensive are mature post-salt
source beds?
Where has pre-salt generated oil migrated
into the post-salt section and how?
How far updip has post-salt oil migrated
from mature post-salt source?
What factors are most important
in controlling oil composition within
the region?

This study covers the Gabon, Congo, and


Cuanza Basins of West Africa and the northern
extension of this trend into offshore Cameroon.
Approximately 10,000 source rock samples
from fifty-three (53) wells and 164 oils, representing both the pre-salt and post-salt sections
were analyzed.
Results of the study are presented in both
analytical and interpretative reports formatted
so that the major findings are readily accessible
to the explorationist.
Analytical source rock data for the cores
and cuttings are presented within individual
well reports. Each report includes data
tables, a Geochemical Well Profile, and
an overall source-rock evaluation of the
section penetrated.
A Crude Oil Report contains location maps
and all analytical results in the form of data
tables, gas chromatograms, and GC/MS
fragmentograms.
A synthesis and interpretation of all analytical
and geological data is presented within a
comprehensive final report. The principal
aim of this report is to outline the exploration
significance of the data and make specific
recommendations for future exploration.
Full-color maps and figures are provided in
the synthesis. Maps outline the character
and distribution of oil families and effective
source rocks.

70

ABON/NOR TH CONGO RESER VOIRS WEST AFRICA GEOCHEMISTRY S


OUTH ATLANTIC MARGINS PRE-SALT PHASE I WEST AFRICA NIGER

international
Africa
Provide a stratigraphic framework for the Albertine Graben,

UGANDA EAST AFRICA


RESERVOIRS AND SEALS:
PHASE III

to form the basis for delineation of the vertical and lateral


distribution of the major reservoirs. Where possible, the
sequences have been calibrated by reference to regional

Phase I (Tanzania) and Phase II

seismic lines;
Provide detailed reservoir description in order to establish

(Kenya) of our portfolio of reservoir


and seal studies in East Africa were completed in
2009 and 2012 respectively. Phase III Albertine
Graben, Uganda was completed end Q4 2013.
The Petroleum Exploration and Production
Department, Republic of Uganda (PEPD)
provided access to national archives of
cuttings, conventional cores, fluids, electric
logs, and technical geological well reports
for study purposes. 15 wells (including 4
sidetracked wells and 4 cored wells) were
selected for detailed analysis. In addition to
the well data, the geochemistry of a number
of oil seeps is included in the study.
The objectives of the study were to:

the depositional and tectonic setting of the reservoirs


and to provide detailed evaluation of reservoir quality.
This allowed evaluation of the sedimentological, tectonic
and diagenetic controls on reservoir quality and seal
effectiveness;
Provide analytical data on the sealing capacity of potential
seal rocks in order to improve prospect risk assessment.
The dataset provides critical parameters for determining
seal capacity of oil and gas seal rocks in their depositional
context.
Provide a regional geochemical dataset in terms of source
potential, thermal maturity and character of released fluids.

71

HORE BASINS-PHASE I NIGER DELTA GEOCHEMISTRY STUDY NIGER D


E I WEST AFRICA WEST AFRICA GEOCHEMISTRY LIBYA_RESER VOIRS

ASIA

international
Asia
BANGLADESH

Determine the structural style and provide


a balanced interpretation of the structural
mechanism for the origin of each sub-basin
Develop concepts of hydrocarbon entrapment
emphasizing such subjects as the timing of
hydrocarbon entrapment versus reservoir
diagenesis, the drainage area versus seal
continuity, and the migration trends versus
paleostructure attitude, and eventually
identify areas where hydrocarbons would
be entrapped
Establish correlations between reservoir
quality and depositional/diagenetic units,
and evaluate controls on reservoir quality
and seal effectiveness
Develop a summary of the petroleum geology
and hydrocarbon potential of Bangladesh
Provide a digital database of laboratory and
well data including electric logs for Bangladesh

BANGLADESH

APEX in association with


Core Laboratories has completed
A Regional Petroleum Geology
and Hydrocarbon Potential Study
of Bangladesh (on and offshore).
A database of thirty (30) wells and approximately 10,000 line km of seismic was provided
by PETROBANGLA for study purposes. The
database includes seismic, tapes and paper prints
of wireline logs; laboratory and final well reports,
and samples of cuttings, core and fluids.
The study has significantly enhanced current
data, and created new data (particularly stratigraphic data), thus allowing a significant body of
consistent, compatible data to be interpreted and
presented. Key objectives of the study were:
Construct a basin-wide lithostratigraphic and
biostratigraphic framework as a basis to establishing a non-marine sequence stratigraphy
and models of sedimentary facies for such
sequences in Bangladesh
Investigate the stratigraphic distribution of
effective hydrocarbon source rocks in the area

INDONESIA COAL
INDONESIA

he study of the stratigraphic


occurrence and hydrocarbon
potential of coals in Indonesia is the first
database of its kind and quality to become
available as an exploration tool in Indonesia. The
quantity of samples (over 500) incorporated
in the study allows a depth of interpretation
previously unparalleled.
The fundamental question of whether coals
can generate and expel significant quantities
of hydrocarbons has been the subject of a large
volume of scientific literature in recent years. The
study has generated a data set of over 500 samples
to address the various problems associated with
generation and expulsion of hydrocarbons from coal.
The stratigraphic distribution of coals in
Indonesian sedimentary basins has been described
73

Four (4) bound interpretive volumes are provided. These volumes are fully illustrated with
seismic sections, analytical data and regional data
in the form of maps, isopachs and cross sections.
In addition, all laboratory data and well logs are
appended to the final report in digital format.

in detail to provide a context for the sophisticated


geochemical analyses, thus making the study an
invaluable aid to explorationists and new ventures
managers evaluating potential source units in
their areas.
State-of-the-art geochemical analytical
techniques used on a comprehensive range of
coals have provided a reference benchmark of
coals and coaly shale source rocks in Indonesia.
All interpretations were carried out by a team of
experienced petroleum geochemists, geologists
and coal petrologists to maximize the utility of the
study. A complete set of analytical data is provided
with the study along with detailed color graphics
summarizing trends and crossplots of parameters
to provide an easy reference for comparison. Spatial
and temporal trends have been mapped to allow
quick access for basin modeling. In addition all
laboratory data are available in digital format.
The study was completed in 1993.

BANGLA DESH INDONESIA COAL INDONESIA EAST INDONESIA


FORELAND BASINS IRIAN JAYA AND PAPUA NEW GUINEA PEARL R

international
Asia
PHILIPPINES
MALAYSIA

CELEBES
SEA

INDONESIA

Core Labs previous deepwater databases/


studies in the Gulf of Mexico/Campos Basin and
West Africa provided a template for this study.
The project was focused on the following objectives:

INDONESIA/PHILIPPINES
DEEPWATER RESERVOIRS
PHASE I

Data pertaining to the deepwater

reservoirs is critical to many companies evaluation


of new opportunities in the Asia Pacific region. This
data is generally not available to companies other
than Operators/Partners in specific blocks and to
the National Oil Institutions. Restrictions governing the sampling of present deepwater wells have
prevented such a database from being generated on
an individual basis or basin-wide prior to this study.

Establish a regional stratigraphic framework


based on biostratigraphy and cyclostratigraphy
Characterize the reservoir quality and petrophysical properties of deepwater reservoirs
Construct a basin-wide geochemical model
and identify the functioning elements of the
petroleum systems within the established
stratigraphic framework
Evaluate the seal rocks of the reservoirs

The project analyzed and evaluated (geologically


and petrophysically) rock samples from source rocks,
reservoirs and seals represented by conventional
core, sidewall cores, fluid samples and/or drill
cutting samples.

Core Laboratories reached agreements with


the Indonesian (MIGAS) and Philippine (DOE)
governments to describe samples and analyze cores,
cuttings and fluid samples from approximately fifty
(50) wells in their respective countries. The study
was completed during Q1, 2007.

INDONESIA EAST NATUNA

The main technical objective of

the study is to generate a geological


model for the area. The geological
model provides an improved basis for
paleogeographic, structural, and hydrocarbon
evaluation, and functioning of petroleum
systems. A comprehensive database has been
provided by PERTAMINA together with open
file data. In summary twenty (20) wells, and
associated seismic and numerous outcrops and
seeps comprise the database of the study.
Currently over forty (40) wells have been drilled
in East Natuna. Core Laboratories evaluated
twenty (20) key wells for study purposes. This
was achieved through the following approach:
INDONESIA

Construct a basin-wide lithostratigraphic and


biostratigraphic framework as a basis to the
establishment of a marine sequence stratigraphy and to determine models of sedimentary
facies for such sequences in the area
Investigate the stratigraphic distribution of
mature/effective hydrocarbon source rocks
in the area
74

Determine the structural style and provide


a balanced interpretation of the structural
mechanism for the origin of each basin
Address the prospects of encountering
accumulations of high-CO2 natural gases
Establish correlations between reservoir
quality and depositional/diagenetic units,
and evaluate controls on reservoir quality
and seal effectiveness
Develop a summary of the petroleum geology
and hydrocarbon potential of the area
Provide a digital database of laboratory and
well data, including electric logs for the area.
Provide a browser edition of the report and
database in HTML format.

Four (4) bound interpretive volumes are


provided. These volumes are fully illustrated
with seismic sections, analytical data and regional
data in the form of maps, isopachs and cross
sections. In addition, all laboratory data, well data,
figures maps and well logs have been appended
to the final report in digital format (CDR). An
HTML version of the report is also available.
Conclusions from the analytical and interpretive program were synthesised into a regional
petroleum geology analysis, outlining current
and proposed play concepts.

NDONESIA EAST NATUNA INDONESIA COAL TIMOR GAP/BONAPA


VER MOUTH BASIN GULF OF THAILAND THAILAND AND THE OCA

international
Asia
INDONESIA EAST
INDONESIA FORELAND
BASINS

INDONESIA

he main technical objectives of


this study are to provide a geological model
and detailed economic assessment of the Foreland
Basins of Eastern Indonesia. The geological model
will provide an improved basis for paleogeographic,
structural, and hydrocarbon evaluation, and functioning of petroleum systems. This will be achieved
through the following approach:
Construct a basin-wide lithostratigraphic and
biostratigraphic framework as a basis to
establish a marine sequence stratigraphy and
to determine models of sedimentary facies for
such sequences in the area
Investigate the stratigraphic distribution of
mature/effective hydrocarbon source rocks
in the area
Determine the structural style and provide
a balanced interpretation of the structural
mechanism for the origin of each basin

Develop concepts of hydrocarbon entrapment emphasizing such topics as the timing


of hydrocarbon entrapment versus reservoir
diagenesis, the drainage area versus seal
continuity, and the migration trends versus
paleostructure attitude, and eventually
identify areas where hydrocarbons would
be accumulated
Establish correlations between reservoir
quality and depositional/diagenetic units,
and evaluate controls on reservoir quality
and seal effectiveness
Develop a summary of the petroleum geology
and hydrocarbon potential of the area
Develop a fiscal analysis and comparison of
terms to other fiscal models
Undertake a market analysis for fluids
Provide a detailed economic analysis of
the profitability of oil and gas exploration
and field development using a range of
economic assumptions

Tw e n t y ( 2 0 ) w e l l s , a s s o c i a t e d
seismic and numerous outcrops
and seeps comprise the
d a t a b a s e o f t h e s t u d y.

75

INDONESIA TARAKAN BASIN GULF OF THAILAND CAMBODIA AND


OCA IRIAN JAYA AND PAPUA NEW GSINS BANGLADESH GULF OF

international
Asia
INDONESIA TARAKAN
BASIN

CELEBES SEA

ore Laboratories has completed


a sequence stratigraphic and regional
geochemical study of the Tarakan Basin. Consistent
problems have plagued operators in the Tarakan
Basin, namely poor sequence and seismic control,
extensive reworking of sediments, poor stratigraphic
controls, lack of closures, young migration and lack
of competent seals. The main aim of the study
was to erect a usable sequence stratigraphic and
chronostratigraphic framework for the Tarakan
Basin, to constrain the extensive geochemical
database within this framework and to identify
the functioning of petroleum systems in the
Tarakan Basin.
The study was focused on fourteen (14) key
stratigraphic control wells in the Tarakan, Muaras
and Berau sub-basins of the Tarakan Basin and
on circa 2,000 km of regional seismic lines which
were made available for appraisal and limited
reinterpretation. The geochemical component
focused on thirteen (13) key wells, plus oil/
extract data from an additional one well and
five (5) oil/gas fields.
Biostratigraphy
Detailed re-interpretation and new analysis
were confined to the fourteen (14) key wells.
Data from an additional six (6) wells were also
reconsidered in the context of the evolving
chronostratigraphic framework. These additional data proved especially useful for seismic
correlations and paleoenvironmental mapping.
Additional information on peripheral wells

was obtained from a number of reports made


available by the client companies and these
are referred to, where necessary, in the text.
Despite the fact that paleo-environmental
and biostratigraphic information was not as
complete or as thorough in these peripheral
wells with no re-interpretation carried out,
this additional information proved useful in
compiling the paleo-environmental maps.
Seismic
The seismic database consisted of approximately 2,000 line km of multifold subsurface
coverage seismic, well synthetics, well velocity
time-depth tables and two-way-time converted
logs. The lines were selected in a sparse
grid to aid in the well correlation of biostratigraphic events, sequence boundaries and
sequences, rather than be used in basin seismic stratigraphy study of paleoenvironments
away from well control. At its most dense
(rarely), the seismic grid was in the order of
five (5) km but generally was twenty (20) km
or greater.
Geochemistry
A detailed review of a pre-existing comprehensive database on potential source rocks
throughout the stratigraphic record was
performed for thirteen (13) key wells.
Measured and modeled maturity data from
these wells (plus hypothetical wells in undrilled
depocenters) were interpreted to evaluate the
thermal history of the Tarakan Sub-Basins.
Oils/extracts data from the key wells, plus
reservoired oils from one additional well and
four (4) oil fields, were also considered with
a view to understanding the oil-source rock
relationships active throughout the entire
Tarakan Basin.

76

INDONESIA TARAKAN BASIN GULF OF THAILAND CAMBODIA AND


OCA IRIAN JAYA AND PAPUA NEW GSINS BANGLADESH GULF OF

international
Asia

INDONESIA

INDONESIA SHALE
RESERVOIRS

For operators working in Indonesia,

assessing shale potential has become an


important aspect of overall resource evaluation. To
assist in such efforts, this project, initiated in late
2010, is aimed at the characterization and evaluation of conventional cores, rotary sidewall cores and
cuttings samples taken from multiple wells, targeting potentially productive shale formations across
the various basins of Indonesia. Using rock material
contributed by subscribing members, these prospective shale sections will be analyzed for geological,
geochemical, petrophysical, geomechanical and
production properties.

Some 20 wells have already been contributed. As


with many of Core Laboratories projects, analytical results will be made available via RAPID. This
gives operators the opportunity to search this large
database and gain access to not only their own
wells but also other operator wells submitted to
the consortium. The project will utilize experience
from evaluating numerous North American gas shale
wells and the expanding evaluation of wells globally,
in particular in Europe, South America and Australia. The prime objective of this project is to provide
operators with measured rock properties in order to
improve their formation evaluation and ultimately
to optimize stimulation and production.

77

ANGLADESH GULF OF THAILAND CAMBODIA AND THE OCA EAST I


ORELAND BASINS GULF OF THAILAND AND THE OCA INDONESIA E

international
Asia
IRIAN JAYA AND
PAPUA NEW GUINEA
PAPUA NEW

he main technical objectives of


this study are to provide a geological
model and detailed economic assessment
of the Foreland Basins of Irian Jaya and Papua
New Guinea. The geological model will provide
an improved basis for paleogeographic, structural,
and hydrocarbon evaluation, and functioning of
petroleum systems. This will be achieved through
the following approach:
Construct a basin-wide lithostratigraphic and
biostratigraphic framework as a basis to
establish a marine sequence stratigraphy and
to determine models of sedimentary facies for
such sequences in the area
Investigate the stratigraphic distribution of
mature/effective hydrocarbon source rocks
in the area
Determine the structural style and provide
a balanced interpretation of the structural
mechanism for the origin of each basin

Develop concepts of hydrocarbon entrapment emphasizing such topics as the timing


of hydrocarbon entrapment versus reservoir
diagenesis, the drainage area versus seal
continuity, and the migration trends versus
paleostructure attitude, and eventually
identify areas where hydrocarbons would
be accumulated
Establish correlations between reservoir
quality and depositional/diagenetic units,
and evaluate controls on reservoir quality
and seal effectiveness
Develop a summary of the petroleum geology
and hydrocarbon potential of the area
Provide a digital database of laboratory and
well data, including electric logs for the area
Develop cost models and a database to
enable the costs of future potential exploration programs and field developments to
be estimated accurately
Develop a fiscal analysis and comparison
of terms to other fiscal models
Undertake a market analysis for fluids

CAMBODIA

Establish correlations between reservoir


quality and depositional/diagenetic units,
and evaluate controls on reservoir quality
and seal effectiveness
Develop a summary of the petroleum
geology and hydrocarbon potential of the
Gulf of Thailand
Provide a digital database of laboratory
and well data including electric logs for
the Gulf of Thailand

GULF OF THAILAND
THAILAND AND THE OCA

THAILAND

Core Laboratories completed

A Regional Petroleum Geology and


Hydrocarbon Potential Study of the Gulf
of Thailand in September 1995. This study has
been fully updated with eight (8) additional wells.
A database of forty-six (46) wells and over
9,000 line km of seismic has been assembled for
the study. The objectives of the study are:
Construct a basin-wide lithostratigraphic and
biostratigraphic framework as a basis to
establish a non-marine sequence stratigraphy
and models of sedimentary facies
Investigate the stratigraphic distribution of
effective hydrocarbon source rocks in the area
Determine the structural style and provide
a balanced interpretation of the structural
mechanism

Three (3) bound interpretive volumes are


provided with seismic sections, analytical data
and regional data in the form of maps, isopachs
and cross sections. In addition, all laboratory data
and well logs are appended to the
final report in digital format.
Conclusions from the analytical and interpretive
program have been synthesized into a regional
petroleum geology/hydrocarbon potential analysis,
outlining current and proposed play concepts.

78

IRIAN JAYA AND PAPUA NEW GUINEA TIMOR GAP/BONAPAR TE BAS


BANGLADESH GULF OF THA ILAND THAILAND AND THE OCA INDO

international
Asia
CAMBODIA

Investigate the stratigraphic distribution of


effective hydrocarbon source rocks in the area
Determine the structural style and provide
a balanced interpretation of the structural
mechanism for the origin of each basin in the
study area
Establish correlations between reservoir
quality and depositional/diagenetic units,
and evaluate controls on reservoir quality
and seal effectiveness
Provide a summary of the petroleum geology
and hydrocarbon potential of Cambodia and
the Overlapping Zone
Provide a digital database of laboratory and
well data including electric logs for the area

GULF OF THAILAND
CAMBODIA AND THE OCA

he study, encompassing
the Khmer Trough/Shelf and the
Overlapping Zone, has well control
from nine (9) wells in Cambodia, and associated
seismic in both Cambodian waters and the
Overlapping Zone, together with four wells
bordering the overlapping zone in Thai waters.
This study is designed to complement Core
Laboratories 1995-1999 study of the Gulf of
Thailand, though it can be used independently.
A key feature of this study is the creation
of a digital database of electric logs, well
and laboratory data, and a HTML version
of the interpretive report and figures.
The well database includes wells up to and
including 1996. The Overlapping Zone studied
will thus have well control from both Thai and
Cambodian wells. The study offers upstream
asset evaluation teams a complete tool for
the geological and economical analysis of
forthcoming opportunities in the area.
The technical objectives of the proposed study
are to provide a geological model of the area.
The geological model will provide an improved
basis for paleogeographic, structural, and
hydrocarbon evaluation, and functioning of
petroleum systems. This will be achieved
through the following approach:

THAILAND

Four (4) bound interpretive volumes are provided.


These volumes are fully illustrated with seismic sections, analytical data and regional data in the form of
maps, isopachs and cross sections.Conclusions from
the analytical and interpretive program will be synthesized into a regional petroleum geology synthesis,
outlining current and proposed play concepts.

Construct a basin-wide lithostratigraphic


and biostratigraphic framework as
a basis to establish a non-marine
sequence stratigraphy and models of
sedimentary facies for such sequences
in Cambodia and the Gulf of Thailand

79

ANGLADESH GULF OF THAILAND CAMBODIA AND THE OCA BANG


IAN JAYA AND PAPUA NEW GUINEA TARAKAN BASIN INDONESIA

international
Asia
VIETNAM

CAMBODIA

SOUTH
CHINA
SEA

Characterization of the reservoir quality and


petrophysical properties of all drilled reservoir
lithologies
Evaluation of the seal rocks of the reservoirs

VIETNAM RESERVOIRS
AND SEALS OF THE CUU
LONG, NAM CON SON AND
MALAY THO CHU BASINS

Vietnam Petroleum Institute (VPI)

and Core Laboratories, with the approval of


PetroVietnam, are pleased to present this
reservoirs and seals study for Vietnam.
Vietnams southern basins have long provided
technical and financial reward with Oil and
Gas plays in the three basins. However, the
exploration success has been mixed and current
players in the region are looking at a number
of alternative plays. Many such plays involve
complex reservoir systems and require accurate
data to input into basin modeling programs.
The lack of regional data and/or data trades
hinders the evaluation of new play concepts.
This study, completed in 4Q 2009, aims to
evaluate all reservoir systems within the drilled
succession and to assess regional and local
seals within a robust correlative framework. An
unprecedented database of forty-five (45) wells and
4,500 km of seismic has been assembled for study
purposes. The project focuses on the following:

The project utilizes rock samples from


reservoirs and seals represented by conventional
core, sidewall cores and/or drill cutting samples.
The data are provided within individual well
reports, an integrated final report, and are
also accessible digitally across the internet in
Core Laboratories RAPID database system.
This large and searchable database provides
operators with valuable information for
geological evaluation and reducing risk.
Given the general lack of access to regional data,
the study provides value as follows:
Cost ef f ective pur ch ase of f or ty -f ive ( 45) we l l s ,
geoscien ce data/electric logs
Access to newly-generated data by Core Laboratories
A un iq ue dataset of r ock petr oph y sics an d
measur ed seal parameters

Establishment of a regional stratigraphic


framework based on biostratigraphy and
cyclostratigraphy

80

IMOR/GAP BONAPAR TE BASIN GULF OF THAILAND CAMBODIA AND


HE OCA INDONESIA COAL IRIAN JAYA AND PAPUA NEW GUINEA

international
Asia
SAUDI
ARABIA
YEMEN

d
fA
Gulf o

en

the geological, petrophysical and engineering


properties of sandstone and carbonate rock types
on a worldwide basis. The Worldwide Rock
Catalog is organized and presented in a
standardized format which serves numerous
member companies as a primary source of rock
property data covering a broad spectrum of reservoir
rock types for improved exploration and production
related formation evaluation. Core Laboratories
developed the Yemen Rock Catalog which
focuses on the spectrum of clastic and carbonate
rock types found in the Republic of Yemen.
The objectives of the Yemen Rock Catalog are
the same as for the Worldwide Rock Catalog:

YEMEN ROCK CATALOG


A C ATA LO G O F GEO LO GI CAL AND
EN GI N EERI N G P RO P ER TI ES FOR
SA N D STO N ES A N D CA RBONAT ES
REP U BLI C O F YEMEN

Core Laboratories completed a project to

measure, document and interpret, in a catalog


format, an extensive array of geological and
petrophysical properties for Cretaceous, Jurassic
and Paleozoic reservoir rock types in the Republic
of Yemen. The analyses was performed on
conventional core samples selected to represent
the full spectrum of various reservoir rock types
encountered in clastic and carbonate producing
and potentially producing formations. The various
rock types and their associated data in the Yemen
Rock Catalog serve as reference analogs for more
accurate estimates of formation parameters,
producibility and reservoir behavior of non-cored
reservoir intervals. The catalog will also supply
geologists and engineers with analog data and
parameters for modeling reservoir behavior and
making reservoir management decisions.
The study is patterned after our Worldwide
Rock Catalog which characterizes and evaluates

Provide a reference manual containing


analog sandstone and carbonate rock
types for more accurate estimates of
formation parameters
Establish a comprehensive geological and
engineering data base over a spectrum of
sandstone and carbonate rock types
Define relationships and correlations between
laboratory measured petrophysical data and
estimates of reservoir rock properties from
visual observations of core, sidewall, and/or
rock cuttings material

The various rock types and


d a t a i n t h e Ye m e n R o c k
as reference analogs for
estimates of formation

their associated
Catalog serve
more accurate
parameters.

81

E BASINS PH ASE I YEMEN ROCK CATALOG NIGER DELTA GEOCHEM


RGINS PRE-SALT PHASE I WEST AFRICA WEST AFRICA GEOCHEMIST

AUSTRALIA

international
Australia
AUSTRALIA

and evaluation of numerous conventional cores,


rotary sidewall cores, and drill cutting samples
taken from multiple wells targeting potentially
productive shale formations from Australia.
Specifically, these prospective shale sections
will be analyzed for geological, petrophysical,
geochemical, and where applicable geomechanical
properties. These data will be integrated with
well logs, and production test information as
available. This large and searchable database
will provide operators with valuable information
not only on their own wells but also on other
operators wells. The project will be focused on
utilizing the experience of evaluating numerous
North American gas shale wells in expanding
the evaluation of shale reservoirs in Australia.

AUSTRALIA SHALE

ore Laboratories expanded


our industry-leading study of
Shale Reservoirs to areas outside of
North America - Phase 2 Global Shale
Reservoirs. For those companies assessing
Australia for future Shale Exploration and
Exploitation, an evaluation of prospective Shale
Reservoirs throughout the Australian Basins will
be available as a subset of the Phase 2 Study,
with comparisons to analogs in North America,
but not access to the North American dataset.
This project will consist of over 25 seeded legacy
wells analyzed in the Cooper, Perth, Beeteloo
and Queensland Basins. Core Laboratories
will continue with the further characterization

83

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COMMONWEALTH OF
INDEPENDENT STATES

CIS

international
Commonwealth of Independent States

SEA OF
OKHOTSK

The study objective is to characterize the


regional hydrocarbon source potential of
Oligocene siliceous rocks and to determine
where in the Sakhalin area Oligocene source
rocks are effective, that is where Oligocene
source rocks have contributed hydrocarbons
to petroleum accumulations.
Core Lab has obtained regional coverage of
100 mostly Oligocene source rock samples from
seventeen (17) subsurface (well) and two outcrop
locations. The sample suite also includes the
Middle/Lower Miocene Pilsk formation which
is a locally developed siliceous shale in the
northern Sakhalin area. Crude oil samples were
collected from eight (8) locations in the study area
including both Oligocene and younger reservoirs.
The results of this study are presented in this
interpretive report as well as in analytical data
volumes. This report provides an interpretation
of the extensive geochemical database generated
by Core Laboratories for this study. Maps, tables,
and graphical displays of geochemical data are
included in this interpretive report. The bulk
of the analytical data is presented in the Oil and
Rock Data Volumes.

SAKHALIN ISLAND
MIOCENE AND OLIGOCENE
GEOCHEMISTRY STUDY

n 1993 Core Laboratories


completed a regional geochemical
study of mostly Miocene clastic source rocks in
the Sakhalin area. Oil companies participating
in this first study requested that Core Lab
develop a similar study which primarily focuses
on Oligocene siliceous rocks in the same area.
The Oligocene Pilengsk, a siliceous shale, is
known to be a source rock for oil accumulations in
the Okruzhnoye field where oil is produced from
within fractures. A regional geochemistry study
of the Oligocene Pilengsk and its equivalents
will help determine the extent of this fractured
shale play throughout the Sakhalin area.
The contribution of oil from Oligocene source
rocks to Miocene and younger reservoirs will also
be examined. Results can be used to develop
plays based on the migration pathways between
Oligocene source rocks and younger reservoirs.

SEA OF
OKHOTSK

SAKHALIN RESERVOIR
STUDY

he study was undertaken to


provide a uniform and comprehensive
geochemical database from which to
correlate oils and source rocks. A total of thirty-six
(36) crude oils from nineteen (19) oil fields, and
eighty-eight (88) source rock samples from twentyone (21) locations were collected. Crude oil samples
were selected to provide a regional representation
of onshore production from which to compare with
offshore oils on the northeast shelf. Some oils were
collected from different pay and different age
reservoirs within the same field to examine vertical
variations. Source rock samples were generally
selected from the same fields from which oils were
collected in order to examine vertical variations.
Source rock samples were generally selected from
the same fields from which oils were collected in

order to examine interbedded source-reservoir


relationships. An effort was made to collect
potential source rocks of different ages at each
location to examine thermal maturity profiles.
All source rock samples were core samples of
subsurface strata at well locations.
The major objective of the study is to identify
oil/source rock relationships. An analytical
program was developed to:
Determine the nature and distribution of
different oil families
Evaluate source rock quality of different
stratigraphic units
Correlate oils with their source rocks. In the
conclusions section of this report, results
of the study are presented in terms of their
exploration significance.

The results of this study are presented in an


interpretive report as well as in three analytical
data volumes and a data CD.

85

AKHALIN ISLAND MIOCENE AND OLIGOCENE GEOCHEMISTRY STUDY


AKHALIN RESER VOIR WEST SIBERIA RESER VOIR ROCK CATALOG SA

international
Commonwealth of Independent States

R U SS IA

WEST SIBERIA RESERVOIR


ROCK CATALOG

total of 500 core plugs from


fifteen (15) reservoir units in nine
(9) oil fields in the southern part of western
Siberia were selected to provide stratigraphic
and regional coverage and analyzed to provide
a database of petrophysical, petrographic, and
mineralogical characteristics of major Jurassic
and Cretaceous producing reservoirs.

The data presented in this study may be used


to help assess reservoir quality and flow potential,
identify controls on porosity and permeability,
examine regional controls on reservoir quality,
evaluate the potential for formation damage,
correlate petrophysical data with wireline logs,
and compare Russian and western-measured
porosity and permeability data.

Presenting petrophysical, petrographic,


and mineralogical characteristics
of major Jurassic and Cretaceous
producing reservoirs.

86

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WEST SIBERIA RESER VOIR ROCK CATALOG WEST SIBERIA ROCK CATA

SOUTH AMERICA

international
BOLIVIA

South America
BOLIVIA SUB-ANDEAN
BASINS

he Surubi discovery in the


Mamore Block and numerous oil
seeps throughout the Sub-Andean region
have encouraged examination of the Sub-Andean
zone. The number, quality and location of effective
petroleum source rocks in the Bolivian
Sub-Andean zone has important exploration
applications. The purpose of this study is to
provide information on oil/source relationships
from which prospective plays in the region can be
evaluated. One of the fundamental questions to
be addressed is the possibility of multiple effective
source rocks. Previously, the oils within the Santa
Cruz Basin were considered to be of the same
organic facies and that differences among the oils
were due to the effects of fractionation occurring
during migration (Illich, et al., 1981). This study
will analyze a diversified suite of gases, oils,
and rocks to provide a better understanding of
hydrocarbon generation and migration within the
Bolivian Sub-Andean study area. All potential
Paleozoic source rocks in the region will
be characterized in terms of their ability to
generate both oil and gas. Results of the
study will help identify the most attractive
areas for oil and gas exploration.
This geochemical study of the Bolivian SubAndean area includes the detailed geochemical

analysis and interpretation of more than


thirty (30) oils and seeps and more than 650
potential source rock samples from forty (40)
well and outcrop locations. Samples were
selected to provide regional coverage of the
northern, central and southern Sub-Andean
areas including the Boomerang Hills area north
of Santa Cruz. In addition, gas samples have
been collected from ten fields representing
the Boomerang Hills area, Santa Cruz Basin,
and central and southern Sub-Andean zone.
The geochemical study will assess the source
rock potential of all Paleozoic stratigraphic units
in the Bolivian Sub-Andean study area. Particular
attention will be given to understanding the
controls on oil and gas distribution. Results provide
new insight on oil/source relationships in the
Sub-Andean belt and the adjacent parts
of the Beni and Chaco Plains.
Results of the study will be presented in
both analytical and interpretive formats to
ensure that all findings are readily accessible
to explorationists and research personnel.
The oil and source rock data will be presented
in data volumes with excerpts of the key data
incorporated into the final synthesis report.
A comprehensive synthesis and interpretation
of all the geochemical data will be presented in a
final report. Maps of organic richness and thermal
maturity as well as cross sections showing depths
of the oil window will be provided in the synthesis.

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international
South America
BRAZIL

BRAZIL CENTRAL
OFFSHORE BASINS
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY

he Central (Espirito Santo to


Sergipe-Alagoas) offshore basins of Brazil
have been subject of much speculation by
the industry as a result recent license rounds.
Although seismic coverage is now extensive,
well data is less available. Core Laboratories and
Fundacao CCMN (Federal University of Rio de
Janeiro) are pleased to present the generation
of an all-new geological sciences dataset
(biostratigraphy, geochemistry, reservoir geology
and petrophysics) from fifty-eight (58) wells.
The study has the full approval (under Ordinance
114) of ANP. In total fifty-eight (58) wells have
been analyzed and presented in a regional setting.
The study was undertaken in two phases: Phase
A - Espirito Santo to Jequitinhonha Basins, and
Phase B - Almada to Sergipe Alagoas Basins. These
phases are available combined or separately.
The study was completed in January 2003.
The main technical objective of the study is
to provide a geological database for the Central
Basins consisting of biostratigraphic, geochemical,
reservoir geology and petrophysical data. This
data set will form the basic framework for the
development of an improved geological model of the
Central Basins. It will be of great value to further
hydrocarbon evaluation studies by the participating

companies and will add to the understanding


of the functioning of petroleum systems in the
Central Basins.
The following approach has been
applied throughout the study:
Construct a basin-wide biostratigraphic
framework through the integration of
lithostratigraphic, biostratigraphic, and
wireline log data
Constrain an extensive geochemical database within this stratigraphic framework
and identify the functioning elements of
the petroleum systems
Establish correlations between reservoir
quality and depositional/diagenetic units,
and evaluate controls on reservoir quality
and seal effectiveness
Develop a summary of the petroleum geology
of the area
Provide a digital database of laboratory and
well data, including electric logs for the area
and HTML version of the report

Five (5) bound interpretive volumes of each


phase is provided. These volumes are fully
illustrated with figures, analytical data and regional
data in the form of maps, isopachs and cross
sections. Conclusions from the analytical and
interpretive program are synthesised into a
regional petroleum geology, outlining current
and proposed play concepts.

Core Laboratories and


Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
are pleased to present the generation
of an all-new geological sciences dataset.

89

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international
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BRAZIL

the carbonate reservoirs, integrated with evaluation


of associated seal rock lithologies and correlated
with the local tectonic or halokinetic structures. The
study is approved under Ordinance 114 by ANP.
The primary technical objective of the proposed
study is to extend the geological model of carbonate
plays established for the shelfal parts of the
Brazil Basins to establish a high-resolution, fully
integrated, geological model for the Cretaceous
carbonates. The study will primarily focus on
carbonates of Aptian to Cenomanian age which
include a range of shallow marine and reworked
deep marine facies. Interpretation of data will
include high resolution analysis of depositional
environments, reservoir and seal geometries.
Five (5) bound interpretive volumes are provided.
These volumes are fully illustrated with figures,
analytical data and regional data in the form
of maps, and cross sections. Conclusions from
the analytical and interpretive program will be
presented in a regional synthesis of study results.

BRAZIL CRETACEOUS
CARBONATES OF
SE MARGIN

he recent hydrocarbon discovery


by Petrobras in Block 500 of the Santos
Basin, within an interval interpreted to be
highly porous, possibly fractured carbonates, has
rekindled international interest within the
carbonate plays along the Brazilian Margin,
particularly within the region from the Santos
Basin northward through to the northern
Espirito Santo Basin. Further discoveries in
BC 200 and in the vicinity of the Guarajuba
field has further underlined such interest.
Core Laboratories is pleased to present a study
to evaluate the Cretaceous carbonates. The
objective is to undertake a detailed investigation
of the sedimentological, petrographical,
biostratigraphical and petrophysical properties of

BRAZIL

In addition, high resolution, quantitative


biostratigraphical analyses will be performed
on drill cutting samples in order to place the
cored intervals into a regional stratigraphic
framework. The analysis of seal rocks and their
hydrocarbon column capacity will compliment
the reservoir description. These types of data and
interpretations, integrated into a regional database,
will significantly enhance participating companies
understanding of these deepwater reservoirs for
improved exploration and exploitation efforts.
All of these data, besides being provided in
individual well reports and in a final report, will
be accessible digitally across the internet in
Core Laboratories RAPID database system.
The primary objective of the project is to
provide each participating company with detailed
geological, biostratigraphical, and petrophysical
characterization and evaluation of numerous
conventional reservoir and seal cores taken in
the deepwater blocks of the Campos Basin.

BRAZIL DEEPWATER
CAMPOS BASIN

eservoir characterization data


pertaining to the deepwater reservoirs
of the Campos Basin is critical to many
companies evaluation program in Brazil. This
data is generally not available to companies
other than Petrobras. Restrictions governing the
sampling of core have prevented such a database
being generated on an individual basis or indeed
basin-wide. Core Laboratories and its partners
have obtained approval (under Ordinance 114) to
describe, sample and analyze cores and cuttings
samples from twenty-eight (28) wells in the
Campos Basin. The study was completed in 2004.
The study will focus on determining the
depositional facies and environments of the slope
and deepwater turbidite reservoirs, along with
their petrographic and petrophysical properties.

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international
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BRAZIL

from these wells. The work program will cover:


stratigraphy, geochemistry, reservoir geology and
petrophysics, and will include newly generated
analytical data. Interpretation will benefit from
Core Laboratories experience gained in West
Africa working on the Ivorian Transform Margin.
The key components of the study are as follows:

BRAZIL EQUATORIAL
MARGINS

he Equatorial Basins of Brazil


(Potiguar, Ceara, Barreirinhas,
Para-Maranhao and Foz do Amazonas)
are attracting considerable industry interest
because of well-documented large hydrocarbon
discoveries within the conjugate transform
basins of West Africa, including large oil fields in
Ghana and the more recent new oil discovery in
Sierra Leone, that provide hope of exploiting a
large deepwater oil province (700 miles) across
four countries across the African margin.
Core Laboratories has commenced work
on an integrated regional geological study of
approximately 60 wells in the Brazil Equatorial
Offshore Basins. The study has the full approval
(under Ordinance 289) of ANP, and will be based
on a suite of ditch cuttings, cores and fluids

Biostratigraphy/Sequence Stratigraphy of
study wells
Reservoir Description and Rock Property
Evaluation of all major reservoir units
Rock Typing of uncored sections
Seal Atlas of major seal lithologies
Regional source rock evaluation and thermal
maturity
Fluid characterization
Paleogeographic Maps (illustrating sediment
transport pathways and depocentres)
Digital Database of laboratory and well data,
including LAS files of the electric logs
HTML browser of the study dataset and report

BRAZIL

BRAZIL SANTOS BASIN

The Santos Basin has been

heavily featured in all ANP License


Rounds to date. Core Laboratories
is pleased to present in this study, the
generation of an all-new geoscience dataset
(biostratigraphy, geochemistry, reservoir geology
and petrophysics) from thirty-one (31) wells.
The study was initiated in January 2000 and
completed in February 2001 under approval
from ANP under Ordinance 114. PHASE
II DEEPWATER , a nine (9) well
extension, was initiated in 2002.
The main technical objective of the study is to
provide a geological model of the Santos Basin.
The geological model will provide an improved
basis for hydrocarbon evaluation, and understanding
of the functioning of petroleum systems.
This was achieved through the following approach:
Construct a basin-wide biostratigraphic
framework through the integration of
lithostratigraphic, biostratigraphic, and
wireline log data

Constrain an extensive geochemical database


within this stratigraphic framework and identify the functioning of petroleum systems
Establish correlations between reservoir
quality and depositional/diagenetic units,
and evaluate controls on reservoir quality
Determine seal effectiveness, potential and
controls on extent
Develop a summary of the petroleum geology
of the area
Provide a digital database of laboratory and
well data, including electric logs for the area
Provide a browser (HTML) version of the
dataset and report

Five (5) bound interpretive volumes are


provided. These volumes are fully illustrated with
figures, analytical data and regional data in the form
of maps, isopachs and cross sections. Conclusions
from the analytical and interpretive program have
been synthesised into regional petroleum geology,
outlining current and proposed play concepts.

The Santos Basin has been


heavily featured in all
ANP License Rounds to date.
91

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NA PERU RESER VOIRS SOUTH ATLANTIC MARGINS PRE-SALT-PHAS

international
South America
COLOMBIA

CABALLOS

he Caballos Formation of
Aptian-Albian age is an important
reservoir in the Upper Magdalena
Basin of Colombia. It has been studied at
numerous outcrop localities along the basin margins.
These outcrop studies which show considerable
variation in Caballos depositional facies and
reservoir properties need to be correlated with
subsurface core data to develop a regional
depositional framework and to examine regional
variations in reservoir quality. This reservoir study
of cores and outcrops was made to understand
the depositional and diagenetic controls on
reservoir quality in the Caballos Formation.
More than 3,200 feet of Caballos core from
thirteen (13) wells were described and correlated
with descriptions of Caballos outcrops at seventeen
(17) locations. Analyses of biostratigraphy,
petrology, and petrophysical properties were
made to develop a regional time-stratigraphic
framework, interpret depositional environment,
and characterize reservoir quality. In addition,
geochemical analyses of Villeta and Caballos
shales were made to characterize source rock
quality and thermal maturity. The results provide
a better understanding of both source rocks
and reservoirs in the Villeta-Caballos petroleum

system of the Upper Magdalena Valley.


Cored wells and outcrop locations of the
Caballos Formation were selected to provide
regional and stratigraphic coverage in both the
Neiva and Girardot Sub-Basins. New analyses
including biostratigraphy, sedimentology,
petrology, petrophysics, and geochemistry were
integrated with available data to meet the
following study objectives.
Establish basin-wide time framework for
the Caballos Formation
Correlate Caballos units across the basin
Characterize and interpret Caballos
depositional facies
Characterize petrophysical and petrographic
properties and reservoir quality for each
depositional facies
Determine depositional and diagenetic controls
on reservoir quality
Determine location of Villeta/Caballos
source rock
Identify favorable areas for Caballos
exploration

The results of this study are presented in a


final synthesis report (Volume I) and in a number
of data volumes (II and III). Analytical data are
also provided in digital form.

92

BOLIVIA SUB ANDEAN BASI NS BRAZIL CENTRAL OFFSHORE BAS


PETROLEUM GEOLOGY CABALLOS BRAZIL CRETACEOUS CARBON-

international
South America
BRAZIL

PERU

PERU RESERVOIRS
AND SEALS

ore Laboratories is pleased to


present this study of Peru with the
approval and assistance of PeruPetro. The
basins of Peru have long provided technical and
financial reward with oil and gas plays in the major
basins both on and offshore. However, current
players in the region are looking at a number of
alternative plays. Many such plays involve complex
reservoir systems and require accurate data to input
into basin modeling programs. The lack of regional
data hinders the evaluation of new play concepts.
This study, due for completion in 2012, aims
to evaluate all reservoir systems within the
drilled succession from approximately sixty-five
(65) wells and to evaluate regional and local
seals within a newly established correlative
framework. The project focuses on the following:
Establishment of a regional stratigraphic
framework based on biostratigraphy and
chemostratigraphy
Characterization of reservoir quality and
petrophysical properties of all drilled reservoir
lithologies in cored and uncored sections
Evaluation of seal rocks both locally
and regionally

The project utilizes rock samples from


reservoirs and seals represented by conventional
core, sidewall cores and/or drill cutting samples.
In excess of 4,000 feet of core is available
for study. The data will be provided within
an integrated final report, and will also be
accessible digitally across the internet in Core
Laboratories RAPID database system. This
large and searchable database will provide
operators with valuable information for
geological evaluation and reducing risk.
The study report will be available in two phases
which will be available together or separately:
Phase I Onshore Basins
Phase II Offshore Basins
The primary objective of this project is to
provide operators with key geological and
petrophysical data derived from the evaluation
of rock samples from numerous reservoirs
and their seals. These interpretations and
data will allow operators to improve their
formation evaluation, assessment of reservoir
quality, prediction of reservoir quality in
un-drilled areas, and seal integrity evaluation
within a correlative stratigraphic framework.

93

ERU RESER VOIRS BRAZIL CRETACEOUS CARBONATES OF SE MARIN CA BALLOS SOUTH ATLANTIC MARGINS PRE-SALT PHASE II BR

international
South America
BRAZIL

primarily focus on sediments of Berriasian to


Aptian age which include a range of fluvialcontinental, shallow lake and resedimented
deep lake facies. Interpretation of data will
include high-resolution biostratigraphy,
geochemistry and detailed analysis of depositional
environments, reservoir and seal geometries.
Besides the well-documented fluvial and
shallow lacustrine facies of the Atlantic Margin
Basins, data from our Atlantic Margin studies
(Core Laboratories, 2002/3) suggests the
presence of some deeper water lake turbidite
or debris flow deposits and local pre-rift Aeolian
sandstones with considerable reservoir potential.
In addition to detailed sedimentology, the project
will include full evaluation of reservoir quality
and reservoir fracturing as appropriate through
detailed petrographic analysis of thin sections and
macroscopic analysis of any core fracture systems.
Detailed regional evaluation of the Berriasian to
Aptian succession will provide the integrated
geological dataset required for geological modelling
and optimum reservoir description of all rift plays.
Five (5) bound interpretive volumes of each
margin will be provided. These volumes are fully
illustrated with figures, analytical data and regional
data in the form of maps and cross sections.
Conclusions from the analytical and interpretive
program will be synthesised into regional
interpretations.

SOUTH ATLANTIC
MARGINS PRE-SALT
PHASE II BRAZIL

ore Laboratories has now built


up extensive expertise in the regional
petroleum geology of both the Brazilian and
West African Atlantic Margin Basins. Our recent
geological studies of nine (9) Brazilian basins
(Core Laboratories non-proprietary studies,
2001 - 2003) have established an integrated
geological model for the shelfal and deepwater
areas of the eastern Brazilian Margin. In the
mid-1990s Core Lab completed two land mark
geochemical and reservoir evaluations of the
Pre-Salt of West Africa. The Gabon/Congo
areas were substantially updated and expanded
during 2003.
Recent hydrocarbon discoveries in pre-salt
reservoirs have rekindled international
interest within the clastic and carbonate
rift and pre-rift plays along both the
Brazilian and West African Margins.
The study was undertaken on ditch cuttings,
cores, sidewall cores and fluids from a suite of
wells and oils.
The primary technical objective of the study
is to extend the geological model of pre-salt plays
established for the shelfal parts of the Atlantic
Margin Basins to establish a high-resolution, fully
integrated, geological model for the rift and pre-rift
reservoirs and source horizons. The study will

Our recent geological studies of nine


Brazilian basins have established an
integrated geological model for the
shelfal and deepwater areas of the
eastern Brazilian Margin.

94

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ABALLOS BOLIVIA SUB ANDEAN BASINS BRAZIL-CENTRAL OFFSH

international
South America
PERU
BRAZIL

SUB-ANDEAN BASINS
OIL GEOCHEMISTRY

The sedimentary basins along

the eastern face of the Andean


range commonly referred to as SubAndean Basins, have long been recognized for their
excellent source rock quality and oil production.
From western Venezuela to southern Argentina
there are no fewer than fifteen (15) separate oil
productive basins that lie directly east of the Andes.
Although the oils produced from these basins
have widely differing characteristics, there is an
obvious interrelationship throughout much of the
region. To assist in the continued exploration of
the region, Core Laboratories has completed a
regional petroleum evaluation of selected crude oil
samples from each of the major basins. The study
entails the analysis of 172 oil samples distributed
among twenty (20) different basins. The analytical
program is extensive, and is designed to provide the
necessary compositional data to accomplish detailed
oil-to-oil correlations and, if needed,
oil-to-source rock correlations.
The principal objectives of this study are
as follows:

Characterize each of the oil families using


both bulk property and molecular techniques
including stable isotope and terpenoid
biomarker analyses
Map the distribution of the various oil families
Detect and quantify the differences in thermal
maturation and timing of generation as well as
the effects of post-reservoir alteration on the
various oil groups
Predict corresponding source rock depositional environments for each family based
on crude oil geochemistry

To meet these objectives we have analyzed


172 crude oils from the following basins:
Austral Basin
Barinas Basin
Bolivian Altiplano
(seeps)
Coastal Peru Basin
Cuyanas Basin
Llanos Basin
Madre De Dios Basin
Maraon Basin
Middle Magdalena
Basin

Neuquen Basin
Noroeste Basin
Oriente Basin
Putumayo Basin
San Jorge Basin
Santa Cruz Basin
Santa Cruz Basin
Ucayali Basin
Upper Magdalena
Basin

Determine the number of genetically distinct


oil families distributed among the twenty
(20) basins

There are no fewer than fifteen


separate oil productive basins that
lie directly east of the Andes.

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international
Latin America

BRAZIL

TRANSFORM MARGINS
RESERVOIRS AND SEALS II: THE
EQUATORIAL BASINS OF BRAZIL

ore Laboratories are pleased


to present the generation of an allnew integrated geological sciences dataset
(stratigraphy, geochemistry, reservoir geology
and petrophysics) from c.60 wells in the Brazil
Equatorial Offshore Basins. The study is
based on a suite of ditch cuttings, cores and
fluids from these wells. The study has the full
approval (under Ordinance 289) of ANP.
The Equatorial Basins of Brazil (Potiguar, Ceara,
Barreirinhas, Para-Maranhao and Foz do Amazonas)
are attracting considerable industry interest

because of well-documented large hydrocarbon


discoveries within the conjugate transform
basins of West Africa, including large oil fields in
Ghana and the more recent new oil discovery in
Sierra Leone, that provide hope of exploiting a
large deepwater oil province (700 miles) across
four countries across the African margin.
The primary objective of the Equatorial Basin
study is to undertake a full evaluation of all
major reservoir intervals penetrated in the study
wells, combined with an evaluation of associated
seal rock lithologies and evaluation of regional
source units and thermal maturity. The study
will focus primarily on full interpretation and
integration of all rock data, but all fluid occurrences
will also be characterized and correlated.

96

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international

GLOBAL

97

global
GLOBAL GAS SHALE

terms of the key factors that relate to a Gas Shales


productivity. All of these data and interpretations
are provided in Core Labs RAPID database
application to the member companies and presented
at periodic core workshops and technical seminars.

R E S E R V O I R CHA RA CTERI ZATI O N


& C O MPLETI O N /STI MU LATI O N

ore Laboratories has been conducting a


joint industry project for the past four years
focused on reservoir characterization and completion/stimulation of Gas Shales in North America
(Phase I). Over sixty (60) member companies
are contributing conventional core, well logs,
completion, stimulation, and production data
for a total of 189 wells to date. Core Lab has
performed:

Core Laboratories is expanding our industryleading study of Gas Shales to areas outside of
North America as a Phase II to our original study.
Participants in the Phase II Study will receive all the
data and interpretations from the North American
Phase I Study and will contribute core and data from
their own Gas Shale reservoirs. Participants will be
able to leverage the North American data sets and
technology in evaluating and developing their own
Gas Shale reservoirs. These integrated data sets and
case histories will provide operators with the critical
parameters to optimize their exploitation of these
reservoirs and reduce finding and development costs.

An extensive core analysis program on each


of these cores
Core-log calibration for petrophysical models
and OGIP calculations
An evaluation of the completion, stimulation
and production from these wells

In addition, Core Lab has synthesized the data


and made comparisons of various Gas Shales in

98

RELATIVE PERMEABILITY DATABASE RAPID SPOTFIRE ANALYTICS


ROCK/PORE CATALOG GLOBAL TIGHT GAS SANDS RELATIVE PERM

global
GLOBAL GAS SHALE
This project will consist of the characterization and evaluation of numerous conventional
cores, rotary sidewall cores, and drill cutting
samples taken from multiple wells targeting
potentially productive gas shale formations from
around the world. Specifically, these prospective
shale sections will be analyzed for geological,
petrophysical, geomechanical, geochemical,
and production properties. These data will be
integrated with well logs, stimulation designs,
and production test information as available.
This large and searchable database will provide
operators with valuable information not only
on their own wells but also on other operators
wells. The project will be focused on utilizing
the experience of evaluating numerous North
American gas shale wells in expanding the
evaluation of gas shale reservoirs globally.

The primary objective of this project is to provide


operators with measured geological, petrophysical,
geomechanical, geochemical, and production
properties of the gas shale formations globally in
order to improve their formation evaluation and to
optimize stimulation and production. Our work in
North America suggests that understanding the
similarities and differences in shales is the key to
successful exploration and exploitation. The resultant database will be an invaluable tool to operators
in evaluating, comparing, and designing completion
and stimulation methods for gas shale formations.

99

WORLDWIDE ROCK/PORE CATALOG GLOBAL TIGHT GAS SANDS GL


GAS SHALE RELATIVE PERMEABILITY DATABASE RAPID SPOTFIRE

global
GLOBAL TIGHT GAS SANDS

R E S E R V O I R CHA RA CTERI ZATI O N A N D


F R A C T UR E STI MU LATI O N O P TI MI ZATI O N

ore Laboratories is conducting an ongoing


multi-company, geo-engineering study of Tight
Gas Sands that is being extended to areas outside of
North America. For the past four years, our Fracture
Stimulation Optimization technical teams have
been analyzing and evaluating Tight Gas Sands in
North America and have developed a very large and
comprehensive database. This database consists
of the characterization and evaluation of numerous
conventional cores taken from multiple Tight Gas
Sand formations, and integrates the data with the
same stimulation design and production characteristics as a case history. This project will provide
international operators with valuable information

not only on their own contributed wells, but also


on other operators wells in other Tight Gas Sand
formations. The data and understanding of the
North American Tight Gas Sand reservoirs will
provide international operators the most current
reservoir characterization, completion designs,
and production performance data that can serve
as analogs and benchmarks for international Tight
Gas Sand reservoirs. Project deliverables are managed and distributed within our RAPID database
application.
Each company joining the project will be required
to contribute conventional cores for analysis,
evaluation and inclusion into the database. The
conventional core must be through a Tight Gas
Sand reservoir.

100

TIGHT GAS SANDS GLOBAL GAS SHALE


RELATIVE PERMEABILITY
RAPID SPOTFIRE ANALYTICS WORLDWIDE ROCK/PORE CATALOG

global
RAPID Spotfire Analytics
A N A P P LI C ATI ON FOR T H E R ET R IEVAL AND ANALYSIS
O F C O RE- BASED PET R OPH YSICAL DATA SET S

s an enhancement to the RAPID hosted


data sets currently available in Core Laboratories
joint industry projects, the Integrated Reservoir
Solutions Division of Core Laboratories is offering
a RAPID/TIBCO Spotfire Enterprise Player
analytics service.

to geological, engineering and petrophysical


professionals and decision-makers. Every time the
software is opened, pre-built graphs are automatically updated with the latest data from RAPID in
seconds. In addition, the data can be analyzed
using Spotfires powerful filter and export options.

This analytical service represents a breakthrough


in analytical capabilities for geological engineering
and petrophysical datasets. Its use has the potential to significantly reduce the time professionals
currently spend finding, formatting and analyzing
critical petrophysical, geologic and engineering data
while providing insight into the reservoir in ways
that were previously unknown. Because part of this
analytical service provides a direct link from the
Spotfire application to the RAPID database, this
service has been dubbed RAPIDLink.

RAPIDLink can be customized to meet the


needs of specific users. In addition to complementing the regional studies, this service can be used to
analyze your own proprietary data as well. Utilizing
a team of experienced data loaders, proprietary
core data sets may be loaded into the RAPID
Database. Core Laboratories can then create a
library of pre-designed analytical solutions for your
organization. The library would be a repository
through which professionals can access and analyze
the core-related data sets in the joint industry projects, or proprietary core-related data sets.

RAPIDLink provides a convenient multi-user


analytical solution, enabling an organization to
easily deploy rich interactive analysis applications
and workflows that deliver information insights

Con sor tia pr oject data is viewable on deskto p


with in secon ds
Pr e-built graph s ar e populated with f r esh data
Power f ul f ilter an d expor t option s
Pr oprietar y data can be loaded an d an aly zed

101

RELATIVE PERMEABILITY DATABASE RAPID SPOTFIRE ANALYTICS


ROCK/PORE CATALOG GLOBAL TIGHT GAS SANDS RELATIVE PERM

global
Relative Permeability Database
FO R EN HA N C ED R ECOV ERY AND R ESER V OIR SIM ULAT ION

elative permeability data is a key component


in reservoir characterization, understanding
reservoir behavior, and predicting recovery factors
in EOR projects such as water floods. Relative
permeability data is a critical input parameter
for reservoir simulators. The databases are very
expensive to acquire and in many cases are not
readily available, such as in:

by having a relative permeability database that can


be accessed to acquire the statistics and probability
of these key parameters from analogs.

Old fields
Acquisition candidates
Fast-track reservoir simulation of discovery wells

In these cases, the reservoir engineer is often left


with his or her best estimate of residual oil, relative permeability, water cut curves and recovery
factors. However, the uncertainty and risk involved
in creating these estimates can be greatly reduced

102

Core Laboratories has developed a searchable


Relative Permeability Database, using our RAPID
database application, for the purpose of enhancing operators prediction of reservoir behavior.
Companies participating in the project contribute
a required amount of relative permeability data for
inclusion in the project. The data would form the
initial database which would then grow as additional
companies join the project. In this fashion, a very
large relative permeability database of over 1,000
samples is anticipated and will continue to grow
over time.

TIGHT GAS SANDS GLOBAL GAS SHALE


RELATIVE PERMEABILITY
RAPID SPOTFIRE ANALYTIC S WORLDWIDE ROCK/PORE CATALOG

global
W O R L D W I D E R O C K / P O R E C ATA L O G

A CATALOG OF GEOLOGICAL
AND ENGINEERING PROPERTIES
FOR SANDSTONES AND CARBONATES

ore Laboratories is pleased to offer membership


in an ongoing project designed to characterize
and evaluate the geological, petrophysical, and
engineering properties of sandstone and carbonate
rock types. The resultant Worldwide Rock Catalog
serves member companies as a reference source
of rock property data covering a broad spectrum
of reservoir rock types for improved exploration
and production related formation evaluation.
This Worldwide Rock Catalog project was
initiated in 1985 in association with Dr. Robert M.
Sneider. Project participation is now approaching
forty (40) companies and continues to grow.
In exploration and exploitation activities
geologists, petrophysicists and engineers make
assumptions about reservoir-rock formation
evaluation parameters when there is no available
data. These assumptions can have a pronounced
impact on decisions and economics. This database
is designed to reduce the risk and improve the
estimation of these parameters resulting in improved
formation evaluation and prediction of production
performance. Core Lab uses a proven system of

103

classifying reservoir rock types that will provide the


link between a zone of interest and an analog rock
type in the database. Geoscientists and engineers
will be able to access the rock property data by rock
type, formation, depositional facies, log parameters,
petrophysical properties, etc. The rock property data
is organized and presented in a standardized digital
catalog format. The project currently has well over
150 fully characterized productive reservoir rock
types and is expanding rapidly. It is the largest rock
property database commercially available today.
The objectives of the Worldwide Rock Catalog are:
Provide a reference manual containing
analog sandstone and carbonate rock types
for more accurate estimates of formation
parameters
Establish a comprehensive geological and
engineering data base over a spectrum of
sandstone and carbonate rock types
Define relationships and correlations between
laboratory measured petrophysical data and
estimates of reservoir rock properties from
visual observations of core, sidewall, and/or
rock cuttings material

WORLDWIDE ROCK/PORE CATALOG GLOBAL TIGHT GAS SANDS GL


GAS SHALE RELATIVE PERMEABILITY DATABASE RAPID SPOTFIRE

global
C A PI L L A RY P RESSU RE D ATA BA SE FO R
E N H A N C E D FO RMATI O N EVA LU ATI O N
A N D R E S E R V O I R SI MU LATI O N

ore Labs searchable Capillary Pressure Database


was created for the purpose of enhancing operators
prediction of reservoir saturation behavior. A capillary
pressure database with over 3000 samples is currently
available to each member company - with an optional,
secure and client-specific proprietary database available for each participant if they desire to have Core
Laboratories host their own data for evaluation.
Capillary pressure data are a key component in
reservoir characterization as it is the primary method
of characterizing the pore system of a reservoir.
Capillary pressure data can be utilized to determine
the following:
Determine distribution of fluids in the reservoir
Evaluate expected reservoir uid saturations
Depths of uid contacts
Transition zone thickness
Evaluate reservoir rock quality
and rock type delineation
Estimate permeability and relative permeability
Differentiate pay from non-pay
Approximate recovery efficiency
Determine seal capacity
Consequently, capillary pressure data are often
used as a critical input parameter for formation

evaluation and reservoir simulation. Unfortunately,


the data are, in many cases, not readily available, such
as in: 1) old fields, 2) acquisition candidates, and 3)
wildcat and discovery wells. In other cases, the petrophysicist or reservoir engineer may desire to model
saturation profiles in order to confirm traditional
Archie saturation models but are unsure as to which
capillary pressure modeling technique will provide the
best estimate of capillary pressure characteristics.
The uncertainty and risk involved in making these
decisions can be greatly reduced by having a capillary
pressure database which can be accessed to model
these key characteristics from either analog or clientproprietary data sets.
Core Labs Capillary pressure database will have
the following displays and functionality.
Data matching the search parameters will be
displayed graphically. Various capillary pressure
modeling techniques will be automatically
evaluated and ranked for easy selection.
Users will be able to easily convert returned data
to the reservoir conditions of their choosing.
Interfacial Tension and Contact Angle
can be easily standardized.
Composite graphs showing data trends
versus petrophysical parameters such
as porosity, permeability, Flow Zone
Indicator (FZI), etc. will provide an easy
visual method of comparing the data.

104

SHALE CHARACTERIZATION & PRODUCTION PROPER TIES OF NOR TH


RICA TIGHT GAS SANDS FRACTURE OPTIMIZATION ARKANSAS

Index
All Studi e s:

Absaroka Geochemistry Study


50
Anadarko Basin Regional Study
36
Antler Basin Source Rock Study
50
Apalachicola Embayment Regional Study
20
Arkansas Louisiana State Line Smackover Study
11
Arkansas Louisiana Lower Cretaceous Study
10
Australia Shale
83
Avalon Wolfcamp Shale Regional Study
40
Bangladesh
73
Bolivia Sub-andean Basins
88
Bone Spring Sandstones Regional Study
41
Brazil Central offshore Basins Petroleum Geology
89
Brazil Cretaceous Carbonates of Se Margin
90
Brazil Deepwater Campos Basin
90
Brazil Equatorial Margins
91
Brazil Santos Basin
91
Brushy Canyon Sandstones Study
42
Caballos
92
Codell Sandstone Dj Basin
51
Cte Divoire Regional Reservoirs and Seals
59
Cte Divoire Regional Reservoirs and Seals: Update
59
Cotton Valley Regional Study
11
Deep Frio of South Texas Regional Study
21
Deep Frio Regional Study
20
Deep Shelf Gulf of Mexico Regional Study
17
Deepwater Gulf of Mexico Core Study
18
Delaware Mountain Group Regional Study
42
Denver Basin I and II Paleozoic Oil/Source Rock Study 50
Duvernay Regional Study
7
Eagle Ford Regional Study
21
Eaglebine Regional Study
22
East Texas Lower Cretaceous Regional Study
12
East Texas Smackover Regional Study
12
Gabon/North Congo Reservoirs
60
Gas Shales Reservoir Characterization and Production
Properties of North America
2
Global Gas Shale
98
Global T ight Gas Sands
100
Granite Wash Regional Study
37
Gulf of Thailand Cambodia and The OCA
79
Gulf of Thailand Thailand and The OCA
78
Haynesville and Bossier Shale Study
13
Haynesville Core Study
22
Hydrocarbon Potentialof The Arbuckle Group
Oil and Gas Study
37
Indonesia Coal
73
Indonesia East Indonesia Foreland Basins
75
Indonesia East Natuna
74
Indonesia Shale Reservoirs
77
Indonesia Tarakan Basin
76
Indonesia/Philippines Deepwater Reservoirs Phase I 74
Irian Jaya and Papua New Guinea
78
James Lime
13
Kenya East Africa Reservoirs and Seals Phase II
60
Libya Pre-Upper Cretaceous Reservoirs of Onshore
Sirt Basin
62
Libya Reservoirs of offshore Basins-Phase II
61
Libya Reservoirs of Onshore Basins-Phase I
61
Lobo Regional Study
23
Louisiana W ilcox Regional Study
24
Lower Smackover Brown Dense Exploration
Reconnaissance Study
14
Lower Tuscaloosa Formation Regional Study
25
Mafla Smackover Regional Study
26
Marcellus Shale Study
4
Mississippi Lime
38
Missourian T ight Oil Reservoirs Anadarko Basin
39
Montney Regional Study
8
Morrow Regional Study
43
Morrow Sequence Stratigraphy and Petrophysical Study 44
Mozambique East Africa Reservoirs and Seals:
Phase Iv
63
Namibia and The Orange Basin Reservoirs and
Seals South Atlantic Margin
63
Niger Delta Geochemistry Study
64
Niger Delta Reservoir Study
65
Niobrara Regional Study
51
Norphlet Reservoir Study
27
North Slope Alaska Source Rock Study
56
Offshore/Texas Louisiana MioceneCore Study
19
Oklahoma Geochemistry Study
39
Oligocene Regional Study
27
Onshore South Louisiana Miocene Regional Study
28
Paradox Basin Regional Study
52
Pearsall Group Reservoir Evaluation
28
Peru Reservoirs and Seals
93
Post Salt Reservoirs and Seals of The South
Atlantic Margin
67

Prairie Du Chien Regional Study and Rock Catalog


35
Pre-Salt South Atlantic, Phase III: Pre-Salt
Carbonates West
66
Queen Sandstones Regional Study
45
Rapid Spotfire Analytics
101
Relative Permeability Database
102
Sakhalin Island Miocene and Oligocene
Geochemistry Study
85
Sakhalin Reservoir Study
85
San Joaquin Basin Petroleum Potential Regional Study 56
San Juan Basin Regional Study
53
San Juan Basin Rock Catalog
54
Senegal, Agc and Guinea Bissau Central Atlantic
Margins West Africa Phase I
67
Smackover Reservoir Study
29
South Atlantic Margins Pre-Salt Phase I West Africa 68
South Atlantic Margins Pre-Salt Phase II Brazil
94
Southern California Oil Study
56
Stevens Reservoir Study
57
Sub-andean Basins Oil Geochemistry
95
Tanzania East Africa Reservoirs and Seals Phase I
69
Tanzania East Africa Reservoirs and Seals:
Phase I Update
68
Tatum Basin Regional Study
45
Temblor Regional Study
57
Thanksgiving Field Study
29
T ight Gas Sands Fracture Optimization
3
T ight Oil Reservoirs of The Midland BasinWolfberry,
Strawn, and Mississipian
46
Transform Margins Reservoirs and Seals II:
The Equatorial Basins of Brazil
96
Travis Peak- Hosston Sandstones
14
Uganda East Africa Reservoirs and Seals: Phase III
71
Upper Cretaceous T ight Oil Reservoirs Powder
River Basin
53
Upper Devonian Shales
5
Utica Regional Study
4
V icksburg Regional Study and Rock Catalog
30
V ietnam Reservoirs and Seals of The Cuu Long,
Nam Con Son and Malay Tho Chu Basins
80
West Africa Geochemistry Study
70
West Siberia Reservoir Rock Catalog
86
W ilcox Provenance Study
19
W ilcox Regional Study In South Texas
31
W ilcox Reservoir Study
32
W illiston Basin Regional Study
55
W ilrich Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin
8
Wolfcamp Regional Study
47
Wolfcamp Reservoir Study
48
Woodbine Regional Study
15
46
Woodford Shale Midland Basin
Woodford Shale Oklahoma
48
Worldwide Rock/Pore Catalog
103
Yegua Regional Study
33
Yemen Rock Catalog
81

I N T E G R AT E D R E S E R V O I R S O L U T I O N S D I V I S I O N O F F I C E S :
U.S. & CANADA
Core Laboratories
6316 Windfern Road
Houston, TX 77040
Te l e p h o n e : 7 1 3 - 3 2 8 - 2 6 7 3
Fax: 713-328-2190

Integrated Reservoir Solutions


Bay13, 19 Aero Drive NE
C a l g a r y, A l b e r t a , C a n a d a T 2 E 8 Z 9
Canada
Te l e p h o n e : 4 0 3 - 2 9 5 - 3 2 8 4
Fax: 403-295-3159

I N T E R N AT I O N A L
Core Laboratories
Unit 23, Ormside Way
R e d h i l l , S u r r e y, R H 1 2 L W
United Kingdom
Te l e p h o n e : + 4 4 - 1 7 3 - 7 8 5 - 9 6 6 0
Fax: +44-173-785-9661
w w w. c o r e l a b . c o m / i r s

For more information regarding Regional Reservoir and Rock Property Studies contact; IRS@corelab.com