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ISABEL MENCHACA 1

QUALMAN REVIEWER
QUALITY
Satisfying the customers by fully meeting their needs, demands and expectations
through the companys product and services
It is a measure of excellence or a state of being free from defects
EFFECTS OF A GOOD QUALITY PRODUCT
Reduces risks
Improves the companys reputation
Increase the level of competitiveness
TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT
A management approach to LONG TERM success which provides a framework for
implementing effective quality and productivity initiatives of an organization
Helps in identifying, analyzing and assessing data
Identify procedures, statistics, ideas and cause and effect concerns
ISO 9000 standards
GOAL of TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT
o Long term success
o Customer satisfaction
Company Functions
o Administration
o Marketing
o Communications
o Planning
o Distribution
o Training
o Manufacturing
SEVEN CONCEPTS OF TQM
1. Continuous Improvement
a. Ongoing effort to improve products, services or processes.
b. Involves all operations and work centers including suppliers and
customers.
c. These efforts can seek incremental improvement over time or
breakthrough improvement all at once.
d. Continuous improvement:
i. subset of continual improvement
ii. refers to a more specific focus on linear, incremental improvement
within an existing process.
iii. Some associate it more closely with techniques of statistical
process control.
e. Continual improvement:
i. broader term preferred by W. Edwards Deming
ii. refers to general processes of improvement and encompassing
discontinuous improvements
PDCA CYCLE (PLAN-DO-CHECK-ACT CYCLE)
PLAN: Identify an opportunity and plan for change.
DO: Implement the change on a small scale.
CHECK: Use data to analyze the results of the change and determine
whether it made a difference.

ACT: If the change was successful, implement it on a wider scale and


continuously assess your results. If the change did not work, begin the cycle
again.
When to Use PlanDoCheckAct:
o As a model for continuous improvement.
o Starting a new improvement project.
o Developing a new or improved design of a process, product or service.
o Defining a repetitive work process.
o Planning data collection and analysis in order to verify and prioritize
problems or root causes.
o Implementing any change.

2. Six Sigma
a. Statistical definition of a process that is 99.9997% capable, 3.4 defects
per million opportunities (DPMO)
b. A program designed to reduce defects, lower costs, and improve customer
satisfaction
c. DMAIC Approach (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control)
i. Roadmap for problem solving and product/process improvement.
ii. Most companies begin implementing Six Sigma using the DMAIC
methodology.
1. Define critical outputs and identify gaps for improvement
2. Measure the work and collect process data
3. Analyze the data
4. Improve the process
5. Control the new process to make sure new performance is
maintained

3. Employee Empowerment
a. Sharing varying degrees of power with lower level employees to better
serve the customer
b. 3 levels of degree of Empowerment and leadership:
i. Encouraging
iii. Enabling
ii. Involving
c. Empowerment Process
i. Determining the skill level of employee
ii. Providing for employee training if needed
iii. Coaching tasks with which the employee has skills but is lacking
experience and motivation
iv. Supporting tasks where the employee knows what to do but is still
lacking confidence in their abilities
v. Delegating tasks where the employee is motivated and fully
capable
d. Benefits
i. Improve employer satisfaction
ii. Organizational power can grow
iii. Employees to perform better
iv. Increases trust in the organization
v. Reduces Turnover rates

ISABEL MENCHACA 3
QUALMAN REVIEWER
4. Benchmarking
a. A method for identifying and importing best practices in order to improve
the performance of a certain company
b. 3 types of benchmarking:
i. Strategic
ii. Performance
iii. Process
5. Just in Time
a. a manufacturing philosophy involving an integrated set of
procedures/activities designed to achieve a volume of production using
minimal inventories
b. Advantages
i. High quality
iv. synchronization
ii. less waste
between
iii. low warehouse
production and
cost
work hour
c. Disadvantages
i. High risk factor
iii. Time consuming
ii. No spare product
iv. Supply shock
to meet
unexpected order
6. Taguchi
a. Developed by Genichi Taguchi
b. to improve the quality of manufactured goods
c. Applied to engineering, biotechnology, marketing and advertising
d. Taguchi loss function
i. a graphical representation of a variety of non-perfect parts that can
each lead to an overall loss for a company or manufacturer.
ii. explains that until a component is manufactured in the nominal
size, it incurred a certain amount of loss to the manufacturer even
though it has been manufactured within specified tolerance limit.
e. Off-line quality control
i. system design
iii. tolerance design
ii. parameter
(measure) design
f. Design of Experiments
i. used in Six Sigma
ii. is a tool for selecting the set of parameters on which the
experiment is performed.
iii. makes use of orthogonal arrays (OA)
1. drastically reduce the number of experiments to be
performed, thus reducing the cost of the experiment.
2. are the predefined matrices of control parameters and
number of experiments. The selection of the orthogonal
arrays has to be based on the number of control parameters
and their levels.
3. Various arrays as per Taguchi method are: L4, L8, L9, L12,
L16 up to L50. The more numbers of control parameters, the
higher the numbers after L.
g.

7. Knowledge of TQM Tools


a. Pie Charts and Bar Graphs
i. identifies and compares the data units that relates to an issue
b. Histograms
i. examines data elements in order to make decisions
c. Run Chart
i. Follows a process over a period of time to track the high and low
points in its run
d. Check Sheet
i. used for collection of quantitative and qualitative repetitive data
e. Control Charts
i. control of distribution of variation than attempting to control
individual variations
f. Pareto Graph/Analysis
i. Rates issues according to the importance and frequency and
through prioritizing specific problems
g. Scatter Diagram
i. to discover the cause and effect relationship between two variables
h. Cause and Effect Diagram
i. identifies possible causes for a problem and sorts ideas into useful
categories
i. Checklist
i. contains items relevant to a specific issue or situation that is used
under operational conditions
j.
k. MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS AND STANDARDS
l.
m. International Organization for Standardization (IOS)
ISO 9000 series
o A part of TQM standards which ensures that the firm meets requirements
while addressing the demands of the customers.
o ISO 9000 is focused in the quality of the products produced.
ISO 14000 series
o ISO 14000 deals with environmental management. It identifies the various
effects of the companies processes to the environment.
o Its aim is to improve the environmental performance.
n.
o. QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (QMS)
is a set of policies, processes and procedures required for planning and execution
(production/development/service) in the core business area of an organization. (i.e.
areas that can impact the organization's ability to meet customer requirements.)
o ISO 9001:2008 is an example of a Quality Management System.
nothing more than a good business sense
p.
q. BS OHSAS 18001- OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY
a framework that sets out minimum requirements for occupational health and
safety management practices
helps in setting procedures and policies to ensure the best possible working
conditions are aligned to internationally accepted practices

ISABEL MENCHACA 5
QUALMAN REVIEWER

r.
s. QUALITY EXCELLENCE AWARDS
t.
u. MALCOLM BALDRIGE NATIONAL QUALITY AWARD
established by US congress in 1987
Raise awareness of quality management and recognize US companies that have
implemented successful quality management systems
named after late secretary of commerce Malcolm Baldrige, a supporter of quality
management
judged by independent board of examiners
Categories
o Manufacturing
o Nonprofit
o Service company
o Healthcare
o Small business
o Education
Baldridge Criteria for Performance Excellence
o Leadership
o Human resource focus
o Strategic planning
o Process management
o Customer and market focus
o Business/organizational
o Measurement, analysis, and
performance results
knowledge management

o
o

EUROPEAN FOUNDATION FOR QUALITY MANAGEMENT EXCELLENCE


MODEL
provides holistic view of the organization
allows people to understand the cause and effect relationships of what the org does
and what the org achieves
was formed to recognize and promote sustainable success, provide guidance to
those seeking to achieve it
3 Components
o Fundamental concepts of excellence
o Model criteria
o RADAR logic
Results (what)
Approaches (how)
Deploy
Assess and Refine
o
o FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS OF EXCELLENCE
Adding value for customers
Creating a sustainable future
Developing organizational capability
Harnessing creativity and innovation
Leading with vision, inspiration, and integrity
Managing with agility
Succeeding through the talent of people
Sustaining outstanding results