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INTRODUCTION

PROVEN EGYPTIAN GAS RESERVES IS 62 TCF


(AT THE END OF 2003)

CUMULATIVE GAS PRODUCTION IN EGYPT IS


13.5 TCF ( TILL 30/6/2003)

NATURAL GAS CONSUMPTION IN EGYPT IS


AROUND 28.3 BILLIONS CUBIC METERS (AT THE
END OF 2003) REPRESENTING ABOUT 47 % OF
THE PRIMAREY ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN THE
COUNTRY

MAJOR GAS FIELDS IN EGYPT ARE :


- ABU MADI
- SHUKHEIR
- BADREDDIN
- ABU QIR

(EASTERN EUOROPE
/ FORMER SOVIET UNION)

NATURAL GAS CONSUMPTION


- HOMES

(26%).

- COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (15%).


- INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS(43%).
- GENERATING ELECTRICITY (16%).

USE OF NATURAL GAS


- FERTILIZERS
- METHANOL
- BLENDING AGENTS
- PREMIUM GASOLINE
- PETROCHEMICAL DERIVATIVES

NATURAL GAS INDUSTRIAL


APPLICATION
- PULP AND PAPER
- METALS
- CHEMICALS.
- GLASS
- CLAY
- WASTE TREATMENT (INCENIRATOR)
- FUEL IN VEHICLES
- HEATING, COOLING, DEHUMIDIFICATION
AND DRYING

NATURAL GAS COMPANIES IN


EGYPT
- BRITISH GAS (B.G)
- B.P AMOCO.
- ENI-AGIP.
- SHELL.
- RESOL
- APACHE
- INTERNATIONAL EGYPTIAN OIL COMPANY
( IEOC )
- EDISON

TYPES OF NATURAL GAS

- ASSOCIATED GAS (OIL WELL GAS)


- NON-ASSOCIATED GAS (GAS WELL GAS)
- GAS CONDENSATE

NATURAL GAS COMPOSITION

NATURAL GAS COMPONENTS

NATURAL GAS COMPONENTS


PROPERTIES

PIPELINE SPECIFICATIONS

DEFINITIONS

Gas processing
The separation of constituents from natural gas for the
purpose of making salable products and also for treating the
residue gas to meet required specifications.
Gas processing plant
A plant which processes natural gas for recovery of natural
gas liquids and sometimes other substances such as sulfur.
Gas-well gas
The gas produced or separated at surface conditions from the
full well stream produced from a gas reservoir.

Gas-well liquids
The liquid separated at surface conditions from the full well stream
produced from a gas reservoir.
Natural gas
Gaseous form of petroleum, consisting of mixtures of hydrocarbon gases.
Associated gas
Natural gas which over lies and is in contact with crude oil in the reservoir.
Wet gas
Gas containing water, or a gas which has not been dehydrated.

Dry gas
Gas whose water content has been reduced / removed by
dehydration process.
Lean gas
Gas containing little or no hydrocarbon commercially
recoverable as natural gas liquid product.
Rich gas
Gas containing many hydrocarbons commercially recoverable as
natural gas liquid product.

Synthetic gas (SNG)


The gas product resulting from the gasification of coal and or gas
liquids or heavier hydrocarbons.
Acid gas
The hydrogen sulfide and or carbon dioxide contained in, or
extracted from gas or other streams.
Dew point
The temperature at any given pressure at which liquid initially
condenses from gas or vapor.

Raw gas
Unprocessed gas or the inlet gas to gas processing plant.
Sour gas
Gas containing undesirable quantities of hydrogen sulfide,
mercaptans, and or carbon dioxide.
Sweet gas
Gas which has no more than the maximum sulfur content defined by
the specifications for the sales gas from a plant.

Water Dew point


The temperature at which water vapor start to condense from a gas
mixture.
Hydrocarbon Dew point
The temperature at which hydrocarbons start to condense from a
gas mixture.
Bubble point
The temperature at any given pressure at which the first vapor form
above a liquid.

Hydrate
A solid material resulting from the combination of a hydrocarbon with
water under pressure.
Desiccant
A substance used in a dehydrator to remove water and moisture form
gases or air.
Dehydration
The process of removing the water form gases or liquid.

Recovery
That percent or fraction of a given component in the plant feed which
is recovered as plant product.
Light ends
The low-boiling, easily evaporated components of a hydrocarbon
liquid mixture.
Heavy ends
The portion of a hydrocarbon mixture having the highest boiling
points.
Distillation
The process of separating a multiple components feed of differing
boiling points into two or more products.

Absorber
A tower or column that provides contact between natural gas being
processed and a liquid solvent.
Absorption
The operation in which one or more components in the gas phase
are transferred to (absorbed into) a liquid solvent.

Adsorption
The process by which gaseous components are adsorbed on
solids because of their molecular attraction to the solid surface.

Debutanizer
A fractionator designed to separate butane (and more volatile
components if present) from a hydrocarbon mixture.
Demethanizer
A fractionator designed to separate methane (and more volatile
components if present) from a hydrocarbon mixture.
Depropanizer
A fractionator designed to separate propane (and more volatile
components if present) from a hydrocarbon mixture.
Stripper
A column wherein absorbed constituents are stripped from the
absorption oil. The term is applicable to columns using a strip-ping
medium, such as steam or gas.

Stripping factor
An expression used to describe the degree of stripping.
Mathematically, it is KV/L, the reciprocal of the absorption factor.
Stripping medium
As stated under "stripper", the medium may be steam, gas, or other
material that will increase the driving force for strip-ping.
Trayed column
A vessel wherein gas and liquid, or two partially miscible liquids, are
contacted, usually concurrently on trays.
Partial Pressure
The pressure due to one of the several components in the gaseous
mixture. Partial pressure of a gas in a perfect gaseous mixture is
equal to its mole fraction in the mixture multiplied by total pressure.

COMPOSITION OF NATURAL GAS PRODUCTS


COMPONENT
CO2

H2S

N2

C1

C2

C3

IC4

NC4

IC5

IC5

C6+

NATURAL GAS

INERT GAS

ACID GAS

X
X

LNG

X
X
X

NGL

LPG

CONDENSATE

NATURAL GAS TREATING

TYPES OF CONTAMINANTS
-

AMMONIA (NH3).
HYDROGEN SULFIDE (H2S).
HYDROGEN CYANIDE (HCN).
CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2).
CARBONYL SULFIDE (COS).
CARBON DISULFIDE (CS2).
MERCAPTANS (RSH).
NITROGEN (N2).
WATER (H2O).
SULFER DIOXIDE (SO2).

REASONS FOR CONTAMINANT


REMOVAL
-

SAFETY
CORROSION CONTROL
GAS AND/OR LIQUID PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS
PREVENT FREEZE-OUT AT LOW TEMPERATURES
DECREASE COMPRESSION COSTS
FOAMING
PREVENT POISONING OF CATALYSTS IN
DOWNSTREAM FACILITIES
MEET ENVIROMENTAL REQUIREMENTS

ACIDIC GASES SAFETY PROBLEMS


HYDROGEN SULFIDE
HYDROGEN SULFIDE IS A HIGHLY TOXIC GAS, AT
VERY LOW CONCENTRATIONS IRRITATION OF THE
EYES, NOSE, AND THROAT IS POSSIBLE.
HYDROGEN SULFIDE IS A HIGHLY FLAMMABLE GAS
AND WILL SUPPORT COMBUSTION IN AIR AT
CONCENTRATIONS FROM 4.3 TO 46 VOLUME
PERCENT.

ACIDIC GASES SAFETY PROBLEMS


- CARBON DIOXIDE
CARBON DIOXIDE WILL DISPLACE OXYGEN AND
CAN CREATE AN OXYGEN-DEFICIENT ATMOSPHERE
RESULTING IN SUFFOCATION.
THE ATMOSPHERIC CONCENTRATION IMMEDIATELY
HAZARDS TO LIFE IS 10 %(VOL.)

ACIDIC GASES CORROSION


PROBLEMS

GAS STREAMS WITH HIGH H2S TO CO2 RATIOS


ARE LESS CORROSIVE THAN THOSE HAVING
LOW H2S TO CO2 RATIOS.

ACIDIC GASES CORROSION


PROBLEMS

CORROSION IS STRONGLY A FUNCTION OF


TEMPERATURE AND LIQUID VELOCITY.

ACIDIC GASES CORROSION


PROBLEMS
REBOILER, RICH SIDE OF AMINE-AMINE
EXCHANGER, STRIPPER OVHD CONDENSING
LOOP TEND TO EXPERIENCE HIGH CORROSION
RATES.

CORROSION CONTROL MINIMIZING


- MAINTAINING THE LOWEST POSSIBLE REBOILER
TEMPERATURE.
- MINIMIZING SOLIDS IN THE SYSTEM.
- KEEPING OXYGEN OUT OF THE SYSTEM BY
PROVIDING A GAS BLANKET ON ALL STORAGE
TANKS.
- USING DIONIZED WATER FOR MAKE-UP WATER.

FOAMING PROBLEMS
A SUDDEN INCREASE IN DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE
ACROSS A CONTACTOR OFTEN INDICATES SEVERE
FOAMING

FOAMING RESULT IN REDUCING THE TREATING


CAPACITY AND SWEETNING EFFECIENCY.

FOAMING REASONS
-

SUSPENDED SOLIDS

ORGANIC ACIDS

CORROSION INHIBITOR

CONDENSED HYDROCARBONS

MAKE-UP WATER IMPURITIES

LUBE OIL

NATURAL GAS TREATING PLANT


MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION
TREATING PLANTS NORMALY USE CARBON
STEEL AS THE PRINCIPAL MATERIAL OF
CONSTRUCTION.

NATURAL GAS TREATING PLANT


MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION
STAINLESS STEEL 304, 316, OR 410 MAY BE USED IN
THE FOLLOWING CRITICAL AREAS:
-

REFLUX CONDENSER
REBOILER TUBE BUNDLE
RICH / LEAN EXCHANGER TUBES
BOTTOM 5 TRAYS OF THE CONTACTOR AND TOP 5
TRAYS OF THE STRIPPER
PIPING FROM RICH/LEAN EXCHANGER TO THE
STRIPPER

GAS TREATMENT PROCESS


SELECTION
-

CONTAMINANTS TYPES AND CONCENTRATION.


ACID GAS SPECIFICATIONS.
TREATED GAS SPECIFICATIONS.
VOLUME OF GAS TO BE PROCESSED.
TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE AT WHICH SOUR GAS IS
AVAILABLE.
HYDROCARBON COMPOSITION OF THE SOUR GAS.
LIQUID PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS.
DISPOSAL OF BY-PRODUCTS CONSIDERED HAZARDOUS
CHEMICALS.
OPERATING AND CAPITAL COST.
SELECTIVITY REQUIRED FOR ACID GAS REMOVAL.

CHEMICAL REACTION PROCESS


(CHEMICAL SWEETNING)

CHEMICAL REACTION PROCESSES REMOVE THE H2S


AND/OR CO2 FROM THE GAS STREAM BY CHEMICAL
REACTION WITH A MATERIAL IN THE SOLVENT
SOLUTION.

THE REACTION MAY BE REVERSIBLE OR


IRREVERSBLE , THE REACTION IS REVERSED
AT LOW PRESSURE AND HIGH TEMPERATURE.

CONTACTOR WORKS AT RELATIVELY HIGH


PRESSURE AND RELATIVELY LOW TEMPERATURE,
STRIPPER WORKS AT RELATIVELY LOW PRESSURE
AND RELATIVELY HIGH TEMPERATURE.

CHEMICAL SWEETNING SOLVENT


EQUEOUS ALKANOLAMINES

TRIETHANOL AMINE (TEA)


DIETHANOL AMINE (DEA)
MONOETHANOL AMINE (MEA)
DIISOPROPANOLAMINE (DIPA)
DIGLYCOL AMINE (DGA)
METHYLDIETHANOLAMINE (MDEA)

CHEMICAL SWEETNING PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM

CHEMICAL SWEETNING MAIN


PROCESS EQUIPMENT

INLET SEPARATOR
THE INLET SEPARATOR SHOULD BE SIZED NOT
ONLY ON THE BASIS OF INLET FLUID VOLUMES,
BUT ALSO ON SURGE CAPACITY TO HANDLE
SLUGS OF LIQUID HYDROCARBONS

FILTERATION
FILTERATION IS ESSENTIAL TO REMOVE
PARTICLES DOWN TO 5 MICRONS.

TWO STAGE OF FILTERATION MAY BE REQUIRED.


THE FIRST STAGE, A CARTRIDGE-TYPE FILTER, TO
REMOVE PARTICLES DOWN TO 10 MICRONS.
THE SECOND STAGE OF FILTERATION TYPICALLY AN
ACTIVATED CARBON FILTERS REMOVE
HYDROCARBON AND OTHER CONTAMINANTS DOWN
TO 5 MICRONS.

THE CARRYOVER OF CARBON FINES CAN


BE CONTROLLED BY EITHER LOCATING A
SECOND CARTRIDGE-TYPE FILTER
IMMEDIATELY DOWNSTREAM OF THE
CARBON FILTER OR USING A GRADED
CARBON BED.

DURING PERIODS OF ANTIFOAM INJECTION, THE


CARBON FILTER SHOULD BE TAKEN OUT OF
SERVICE . CARBON WILL REMOVE MOST
ANTIFOAMS AND WILL BE DEACTIVATED BY
THEM.

FLASH TANK
-

REDUCE ERROSION IN RICH / LEAN EXCHANGERS.

MINIMIZE THE HYDROCARBON CONTENT IN THE


ACID GAS.

REDUCE THE VAPOR LOAD ON THE STRIPPER

ALLOW USING THE OFF-GASES AS FUEL

RECLAIMER
RECLAIMER IS USUALY REQUIRED FOR MEA AND
DGA SYSTEMS TO REMOVE THE FOLLOWING:
-

SUSPENDED SOLIDS

ACIDS AND IRON COMPOUNDS

HEAT STABLE SALTS

DEGRADATION PRODUCTS

GAS TREATING USING CAUSTIC WASH (NAOH)


THE PROCESS EMPLOYS COUNTER-CURRENT CONTACTING
OF THE GAS STREAM WITH A CAUSTIC SOLUTION IN A
PACKED OR TRAYED COLUMN.

THE SPENT SOLUTION IS EITHER REGENERATED OR


DISCARDED DEPENDING ON WHAT ACID COMPONENTS ARE
PRESENT IN THE SOUR GAS.

IF ONLY MERCAPTANS ARE PRESENTED, THE CAUSTIC


SOLUTION IS REGENERATED WITH STEAM

NAOH CAN BE USED TO TREAT NATURAL GAS


STREAMS TO REMOVE CO2,CS2, H2S AND
MERCAPTANS

H2S + 2 NAOH

NA2S + 2 H2O

CO2 + 2 NAOH

NA2CO3 +2H2O

RSH + NAOH

RSNA + H2O

PHYSICAL SOLVENT PROCESSES


(PHYSICAL SWEETNING)

SOLVENTS USED IN PHYSICAL


ABSORPTION
- POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL DERIVATIVES
- ANHYDROUS PROPYLENE CARBONATE

USES OF PHYSICAL SOLVENT


PROCESSES
-

THE PARTIAL PRESSURE OF THE ACID GASES IN THE


FEED IS GREATER THAN 50 PSI

THE HEAVY HYDROCARBON CONCENTRATION IN THE


FEED GAS IS LOW.

SELECTIVE REMOVAL OF H2S IS DESIRED

LITTLE OR NO ENERGY IS REQUIRED.

MAIN FEATURES OF
PHYSICAL SWEETNING
- PHYSICAL SOLVENT PROCESS IS CAPABLE OF
SIMULTINEOUSLY DEHYDRATING AND SWEETNING
THE GAS.
- THE PROCESS OPERATE AT AMBIENT OR
SUBAMBIENT TEMPERATURE.
- THE SOLVENTS ARE RELATIVELY NONCORROSIVE
SO CARBON STEEL CAN BE USED.

PHYSICAL SOLVENT PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM

SWEETNING COMPINATION PROCESSES


SULFINOL PROCESS
SULFINOL PROCESS IS LICENSED BY SHELL
COMPONY, IT IS USED TO REMOVE H2S, CO2, COS,
CS2, MERCAPTANS AND POLYSULFIDES FROM
NATURAL GAS.
SULFINOL IS A MIXTURE OF SULFOLANE (PHYSICAL
SOLVENTS), WATER AND EITHER DIPA OR MDEA
(CHEMICAL SOLVENT)

GAS TREATING BY ADSORPTION

MOLECULAR SIEVE
THE SIEVE BED CAN BE DESIGNED TO DEHYDRATE
AND SWEETEN SIMULTANEOUSLY.
PROCESS CYCLE TIMES ARE IN THE ORDER OF 6-8
HOURS
TO OPERATE PROPERLY THE SIEVES MUST BE
REGENERATED AT A TEMPERATURE CLOSE TO 600OF
TO A LONG ENOUGH TIME TO REMOVE ALL
ADSORBED MATERIALS, USUALY ONE HOUR OR
MORE.

MOLECULAR SIEVE

MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY

MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY FOR CO2


REMOVAL
MEMBRANES ARE SEMIPERMEABLE BARRIERS
THAT SELECTIVELY SEPARATE SOME COMPOUNDS
FROM OTHERS

MEMBRANE MATERIALS FOR CO2


REMOVAL
-

CELLULOSE ACETATE
POLYIMIDES
POLYAMIDES
POLYSULFONE
POLYCARBONATES
POLYETHERIMIDE

MEMBRANE PERMEATION
MEMBRANE DOESNT WORK AS FILTER, WHERE SMALL MOLECULES ARE
SEPARATED FROM THE LARGER ONES. INSTEAD, THEY OPERATE ON
THE PRINCIPLE OF SOLUTION-DIFFUSION THROUGH A NON POROUS
MEMBRANE.
MEMBRANE SEPARATE BASED ON HOW WELL DIFFERENT COMPOUNDS
DISSOLVE INTO THE MEMBRANE AND THEN DIFFUSE THROUGH IT.
FAST GASES SUCH AS CO2, H2, HE, H2S, AND WATER VAPOR PERMEATE
QUICKLY. CO, N2, C1, C2,OTHER HYDROCARBONS PERMEATE LESS
QUICKLY, AND SO ARE CALLED SLOW GASES.

MEMBRANE PERMEATION

MEMBRANE PERMEATION

ONE STAGE FLOW SCHEME


RESIDUE (CO2 REDUCED)

FEED

MEMBRANE UNIT
PERMEATE (CO2 ENRICHED)

TWO STEP FLOW SCHEME

RESIDUE (CO2 REDUCED)

FEED

PERMEATE (CO2 ENRICHED)

TWO STAGE FLOW SCHEME


RESIDUE (CO2 REDUCED)

FEED

PERMEATE (CO2 ENRICHED)

MEMBRANE DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS


LOW COST
HIGH RELIABILITY
HIGH ON-STREAM TIME
EASY OPERATION
HIGH HYDROCARBON RECOVERY
LOW MAINTENANCE
LOW ENERGY CONSUMPTION
LOW WEIGHT AND SPACE REQUIREMENT

MEMBRANE PERFORMANCE
THE MEMBRANE PERFORMANCE IS LOWERED
DUE TO

LIQUIDS

HEAVY HYDROCARBONS(>C15)

CERTAIN CORROSION INHIBITOR

MEMBRANE SYSTEM PRETREATMENT

COALESCING FILTER FOR LIQUID AND MIST


ELIMINATION
NON-REGENERABLE ADSORBENT GUARD BED
FOR TRACE CONTAMINANT REMOVAL
PARTICLE FILTER FOR DUST REMOVAL AFTER
THE ADSORBENT BED
HEATER FOR PROVIDING SUFFICIENT
SUPERHEAT TO THE GAS

MEMBRANE SYSTEM PRETREATMENT

FEED

COALESCING
FILTER

PARTICLE
FILTER

ADSORBENT
GUARD BED

HEATER

MEMBRANE

MEMBRANE SYSTEM PROJECTS

PAKISTAN

TAIWAN

MEXICO

SALAM & TAREK, EGYPT

WEST TEXAS, USA

NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

DEFINITION
DEHYDRATION IS THE PROCESS USED TO REMOVE
WATER FROM NATURAL GAS AND NATURAL GAS
LIQUIDS.

IMPORTANCE

MEET A WATER CONTENT SPECIFICATION

PREVENT CORROSION

PREVENT DECREASE IN THE GAS HEATING


VALUE

PREVENT HYDRATE FORMATION

REDUCE TRANSFER COST

MAIN FEATURES OF GAS DEHYDRATION


THE SATURATED WATER CONTENT OF A GAS DEPENDS
ON PRESSURE, TEMPERATURE AND COMPOSITION.
SATURATED WATER CONTENT INCREASES AT HIGHER
TEMPERATURE,LOWER PRESSURE AND LOW SPECIFIC
GRAVITY.
THE PRESENCE OF ACID GASES (i.e. CO2 & H2S)
INCREASE THE WATER CONTENT IN THE NATURAL
GAS

NATURAL GAS
WATER CONTENT

SAT. WATER CONTENT =


1060 kg/106 SM3 @ 40C AND 7 MPa

Water Content
of Natural Gas

SAT. WATER CONTENT =


61 Ib/M3 @ 100F AND 1000 PSIA

HYDRATES IN NATURAL GAS

DEFINITION
A HYDRATE IS A PHYSICAL COMBINATION OF
WATER AND OTHER SMALL HYDROCARBON
MOLECULES TO FORM A SOLID CRYSTALLINE
COMPOUND WHICH HAS AN ICE-LIKE
APPERENCE, BUT WITH A DIFFERENT STUCTURE
THAN ICE AND MUCH MORE DENSE THAN ICE.

HYDRATE PROBLEMS
HYDRATE FORMATION IN GAS AND/OR NGL
SYSTEMS CAN PLUG PIPELINES, EQUIPMENT, AND
INSTRUMENTS, RESTRICTING OR INTERRUPTING
FLOW.

HYDRATE FORMATION
NATURAL GAS HYDRATES ARE FORMED WHEN NATURAL
GAS COMPONENTS, NOTABLY METHANE, ETHANE,
PROPANE, ISOBUTANE, HYDROGEN SULFIDE, CARBON
DISULFIDE AND NITROGEN ENTER THE WATER LATTICE
POSITIONS AND OCCUPY THE VACANT LATTICE
POSITIONS, CAUSING THE WATER TO SOLIDIFY AT
TEMPERATURE CONSIDERABLY HIGHER THAN THE WATER
FREEZING POINT. ENOUGH GASEOUS MOLECULES MUST
ENTER THE LATTICE AND OCCUPY THE VOIDS TO FORM A
STABILIZED HYDRATE

HYDRATE TYPES

SMALLER MOLECULES (CH4, C2H6, CO2, H2S) STABILIZE A


BODY-CENTERED CUBIC CALLED STRUCTURE I.

LARGER MOLECULES (C3H8, I- C4H10, N-C4H10) FORM A


DIAMOND-LATTICE CALLED STRUCTURE II.

NORMAL PARAFFIN MOLECULES LARGER THAN N-C4H10


DO NOT FORM STRUCTURE I AND II HYDRATES AS THEY
ARE TOO LARGE TO STABILIZE THE LATTICE. HOWEVER,
SOME ISOPARAFFINS AND CYCLOALKANES LARGER
THAN PENTANE ARE KNOWN TO FORM STRUCTURE H
HYDRATES.

HYDRATE TYPES

NITROGEN :

N2.6H2O

CARBON DIOXIDE:

CO2.6H2O

HYDROGEN SULFIDE :

H2S.6H2O

METHANE :

CH4.6H2O

ETHANE :

C2H6.8H2O

PROPANE :

C3H8.17H2O

ISO-BUTANE :

I-C4H10.17H2O

HYDRATES IN NATURAL GAS


HYDRATE STRUCTURE TYPE

FROM A PRACTICAL VIEWPOINT, THE STRUCTURE TYPE DOES NOT


AFFECT THE APPEARANCE, PROPERTIES, OR PROBLEMS CAUSED BY
THE HYDRATE.
IT DOES, HOWEVER, HAVE A SIGNIFICANT EFFECT ON THE
PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE AT WHICH HYDRATES FORM.
STRUCTURE II HYDRATES ARE MORE STABLE THAN STRUCTURE I.
THIS IS WHY GASES CONTAINING C3H8 AND I-C4H10 WILL FORM
HYDRATES AT HIGHER TEMPERATURES THAN SIMILAR GAS
MIXTURES WHICH DO NOT CONTAIN THESE COMPONENTS.

HYDRATES IN NATURAL GAS


FACTORS THAT AFFECT HYDRATE FORMATION
THE CONDITIONS WHICH AFFECT HYDRATE FORMATION ARE:

TEMPERATURE
PRESSURE
COMPOSITION

IN GENERAL, HYDRATE FORMATION WILL OCCUR AS PRESSURE INCREASES AND/OR


TEMPERATURE DECREASES TO THE FORMATION CONDITION.
THE PRESENCE OF H2S IN NATURAL GAS MIXTURES RESULTS IN A SUBSTANTIALLY
WARMER HYDRATE FORMATION TEMPERATURE AT A GIVEN PRESSURE. CO2, IN
GENERAL, HAS A MUCH SMALLER IMPACT AND OFTEN REDUCES THE HYDRATE
FORMATION TEMPERATURE AT FIXED PRESSURE FOR A HYDROCARBON GAS MIXTURE.

Simple
Hydrate Prediction
Correlation

What is the hydrate temperature


of a 0.7 specific gravity natural
gas at 7000 kPa?

Hydrate temperature = 18 C

Ref. GPSA Data Book

Simple
Hydrate Prediction
Correlation
What is the hydrate temperature
of a 0.7 specific gravity natural
gas at 1000 psia?

Hydrate temperature = 65 F

Ref. GPSA Data Book

GAS DEHYDRATION TECHNIQUES

ABSORPTION USING LIQUID DESICANTS

ADSORPTION USING SOLID DESICANTS

DEHYDRATION USING CACL2

DEHYDRATION BY MEMBRANE PERMEATION


TECHNOLOGY

HYDRATE INHIBITION

THE FORMATION OF HYDRATES CAN BE PREVENTED BY


DEHYDRATING THE GAS OR LIQUID TO ELIMINATE THE
FORMATION OF A CONDENSED WATER (LIQUID OR
SOLID) PHASE.
IN SOME CASES, HOWEVER, DEHYDRATION MAY NOT BE
PRACTICAL OR ECONOMICALLY FEASIBLE. IN THESE
CASES, INHIBITION CAN BE AN EFFECTIVE METHOD OF
PREVENTING HYDRATE FORMATION.

DEHYDRATION ADDITIVES
THE FOLLOWING ADDITIVES ARE USED TO LOWER THE
HYDRATE TEMPERATURE AT A CERTAIN PRESSURE
-

METHANOL (CH3 OH)


ETHYLENE GLYCOL (C2H6O2)
DIETHYLENE GLYCOL (C4H10O3)
TRIETHYLENE GLYCOL (C6H14O4)
TETRAETHYLENE GLYCOL (C8H18O5)

DEHYDRATION ADDITIVES PROPERTIES


-

HIGH ABSORPTION EFFICIENCY.

EASY AND ECONOMIC REGENERATION

NON CORROSIVE AND NON TOXIC

NO INTERACTION WITH THE HYDROCARBON PORTION


OF THE GAS

NO OPERATIONAL PROBLEMS WHEN USED IN HIGH


CONCENTRATIONS

DEHYDRATION FEATURES
HYDRATE INHIBITION UTILIZES INJECTION OF ONE OF THE GLYCOLS OR
METHANOL INTO A PROCESS STREAM
FOR CONTINUOUS INJECTION IN SERVICES DOWN TO 40F, ONE OF THE
GLYCOLS USUALLY OFFERS AN ECONOMIC ADVANTAGE VERSUS METHANOL
RECOVERED BY DISTILLATION.
ETHYLENE GLYCOL IS THE MOST POPULAR BECAUSE OF ITS LOWER
COST, LOWER VISCOSITY AND SOLUBILITY IN LIQUID HYDROCARBONS.
FOR LOW GAS VOLUMES , INFREQUENT OPERATION AND AT CRYOGENIC
CONDITIONS (BELOW 40F) METHANOL USUALLY IS PREFERRED.

GLYCOL LOSSES
-

FOAMING

HIGH GAS FLOW RATE IN THE CONTACTOR

RAPID CHANGES IN THE GAS FLOW RATES

PUMP LEAKAGE

GLYCOL CARRY OVER WITH THE GAS LEAVING THE


CONTACTOR

LOW PH (< 3)

GLYCOL INJECTION PROCESS

GLYCOL INJECTION PROCESS

ABSORPTION USING LIQUID DESICANTS

ADSORPTION USING SOLID DESICANTS

DEHYDRATION USING SOLID DESICANTS

DEHYDRATION USING SOLID DESICANTS

SOLID DESICANT PROPERTIES

CALCIUM DI CLORIDE
-Calcium chloride (CaCl2) can be used as a
consumable desiccant to dehydrate natural gas.
- 3/8 to 3/4 CaCl2 pellets are installed in a
fixed bed much like a dry desiccant tower.
- Outlet water contents of 1 lb/MMscf have been
achieved with CaCl2 dehydrators. Typical
CaCl2 capacity is 0.3 lb CaCl2 per lb H20.
- CaCl2 dehydrators may offer a viable
alternative to glycol units on low rate, remote
dry gas wells.
- The CaCl2 must be changed out periodically.
In low capacity high rate units this may be as
often as every 2-3 weeks.
- Brine disposal raises environmental issues.

MERCURY REMOVAL

VARIOUS FORMS OF MERCURY

.
ELEMENTAL MERCURY (HG )

ORGANIC FORM (HG (CH3)2 ,HG (C2H5)2 )

INORGANIC FORM (HG CL2)

SUSPENDED MERCURY COMPOUNDS (MERCURIC SULFIDE)

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN VARIOUS FORMS


OF MERCURY

VAPOR PRESSURE

SOLUBILITY

PHASE

ADSORPTION PROPERTIES

REASONS FOR MERCURY


REMOVAL
-

DEPOSITS IN CRYOGENIC EQUIPMENT

CAUSE CRACKING OF WELDED ALUMINUM HEAT EXCHANGER

REDUCE PRODUCTS (C1, C2, C3, C4, C5+) QUALITY

CORROSION

DEPOSITS IN THE MOLECULAR SIEVE, GLYCOL UNITS AND


ACID GAS REMOVAL UNITS. (DIFFICULT DISPOSAL AND
REGENERATION)

POISON THE DOWN STREAM CATALYST IN ETHYLENE, MTBE,


AROMATICS AND OLEFINE PLANTS.

SAFETY AND HEALTH PROBLEMS DURING EQUIPMENT


MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION

MERCURY CONTENT

MERCURY CONTENT IN N.G SHOULD BE NIL


OR LESS THAN 0.01 MICROGRAM PER NORMAL
CUBIC METER

Mercury Removal and Recovery System

Hg Removal Without Treatment Of The Spent


Regeneration Gas

NATURAL GAS REFRIGERATION

REFRIGERATION CYCLE

EXPANSION

EVAPORATION

COMPRESSION

CONDENSATION

PURE COMPONENT PHASE BEHAVIOR

PHASE BEHAVIOR OF C2-NC7 SYSTEM

REFRIGERATION CYCLE PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM

COMPRESSOR

EVAPORATOR

CONDENSER
B
EXPANSION VALVE

PRESSURE (PSI)

REFRIGERATION CYCLE PRESSURE-ENTHALPY DIAGRAM

CRITICAL POINT

ENTHALPY (Btu / Ib)

REFRIGERATION SYSTEM PRESSURE DROP

CONDENSER PRESSURE DROP :

LINE HYDRAULIC LOSSES

3.0 TO 7.0 PSI

EVAPORATOR TO COMPRESSOR : 0.1 TO 1.5 PSI


COMPRESSOR TO CONDENSER : 1.0 TO 2.0 PSI
CONDENSER TO RECEIVER
: 0.5 TO 1 PSI

Refrigeration Mechanical

ONE STAGE REFRIGERATION SYSTEM

COMPRESSOR
250 psia

Air Cooler

P1 = 10 psi

14.5 psia

P1 = 1.5 psi
Q= 35 MMBTU/HR
SUCTION
DRUM

-40 oF
16 psia

EVAPORATOR
OR CHILLAR

120 oF
240 psia

RECEIVER

TWO STAGES REFRIGERATION SYSTEM

250 psia

P1 = 1.5 psi

P1 = 10 psi

P = 60 psi
P1 = 2 psi

14.5 psia

120
120ooFF
240
240psia
psia

-40 oF
16 psia

SUCTION
DRUM

Q= 25 MMBTU/HR

25 oF
62 psia

Q= 10 MMBTU/HR

THREE STAGES REFRIGERATION SYSTEM

P = 34 psi

P1 = 1.5 psi

82 psia

200 psia

P1 = 10 psi

14.5 psia

-40 oF
16 psia

Q= 23 MMBTU/HR

-4 oF
36 psia

Q= 10 MMBTU/HR

44 oF
84 psia

120ooFF
120
190
240psia
psia

Q= 7 MMBTU/HR

Q= 3 MMBTU/HR

CASCADE REFRIGERATION SYSTEM


1

P = 51 psi

17 psia

153 psia

-40 oF
16 psia

-120 oF
18.5 psia
Q= 15 MMBTU/HR

oF
-25
120oF
148
240psia
psia

-78.5 oF
52.5 psia
Q= 10 MMBTU/HR
Q= 3 MMBTU/HR

ETHANE SYSTEM

14.5 psia

P = 34 psi

-40 oF
16 psia

Q= 30.71 MMBTU/HR

3
82 psia

-4 oF
36 psia

PROPANESYSTEM
200 psia

44 oF
84 psia

120ooFF
100
190
240psia
psia

Q= 7 MMBTU/HR
Q= 23 MMBTU/HR

Q= 10 MMBTU/HR
Q= 3 MMBTU/HR
141

REFRIGERANTS PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

TURBO EXPANDERS

USE OF TURBOEXPANDERS
- FREE PRESSURE DROP IN THE GAS STREAM
- LEAN GAS
-

HIGH ETHANE RECOVERY REQUIREMENTS(OVER 30%


ETHANE RECOVERY)

- COMPACT PLANT LAY OUT


-

HIGH UTILITY COST

FLEXIBILITY OF OPERATION

TERBO EXPANDERS

TERBO EXPANDERS

FRACTIONATION

FRACTIONATOR SECTIONS

FRACTIONATORS PRODUCTS
-

DEMETHANIZED PRODUCT (C2+)


DEETHANIZED PRODUCT (C3+)
ETHANE/PROPANE MIXTURES (EP)
COMMERCIAL PROPANE
PROPANE/BUTANE MIXTURE (LPG)
BUTANE(S)
BUTANE/GASOLINE MIXTURES
NATURAL GASOLINE
MIXTURES WITH A VAPOR PRESSURE
SPECIFICATION

FRACTIONATOR TRAIN

What are those?


-

NGL ?

LPG ?

LNG ?

NGL
NATURAL GAS LIQUIDS
ITS COMPOSITION IS MAINLY

ETHANE+

LPG
LIQUIFIED PETROLEUM
GAS
ITS COMPOSITION IS MAINLY

PROPANE & BUTANES

LNG
LIQUIFIED NATURAL
GAS
ITS COMPOSITION IS MAINLY

METHANE & ETHANE

Gas Processing
Gas

conditioning

LPG

plant

NGL

plant

LNG

plant

Gas Conditioning
To meet sales gas specifications only
No further processing
Water removal
CO2 /H2S removal
Hydrocarbon dew point control

NGL Extraction

In addition to meeting sales gas specifications


further processing is undertaken to increase NGL
recovery.
NGL is more valuable as a saleable product than
as a natural gas constituent
Ethane
Propane
Butanes
Natural Gasoline (iC5+)
Extraction levels limited by gas sales
specifications (heating value) and economics

NGL Extraction
Process Types

Adsorption:

Hydrocarbon Recovery
Units

Absorption:

Lean Oil

Condensation: Mechanical Refrigeration


Expander Valve
(LTS, LTX, JT)

Adsorption

Absorption Process
(Refrigerated Lean Oil Plant)

Refrigeration Mechanical

Expander Process

Valve Expansion Process

LNG

LNG
LIQUIFIED NATURAL
GAS

Why LNG ???


Pipelines can not be used for gas export
because of:
Geography
Distance no local gas market
Physical terrain mountain ranges
Water depth
Politics
International agreements required
Political risk
Economics
Size
distance

Why LNG?
600:1 volume reduction

Typical LNG Properties

Boiling point -160 to -162 C


Molecular weight 16 to 19
Odor none
Color none
Density 425 485 kg/m3
Calorific value 1030 1180 Btu/scf
Specific heat capacity 2.2 3.7 kJ/kg/C
Viscosity 0.11 0.18 cP
Thermal conductivity 0.19 0.22 W/m/C

Typical LNG
Product Specification

LNG PROCESS FACILTIES

FEED
PREPARATION
FACILITIES

NGL
RECOVERY
FACILITIES
STORAGE AND
SHIPPING
FACILITIES

LIQUIFICTION
FACILITIES

LNG Process Facilities

Typical Gas Processing Stages

Gas Compression
Phase Separation
Acid Gas Removal
Sulphur Recovery
Dehydration
Mercury Removal
NGL recovery

Acid Gas Removal


CO Removal
Solidification in liquefaction plant
Reduce corrosion issues
H2S Removal
Hazardous compound
To meet LNG specification
Reduce corrosion issues
Organic Sulphur Removal
To meet LNG specification
Amine processes are the industry
standard
Hybrid solvents gaining in popularity

Typical Amine Plant Layout

Dehydration
Water removal to prevent solidification
in the liquefaction plant
Minimizes corrosion issues
Specification < 1 ppmv
Adsorption on Molecular Sieve is the
industry standard

Dehydration

Mercury Removal
Trace contaminant but accumulates in plant
Mercury will cause failure of aluminum
equipment
Must be removed prior to liquefaction plant
Contamination of liquid streams
Beneficial to remove upstream of processing
units
Removal by Sacrificial Beds
Sulphided activated carbon
Metal sulphide

NGL Recovery system


Demethanizer
Separates CH4 from heavier components
Cryogenic cooling followed by fractionation
Methane to sales or LNG plant
Residue to de-ethanizer

De-ethanizer
Separates Ethane from heavier hydrocarbons
Fractionation column
Ethane to sales or mixed with methane

NGL Recovery System


Depropanizer
Separates Propane from heavier
hydrocarbons
Fractionation column
Debutanizer
LPG for sale
Residual condensate to oil

NGL Recovery System

LNG LIQUIFICATION TECHNOLOGY


COMPARISON

LIQUIFICATION PROCESSES

CASCADE CYCLE

(PHILLIPS,AIR PRODUCT)

C3/MR CYCLE

MRCYCLE

(APCI , PRICHARD)

MR/MR CYCLE

(APCI, TECHNIP/SNAM)

(APCI)

LNG PRODUCTION WITH DIFFERENT


REFRIGERATION CYCLES
TYPE

CASCADE

LICENSOR

PLANTS

PHILLIPS PET. Co.


& APCI

APCI & PRITCHARD

TOTAL
MMTA

11.5

SINGLE PRESSURE
MIXED REFRIGERANT(MR)

PROPANE PRECOOLED/MIXED
REFRIGERANT(C3/MR)
MIXED REFRIGERANT
PRECOOLED/MIXED
REFRIGERANT

2.4

APCI

25

109.3

84

APCI &(TEARLAC) by
TECHNIP /
SNAMPROJETTI

6.6

COMPARISION BETWEEN THE


TWO MAIN TECHNOLOGIES FOR
LNG LIQUEFACTION PROCESS

AIR PRODUCTS AND CHEMICALS INC


(APCI)
THE PHILLIPS OPTIMIZEED CASCADE
PROCESS

LIQUEFACTION PROCESS
APCI PROCESS
The APCI process utilizes a propane pre-cooled / mixed
component refrigerant (MCR) system .
PHILLIPS PROCESS
The Phillips optimized cascade process utilizes three cascade
pure component refrigeration system . (Propane - Ethylene Methane)

FLEXIBILITY FOR FEED STOCK


CHANGES

APCI process can accommodate varying feed


stock better by allowing for adjustment of MR
composition

INLET COMPOSITION:HIGH
NITROGEN

Both processes can be designed to handle


relatively high nitrogen feeds .

NGL RECOVERY CAPABILITY


There is no difference between the two
technologies for the NGL Fractionation Section.

PROCESS DESIGN COMPLEXITY


APCI PROCESS
The key to optimizing the design ,is optimization of the
MCR blend and selection of pressure levels for the chillers.
PHILLIPS PROCESS
Optimization of chiller pressures is the main factor for
process design
Both technologies are similar in complexity level .

THERMODYNAMIC CYCLE
EFFICIENCY
APCI PROCESS
42-45%
PHILLIPS PROCESS
39-42%
Theoretical minimum work
EFFICIENCY =
Total work

COMPRESSOR DRIVERS
APCI PROCESS
Utilize larger sized refrigeration compressor
drivers.(Frame 6&7)

PHILLIPS PROCESS
Utilize six frame 5C for 3.6 MTPA plant.

RELIABILITY / AVAILABILITY OF THE


CRYOGENIC HEAT EXCHANGER
APCI PROCESS
The main heat exchanger used in the APCI
process has been utilized in numerous LNG
applications.
PHILLIPS PROCESS
The brazed aluminum heat exchangers and
equipment used in PHILLIPS process are utilized
in several LNG plants as well as numerous gas
processing facilities worldwide.

PLANT INFRASTRUCTURE
The remainder of the plant and marine facilities
will be similar for both process technologies .i.e.
LNG storage tanks, loading system, jetty and
marine facilities, fire protection equipment, utility
systems, etc.

APCI Propane Pre-Cooled Mixed


Refrigerant

Cascade Refrigeration

Phillips Optimized Cascade

Common Features
Cryogenic columns
Refrigerant Make-up
Compressor & Driver Selection
Cooling media

Egyptian LNG Plants


Egypt LNG (SE-GAS)
- Located at Damietta
- Union Fenosa
- APCI Propane Pre-cooled
- Mixed Refrigerant process
- 1 x 4.5 mtpa train

Egyptian LNG Plants


Egyptian LNG
Located at Idku
BG Group, Edison, Gaz de France,
EGPC, Egas
Phillips Optimized Cascade
Under construction by Bechtel
- 1 x 3.6 mtpa train

LNG storage
LNG Storage Tanks realizes on average
45% to 65% of total Import terminal
costs(10s millions).
Metallurgy
Cryogenic
Insulation
Cold seals
Limited vendors
Seismic considerations
Construction of the order 2 to 4 years for
tanks.

GTL TECHNOLOLOGY

LIQUIFIED NATURAL
GAS (LNG)

NATURAL GAS LIQUID


RECOVERY (NGL)

NATURAL GAS
APPLICATION

PETROCHEMICAL
INDUSTRIES

GAS TO LIQUID FUEL


(GTL)

WHAT IS GTL??

GTL IS LOOSELY DEFINED TERM THAT IS GENERALLY


USED TO DESCRIBE CHEMICAL CONVERSION OF NATURAL
GAS TO SOME OF LIQUID PRODUCTS USING FISCHER TROPSCH TECHNOLOGY.

CONVERSION OF NATURAL
GAS TO LIQUID FUEL

DIRECT APPROACH
(UNDER RESEARCH)

INDIRECT APPROACH

CONVERSION OF
N.G TO SYNTHESIS

CONVERSION OF
SYNTHESIS TO LIQUID FUEL

100 MMSCFD

GTL UNIT

N.G

10,000 BPSD
LIQUID FUEL

50 MWH
ELECTRICITY

15,000BBL/DAY
WATER

GTL UNIT
THE LIQUID FUEL PRODUCED FROM GTL UNITS CAN BE DISTILLATED
TO NAPHTHA, KEROSENE, GAS OIL ,DIESEL OIL.

WAXES AND LUBE OIL FEED STOCKS AND DETERGENT CAN ALSO BE
PRODUCED FROM GTL UNITS.
THE PRODUCED WATER CAN BE USED AS BOILER FEED WATER,
POTABLE WATER (AFTER TREATMENT),IRRIGATION
THE GENERATED EXOTHEMIC HEAT ARE USED TO GENERATE
ELECTRICAL HEAT WHICH IS ENOUGH TO OPERATE THE UNIT AND
CAN EXPORT THE SURPLUS .

GTL TECHNOLOGY

WAXY SYNCRUDE
NATURAL
GAS

NATURAL
GAS
REFORMING

SYNTHESIS
GAS

FISHER-TROPSCH
CONVERSION

PRODUCT
WORK UP

(HYDROCARBON)

MIDDLE DISTILLATE FUEL


NAPHTHA
GASOLINE

GTL TECHNOLOGY HAS THREE MAJOR


PROCESS STEPS
STEP-1
NATURAL GAS REFORMING , CONVERTS NATURAL GAS INTO
SYNTHESIS GAS, (A MIXTURE OF CARBON MONO OXIDE (CO),
AND HYDROGEN (H2)).
CH4 + H2O

CO + 3H2

THIS PROCESS TECHNOLOGY IS A CONVENTIONAL PROCESS


TECHNOLOGY HAS BEEN USED IN MANY COMMERCIAL
FACILITIES IN PETROLEUM REFINERIES ,METHANOL, AMMONIA
AND UREA PLANTS AND OTHER RELATED INDUSTRIES
FOR EXAMPLE H2 PLANT.

STEP-2
UPGRADE THE SYNTHESIS GASES INTO WAXY HYDOCARBON BY
USING FISHER - TROPSCH TECHNOLOGY USING CATALYST IN A
FISHER - TROPSCH REACTOR.
CO +2H2

CH2 +H2O (FISHER- TROPSCH REACTION)

THIS CONVERSION STEP (POLYMERIZATION) IS THE HEART OF


THE PROCESS WHICH IS CONVENTIAL PROVEN PROCESS
TECHNOLOGY IN THE PETROLEUM REFINING INDUSTRY APPLIED
WORLD WIDE SINCE MORE THAN 25 YEARS

STEP-3

THE HYDRACARBON ARE UPGRADED TO HIGH QUALITY


MIDDLE DISTILLATE FUEL (KEROSENE,DIESEL OIL AND SOME
NAPHTHA) BY USING STANDARD MILD HYDROCRACKING OR
THERMAL CRACKING , HYDROISOMERIZATION PROCESS FOR
THE PRODUCED WAX AND DISTILLATION FOR PRODUCT
SEPARATION .

PRODUCTION
OF
SYNTHESIS GAS

STEAM REFORMING

PARTIAL OXIDATION

AUTOTHERMAL REFORMING

STEAM REFORMING PROCESS CAN PRODUCE SYNTHESIS


GAS FROM NATURAL GAS USING STEAM REFORMER OVER A
NICKLE CATALYST LOADED IN THE REFORMER TUBES . THE
H2 / CO PRODUCT RATIO IS 1 : 3 .

CH4 + H2O

800-900 C

CO +3H2

STEAM REFORMING PROCESS IS OFFERED BY :


-

20 BAR

HALDOR TOPSOE.
FOSTER WHEELER COPORATION .
KTI B.V.
LURGI AG .
UHDE GMBH .

ADVANCED STEAM REFORMING CAN PRODUCE A


SYNTHESIS WITH H2 / CO PRODUCT RATIO < 1 .

PARTIAL OXIDATION PROCESS


CAN PRODUCE SYNTHESIS GAS FROM ENTIRE RANGE OF
GASEOUS AND LIQUID HYDROCARBON AS WELL AS SOLIDS
(COAL , COKE ) .THE PROCESS IS CONTINOUS NON
CATALYTIC PARTIAL OXIDATION USING OXYGEN OR AIR AS
AN OXIDANT AND WAS DONE IN A REFRACTORY -LINED
PRESSURE VESSEL . THE H2 / CO PRODUCT RATIO IS 1.7 :1 .
2CH4 + O2

140+ BAR

2CO + 4H2 .

1200-1500 C

PARTIAL OXIDATION PROCESSIS IS OFFERED BY


- TEXACO INC .
- ROYAL DUTCH .

AUTOTHERMAL REFORMING PROCESS CAN


PRODUCE SYNTHESIS GAS FROM NATURAL GAS , LPG
OR NAPHTHA .THE PROCESS COMBINES THE PARTIAL
OXIDATION AND THE ADIABATIC STEAM REFORMING
USING AUTOTHERMAL REFORMER REACTOR WHICH IS A
REFRACTORY -LINED VESSEL CONTAINING BURNER
LOCATED AT THE TOP OF THE VESSEL , COMBUSTION
CHAMBER BELOW THE BURNER AND CATALYST BED
INCLUDING NICKLE CATALYST. THE H2 / CO PRODUCT
RATIO IS 2 :1 .

AUTOTHERMAL REFORMING PROCESS IS OFFERED BY


- HALDOR TOPSOE .
- LURGI AG .

THE FISCHER - TROPSCH TECHNOLOGY HAS BEEN


DEVELOPED BY NUMBER OF OIL MAJOR COMPANIES
(MOBIL ,EXXON CORPORATION ,ROYAL DUTCH/SHELL
AND BP AMOCO BY SMALL GTL COMPANIES ,SUCH AS
SYNTROLEUM CORPORATION,RENTECH INC.AND BY
SASOL) .
THE DIFFERERNCE BETWEEN EACH TECHNOLOGY IS
DEPENDING ON THE FOLLOWING:
-

TYPE OF REACTOR
TYPE OF CATALYST
OPERATING CONDITIONS
UNIT CAPACITY AND OTHERS DETAILED DESIGN

MOBIL GTL PROCESS TECHNOLOGY

N.G

S.G
SYNTHESIS GAS

METHANOL

MTG PROCESS

GASOLINE

SYNTROLEUM GTL PROCESS TECHNOLOGY

N.G

AUTOTHERMAL SYNTHESIS
REFORMING
GAS

SYNTROLEUM
REACTOR

SYNTHESIS
CRUDE OIL

SYNTROLEUM MAIN FEATURES

SYNTROLEUM PROCESS USED THE AUTO THERMAL REFORMER


REACTOR TO PRODUCE A NITROGEN DILUTED SYNTHESIS GAS
CONSISTING PRIMARILY OF CARBON MONO OXIDE AND HYDROGEN .

SYNTROLEUM GAS IS CONVERTED INTO SYNTHESIS CRUDE IN A


REACTOR CONTAINING CATALYST DEVELOPED BY SYNTROLEUM .

SYNTROLEUM PROCESS ALSO PLANS TO BUILD GTL PLANTS THAT


CONVERTS N.G INTO A MARGIN OF PRODUCTS SUCH AS SYNTHETIC
LUBRICANTS , SOLVENTS AND CHEMICAL FEED STOCKS .

GAS TURBINES OR HEATERS MIGHT BE USED IN THE PROCESS TO


BURN THE LOW HEATING VALUE OF TAIL GAS THAT IS PRODUCED BY
THE PROCESS WHICH WOULD RESULT IN THE NEED TO
INCORPORATE OTHER METHOD TO GENERATE HORSEPOWER FOR 23
THE COMPRESSION PROCESS .

SHELL MIDDLE DISTILLATE SYNTHESIS (SMDS)


GTL PROCESS TECHNOLOGY

N.G

SHELL
GASIFICATION
PROCESS (SGP)

SYNTHESIS
GAS

HEAVY
PARAFFINS
SYNTHESIS (HPS)
REACTOR

WAXY
SYNCRUDE

PRODUCT
WORK UP

PARAFFINIC SOLVENT
MIDDLE DISTILLATES
WAXY RAFINATE
PARAFFINS
WAX

SHELL MIDDLE DISTILLATE SYNTHESIS


(SMDS) MAIN FEATURES
SMDS USES PARTIAL OXIDATION PROCESS
TECHNOLOGY FOR THE SHELL GASIFICATION
PROCESS (SGP)TO PRODUCE SYNTHESIS GAS FROM
NATURAL GAS .
SHELL MDS UTILIZES THE HEAVY PARAFFINS
SYNTHESIS REACTOR (HPSR) IN WHICH SYNTHESIS
GAS IS CONVERTED TO PARRAFINS .

SASOL GTL PROCESS TECHNOLOGY

N.G

WAXY
AUTOTHERMAL SYNTHESIS SASOL SLURRY
PHASE REACTOR
REFORMING
GAS
HYDROCARBON

PRODUCT
UPGRADING
UNITS
LIQUID FUEL
(80 % DIESEL &
20 % NAPHTHA)

SASOL MAIN FEATURES

SASOL USED AUTO THERMAL REACTOR (ATR) TO PRODUCE


SYNTHESIS GAS FROM NATURAL GAS .

BY SASOL PROCESS THE HYDROCARBONS ARE SYNTHESIS BY A


CHAIN GROWTH PROCESS. THE LENGTH OF THE CHAIN BEING
DETERMINED BY THE CATALYST SELECTIVITY.

SASOL HAS DEVELOPED HIGH PERFORMANCE COBALT - BASED


AND IRON - BASED CATALYST .

SASOL HAS DEVELOPED THE TWO TYPES OF FISCHER - TROPSCH


CONVERSION TECHNOLOGY BY USING TWO TYPES OF REACTORS;
SLURRY PHASE REACTOR & SASOL ADVANCED SYNTHOL
REACTOR.

SASOL MAIN FEATURES CONTINUED

SASOL UTILIZES THE SLURRY PHASE REACTOR TO PRODUCE WAXES


AND MIDDLE DISTILLATE FUELS . THIS TECHNOLOGY WAS
DEVELOPED FROM THE CONVENTIONAL TUBULAR FIXED REACTOR

SASOL UTILIZES THE ADVANCED SYNTHOL REACTOR TO PRODUCE


MAINLY LIGHT OLEFIN AND GASOLINE FRACTION.

PRODUCT UPGRADED MAKE USE OF A STANDARD HYDROCRACKING


AND HYDROISOMERIZATION PROCESS AND DISTILLATION PROCESS.

SASOLS SLURRY PHASE DISTILLATE PROCESS (SSPD) CAN PRODUCE


THE DIESEL OIL WITH CETANE NUMBER >70, AROMATIC CONTENT <
3 %VOL.AND WITH NO SULFUR .

SASOL SLURRY PHASE REACTOR (SSPR)


1- PREHEATED SYNTHESIS GAS IS FED TO THE BOTTOM OF THE
REACTOR WHERE IT IS DISTRIBUTED INTO THE SLURRY
CONSISTING OF LIQUID WAX AND CATALYST PARTICLES.
2- THE GAS BUBBLES UPWARD THROUGH THE SLURRY AND IT
DIFFUSES INTO THE SLURRY AND CONVERTS INTO MORE WAX BY
THE FISHER - TROPSCH REACTION .
3- THE HEAT GENERATED FROM THIS REACTION IS REMOVED
THROUGH THE REACTORS COOLING COILS,WHICH GENERATE
STEAM .
4- THE WAX PRODUCT IS SEPARATED FROM THE SLURRY
CONTAINING THE CATALYST PARTICLES IN A PROPRIETARY
PROCESS DEVELOPED BY SASOL .
5-

THE LIGHTER, MORE VOLATILE FRACTIONS LEAVE IN GAS


STREAM FROM THE TOP OF THE REACTOR.THE GAS STREAM IS
COOLED TO RECOVER THE LIGHTER CUTS AND WATER .THE
HYDROCARBON STREAMS ARE SENT TO THE PRODUCT UPGRADING UNIT , WHILE THE WATER STREAM IS TREATED IN
THE WATER RECOVERY UNIT.

RENTECH INC. GTL PROCESS


TECHNOLOGY

N.G

PARTIAL
OXIDATION

SYNTHESIS
GAS

SLURRY
SYNTHESIS
REACTOR

WAXY
HYDROCARBON

PRODUCT
UPGRADING
UNITS
LIQUID FUEL
( NAPHTHA,
KEROSENE &
DIESEL )

RENTECH MAIN FEATURES

RENTECH USED PARTIAL OXIDATION REACTOR (POX) TO


PRODUCE SYNTHESIS GAS FROM NATURAL GAS .

BY RENTECH PROCESS, THE HYDROCARBON ARE SYNTHESIS


BY FORMING LONG AND SHORT STRAIGHT CHAIN
HYDROCARBONS .

RENTECH HAS DEVELOPED HIGH PERFORMANCE IRON BASED CATALYST POWDER .

RENTECH HAS DEVELOPED THE FISCHER - TROPSCH


CONVERSION TECHNOLOGY BY USING VERTICAL SYNTHESIS
REACTOR.

PRODUCT UPGRADED MAKE USE OF A STANDARD


HYDROCRACKING OR THERMAL CRACKING,
HYDROISOMERIZATION PROCESS ,VACUUM SEPARATION AND
DISTILLATION PROCESS .

RENTECH VERTICAL SYNTHESIS


REACTOR
1- PREHEATED SYNTHESIS GAS IS FED TO THE BOTTOM OF THE
REACTOR WHERE THE IRON BASED CATALYST POWDER IS
SUSPENDED IN A MOLTEN WAX SLURRY .
2- THE SYNTHESIS GAS BUBBLES UPWARD THROUGH THE SLURRY
, CONTACTS THE CATALYST PARTICALS AND FORMS THE
STRAIGHT CHAIN HYDROCARBONS .
3- THE LONG STRAIGHT CHAIN HYDROCARBONS ARE DRAWN
OFF AS A LIQUID HEAVY WAX . THE SHORT CHAIN
HYDROCARBONS ARE WITHDRAWN AS OVERHEAD VAPORS AND
CONDENSED TO SOFT WAX , DIESEL AND NAPHTHA. ANY
HYDROCARBONS NOT CONDENSED ARE RECYCLED TO THE PLANT
INLET OR ARE USED AS FUEL GAS FOR NECESSARY POWER
GENERATION.

COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS OF GTL


TECHNOLOGY

IN GERMANY :
THIS TECHNOLOGY WAS ORIGANILLY DEVELOPED
DURING WORLD WAR II WHEN IT WAS USED TO
PRODUCE LIQUID FUELS FROM COALS . SOME
FACTORIES ARE STILL USING IT.

IN NEW ZELAND :
MOBIL COMPANY USED THIS TECHNOLOGY IN
1986 TO PRODUCE 14,500 BARREL / DAY
GASOLINE FROM NATURAL GAS.

COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS OF GTL


TECHNOLOGY CONTINUED

IN SOUTH AFRICA :
SINCE 1955,SOSAL TECHNOLOGY IS USED TO CONVERT
COAL INTO SUPER CLEAN LIQUID FUELS WITH CAPACITY OF
195,000 BPSD WHICH REPRESENTS 43 % OF LIQUID FUELS
CONSUMPTION IN SOUTH AFRICA .
SINCE 1993 ,ANOTHER PLANT USING SASOL TECHNOLOGY
PRODUCING LIQUID FUEL FROM NATURAL GAS WITH
CAPACITY OF 2500 BARREL / DAY.
THIS TECHNOLOGY IS SUPPORTED BY SASOL COMPANY
MORE THAN 40 YEARS OF COMMERCIAL PRODUCTION
BASED ON FISHER - TROPSCH KNOW-HOW .
SASOL COMPANY CONTINUES DEVELOPING THE PROCESS
TECHNOLOGIES TO ENSURE CONTINUOUS PROCESS
REFINEMENT AND COST REDUCTION .

COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS OF GTL


TECHNOLOGY CONTINUED

IN MALAYSIA :

SHELL MIDDLE DISTILLATE SYNTHESIS (SMDS)


PROCESS WAS APPLIED AT PLANT IN MALAYSIA
BINTULU PLANT ,WHICH WENT ON STREAM IN
1993 . THE PLANT CONVERTS 10MMSCFD OF
NATURAL GAS TO 12,000 BPSD OF LIQUID
PRODUCTS.

COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS OF GTL


TECHNOLOGY CONTINUED

IN QATAR:
SASOL ,PHILIPS AND QATAR GENERAL PETROLEUM
COMPANY QGPC HAVE SIGNED A JOIN VENTURE FOR
GTL PROJECTS USING N.G TO PRODUCE 20,000 BPSD
OF MIDDLE DISTILLASTE AT RASLAFFAN. THIS
PROJECT IS SCHEDULED TO START YEAR 2002.
EXXON NEGOTIATES WITH QGPC TO BUILD GTL PLANT
TO CONVERT 500 - 1000 MMSCFD NATURAL GAS TO
50,000 - 100,000 BPSD MIDDLE DISTILLATE AND
OTHER LIQUID PRODUCT .

PRODUCTS QUALITY

GASOLINE
-

OCTANE NO. : 93 %
AROMATICS : 32 %
SATURATED COMPOUNDS : 60%
OLEFINS : 8%

DIESEL OIL
PROPERTIES
FLASH POINT
SPECIFIC GRAVITY
SULPHUR
CETANE NUMBER
CLOUD POINT
AROMATICS

CONVENTIONAL

GTL

71

81

0.84

0.78

350 PPM

< 5 PPM *

45

74

- 17

- 12
<1

* SASOL TECHNOLOGY CAN PRODUCE DIESEL WITH SULPHUR CONTENT < 1 PPM

ENVIROMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS
PROPERTIES

GTL
PRODUCTS

PARAFINS

98 %

AROMATICS

20-28 %

6 % MAX.

1 %.

NAPHTHENES

SULPHUR
NITROGEN
CETANE NUMBER

LOCAL GAS EUROPE GAS


OIL ON 1997 OIL ON 2000

0.7 - 1.1 %
48-51

0.02 % MAX.

1%
NIL

NA

NIL

58 (MIN)

70

THE ABOVE TABLES SHOW THAT GTL SUPER CLEAN PRODUCTS


COULD BE BLENDED WITH CONVENTIONAL PETROLEUM REFINING
PRODUCTS FOR BOTH LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPROVEMENT AND
EXPORT .

GTL ECONOMICS
PAY BACK TIME IS 7.5 YEARS
IRR IS 11 % .
BASED ON PETROLEUM RESEARCH INSTITUTE FEASIBILITY STUDY
WHICH IS BASED ON THE FOLLOWING :
- SASOL TECHNOLOGY .
- PLANT CAPACITY IS 100,000 .
- TOTAL COST IS MM$ 300 .
- PLANT LIFE TIME IS 25 YEAR .
- NATURAL GAS PRICE IS $ / MMBTU 1.1.
- PRICE OF PRODUCTS IS 143 % FROM THE CRUDE OIL PRICE .
- PRICE OF CRUDE OIL BARREL IS $ 18 .
- ELECTRICITY PRICE IS $ / KWH 0.02 .
- WATER PRICE IS $ / M3 0.2

45