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TKT: KAL Part 1 Lexis: Sense relations trainers notes

Description
These activities raise participants awareness of how word meanings are related to each
other. Participants define different sense relations before practising categorising words and
doing a sample TKT: KAL task.
Time required:

30 minutes

Materials
required:

Aims:

to raise awareness of how word meanings are related to each other

to help participants understand possible different sense relations

to practise a TKT: KAL sample task

Participants worksheet (1 copy per participant)


Sample task (1 copy per participant)

Procedure
1. Write the following words on the board:
synonym; antonym; hyponym; lexical set; false friend; superordinate; word family
Elicit from group what they think these terms refer to. Accept all answers or guesses
at the moment. This is just to get the participants thinking.
2. Give out Participants worksheet. Refer participants to Exercise 1, and ask
them to match the words with their definitions individually before checking with a
partner. Go through any answers where there is disagreement (see Key below).
3. Refer participants to Exercise 2. Individually or in pairs participants complete the
table with the words given, then check with another participant/pair. Check any
disagreements together (see Key below).
4. Tell participants they are now going to find their own examples for the different
categories for some words. Write the verb admit on the board. Elicit examples of
as many of the categories as possible from participants (see Key below).
5. In pairs or small groups, participants complete Exercise 3 on the worksheet.
Compare answers together (see Key below).
6. Give out the Sample Task on pg 7. Participants complete the task individually in
no more than 6 minutes (candidates have an average of 1 minute per question in
the TKT: KAL exam). Check answers (see Key below).
7. With the whole group, discuss the following questions:
How might knowledge of sense relations help the teacher in the
classroom? (Knowing about sense relations could help teachers:
become more aware of how cohesion is achieved in texts
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design tasks to check or extend their students grasp of vocabulary


anticipate students problems with the meaning of some words
become more aware of the options they have available for how to explain
meaning.)
Would it be useful or not for teach your learners the lexical terms used in
the unit? (TKT: KAL does not imply that the terms used in the test must be
taught to students. Teachers should decide what is appropriate for their own
students.)

Additional information
In the KAL exam, tasks may go across some of the areas listed in the syllabus or
focus just on one area as here.
TKT: KAL is neither a test of terminology nor a test of methodology. However, the
practical application of the knowledge tested in TKT: KAL will help to improve
teaching practice.
See the TKT: KAL Sample Paper questions 16 for an example task in which sense
relations are included. http://www.cambridgeenglish.org/exams-andqualifications/tkt/how-to-prepare/

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TKT: KAL Part 1 Lexis: Sense relations answer keys


Key to Procedure steps
Step 4 (other answers are possible):

admit

Synonym

Antonym

own up,
confess

deny

Hyponym

Lexical
set

False friend

accuse

accept
(Portuguese)

Superordinate

Word family

inadmissible,
admission

Key to Participants Worksheet


Exercise 1
1. c

2. f

3. e

4. g

5. b

6. d

7. a

Exercise 2
glass

hard

sensible

quickly

synonym

difficult

reasonable

fast, speedily

antonym

easy

silly

slowly

lexical set

logical

speedily,
carefully

false friend

sensitive

hyponym

plastic

superordinate material
word family

glassy

hardship

insensible,
sensibility,
sensibly,
sensitive

quick

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Exercise 3 (suggested answers)

difficult

banana

embarrassed

computer
PC, laptop,
Mac

synonym

hard

bashful,
uncomfortable

antonym

easy

unembarrassed,
unabashed

hyponym

challenging,
simple,
straightforward

mango,
strawberry,
etc

lexical
set

as above +
ease, difficulty,
challenge,
problem

fruit, pear,
feelings:
juicy, sweet, confident, shy,
etc
nervous, excited,
etc

false
friend

awkward, selfconscious,
ashamed,
nervous

to run

laptop,
notepad

to jog, to
sprint, to trot

USB,
memory
key, hard
drive, etc

walk, crawl,
race, hurry,
gallop

to move

pregnant
(Spanish)

superordinate
word
family

difficulty

(tropical)
fruit

feelings

IT,
hardware

bananas

embarrassment,
embarrassing
embarrass,
unembarrassed

compute,
running,
computation runner

Key to Sample Task


1. A

2. C

3. B

4. C

5. C

6. A

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TKT: KAL Part 1 Lexis: Sense relations Participants Worksheet


Exercise 1
Match the terms to the definitions
Terms

Definitions

1. Synonyms

a. Words that all derive from the same base word

2. Antonyms

b. Words with a similar form but different meaning across two


languages

3. Hyponyms

c. Words which have the same or nearly the same meaning

4. Lexical set

d. Words which are the name for a type or category of thing

5. False friends

e. Words which are examples of a type of thing

6. Superordinate

f. Words which mean the opposite of other words

7. Word families

g. Words all related to the same topic area

Exercise 2
Put these words into the right column in the table

material

difficult

insensible

fast
slowly

reasonable
speedily

sensitive (Romance languages)


logical

glassy

carefully

glass

silly
easy

plastic

hardship

sensibility

quick

hard

sensibly

sensible

quickly

synonym
antonym
hyponym
lexical set
false friend
superordinate
word family
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TKT: KAL Part 1 Lexis: Sense relations Participants Worksheet

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Exercise 3
Complete as many boxes as possible in this table with one or more words
difficult

banana

embarrassed computer

to run

synonym

antonym

hyponym

lexical set

false friend

superordinate

word family

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TKT: KAL Part 1 Lexis: Sense relations Sample Task


A teacher is doing a task on the meaning relationships between words for her own
professional development.
For questions 1 6, read the text and the three possible answers, listed A, B and C. Choose
the correct answer each question.

Domestic robots
Robots in film and literature tend to fall into one of two camps:

Line 1

terrifying, 'destroy all humans' such as Terminator, or friendly servant

Line 2

droids like C-3PO.

Line 3

Military research units across the globe are working hard to make the

Line 4

former a reality, speeding us toward Judgement Day with merry

Line 5

abandon. But those of us who'd prefer to invite a nice, gentle, helpful

Line 6

robot into our home, as opposed to having an aggressive, scary T-1000

Line 7

kick the door in, are also being catered for.

Line 8

Smart machines that do the housework, including vacuuming the

Line 9

house, cleaning the gutter, washing up the knives, forks, plates etc. and

Line 10

mowing the lawn can all be purchased today, and advanced humanoid

Line 11

robots that perform a range of household tasks are also in

Line 12

development. Take a look at some of the smartest current purchases,

Line 13

and upcoming, domestic robots.

Line 14

Text originally from http://tech.uk.msn.com/features/photos.aspx?cp-documentid=152596659

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TKT: KAL Part 1 Lexis: Sense relations Sample Task

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Which line contains an example of words which are antonyms of each other?
A

line 9

line 4

line 8

line 10

line 5

line 6

line 9

lines 2 and 4

lines 7 and 9

lines 11 and 13

Which line contains a word which is a superordinate of other words in the text?
A

Which lines contain words which belong to the same word family?
A

line 6

Which line contains words which are partial synonyms of each another?
A

Which line contains an example of words which belong to the same lexical set?
A

line 2

line 4

line 5

line 9

Which line contains words which are hyponyms of each other?


A

line 7

line 8

line 12

Acknowledgements
Cambridge ESOL is grateful to the following organisation for permission to reproduce
copyright material in the TKT: KAL Part 1 Lexis: Sense relations trainers notes:
MSN Tech and Gadgets for the text Domestic Robots, originally from
http://tech.uk.msn.com/features/photos.aspx?cp-documentid=152596659

UCLES 2009. This material may be photocopied (without alteration) and distributed for classroom use provided no charge is made. For further
information see our Terms of Use at http://www.teachers.cambridgeESOL.org/ts/legalinfo

TKT: KAL Part 1 Lexis: Sense relations Sample Task

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