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1.

0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background Study
EMBEDDED SYSTEM APPLICATIONS covers the basic concept and application of
microcontroller system based on Peripheral Interface Controller (PIC) microcontroller.
Students will learn software and hardware development on microcontroller
development system and understand how to do interfacing with external devices using
suitable internal chip features. Students will be also exposed to the new Microcontroller
Unit (MCU) simulation software.
This project focuses on the basic of developing a simple password door security system
using microcontroller and can be further developed for more advance applications. For
instance, real human sounds may be generated followed by the words showed on LCD
display. Besides, the display also shows the location when someone is not around. The
main purpose of doing this project is to enhance the security system of lecturers room
and also to inform lecturers location to other people when they are not in the room.

1.2 Objective
These are the main purposes of this project:

To familiarize with the concept and operation of PIC16F877A programming

software.
To develop programming code of the security PIC-based system.
To familiarize with the skills and techniques in combining software and hardware
for a system.

1.3 Problem Statement


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Nowadays, human always rely on electronic devices to make their lives more
convenience. The purpose of this project is to replace door key into a reliable door
security system. This will be the best solution for those who always forget to bring their
house or office room key before left.

1.4 Scope Of Work


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This project will focus primarily on circuit construction such as PIC16F877A as the
microcontroller, LED as power indicator, 4x3 keypad for keying in password, ICSP (In
Circuit Serial Programming) for loading program, and push button as input for PIC
microcontroller. Second, this project will also focus on LCD screen display which is used
to display words and password symbols. Finally, relay and buzzer will function as output
for this system which can be applied to any daily application such as door lock. Other
aspects such as the production and marketing of the password door security system
with LCD display will not be covered in this project.

1.5 Methodology
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Proteus ISIS 6 Professional is used to design the circuit and simulate it. After
completing the circuit assembly and configuration, it is time to verify whether the source
code compiled is virtually accurate or not. When the simulation successfully runs, this
means that the circuit can be constructed and soldered on PCB board. Then, the circuit
will be tested and troubleshooting may necessary taken to overcome those circuitry
problems. After all done without error, the circuit will be packaged and the users may
ready to use.

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW


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2.1 Introduction
This chapter discusses about the theory and software that are use in this project. There
are three main theories in this project that are the theories of microcontrollers, Proteus
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2.2 Microcontroller
Microcontrollers can be found in any products these days. For example modern
washing machine in our house that consists of timer, button and LED contains a
microcontroller. All modern cars contain microcontroller. Digital electronics knowledge is
essential in order to understand the way microcontroller works. However, with the
existing of latest microcontroller like PIC16F877A from microchip, microcontroller works
by writing programming code using C programming language. Everything becomes so
simple by learning C programming and uses it to program the microcontroller. Here are
the examples of microcontrollers:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.

PIC 16F870
PIC 16F871
PIC 16F872
PIC 16F873A
PIC 16F874A
PIC 16F876A
PIC 16F877A

2.2.1 What is a Microcontroller?


A microcontroller is a small computer and it can only perform simple task.
Microcontroller consists of:

Processor that executes programs. Processor execute program digitally. All

instruction given to the processor should be in digital form.


Program Memory to store the program that has been compiled successfully by

the programmer.
RAM (random-access memory) to store "variables."
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IO Port to connect sensor, keypad, LED, Relay and so on.


Timer to count the time to execute some process.

2.2.2 Microchip PIC 16F877A Microcontroller Features

Lead-free; RoHS-compliant.
Operating speed: 20 MHz, 200 ns instruction cycle.
Operating voltage: 4.0-5.5V.
Industrial temperature range (-40 to +85C).
15 Interrupt Sources.
35 single-word instructions.
All single-cycle instructions except for program branches (two-cycle).

2.3 Proteus 6
Proteus contains everything you need to develop, test and virtually prototype your
embedded system designs based around the Microchip Technologies PIC16 series of
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microcontrollers. The unique nature of schematic based microcontroller simulation with


Proteus facilitates rapid, flexible and parallel development of both the system hardware
and the system firmware. This design synergy allows engineers to evolve their projects
more quickly, empowering them with the flexibility to make hardware or firmware
changes at will and reducing the time to market. Proteus VSM models will
fundamentally work with the exact same HEX file as you would program the physical
device with, binary files (i.e. Intel or Motorola Hex files) produced by any assembler or
compiler.

3.0 HARDWARE
3.1 List of Hardware
This project will require following hardware:
1) 1 x PIC16F877A
2) 1 x PR9 Printed Circuit Board (PCB)
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3)
4)
5)
6)
7)

1 x 4x3 keypad
1 x 2X16 LCD
1 x relay
1 x 2N2222 transistor
1 x buzzer

1) PIC16F877A

This powerful (200 nanosecond instruction execution) yet easy-to-program (only 35


single word instructions) CMOS FLASH-based 8-bit microcontroller packs Microchip's
powerful PIC architecture into an 40- or 44-pin package and is upwards compatible
with the PIC16C5X, PIC12CXXX and PIC16C7X devices.

2) PR9 Printed Circuit Board (PCB)

PR9 is the board that holds electrical circuits inside a piece of electrical equipment.
3) 4x3 Keypad

Figure above shows the internal structure of the 4x3 keypad used in this project.
Different brand or manufacturer of keypad has different architecture and number of pin.
For this kind of keypad, it consists of 10 pins and the internal connection is illustrated
above. When button 3 is pressed, the pin 3 and pin 5 will short while the others are
open. Pin 8 and pin 9 are only connected to the * key.

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4) 2X16 LCD

Display words and password symbols. Adjustable word contrast using potential meter
5) Relay

A relay is a simple electromechanical switch made up of an electromagnet and a set of


contacts. The current flow through the coil of the relay creates a magnetic field which
attracts a lever and changes the switch contacts. The coil current can be ON or OFF so
relay have two switch positions and they are double throw (changeover) switches.
Relays allow one circuit to switch a second circuit which can be completely separate
from the first.

6) 2N2222 transistor
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The transistor used to amplify the current for the relay is an NPN transistor, 2N2222A.
The pin sequence is as shown in figure above.
7) Buzzer

An electronic device that produces a continuous sound as a signal.

4.0 SYSTEM OVERVIEW


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4.1 Flowchart

BIBLIOGRAPHY
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SOURCE: Website Or Webpage

Microchip. Retrieved September 18, 2012, from http://www.microchip.com

Cytron Technologies Sdn. Bhd.. Retrieved September 18, 2012, from


www.cytron.com.my

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