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Chapter 2 Homework

Chapter 2 Homework
Due: 10:00pm on Friday, February 7, 2014
You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy

Exercise 2.3
You normally drive on the freeway between San Diego and Los Angeles at an average speed of 105 km/h, and the trip
takes 2 h and 20 min. On a Friday afternoon, however, heavy traffic slows you down and you drive the same distance
at an average speed of only 69.0km/h .

Part A
How much longer does the trip take?
t

= 73.0

min

Correct

Exercise 2.7
A car is stopped at a traffic light. It then travels along a straight road so that its distance from the light is given by
2
3
2
3
x(t) = bt ct , where b = 2.70m/s and c = 0.120m/s .

Part A
Calculate the average velocity of the car for the time interval t= 0 to t= 10.0 s.
v av

= 15.0

m/s

Correct

Part B
Calculate the instantaneous velocity of the car at t=0.
v

= 0

m/s

Correct

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Chapter 2 Homework

Part C
Calculate the instantaneous velocity of the car at t=5.00 s.
v

= 18.0

m/s

Correct

Part D
Calculate the instantaneous velocity of the car at t=10.0 s.
v

= 18.0

m/s

Correct

Part E
How long after starting from rest is the car again at rest?
t

= 15.0

Correct

Exercise 2.10
A physics professor leaves her house and walks along the sidewalk toward campus. After 5 minutes it starts to rain and
she returns home. Her distance from her house as a function of time is shown in the figure.

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Chapter 2 Homework

Part A
At which of the labeled points is her velocity zero?
I
II
III
IV
V

Correct

Part B
At which of the labeled points is her velocity constant and positive?
I
II
III
IV
V

Correct

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Chapter 2 Homework

Part C
At which of the labeled points is her velocity constant and negative?
I
II
III
IV
V

Correct

Part D
At which of the labeled points is her velocity increasing in magnitude?
I
II
III
IV
V

Correct

Part E
At which of the labeled points is her velocity decreasing in magnitude?
I
II
III
IV
V

Correct

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Chapter 2 Homework

Direction of Velocity and Acceleration Vector Quantities Conceptual Question

For each of the motions described below, determine the algebraic sign (+, , or 0) of the velocity and acceleration of
the object at the time specified. For all of the motions, the positive y axis is upward.

Part A
An elevator is moving downward when someone presses the emergency stop button. The elevator comes to rest a
short time later. Give the signs for the velocity and the acceleration of the elevator after the button has been pressed
but before the elevator has stopped.
Enter the correct sign for the elevator's velocity and the correct sign for the elevator's acceleration,
separated by a comma. For example, if you think that the velocity is positive and the acceleration is
negative, then you would enter +,-. If you think that both are zero, then you would enter 0,0.

Hint 1. Algebraic sign of velocity

The algebraic sign of velocity is determined solely by comparing the direction in which the object is moving
with the direction that is defined to be positive. In this example, upward is defined to be positive. Therefore,
any object moving upward, whether speeding up, slowing down, or traveling at constant speed, has positive
velocity.

Hint 2. Algebraic sign of acceleration

The algebraic sign of acceleration is more difficult to determine than the algebraic sign of velocity. The
acceleration of an object points in the same direction as the change in the velocity of an object. If an object
is speeding up, the change in the velocity points in the same direction as the velocity:

If an object is slowing down, the change in velocity points in the opposite direction to that of the velocity:

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Chapter 2 Homework

Once you know the direction of the acceleration, you can determine its sign by comparing it to the defined
positive direction, in this case, upward.
-,+

Correct

Part B
A child throws a baseball directly upward. What are the signs of the velocity and acceleration of the ball
immediately after the ball leaves the child's hand?
Enter the correct sign for the baseball's velocity and the correct sign for the baseball's acceleration,
separated by a comma. For example, if you think that the velocity is positive and the acceleration is
negative, then you would enter +,-. If you think that both are zero, then you would enter 0,0.

Hint 1. Algebraic sign of velocity

The algebraic sign of velocity is determined solely by comparing the direction in which the object is moving
with the direction that is defined to be positive. In this example, upward is defined to be positive. Therefore,
any object moving upward, whether speeding up, slowing down, or traveling at constant speed, has positive
velocity.

Hint 2. Algebraic sign of acceleration

The algebraic sign of acceleration is more difficult to determine than the algebraic sign of velocity. The
acceleration of an object points in the same direction as the change in the velocity of an object. If an object
is speeding up, the change in the velocity points in the same direction as the velocity:

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Chapter 2 Homework

If an object is slowing down, the change in velocity points in the opposite direction to that of the velocity:

Once you know the direction of the acceleration, you can determine its sign by comparing it to the defined
positive direction, in this case, upward.
+,-

Correct

Part C
A child throws a baseball directly upward. What are the signs of the velocity and acceleration of the ball at the very
top of the ball's motion (i.e., the point of maximum height)?
Enter the correct sign for the baseball's velocity and the correct sign for the baseball's acceleration,
separated by a comma. For example, if you think that the velocity is positive and the acceleration is
negative, then you would enter +,-. If you think that both are zero, then you would enter 0,0.

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Chapter 2 Homework

Hint 1. Algebraic sign of velocity

The algebraic sign of velocity is determined solely by comparing the direction in which the object is moving
with the direction that is defined to be positive. In this example, upward is defined to be positive. Therefore,
any object moving upward, whether speeding up, slowing down, or traveling at constant speed, has positive
velocity.

Hint 2. Algebraic sign of acceleration

The algebraic sign of acceleration is more difficult to determine than the algebraic sign of velocity. The
acceleration of an object points in the same direction as the change in the velocity of an object. If an object
is speeding up, the change in the velocity points in the same direction as the velocity:

If an object is slowing down, the change in velocity points in the opposite direction as the velocity:

Once you know the direction of the acceleration, you can determine its sign by comparing it to the defined
positive direction, in this case, upward.
0,-

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Chapter 2 Homework

Correct

Exercise 2.14
A race car starts from rest and travels east along a straight and level track. For the first 5.0 s of the car's motion, the
eastward component of the car's velocity is given by x (t) = (0.900 m/s3 )t2 .

Part A
What is the acceleration of the car when x = 14.3m/s ?
Express your answer with the appropriate units.
ax

= 7.17

m
s2

Correct

Exercise 2.17
A car's velocity as a function of time is given by

v x (t) = + t

, where = 3.00

m/s

and

= 0.100 m/s

Part A
Calculate the average acceleration for the time interval

t = 0

to t

= 5.00 s

aave

= 0.500

m/s

Correct

Part B
Calculate the instantaneous acceleration for t

= 0

a

= 0

m/s

Correct

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Chapter 2 Homework

Part C
Calculate the instantaneous acceleration for t

= 5.00s

a

= 1.00

m/s

Correct

Part D
Draw accurate vx

= 0

and t

= 5.00 s

graph for the cars motion between t

= 0

and t

= 5.00 s

Correct

Part E
Draw accurate ax

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Chapter 2 Homework

Correct

Exercise 2.23
The human body can survive a negative acceleration trauma incident (sudden stop) if the magnitude of the acceleration
is less than 250 m/s2 .

Part A
If you are in an automobile accident with an initial speed of 104km/h and are stopped by an airbag that inflates
from the dashboard, over what distance must the airbag stop you for you to survive the crash?
x

= 1.67

Correct

Exercise 2.30
A cat walks in a straight line, which we shall call the x-axis with the positive direction to the right. As an observant
physicist, you make measurements of this cat's motion and construct a graph of the feline's velocity as a function of
time (the figure ).
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Chapter 2 Homework

Part A
Find the cat's velocity at

= 4.0s .

Express your answer using two significant figures.

vx

= 2.7

cm/s

Correct

Part B
Find the cat's velocity at

= 7.0s .

Express your answer using two significant figures.

vx

= -1.3

cm/s

Correct

Part C
What is the cat's acceleration at

t = 3.0 s

Express your answer using two significant figures.

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Chapter 2 Homework
ax

= -1.3

cm/s

Correct

Part D
What is the cat's acceleration at

t = 6.0 s

Express your answer using two significant figures.

ax

= -1.3

cm/s

Correct

Part E
What is the cat's acceleration at

t = 7.0 s

Express your answer using two significant figures.

ax

= -1.3

cm/s

Correct

Part F
What distance does the cat move during the first 4.5 s?
Express your answer using two significant figures.
x

= 23

cm

All attempts used; correct answer displayed

Part G
What distance does the cat move from

t = 0

to t

= 7.5 s

Express your answer using two significant figures.

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Chapter 2 Homework

x

= 26

cm

Correct

Part H
Sketch clear graph of the cat's acceleration as function of time, assuming that the cat started at the origin.

Correct

Part I
Sketch clear graph of the cat's position as function of time, assuming that the cat started at the origin.

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Chapter 2 Homework

Exercise 2.34
At the instant the traffic light turns green, a car that has been waiting at an intersection starts ahead with a constant
acceleration of 3.00m/s2 . At the same instant a truck, traveling with a constant speed of 24.0m/s , overtakes and
passes the car.

Part A
How far beyond its starting point does the car overtake the truck?
d1

= 384

Correct

Part B
How fast is the car traveling when it overtakes the truck?

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Chapter 2 Homework
v1

= 48.0

m/s

Correct

Exercise 2.35

Part A
If a flea can jump straight up to a height of 0.490m , what is its initial speed as it leaves the ground?
v

= 3.10

m/s

Correct

Part B
How long is it in the air?
t

= 0.632

Correct

Exercise 2.40
A lunar lander is making its descent to Moon Base I. The lander descends slowly under the retro-thrust of its descent
engine. The engine is cut off when the lander is 5.0 m above the surface and has a downward speed of 0.80 m/s . With
the engine off, the lander is in free fall.

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Chapter 2 Homework

Part A
What is the speed of the lander just before it touches the surface? The acceleration due to gravity on the moon is
2
1.6 m/s .
Express your answer using two significant figures.
v

= 4.1

m/s

Correct

Exercise 2.41
A meter stick is held vertically above your hand, with the lower end between your thumb and first finger. On seeing the
meter stick released, you grab it with these two fingers. You can calculate your reaction time from the distance the
meter stick falls, read directly from the point where your fingers grabbed it.

Part A
If the measured distance is 19.0cm , what is the reaction time?
t

= 0.197

Correct

Exercise 2.47
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Chapter 2 Homework

A 15-kg rock is dropped from rest on the earth and reaches the ground in 1.75 s. When it is dropped from the same
height on Saturn's satellite Enceladus, it reaches the ground in 18.6 s.

Part A
What is the acceleration due to gravity on Enceladus?
g

En

= 8.68102

m/s

Correct

Problem 2.96
In the vertical jump, an athlete starts from a crouch and jumps upward to reach as high as possible. Even the best
athletes spend little more than 1.00 s in the air (their "hang time"). Treat the athlete as a particle and let y max be his
maximum height above the floor.

Part A
To explain why he seems to hang in the air, calculate the ratio of the time he is above y max /2 (moving up from
y max /2

to y max and then moving down to y max /2 ) to the time it takes him to go from the floor to that height. You