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BY NAMIT BEHL

[Hack The Hacker Before They Hack You]

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Legal Disclaimer

Any proceedings and or activities related to the material l contained


within this volume are exclusively your liability. The misuse and mistreat of
the information in this book ca n consequence in unlawful charges brought
against the persons in question. The authors and review analyzers will not be
held responsible in the event any unlawful charges brought against any
individuals by misusing the information in this book to break the law. This
book contains material and resources that can be potentially destructive or
dangerous. If you do not fully comprehend something on this book, dont
study this book.

Please refer to the laws and acts of your state/region/ province/zone/territory


or country before accessing, using, or in any other way utilizing these resources.
These materials a nd resources are for educational and research purposes only.
Do not attempt to violate the law with anything enclosed here within. If this is
your intention, then leave now. Neither writer of this book, review analyzers, the
publisher, nor anyone else affiliated in any way, is going to ad mitt any
responsibility for your proceedings, actions or trials.

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About The Author

Namit Behl Is A 15 Year Old Computer Geek. He Is


Addicted To Computers And Internet.
Who Likes To Find Vulnerability
Interested in Programing, Hacking, Cracking, Editing,
Writing Books
Catch Me on FaceBook

My Official Page
https://www.facebook.com/OFFICIALNAMITBEHL
My Hacking Page
https://www.facebook.com/TestedHackingTrickz

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Preface
Computer hacking is the practice of altering computer hardware and software to
carry out a goal outside of the creators original intention. People who slot in
computer hacking actions and activities are often entitled as hackers.
The majority of people assume that hackers are computer criminals. They
fall short to identify the fact that criminals and hackers are two entirely unrelated
things. Media is liable for this. Hackers in realism are good and extremely
intelligent people, who by using their knowledge in a constructive mode help
organizations, companies, government, etc. to secure credentials and secret
information on the Internet.
Years ago, no one had to worry about Crackers breaking into their
computer and installing Trojan viruses, or using your computer to send attacks
against others. Now that thing have changed, it's best to be aware of how to
defend your computer from damaging intrusions and prevent black hat hackers.
Rampant hacking is systematically victimizing computers around the world. This
hacking is not only common, but is being executed without a flaw that the
attackers compromise a system, steal everything of value and entirely rub out
their pathway within 20 minutes. So, in this Book you will uncover the finest ways
to defend your computer systems from the hackers
This Book is written by keeping one object in mind that a beginner, who is
not much familiar regarding computer hacking, can easily, Learn these Topics
covering every characteristic linked to computer security.
After Reading this book you will come to recognize that how Hacking is
affecting our every day routine work and can be very hazardous in many fields like
bank account hacking etc. Moreover, after carrying out this volume in detail you
will be capable of understanding that how a hacker hacks and how you can
defend yourself from these threats.

If you know how to hack, you know how to protect

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Must Know This before Start Learning


Hacking
Hello Friends, from a past everyone is learning hacking
hacking and hacking. But they just start doing it,
without knowing the basic facts. Here i will share some
basic things with you , which you should know before
starting your tour of learning hacking.
TRUST
First there are many website available that will ask you
for private info/money in return of Hacking tool or who
claim to Hack Email Ids in return of money. All such
things are Scam . Nothing Works.And after purchasing
the tool you can not report even because in deep you are
too purchasing sum thing illegal.
EMAIL HACKING SOFTWARE
One thing you should know that there is no direct
software on the planet that cna help you to hack
Facebook , Google , Yahoo, NASA or any other big
website. All the software that claim to do so are
scam.Instead of wasting your money on such rubbish
things , do use basci keyloggers and social engineering
techniques. Once you become perfect you can hack
almost any email account.
FREE HACKING TOOLS
SOme people download lots of Keyloggers or Trojans
which you find as freeware on internet mostly on
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hacking forums and underground blogs. Hackers are


not fools. They compile Keyloggers and Trojans almost
with any such software and when you install them , you
are already hacked before even trying to hack
others.SO don't be fool be smart.
CODING
May be there are hundreds of free tool available which
are virus free and can be used for hacking but you are
never going to be a good hacker without the knowledge
of programming and scripting languages. When you are
going to use only ready made softwares and would
depend on them for hacking anything then your
functionality would be limited up to the functionality of
the software. Here i am not saying to learn all languages
but try your hands on languages like perl and python
they are far much better than C and C++ , mainly
concentrated on LOGIC.
NOTE
So Never Ever Under estimates the term Hacker. A
Hacker Is Not a person who just hacks email ids or
deface websites but a True Hacker is a Computer
Genius who the knowledge of computers more than
anyone.and he contribute his hacking skilss to help the
society.
Next time think before asking the question "How
much will I get in this field? because, if you have so
many skills, you really dont have to run after money.
Success comes and money follows itself.
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Every Hacker Must Read This.


*Activity Of Real Hackers*
Before we go ahead, lets clear who are hackers? Here,
we are highlighting original hackers, who learn
programming themselves, not the intruders peeking in
your computer. Well, if you want to become a hacker or
looking forward to be one, here are some common
habits of hackers that you can adopt to sound like a real
one:
Snoopiness; Most Common Habit of Hackers
Most important habit hackers have is curiosity and a
hunger to know everything. Any case you put up on a
hacker, he will justify the entire how, what and who
questions. After that you can rely on him to bring up
the defects and tell you how to bring perfection.
So, one not only need snoopiness but also be fond of
research and learning to become a successful hacker.
Hackers; Best In Ethics And Strict In Discipline
What kind of image comes up in mind when you think
of a hacker? A computer-geek T-shirt guy with glasses
and munching snacks all the time? But this is how
media shows you a hacker. If you happen to get in touch
with a real-life hacker, you will get to know they are
best in ethics and discipline.
Corporations have trouble working with hackers, not
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because they dont perform, that is they couldnt get


them to work in fixed timings. They would like to work
24 hours a day if left on own.
Tranquility Seeking; Famous Habit Of Hackers
Hackers are not party-people and its quite rare to find
one whooping around, unless he come-by and give-away
the Windows Source free. Even their entertainment
activities, such as puzzles, chess and reading, are a
source of tranquility.
If ever get to stumble upon some hackers party, all you
will find is role-playing games and old-times dress-ups.
Working Independently, A Strict Habit Of Hackers
Hackers prefer to work independently and avoid going
along schedules or regulations. They would rather bypass the rules and get a work done by themselves when
it comes to depend upon others working within the
limits of bureaucracy.
Liberty; Oldest Habit of Hackers
Its certainly a misconception that hackers are
rebellious. Only condition where they can become
revolutionary is when you restrain them being just to
their work.
A practical example is the story of our hero, Richard
stall man, and his free Software foundation. It all
started when Mr. Stallman couldnt get his computer
fixed up due to copyrights. Thats what made him so
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much dedicated to computing-freedom.


Hackers Self-admiration In Their Craftsmanship
Inside every hacker there is a young kid haughtily
boasting about his creativity, look isnt it amazing?
Hackers arent interested in geeky stuff, like writing
irksome software which can track a customers
accounts in a database. They would rather create
something innovative and brilliant, for instance
program an AI chess-game in Flash, just because its
interesting.
Common Slogan Of Hackers, Looking On Bright Side
Hackers do yap about how mind-sloths and fool general
people are, although they take everybody as exception
to general people. Honestly, a true hacker works with
one ambition in mind, theyll make this world better for
all. And they wouldve done it if there was anything out
of machine they could work for.

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10

Indian Cyber Laws

These are the Indian Cyber Laws


Section 43 Unauthorized Access
means Using someone account
without permission and
authentication.
Under the IT Act, 2008 no limit on
amount of compensation for
offences under Section 43. Under IT
Act, 2008 all the acts referred
under section 43, are also covered
u/Sec. 66 if they are done
dishonestly or fraudulently.
Section 66(A) Sending of offensive
or false messages , Also known as
Cyber Stalking
Section 66(B) Dishonestly receiving
stolen computer resource or
communication device
Also covers use of stolen
Computers, mobile phones, SIM
Cards, etc Punishment
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imprisonment upto 3 years or fine


upto Rs. 1 lakh or both
Section66(C) Identity theft
Fraudulently or dishonestly using
someone elses electronic signature,
password or any other unique
identification feature. Punishment
Imprisonment upto 3 years and fine
upto Rs. 1 lakh
Section 66(D) Cheating by
personation
Cheating by pretending to be some
other person Punishment
imprisonment upto 3 years and fine
upto Rs. 1 lakh.
Covers sending of menacing,
offensive or false messages via SMS/
EMAIL/MMS Punishment
imprisonment upto 3 years and fine.
Section 66(E) Violation of
Privacy ,Popularly known as
Voyeurism
Pune spy cam incident where a 58year old man was arrested for
installing spy cameras in his house
to snoop on his young lady tenants
Covers acts like hiding cameras in
changing rooms, hotel rooms, etc
Punishment Imprisonment upto 3
years or fine upto Rs. 2 lakh or
both.
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Section 66(F) Cyber terrorism


Whoever uses cyberspace with
intent to threaten the unity,
integrity, security or sovereignty of
India or to strike terror in the
people Punishment Imprisonment
which may extent to life
imprisonment
Section 67 Publishing or
transmitting obscene material in
electronic form.
Punishment First instance
imprisonment upto 3 years and fine
upto Rs. 5 lakh. Subsequent
imprisonment upto 5 years and fine
upto Rs. 10 lakh.
Section 67(A) Cyber Pornography.
Publishing or transmitting sexually
explicit acts in the electronic form
Similarity with Sec. 292 IPC
Punishment First instance
imprisonment upto 5 years
Subsequent imprisonment upto 7
years Fine upto Rs. 10 lakh.
Section 67(B)
Creating, collecting, browsing,
downloading, etc of Child
Pornography Punishment First
instance imprisonment upto 5
years. Subsequent imprisonment
upto 7 years Fine upto Rs. 10 lakh.
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Section 69 Governments power to


intercept
Government to intercept, monitor
or decrypt any information
generated through any computer
resource if it thinks to do so in the
interest of the sovereignty or
integrity of India.
Section 67(C) Preservation of
information by intermediaries
Intermediary shall preserve and
retain such information as may be
specified for such duration and in
such manner and format as the
Central Government may prescribe.
Section 72(A) Liability of
Intermediary not to disclose any
personal information
Intermediary to act as per the terms
of its lawful contract and not
beyond it. Punishment
imprisonment upto 3 years or fine
upto 5 lakh or both.
Section 79- Liability of Intermediary
An intermediary not to be liable for
any third party information, data,
or communication link made
available or hosted by him.
Liability of Intermediary:Intermediary need to prove that he
didnt
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Initiate the transmission,


Select the receiver of the
transmission, and
Select or modify the information
contained in the transmission and
The intermediary observes due
diligence while discharging his
duties under the Act.
Section 84(B) Abetment
Abetting to commit an offence is
punishable Punishment Same
punishment provided for the
offence under the Act
Section 84(C) Abetment
Attempt to commit an offence is
punishable. Punishment
Imprisonment which may extend to
one-half of the longest term of
imprisonment provided for that
offence
Section 78 Investigation Powers
As per the IT Act, 2008 Cyber crime
cases can be investigated by the
Inspector rank police officers.
Under the IT Act, 2000 such powers
were with the DYSP/ACP.
Section 77 (A) Compounding of
Offences
Compounding Out of court
settlement
Offences
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for which less than three years


imprisonment has been provided
can be compounded. Such offence
should not affect the socio
economic conditions of the country
or has been committed against a
child below the age of 18 years or a
woman.
These are theLaws according to
the IT AMENDMENT ACT 2008
which was passed in 2009.

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15 Ways You Stay Out Of Jail

[Every Hacker must read]

1. Never tell anyone you are a Hacker OUT of


your home....
2. Never Hack without a proxy.....or Vpn
3. Always use a proxy when doing anything
remotely illegal...
4. Never Hack from your house(always use WiFi
or LAN from Cafe)
5. Never use your real name in a conversation or
sign up sheet..
6. Always use fake information when signing up
for something such as an account...
7. Never use the same password more than
once......
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8. Never use a password that can be found in the


dictionary...
9. Always use a firewall.......(i suggest COmodo
personaly)
10. Never let the F.B.I./C.B.I into your house
without a warrant stating their intentions.........
11. Never let the F.B.I./C.B.I in period........
12. Always have a panic button that mass deletes
all your questionable material......
13. Always wave to cops....
14. Never Hack from the same computer twice if
possible.........
15. Make sure that the deletion of your files it is at
least in ..compliance with the Department of
Defense deletion protocol if you have time

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INTRODUCTION TO ETHICAL HACKING

MODULE
Introduction
What is a HACKER?
Origins Of Hacking
Hacking VS Cracking
Common Network Hacking
Techniques

ETHICAL HACKING
TYPES OF ETHICAL HACKER
PHASES OF HACKING
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PROFILE OF AN HACKER
Skill Profile of an Ethical Hacker
HISTORY OF HACKING &
FAMOUS HACKER
What is Internet Protocol (IP)
What Is File Transfer Protocol
(FTP)
What is TELNET
What Is Simple Mail Transfer
Protocol (SMTP)
What Is Hyper Text Transfer
Protocol (HTTP)
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What Is Post Office Protocol


(POP)
What Is Intranet & Internet
What Is Transmission Control
Protocol (TCP)
What Is WLAN- Wireless Local
Area Network
What Is LAN
What Is Unified Datagram
Protocol (UDP)
What Is DNS
What Is DHCP
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What Is Internet Control


Message Protocol (ICMP)
What Is Address Resolution
Protocol (ARP)
What Is Computer Networking
Area Networks
Networks Design
Networks Protocols
Home Networking
Business Networking
Networking And The Internet
Wired Vs Wireless
Networking
Benefits Of Wireless Networking

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Introduction To Making Wireless


Network Connections
Peer to Peer Networking
Home Router Wireless
Connections
Hotspot Wireless
Connections
What Is A Computer Virus
An Introduction to DDOS Attack - A
Beginners Tutorial

Check If U Are Hacked


How Facebook Works
Interesting Facts About Google
What Is A Keylogger

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What Is A Hardware Keylogger


Some Cisco Routers Commands
Google Chrome Spying All Of U
List Of HTTP Response Status Codes
What Is Domain Name
What Is Internet Firewall
What Is Wi-Fi And How It Works
Tips To Secure Wi-Fi Connection
What Is Session Hijacking
What Is Ethernet
How To Hide IP Address
How To Change IP Address

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What To Choose 32 or 64 bit


How Email Works?
How To Protect Emails From Spam
How To Trace An Email
What Is Phising
What Is Tabnapping
What is Cross Site Scripting
What Are Batch Files
How To Protect Facebook Account
From Being Hacked
Introduction To Backtrack
Backtrack Terminal Commands

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What is a Hacker?
In computer networking, hacking is any
technical effort to manipulate the normal
behavior of network connections and
connected systems. A hacker is any person
engaged in hacking. The term "hacking"
historically referred to constructive,
clever technical work that was not
necessarily related to computer systems.
Today, however, hacking and hackers are
most commonly associated with malicious
programming attacks on the Internet and
other networks.

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Origins of Hacking
M.I.T. engineers in the 1950s and 1960s first
popularized the term and concept of hacking. Starting
at the model train club and later in the mainframe
computer rooms, the so-called "hacks" perpetrated by
these hackers were intended to be harmless technical
experiments and fun learning activities.
Later, outside of M.I.T., others began applying the term
to less honorable pursuits. Before the Internet became
popular, for example, several hackers in the U.S.
experimented with methods to modify telephones for
making free long-distance calls over the phone network
illegally.
As computer networking and the Internet exploded in
popularity, data networks became by far the most
common target of hackers and hacking.

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Hacking vs. Cracking

Malicious attacks on computer networks are


officially known as cracking, while hacking truly
applies only to activities having good intentions.
Most non-technical people fail to make this
distinction, however. Outside of academia, its
extremely common to see the term "hack"
misused and be applied to cracks as well.

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Common Network Hacking


Techniques

Hacking on computer networks is often done


through scripts or other network programming.
These programs generally manipulate data
passing through a network connection in ways
designed to obtain more information about how
the target system works. Many such pre-packaged
scripts are posted on the Internet for anyone,
typically entry-level hackers, to use. More
advanced hackers may study and modify these
scripts to develop new methods. A few highly
skilled hackers work for commercial firms with
the job to protect that company's software and
data from outside hacking.
Cracking techniques on networks include
creating worms, initiating denial of service
(DoS)attacks, or in establishing
unauthorized remote access connections to a
device.

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ETHICAL HACKING

CAN HACKING BE ETHICAL??

The True Meaning of Word Hacking Is Never Be Unethical

A Hacker Is A Person Who Loves To Explore Computer


Technology Takes it to the Next level! Hacking today it
Refers to breaking into Computer Systems without
Authorization and a Hacker is a Criminal as Per Law.

In True Sense, People who break into Computer Systems


or Networks are crackers and not Hackers

Now, when a computer Hacker uses his in-depth


understanding of the computer to understand Flaws &
Vulnerabilities which exist in a system and then uss
knowledge to fix These Securities IssuesThis Whole
Process Can B Termed As Ethical Hacking

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Types Of Hackers

There Are 6 Types Of Hackers


BLACK HAT
Good Technical Skills
Involved in Illegal Activities

WHITE HAT

Use Of Knowledge
Skills For Defensive Purpose

GRAY HAT
Individual Who Works For Both The Sides
Ethical And Malicious

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TECHNICAL LEVELS OF HACKERS

NEOPHYTE
A Newbie In The Field Of computer Security With
Almost No Knowledge

Script Kiddie
A Non- Expert Who Uses Tools or Script made by
others To Hack Into The System
Having Little Knowledge About The Concept
WORKING To Hack

ELITE
Also known As 1337
It Is A Term Used To Describe the Most technically
advanced Hackers Who Use Cutting Edge Technology

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PHASES OF HACKING
Threat An Action or event which is potential
challenge to Security
Vulnerability It is Existence of flaws Or Errors
in the design Of the System Which Can Cause
Undesired results Of System Security.
Attack An Action which Attempts to Violate
or Challenge the Integrity or Security OF A
System
Exploit A Defined Way To Breach the Security
of a System Or Product using an identified
vulnerability

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WHAT DOES AN ETHICAL HACKER DO

An Ethical Hacker will follow the same


Techniques and Methodologies as a Malicious
Hacker .The Found Vulnerabilities Of security
Flaws are reported. This is Called Penetration
Testing

The complete Procedure depends upon the Type of


Penetration Testing, which Are primarily of 3 types:

Black Box Testing No Previous Knowledge


About the Target of Evaluation

White Box Testing Full Knowledge about the


target. Purpose is to protect the System or Product from
insiders attacks.

Grey Box Testing Partial Knowledge is


Available in This case

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What Does a Malicious Hacker Do?

Information Gathering
Scanning
Gaining Access
Operation System / Application
Network Level
Denial Of Service
Maintaining access
Uploading /downloading programs or data

Covering Tracks

WHAT DOES AN ETHICAL HACKER DO


Information Gathering
Scanning
Gaining Access
Reporting Vulnerability
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SKILL PROFILE OF AN ETHICAL HACKER

Computer Security Guru or Expert


In - Depth knowledge About Platforms
(such as Unix,Linux,Mac)
In Depth knowledge About Networking
and Related Software /Hardware
Knowledge About Programming And Web
Application
Knowledge About Computer Or System
security

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History of Hacking

Hacking developed along Phone


Phreaking ,a term referred to
exploration of the phone network
without authorization and there has
often been overlap between both
Technology And Participants. Bruce
sterling traces Part of root of the
computer underground to the yippies,
a 1960s counterculture movement
which published the Technological
Assistance Program (TAP) newsletter.

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Famous Hackers
Jonathan James
Adrian Lamo
Kevin Mitnick
Kevin Paulsen
Robert Tappan Morris
Steve Wozniak
Steve Jobs
Tim Berners-Lee
Linus Torvalds
Richard Stallman
Tsutomu Shimomura

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INTERNET PROTOCOL (IP)


The Internet Protocol is the principal
communications protocol used for
relaying datagram (packets) across an
internetwork using the Internet Protocol
Suite. Responsible for routing packets
across network boundaries, it is the
primary protocol that establishes the
Internet.

IP is the primary protocol in the Internet


layer of the Internet Protocol Suite and
has the task of delivering datagrams from
the source host to the destination host
solely based on their addresses. For this
Purpose, IP defines addressing methods
and structures for datagram
encapsulation

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FILE TRANSFER PROTOCOL


(FTP)

FTP is a standard network protocol used to


copy a file from on host to another over a
TCP/IP based network, such as the Internet.
FTP is built on a client-server architecture and
utilizes separate control and data connections
between the client and server. FTP is used with
user-based password authentication or with
anonymous user access.

Application were originally interactive


command-line tools with a Standardized
command syntax, but graphical user interfaces
have been developed for all desktop operating
systems in use today.

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TELNET

TELNET is a network protocol used on the


Internet or Local Area Networks to provide a
bidirectional interactive text-oriented
communications facility via a virtual terminal
connection. User data is interspersed in-band
with TELNET control information in an 8-bit
byte oriented data connection over the
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)

TELNET was developed in 1969 beginning


with RFC 15, extended in RFC 854, and
standardized as Internet Engineering Task
Force (IETF) Internet Standard STD 8, one of
the first Internet standards

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Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)

SMTP is

an Internet Standard for


electronic mail (e-mail) transmission
across Internet Protocol (IP)
networks. SMTP was first defind by
RFC 821 (STD 10) (1982), and last
updated by RFC 5321 (2008) which
includes the extended SMTP
(ESMTP) additions, and is the
protocol in widespread use today.
SMTP is specific for outgoing mail
transport and uses TCP port 25. The
protocol for new submissions is
effectively the same as SMTP, but it
uses port 587 instead.

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Hyper Text Transfer Protocol

The Hypertext Transfer Protocol


(HTTP) is a networking protocol for
distributed, collaborative, hypermedia
information system. HTTP is
foundation of data communication for
the World Wide Web (WWW).
The Standard development of
HTPP has been coordinated by the
Internet Engineering Task Force
(IETF) and the World Wide Web
Consortium, culminating in the
publication of a series of Requests For
Comments (RFCs), most notably
RFC 2616 ( June 1999), which defines
HTTP/1.1, the version of HTTP in
common us

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Post Office Protocol


A protocol used to retrieve emails from a email
server.

Indicates the action of transferring emails from the


inbox of mail server to the inbox of the client

POP3 is an enhanced version that works


with without SMPT mail gateways
POP3 services run on port numbr 110 as
defined by the IANA

Features:
Support offline mail processing and
persistent message IDs
Offers access to new mail from various
client platforms anywhere across the
network
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Intranet & Internet

The Internet is a global system of


interconnected computer networks that use the
standard Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) to serve billions of
users worldwide. It is a network of networks that
consist of millions of private, public, academic, business,
and government networks, of local to global scope, that
are linked by broad array of electronic and optional
networking technologies. The Internet carries a vast
range of information resources and services, such as the
inter linked hypertext documents of the WORLD
WIDE WEB (WWW) and the infrastructure to support
electronic mail.

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An INTRANET is a private computer network that


uses Internet Protocol technologies to securely share
any part of an organizations information or network
operating system within that organization. The Term is
used in contrast to internet, a network between
organizations instead refer to a network within an
organization. Sometimes the term refers only to the
organizations internal website, but may be a more
extensive part of organizations information technology
infrastructure. It may host multiple Private Websites
and constitutes an important component and focal point
of internal communication and collaboration.

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TCP
The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is one
of the core protocols of the internet protocol suite.
TCP is one of the original component of the suite,
complimenting the Internet Protocol (IP) and
Therefore the Entire Suite IS Commonly Referred
To As TCP/IP. It Provides the Service of
Exchanging Reliably Between Two Network hosts,
whereas IP handles Addressing and Routing
Message across One or More Networks. In
Particular, TCP provides reliable, Ordered
Delivery Of Stream Of Bytes From A Program On
A On One Computer To Another Program On
Another Computer. It is a protocol that major
Internet Applications relay on, Such As the
WORLD WIDE WEB (WWW), Email, and File
Transfer. Other Applications , Which Do Not
Require Reliable Data Stream Service , May Use
The Datagram Protocol (UDP) Which Provide a
Datagram Service, Which Emphasizes reduced
latency over Reliability.

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WLAN WIRELESS LOCAL AREA NETWORK

A wireless local area network (WLAN)


links two or More Devices Using Some Wireless
distribution (typically spread spectrum or OFDM
radio), and usually providing A connection
Through an Access Point to Wider internet. This
gives User the Mobility to Move Around Within a
Local Coverage Area and Still Be Connected to A
network.
Wireless Lanes have Become Popular in Home
Due to Ease of Installation, And The Increasing
Popularity Of Laptops And Computers. Public
Businesses Such As Coffee Shops And Malls Has
Began TO Offer Wireless Access To Their
Customers Some times for Free. Large Wireless
Network Projects Are being Put in Many Major
Cities: New York City, For Instance has began a
pilot Program to Cover All five boroughs of the
city with wireless internet access

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WHAT IS A LAN

A local area network (LAN) supplies networking


capability to a group of computers in close
proximity to each other such as in an office
building, a school, or a home. A LAN is useful for
sharing resources like files, printers, games or
other applications. A LAN in turn often connects
to other LANs, and to the Internet or other WAN.
Most local area networks are built with relatively
inexpensive hardware such as Ethernetcables,
network adapters, and hubs. Wireless LAN and
other more advanced LAN hardware options also
exist.
Specialized operating system software may be
used to configure a local area network. For
example, most flavors of Microsoft Windows
provide a software package called Internet
Connection Sharing (ICS)that supports controlled
access to LAN resources.
The term LAN party refers to a multiplayer
gaming event where participants bring their own
computers and build a temporary LAN.
Also Known As: local area network
Examples:
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The most common type of local area network is an


Ethernet LAN. The smallest home LAN can have
exactly two computers; a large LAN can
accommodate many thousands of computers.
Many LANs are divided into logical groups called
subnets. An Internet Protocol (IP) "Class A" LAN
can in theory accommodate more than 16 million
devices organize

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Unified Datagram Protocol (UDP)

The User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is one of the


core members o internet Protocol Suite, the Set of
network protocols used For the Internet. With
UDP, computer applications can send messages, in
this can referred to as datagrams, to other hosts
on an Internet Protocol (IP) network without
requiring prior communication to set up special
transmission channels or data paths. The protocol
was designed By David P. Reed in 1980 and
formally defined in RFC 768.

UDP uses a simple transmission model without


implicit hand-shaking dialogues for providing
Reliability, Ordering, or data integrity. Thus,
UDP provides an unreliable service and datagram
may arrive out of order, appear duplicated or go
missing without notice. UDP assumes that error
checking and correction is either not necessary or
performed in the application, avoiding the
overhead of such Processing at the network
interface level

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DNS
The Domain Name System (DNS) is a standard
technology for managing the names of Web sites
and other Internet domains. DNS technology
allows you to type names into your Web browser
like compnetworking.about.com and your
computer to automatically find that address on
the Internet. A key element of the DNS is a
worldwide collection of DNS Server.

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What Is a DNS Server?

A DNS server is any computer


registered to join the Domain Name
System. A DNS server runs specialpurpose networking software,
features a public IP address, and
contains a database of network
names and addresses for other
Internet hosts.

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DNS Root Servers


DNS servers communicate with each other
using private network protocols. All DNS
servers are organized in a hierarchy. At the
top level of the hierarchy, so-called root
servers store the complete database of
Internet domain names and their
corresponding IP addresses. The Internet
employs 13 root servers that have become
somewhat famous for their special role.
Maintained by various independent agencies,
the servers are aptly named A, B, C and so on
up to M. Ten of these servers reside in the
United States, one in Japan, one in London,
UK and one in Stockholm, Sweden.

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DNS Server Hierarchy


The DNS is a distributed system, meaning that only the 13 root
servers contain the complete database of domain names and IP
addresses. All other DNS servers are installed at lower levels of the
hierarchy and maintain only certain pieces of the overall database.
Most Lower level DNS servers are owned by businesses or Internet
Service Providers (ISPs). For example, Google maintains various
DNS servers around the world that manage the google.com,
google.co.uk, and other domains. Your ISP also maintains DNS
servers as part of your Internet connection setup.
DNS networking is based on the client / server architecture. Your
Web browser functions as a DNS client (also called DNS resolver)
and issues requests to your Internet provider's DNS servers when
navigating between Web sites.
When a DNS server receives a request not in its database (such as a
geographically far away or rarely visited Web site), it temporarily
transforms from a server to a DNS client. The server automatically
passes that request to another DNS server or up to the next higher
level in the DNS hierarchy as needed. Eventually the request
arrives at a server that has the matching name and IP address in its
database (all the way to the root level if necessary), and the
response flows back through the chain of DNS servers to your
client.

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DNS Servers and Home Networking

Computers on your home network locate a


DNS server through the Internet connection
setup properties. Providers give their
customers the public IP address(es) of
primary and backup DNS servers. You can
find the current IP addresses of your DNS
server configuration via several methods:

on the configuration screens of a


home network router
on the TCP/IP connection properties
screens in Windows Control Panel (if
configured via that method)
from ipconfig or similar command line
utility

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DHCP - Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

DHCP allows a computer to join an IP-based


network without having a pre-configured IP
address. DHCP is a protocol that assigns unique
IP addresses to devices, then releases and renews
these addresses as devices leave and re-join the
network.
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) usually use
DHCP to allow customers to join the Internet with
minimum effort. Likewise, home network
equipment like broadband routers offers DHCP
support for added convenience in joining home
computers to the LAN.

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DHCP server

DHCP server set up with the


appropriate configuration parameters
for the given network. Key DHCP
parameters include the range or
"pool" of available IP addresses, the
correct subnet masks,
plusgateway and name server
addresses.

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ICMP-Internet Control Message Protocol

ICMP is a network protocol useful in Internet Protocol


(IP) network management and administration. ICMP is
a required element of IP implementations. ICMP is a
control protocol, meaning that it does not carry
application data, but rather information about the
status of the network itself. ICMP can be used to
report:

errors in the underlying communications of


network applications

availability of remote hosts

network congestion

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ARP - Address Resolution Protocol


ARP converts an Internet Protocol (IP) address to its
corresponding physical network address. ARP is a lowlevel network protocol, operating at Layer 2 of the OSI
model.
ARP usually is implemented in the device drivers of
network operating systems. It is most commonly seen
on Ethernet networks, but ARP has also been
implemented for ATM, Token Ring, and other physical
networks. RFC 826 documented the initial design and
implementation of ARP.
ARP works on Ethernet networks as follows. Ethernet
network adapters are produced with a physical address
embedded in the hardware called the Media Access
Control (MAC) address. Manufacturers take care to
ensure these 6-byte (48-bit) addresses are unique, and
Ethernet relies on these unique identifiers for message
delivery. When any device wishes to send data to
another target device over Ethernet, it must first
determine the MAC address of that target given its IP
address These IP-to-MAC address mappings are
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derived from an ARP cache maintained on each device.


If the given IP address does not appear in a device's
cache, that device cannot direct messages to that target
until it obtains a new mapping. To do this, the initiating
device first sends an ARP request broadcast message on
the local subnet. The host with the given IP address
sends an ARP reply in response to the broadcat,
allowing the initiating device to update its cache and
proceed to deliver messages directly to the target.

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What is (Computer) Networking?

In the world of computers, networking is


the practice of linking two or more
computing devices together for the
purpose of sharing data. Networks are
built with a mix of computer hardware
and computer software.

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Area Networks
Networks can be categorized in several different
ways. One approach defines the type of network
according to the geographic area it spans.Local
area networks (LANs), for example, typically span
a single home, school, or small office building,
whereas wide area networks (WANs), reach
across cities, states, or even across the world.
The Internetis the world's largest public WAN.

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Network Design
Computer networks also differ in their design.
The two basic forms of network design are
calledclient/server and peer-to-peer. Client-server
networks feature centralized server computers
that store email, Web pages, files and or
applications. On a peer-to-peer network,
conversely, all computers tend to support the
same functions. Client-server networks are much
more common in business and peer-to-peer
networks much more common in homes.
A network topology represents its layout or
structure from the point of view of data flow. In
so-called bus networks, for example, all of the
computers share and communicate across one
common conduit, whereas in a star network, all
data flows through one centralized device.
Common types of network topologies include bus,
star, ring networks and mesh networks.

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Network Protocols

Communication languages used by computer


devices are called network protocol. Yet another
way to classify computer networks is by the set of
protocols they support. Networks often implement
multiple protocols with each supporting specific
applications. Popular protocols include TCP/IP,
the most common protocol found on the Internet
and in home networks.

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Home Networking
While other types of networks are built and
maintained by engineers, home networks belong
to ordinary homeowners, people often with little
or no technical background. Various
manufacturers produce broadband
router hardware designed to simplify home
network setup. Home broadband routers allow
devices in different rooms to efficiently share
a broadband Internet connection, enable people to
more easily share their files and printers within
the network, and help with overall network
security.
Home networks have increased in capability with
each generation of new technology. Years ago,
people commonly set up their home network just
to connect a few PCs, share some documents and
perhaps a printer. Now its common for
households to also network game consoles, digital
video recorders, and smartphones for streaming
sound and video. Home automation systems have
also existed for many years, but these too have
grown in popularity more recently with practical
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systems for controlling lights, digital thermostats


and appliances.

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Business Networks
Small and home office (SOHO) environments
use similar technology as found in home
networks. Businesses often have additional
communication, data storage, and security
requirements that require expanding their
networks in different ways, particularly as the
business gets larger. Whereas a home network
generally functions as one LAN, a business
network tends to contain multiple LANs.
Companies with buildings in multiple locations
utilize wide-area networking to connect these
branch offices together. Though also available
and used by some households, voice over
IP communication and network storage and
backup technologies are prevalent in businesses.
Larger companies also maintain their own
internal Web sites, called intranets to help with
employee business communication.

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Networking and the Internet

The popularity of computer networks


sharply increased with the creation of
the World Wide Web (WWW) in the
1990s. Public Web sites, peer to peer
(P2P) file sharing systems, and various
other services run on Internet servers
across the world.

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Wired vs. Wireless Networking


Many of the same network protocols, like TCP/IP,
work in both wired and wireless networks.
Networks with Ethernet cables predominated in
businesses, schools, and homes for several
decades. More recently, however, wireless
alternatives have emerged as the premier
technology for building new computer networks,
in part to support smartphones and the other new
kinds of wireless gadgets that have triggered the
rise of mobile networking.

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What is Wireless Computer Networking?

Wireless networks utilize radio waves and/or


microwaves to maintain communication channels
between computers. Wireless networking is a
more modern alternative to wired networking that
relies on copper and/or fiber optic cabling
between network devices.
A wireless network offers advantages and
disadvantages compared to a wired network.
Advantages of wireless include mobility and
elimination of unsightly cables. Disadvantages of
wireless include the potential for radio
interference due to weather, other wireless
devices, or obstructions like walls.
Wireless is rapidly gaining in popularity for both
home and business networking. Wireless
technology continues to improve, and the cost of
wireless products continues to decrease. Popular
wireless local area networking (WLAN) products
conform to the 802.11 "Wi-Fi" standards. The
gear a person needs to build wireless networks
includes network adapters (NICs), access points
(APs), and routers.

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What Are the Benefits of Networking?

The benefits of networking (either wired or wireless) in


homes are:

File Sharing - Network file sharing between


computers gives you more flexibity than using floppy
drives or Zip drives. Not only can you share photos,
music files, and documents, you can also use a home
network to save copies of all of your important data
on a different computer. Backups are one of the most
critical yet overlooked tasks in home networking.

Printer / Peripheral Sharing - Once a home


network is in place, it's easy to then set up all of the
computers to share a single printer. No longer will you
need to bounce from one system or another just to
print out an email message. Other computer
peripherals can be shared similarly such as network
scanners, Web cams, and CD burners.
Internet connection sharing - Using a home
network, multiple family members can access the
Internet simultaneously without having to pay
anISP for multiple accounts. You will notice the
Internet connection slows down when several people
share it, but broadband Internet can handle the extra
load with little trouble. Sharing dial-up Internet
connections works, too. Painfully slow sometimes, you

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will still appreciate having shared dial-up on those


occasions you really need it.

Multi-player Games - Many popular home


computer games support LAN mode where friends
and family can play together, if they have their
computers networked.
Internet Telephone Service Socalled Voice over IP (VoIP) services allow you to make
and receive phone calls through your home network
across the Internet, saving you money.
Home Entertainment - Newer home
entertainment products such as digital video
recorders (DVRs) and video game consoles now
support either wired or wireless home networking.
Having these products integrated into your network
enables online Internet gaming, video sharing and
other advanced features.

Although you can realize these same benefits with a


wired home network, you should carefully consider
building a wireless home network instead, for the
following reasons:
1. Computer mobility. Notebook computers and
other portable devices are much affordable than they
were a few years ago. With a mobile computer and
wireless home network, you aren't chained to a network
cord and can work on the couch, on your porch, or
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wherever in the house is most convenient at the


moment.
2. No unsightly wires. Businesses can afford to lay
cable under their floors or inside walls. But most of us
don't have the time or inclination to fuss with this in our
home. Unless you own one of the few newer homes prewired with network cable, you'll save substantial time
and energy avoiding the cabling mess and going
wireless.
3. Wireless is the future. Wireless technology is
clearly the future of networking. In building a wireless
home network, you'll learn about the technology and be
able to teach your friends and relatives. You'll also be
better prepared for future advances in network
technology coming in the future.

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Introduction to Making Wireless Network Connections

Laptops, smart phones, tablets and many other types of


consumer devices support wireless network connections.
Wireless has understandably become the preferred
form of computer networking for many people due to
its portability and convenience.
The three basic types of wireless network connections peer-to-peer, home router and hotspot- each have their
own specific setup and management considerations.

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Peer-to-Peer Wireless Connections

Connecting two wireless devices directly to each other is


a form of peer-to-peer networking. Peer-to-peer
connections allow devices to share resources (files, a
printer, or an Internet connection). They can be made
using various wireless technologies, Bluetooth and WiFi being the most popular choices.
The process of setting up peer-to-peer connections via
Bluetooth is called pairing. Bluetooth pairing often
involves linking a cell phone to a hands-free headset,
but the same process can also be used to connected two
computers or one computer and a printer. To pair two
Bluetooth devices, first ensure one of them is set to
be discoverable. Then find the discoverable device from
the other and initiate a connection, providing a key
(code) value if needed. The specific menu and button
names involved in configuration vary depending on the
type and model of device (consult the product
documentation for details).

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Peer-to-peer connections over Wi-Fi are also called


wireless networks. Ad hoc Wi-Fi supports a wireless
local network containing two or more local devices.
Although peer-to-peer wireless offers a simple and
direct way to share information between devices, take
appropriate network security precautions to ensure
malicious people do not connect to your peer network
sessions: Disable Wi-Fi ad hoc mode on computers and
turn off pairing mode on Bluetooth phones when not
using those features.

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Home Router Wireless Connections

Many home networks feature a Wi-Fi


wireless broadband router. Home routers simplify
the process of managing wireless network
connections inside a home. As an alternative to
setting up peer networking among client devices,
all of the devices instead link centrally to a router
that in turn shares the home Internet connection
and other resources.
To make wireless home network connections via a
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router, first configure the router's Wi-Fi interface


. This establishes a local Wi-Fi network with the
chosen name and security settings. Then connect
each wireless client to that network. For example,

from Microsoft Windows PCs, choose the


"Connect to a network" option in Network and
Sharing Center and pick the correct entry from
the list

from Apple iOS devices, go to the Settings


app, and in the Wi-Fi section find and click the
appropriate entry under "Choose a Network"

from Mac OSX devices, open the AirPort


menu and click the item corresponding to the
home network
The first time a device is joined to a wireless
router, network security settings (the security type
and key or network passphrase) that match those
set on the router must be entered when prompted.
These settings can be saved onto the device and
automatically re-used for future connection
requests.

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Hotspot Wireless Connections


Wi-Fi hotspots allow people to access the Internet
while away from home (either at work, or
traveling, or in public locations). Setting up a
hotspot connection works similarly as for
connections to home wireless routers.
First determine whether the hotspot is open (free
for public use) or requires registration. Wi-Fi
hotspot locator services maintain databases
containing this information for publicly-accessible
hotspots. Complete the registration process if
necessary. For public hotspots, this can entail
subscribing via email (possibly with a payment
required). Employees of businesses may need preconfigured software installed on their devices to
register them.
Next, determine the hotspot's network name and
the required security settings. System
administrators of business hotspots provide this
information to employees and guests, while
hotspot locators or business proprietors provide it
for their customers.
Finally, join the hotspot as you would a home
wireless router (see instructions above). Take all
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network security precautions, especially on public


hotspots that are most prone to attack.

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What is a Computer Virus?

A potentially damaging computer programme capable


of reproducing itself causing great harm to files or other
programs without permission or knowledge of the user.
Virus - A program that when run, has the ability to selfreplicate by infecting other programs and files on your
computer. These programs can have many effects
ranging from wiping your hard drive, displaying a joke
in a small box, or doing nothing at all except to replicate
itself. These types of infections tend to be localized to
your computer and not have the ability to spread to
another computer on their own. The word virus has
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incorrectly become a general term that encompasses


trojans, worms, and viruses.
Types of viruses:The different types of viruses are as follows1) Boot Sector Virus: - Boot sector viruses infect
either the master boot record of the hard disk or the
floppy drive. The boot record program responsible for
the booting of operating system is replaced by the virus.
The virus either copies the master boot program to
another part of the hard disk or overwrites it. They
infect a computer when it boots up or when it accesses
the infected floppy disk in the floppy drive. i.e. Once a
system is infected with a boot-sector virus, any nonwrite-protected disk accessed by this system will
become infected.
Examples of boot- sector viruses are Michelangelo and
Stoned.
2) File or Program Viruses: - Some
files/programs, when executed, load the virus in the
memory and perform predefined functions to infect the
system. They infect program files with extensions like
.EXE, .COM, .BIN, .DRV and .SYS .
Some common file viruses are Sunday, Cascade.

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3) Multipartite Viruses: - A multipartite virus is a


computer virus that infects multiple different target
platforms, and remains recursively infective in each
target. It attempts to attack both the boot sector and the
executable, or programs, files at the same time. When
the virus attaches to the boot sector, it will in turn affect
the systems files, and when the virus attaches to the
files, it will in turn infect the boot sector.
This type of virus can re-infect a system over and over
again if all parts of the virus are not eradicated.
Ghostball was the first multipartite virus, discovered by
Fridrik Skulason in October 1989.
Other examples are Invader, Flip, etc.

4) Stealth Viruses: - These viruses are stealthy in


nature means it uses various methods for hiding
themselves to avoid detection. They sometimes remove
themselves from the memory temporarily to avoid
detection by antivirus. They are somewhat difficult to
detect. When an antivirus program tries to detect the
virus, the stealth virus feeds the antivirus program a
clean image of the file or boot sector.
5) Polymorphic Viruses: - Polymorphic viruses
have the ability to mutate implying that they change the
viral code known as the signature each time they spread
or infect. Thus an antivirus program which is scanning
for specific virus codes unable to detect it's presense.
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6) Macro Viruses: - A macro virus is a computer


virus that "infects" a Microsoft Word or similar
application and causes a sequence of actions to be
performed automatically when the application is started
or something else triggers it. Macro viruses tend to be
surprising but relatively harmless.A macro virus is
often spread as an e-mail virus. Well-known examples
are Concept Virus and Melissa Worm.

If you use a computer, read the newspaper, or watch the


news, you will know about computer viruses or other
malware. These are those malicious programs that once
they infect your machine will start causing havoc on
your computer. What many people do not know is that
there are many different types of infections that are
categorized in the general category of Malware.

Malware - Malware is programming or files that are


developed for the purpose of doing harm. Thus,
malware includes computer viruses, worms, Trojan
horses, spyware, hijackers, and certain type of adware.
This article will focus on those malware that are
considered viruses, trojans, worms, and viruses, though
this information can be used to remove the other types
of malware as well. We will not go into specific details
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about any one particular infection, but rather provide a


broad overview of how these infections can be removed.
For the most part these instructions should allow you to
remove a good deal of infections, but there are some
that need special steps to be removed and these won't be
covered under this tutorial.
Before we continue it is important to understand the
generic malware terms that you will be reading about.
Backdoor- A program that allows a remote user to
execute commands and tasks on your computer without
your permission. These types of programs are typically
used to launch attacks on other computers, distribute
copyrighted software or media, or hack other
computers.
Hijackers- A program that attempts to hijack certain
Internet functions like redirecting your start page to the
hijacker's own start page, redirecting search queries to
a undesired search engine, or replace search results
from popular search engines with their own
information.
Spyware- A program that monitors your activity or
information on your computer and sends that
information to a remote computer without your
Knowledge.
Adware- A program that generates popups on your
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computer or displays advertisements. It is important to


note that not all adware programs are necessarily
considered malware.
There are many legitimate programs that are given for
free that display ads in their programs in order to
generate revenue. As long as this information is
provided up front then they are generally not
considered malware.
Dialler - A program that typically dials a premium
rate number that has per minute charges over and
above the typical call charge. These calls are with the
intent of gaining access to pornographic material.
Trojan- A program that has been designed to appear
innocent but has been intentionally designed to cause
some malicious activity or to provide a backdoor to
your system.
Worm- A program that when run, has the ability to
spread to other computers on its own using either massmailing techniques to email addresses found on your
computer or by using the Internet to infect a remote
computer using known security holes.

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An Introduction to DDOS Attack - A


Beginners Tutorial
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

Note This Post is Only For Educational Purpose. Black


Hole Will not Be Responsible For Any Misuse
Today I will discuss an Advanced Attack to Deface a
site. This Attack is used to stop functioning of a site so
that no one can access it.

Distributed denial-of-service attack (DDOS attack) is an


attempt to make a computer resource unavailable to its
intended users. One common method of attack involves
sending an enormous amount of request to Server or
site and server will be unable to handle the requests and
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site will be offline for some days or months depending


upon the strength of Attack i.e. (Data Sent to the
Site/Server)
Basic Procedure/Logic employed in DDOS :
1.) Open Command Prompt in windows by going to
Start -> All Programs -> Accessories -> Command
Prompt.
2.) Type "ping site-ip -l 5120 -n 100000 -w 1".
Here "site-ip" is the IP Address of Target, You can also
use site-name like "www.google.com" instead of siteip."5120" is the size of packet sent to the target Which
is 5 KB in example. "100000" is the no of requests sent
to the Target. "- w 1" is the waiting time after each
request which is 1 sec in example. You can change these
parameters according to your need, but Don't omit
these.
This Attack is also called "Ping of Death"
But In Actual a Single Computer using this Attack
cannot Deface a Site for long time. Hackers Create and
install botnets on different computers as trojans and use
those Comprised Computers also to send these Dummy
Packets to Target. When a Large no of Compromised
Computer send simultaneous Requests to the target, the
target site will be offline and Defaced
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

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Check If You Are Hacked?

NOTE:- Before doing these steps, close all the


downloads and web pages. Make sure on torrent of
window update install is going on but stay connected to
internet.
1) The first method is very simple for all the people
using an ADSL router. After all the internet downloads
are closed, just check the status of Ethernet light. It
should not blink at a very fast rate. It shows that
packets are being transferred in and out of your
computer.
But as there is no active download or internet activity so
no packets should transfer. If so you might be hacked
2) goto run and type cmd. The command prompt will
open. In the command prompt type
netstat -a
This shows the list of active internet connections, check
if any unnecessary internet connection is
ESTABLISHED. If so, you might be hacked
if you type just netstat, you will get the list of all the
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netstat commands, you may try the other commands as


well.
3) You notice any abnormal activity in your computer,
like your computer hangs for a couple of seconds every
time you switch it on or in between your tasks (if it
occurs often), there is a chance that you are hacked.
Often keyloggers and trojans are configured to deliver
all the log information to the destination ip address/ ftp
address after reqular interval of time. And when this
information is being sent, the browser hangs for some
time.
4) Use softwares like TCP view, it gives the list of all the
connections made through TCP. This software is
capable of detecting almost all the trojan/malicious
connections.
5) Keep the antivirus updated and install an external
firewall like comodo. If your antivirus is not updated
regularly, it is as good as nothing. If you dont update
your antivirus reqularly and often exchange data from
other computers and download a lot of files. There is a
great possibility that you are hacked.

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How Facebook Works?*


Hey Facebookies, since how long have you been
Facebooking? Well to be precise, Facebook has
been there for you since eight years but have you
ever wondered how Facebook works? Whats
behind that fancy curtain? OK! Its not a How-To
guide to use Facebook but we are talking about its
architecture.
Have you ever been curious about whats lying
behind Facebook? And how Facebook really
works? Then lets talk some tech now.
How Facebook Works In Spotlight?
Facebook utilize lots of services and programming
languages to work. To be precise, Facebook servers
use LAMP with Memcache. Hey, we are not talking
about the table lamps! Basically LAMP stands for
Linux, Apache, MySQL and PHP. Its understood
that you need more explanation on those complex
terms if you are not a techie.
Linux & Apache
If you are fortunate enough to see that black
dolphin logo ever on WWW then you certainly
know Linux. Well, its an open-source UNIX-like
kernel for Operating Systems and why Facebook
use Linux is because of its high security and its ease
of customization according to needs. Apache is

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considered as the best and most popular HTTP


server No wonder why Facebook use Apache.
MySQL
Ok! so far we know that Facebook works using
Linux OS and Apache servers. What about the
database where huge amounts of data, including
the Facebookies personal data, is stored? This is
where MySQL makes entry because its reliable and
speedy as well.
MySQL basically stores key values since data is
stored randomly among huge number of logical
instances.
PHP
PHP is basically a great WWW programming
language a scripting language. Facebook use this
language specifically because this language has a
good programmers community and this language
also has a great support as well.
Memcache
We are done with LAMP but what about
Memcache? Any guess?Basically Memcache is an
open-source system for caching memory. All it do
is make dynamic sites like Facebook work faster by
allowing them to cache data in RAM instead of
going all the way to database.
Problems With LAMP System

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Facebook has come across many problems due to


this LAMP system may be Facebook has grown
just amazingly fast for think-tanks. Among many
problems, major problem is that PHP is difficult to
configure for big websites it may not be optimised
for big websites. Moreover its not the fastest
executing-language out there.
Since dynamic growth of Facebook, it is facing
many problems like memory caching, data storage
and most importantly its database is very complex.
And to cover-up that backstage with another
curtain, Facebook has started some back-end and
open-source projects.
How Facebook Works Behind Curtains?
How Facebook works behind curtain is pretty
simple they create any program or service when
they need it and create a framework to make
creation of services hassle-free.. Facebook back
stage services are mostly written in languages like
Java, Python, Erlang and C++.
A list of all open-source projects can be found here
(http://developers.facebook.com/opensource.php).
Moreover, here are some of important open-source
projects:
Apache Cassandra
Cassandra is a storage system designed to manage
huge amounts of data without a single point of
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failure. Facebook inbox search works using


Cassandra as well.
Thrift
Thrift gives the framework for development in
cross-language services. Many languages like Java,
Ruby, PHP, C++ and python are supported by
thrift.
HipHop For PHP
Basic use of this framework was to transform PHP
to highly optimized C++, in result this framework
caused large performance gain for Facebook
servers.
Well, all this yap basically answers how Facebook
works?. Hey! this info certainly doesnt make you,
neither me, a geek at all. This was just a simple
answer to How Facebook Works, Had it been
from a geek then this article could be of 100 page
length.

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INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT GOOGLE:


1. The name GOOGLE was an accident. A spelling
mistake made by the original founders who thought
they were going for GOOGOL. Googol is a
mathematical term 1 followed by one hundred zeroes.
2. Google started in January, 1996 as a research project
at Stanford University by Ph.D students Larry Page
and Sergey Brin.
3. 97% of Google revenue comes from their
advertising services.
4. The biggest break in search came when Google
introduced their improved spell checker seen as 'Did
you mean?'. This feature doubled their traffic.
5. The infamous 'Im feeling lucky' button is nearly
never used. However, in trials it was found that
removing it would somehow reduce the Google
experience. Users wanted it kept. It was a comfort
button.

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What Is A keylogger

A keylogger is a hardware device or a software


program that records the real time activity of a
computer user including the keyboard keys they press.
Keyloggers are used in IT organizations to troubleshoot
technical problems with computers and business
networks. Keyloggers can also be used by a family (or
business) to monitor the network usage of people
without their direct knowledge. Finally, malicious
individuals may use keyloggers on public computers to
steal passwords or credit card information.
Some keylogger software is freely available on the
Internet, while others are commercial or private
applications. Most keyloggers allow not only keyboard
keystrokes to be captured but also are often capable of
collecting screen captures from the computer. Normal
keylogging programs store their data on the local hard
drive, but some are programmed to automatically
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transmit data over the network to a remote computer or


Web server.
Keyloggers are sometimes part of malware packages
downloaded onto computers without the owners'
knowledge. Detecting the presence of a keylogger on a
computer can be difficult. So-called antikeylogging programs have been developed to thwart
keylogging systems, and these are often effective when
used properly.

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WHAT IS HARDWARE KEYLOGGER ? HOW


HARDWARE KEYLOGGER WORKS
(a) Here is what a Hardware Keylogger Looks
like.:(b) Hardware Keylogger is nothing but a
programmed chip (Mostly in assembly
Language), so as to capture all the keystrokes
and save them in its internal memory. The
keylogger can then be taken out and all the
stored information can easily be assessed by the
hacker. Hardware Keylogger are most
commonly used in cyber cafes and other public
places where a lot of people come and access the
internet. Beware of such places.
(c) Always check the keyboard connectors before
accessing internet at such places. Hardware
Keylogger are extremely powerful and effective
and if they are actually installed on any machine
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and you use it, there is 99.9% chance of you


getting hacked.
(d) How can it affect you. Imagine you going to a
cyber cafe and make a bank transaction just to
pay your bills. No sooner you enter your login
detail, the hardware keylogger will save the
keystrokes. Some advance
hardware keyloggers might also take
screenshots at regular interval so that the
hacker knows the login details are for which
website or webpage.
(e) Once the hacker has all this information in the
Hardware Keylogger, imaging what all can he
do when he access that information. And this is
just a small example. There is much more
damage one can do with a hardware keylogger.
(f) Prevention: To secure yourself from such
attack, there is only one way. Check the
hardware of the computer you use at public
places and even your personal computer if your
friends come to your place often. Who knows
who might attach the hardware keylogger in
your machine.

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SOME CISCO ROUTER COMMANDS


TERMINAL CONTROLS:

Config# terminal editing - allows for


enhanced editing commands
Config# terminal monitor - shows
output on telnet session
Config# terminal ip netmask-format
hexadecimal|bit-count|decimal changes the format of subnet masks
HOST NAME:
Config# hostname ROUTER_NAME
BANNER:
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Config# banner motd # TYPE


MESSAGE HERE # - # can be
substituted for any character, must
start and finish the message
DESCRIPTIONS:
Config# description THIS IS THE
SOUTH ROUTER - can be entered at the
Config-if level
CLOCK:
Config# clock timezone Central -6
# clock set hh:mm:ss dd month yyyy Example: clock set 14:35:00 25 August
2003
CHANGING THE REGISTER:
Config# config-register 0x2100 - ROM
Monitor Mode
Config# config-register 0x2101 - ROM
boot
Config# config-register 0x2102 - Boot
from NVRAM
BOOT SYSTEM:
Config# boot system tftp FILENAME
SERVER_IP - Example: boot system tftp
2600_ios.bin 192.168.14.2
Config# boot system ROM
Config# boot system flash - Then Config# reload
CDP:
Config# cdp run - Turns CDP on
Config# cdp holdtime 180 - Sets the
time that a device remains. Default is
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180
Config# cdp timer 30 - Sets the
update timer.The default is 60
Config# int Ethernet 0
Config-if# cdp enable - Enables cdp
on the interface
Config-if# no cdp enable - Disables
CDP on the interface
Config# no cdp run - Turns CDP off
HOST TABLE:
Config# ip host ROUTER_NAME
INT_Address - Example: ip host lab-a
192.168.5.1
-or Config# ip host RTR_NAME INT_ADD1
INT_ADD2 INT_ADD3 - Example: ip host
lab-a 192.168.5.1 205.23.4.2 199.2.3.2 (for e0, s0, s1)
DOMAIN NAME SERVICES:
Config# ip domain-lookup - Tell
router to lookup domain names
Config# ip name-server 122.22.2.2 Location of DNS server
Config# ip domain-name cisco.com Domain to append to end of names
CLEARING COUNTERS:
# clear interface Ethernet 0 - Clears
counters on the specified interface
# clear counters - Clears all interface
counters
# clear cdp counters - Clears CDP
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counters
STATIC ROUTES:
Config# ip route Net_Add SN_Mask
Next_Hop_Add - Example: ip route
192.168.15.0 255.255.255.0 205.5.5.2
Config# ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0
Next_Hop_Add - Default route
-or Config# ip default-network Net_Add Gateway LAN network
IP ROUTING:
Config# ip routing - Enabled by
default
Config# router rip
-or Config# router igrp 100
Config# interface Ethernet 0
Config-if# ip address 122.2.3.2
255.255.255.0
Config-if# no shutdown
IPX ROUTING:
Config# ipx routing
Config# interface Ethernet 0
Config# ipx maximum-paths 2 Maximum equal metric paths used
Config-if# ipx network 222
encapsulation sap - Also Novell-Ether,
SNAP, ARPA on Ethernet. Encapsulation
HDLC on serial
Config-if# no shutdown

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Google Chrome spying all of you

Google Chrome is not a 100% secure Browser anymore.


It saves all the files you download to your computer and
appears to be as intrusive as Picasa and Google
Toolbar.
Google Chrome stores the information browsed by its
users and utilizes it for advertising purposes i.e. their
users receive advertisements of products tailored to
their interests.
In addition, Google Earth and Chrome give users a
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unique identification number ID and by doing so


Google knows when we are online and for what
purposes the programs are used.
Google applications send to their creators a lot of
information about You.
Google search you have made takes a note of what you
looked for, what you found and sometimes where you
have been directed from.
Google makes the Big Brother out of your privacy.
Therefore, Google Chrome is Dangerous!
Google Chrome Spyware! Confirmed !
Turn on your privacy in Firefox !
Click the Tools menu and then Options.- click the
Privacy icon- Select Use custom settings for history
in the Firefox will section- click the Accept cookies
from sites check box to enable or disable cookies-click
the OK button to apply the changes and close the
dialog box.
Do not use Gmail
Google stores your email on their servers, then scans the
content for keywords to give you ads relevant to your
email and maybe used in the future.
make sure you dont use Gmail to send any passwords
or confidential information as they are scanned and
stored by Google for further reference. May be used by
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Googles friends!
Services offered by Google use tracking cookies and a
unique ID a piece of text stored on a users computer
by their web browser.
Google Cookies are used for spying your stored data.
Google Privacy Policy is illegal in the European Union.
How can you protect your privacy on Google ?
Do not use Gmail, do not install any Google products in
your computer.
Do not use Google Analitics on your blog (use
altrernative e.g. Piwik)
Google doesnt need to collect this information, but it
does.
Google took complete control of market share with all
their services and they control you by having access to
your : documents, maps, email, phone services, email,
entertainment, news, websites traffic, health records,
translator and calendar.
Google secretly monitors the users behaviou and
collects various types of personal information, such as
Internet surfing habits, sites that have been visited then
maybe used .
I cant believe some people are actually stupid enough
to even consider placing important personal
information in GoogleDocs or sent important emails by
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Gmail.Dont Trust Google and your life should be safe.


Google seeks domination in the world.
Google AdSense
You have to earn 100 $ before you will be paid, nearly
always they close down your account before making any
payment at all.
Do not let Google dominate yourself and deprive of
your privacy!

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List of Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)


response status codes.

The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA)


maintains the official registry of HTTP status codes.
403 Forbidden
The request was a valid request, but the server is
refusing to respond to it. Unlike a 401 Unauthorized
response, authenticating will make no difference. On
servers where authentication is required, this commonly
means that the provided credentials were successfully
authenticated but that the credentials still do not grant
the client permission to access the resource (e.g. a
recognized user attempting to access restricted content).
501 Not Implemented
The server either does not recognize the request
method, or it lacks the ability to fulfill the request.
301 Moved Permanently
This and all future requests should be directed to the
given URI.
302 Found
This is an example of industry practice contradicting
the standard. The HTTP/1.0 specification (RFC 1945)
required the client to perform a temporary redirect (the
original describing phrase was "Moved Temporarily"),
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but popular browsers implemented 302 with the


functionality of a 303 See Other. Therefore, HTTP/1.1
added status codes 303 and 307 to distinguish between
the two behaviours. However, some Web applications
and frameworks use the 302 status code as if it were the
303.
407 Proxy Authentication Required
The client must first authenticate itself with the proxy.
505 HTTP Version Not Supported
The server does not support the HTTP protocol version
used in the request.
408 Request Timeout
The server timed out waiting for the request. According
to W3 HTTP specifications: "The client did not produce
a request within the time that the server was prepared
to wait. The client MAY repeat the request without
modifications at any later time

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What is Domain Name?


Domain names are used to find or
identify the websites or webpages.
It is what we see in the after www.
in the web.
Best sites to Purchase domain
names- Godaddy.com, bigrock.in
World's Top 15 Most Expensive
Domain Names Ever Sold
Insure.com
Domain Price: 16,000,000
Alexa Traffic Rank: 77,613
Sold on: N/A
Sex.com
Domain Price: $13,000,000
Alexa Traffic Rank: 2,342
Sold on: 2010
Fund.com
Domain Price: $10,000,000
Alexa Traffic Rank: 553,642
Sold on: 2008
Porn.com
Domain Price: $9,500,000
Alexa Traffic Rank: 671
Sold on: 2007
Fb.com
Domain Price: $8,500,000
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Alexa Traffic Rank: Not Available


Sold on: 2010
Business.com
Domain Price: $7,500,000
Alexa Traffic Rank: 8,483
Sold on: 1999
Diamond.com
Domain Price: $7,500,000
Alexa Traffic Rank: Not Available
Sold on: 2006
Beer.com
Domain Price: $7,500,000
Alexa Traffic Rank: 850,984
Sold on: N/A
Israel.com
Domain Price: $7,500,000
Alexa Traffic Rank: 1,207,424
Sold on: N/A
Casino.com
Domain Price: $5,500,000
Alexa Traffic Rank: 2,235
Sold on: N/A
Slots.com
Domain Price: $5,500,000
Alexa Traffic Rank: 1,299,675
Sold on: 2010
Toys.com
Domain Price: $5,100,000
Alexa Traffic Rank: 393,121
Sold on: 2009
Korea.com
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Domain Price: $5,000,000


Alexa Traffic Rank: 22,158
Sold on: N/A
Seo.com
DomainPrice: $5,000,000
Alexa Traffic Rank: 14,238
Sold on: N/A
Clothes.com
Domain Price: $4,900,000
Alexa Traffic Rank: 732,576
Sold on: 2008
Man, people really need to put a
price on everything.

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113

Internet Firewalls

Ok, The Internet Firewall is a strange beast when you


find one. It is for those
of you who don't know, a system that secures off a part
of the net for pricate
or more interestingly for government use. You'll find
things like the FBI,CIA
etc.. all on the other side of a firewall of some
desciption. My research to
date has mainly been into the firewall that the FBI has,
as thatwas the very
first such address I got.
I was hanging around the IRC on csdvax at nsw uni and
a friend happened to
mention the address just as he logged off... it was
pbi.fbi.gov, so i being the
good little hacker that i am had a pen beside me and
wrote it down to look into
later on. Unfortunately this friend of mine is in Israel
and was just leaving
when he gave it to me so i didn't have time to ask him
anything about it.
l8r on i tried the address and found it came back with
'network unreachable'.
I found this odd as he had given me the address that he
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obviously had connected


to himself so i was wondering what the fuck was going
on right? I got onto irc
and asked a dude in #hack about it. He said the FBI has
a firewall and then he
went all quiet and wouldn't say another bloody word
about it. Now just about
everyone knows that irc is logged. If you say anything
like 'hack' 'hacked'
'password' 'passwd' etc.. the line of text gets written
into a log.. and i mean
who wouldn't log it? i would too so u can't blame them.
Anyhow i bugged this guy
'til he finally said 'get onto 'talk' and phne me' so i did, i
phoned his
account and said 'ok what's the story' and he gave me
the following.
Apparently the FBI,CIA,IRS and other such secure
conscious departments all have
computers with ip set up so they only have to sit there
and make sure that the
rest of their small network is secure, they are called
'firewalls' and are easy
to hack if u know wot u are doing. apparently on unix
machines there is an ftp
command called 'dig' if u login to anonymous ftp sites u
can get the binary file
off them. if you dig certain addresses that you know to
be behind a firewall
you can find information about the site. it gives you teh
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address of all such


sites with a certain name in it such as
dig fbi.gov any any
this will give you output like this
;; QUESTIONS:
;; fbi.gov, type = ANY, class = ANY
;; ANSWERS:
fbi.gov. 172800 NS NS.UU.NET.
fbi.gov. 172800 NS UUCP-GW-1.PA.DEC.COM.
fbi.gov. 1800 UUC-2.PA.DEC.COM.
fbi2800ET.
fbi.gov. 172 GERS.DU.
;; AUTHORITYv. NS.UU.NET.
UUCP-GWA.DEOM.
FBIv. 172800 NS NS.EU.7280 NS RECORDS:
NS.UU.T. 172800 137.39.1.3
UUCP-GW-1.0.18
UUCP-GW-2.PA.DEC.COM. 172800 A 0.19
NS.EU.NET.11/mbobthat
NS1.RUTGERS.EDU. 17280; ts, ans fo24 msecsent 2 o
many it?
(this looks a mess as it was buffered from irc with
someone who had a unix in
front of them and did this for me).
Basically you can see from here where the other nodes
are that incorporate
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fbi.gov.
Recently I have also found that UTS actually switches
packets through to the FBI
firewall to be allowed or denied access. This brings me
to the second use for
the FBI firewall. It seems that at times they DO want
people from outside the
wall to be able to access their computers. And to do this
they have set up a
file with addresses that are allowed to access the
computers behind the wall.
Now by logging UTS with one of the various logging
programs I'd say that these
nodes could be easily found, as the programs (the good
ones) log where the
connections are made from and to and the login id and
password of course.
The only problem with this is that I have found UTS to
be one of the most secure
universities on the network in sydney. However nothing
is impossible and UTS is
certainly not hack proof.
The most interesting feature of the Wall is it's CPU
power. I am wondering what
it could do with a good unix version of Killer Cracker
running on it! ;)
Imagine 'Hacker Caught running Password Hacking
programs on FBI's security
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117

Computer' hahaha nice... anyhow the idea is NOT to get


caught. ;)
Anyhow down here I will list a few interesting nodes
down for your testing.
ARD.FBI.GOV - FBI's Firewall computer.
PBI.FBI.GOV - Unknown FBI node behind firewall.
ULTIMA.SOCS.UTS.OZ.AU - UTS SunOS.
csdvax.csd.unsw.edu.au - UNSW's vax for students
mainly.
hydra.maths.unsw.edu.au - UNSW's math unix system.
dslt4a.faceng.su.oz.au - Sydney Uni's Faculty
Enginerring Computer.(easy)
IRS.GOV - The IRS of course. ;)
I wouldn't be surprised to learn that the cia was
CIA.GOV or something stupid
like that so I might try it when I get back on the net.

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118

What is Wi-Fi and how dose it work?


"Wi-Fi" is a type of wireless
networking protocol that allows
devices to communicate
without cords or cables.
1: Wi-fi uses antennas around
which wi-fi "hotspots" are
created. The hotspots are outlets
equipped to receive the radio
waves that power wireless
networking. Until recently, wifi has been confined to more
than 10,000 hot-spots in cafes,
bars and airport lounges. But
various projects are under way
to set up city-wide zones,
where a series of antennas are
installed in the streets, on
lampposts or street signs. The
hotspots around them together
create a much wider area of
coverage. Norwich has a mesh
network which links each
lamppost antenna to the next
creating a seamless wi-fi
hotspot around the center of
the city.
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2: The source internet


connection is provided by a PC
or server to which the
antennas are connected either
wirelessly or via a cable.
3: Some mobile phones and
personal digital assistants
(PDA ) now have wi-fi chips
installed. With mobile phones,
this means conventional
networks can be bypassed and
inexpensive long-distance calls
made over the web (using Voice
over Internet Protocol, VoIP).
4: Many laptops and handheld
computers now come with
built-in wi-fi connectivity; it is
also possible to add wi-fi to
your computer with a special
card that plugs into a port on
your laptop.
Some organizations provide it
for free but maximums provide
it for business purpose only.
And you have to give a
password to access this kind of
network.

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Tips To Secure Your Wifi Connection

1. Install a Firewall A firewall helps protect your PC by


preventing unauthorized users from gaining access to
your computer through the Internet or a network. It
acts as a barrier that checks any information coming
from the Internet or a network, and then either blocks
the information or allows it to pass through to your
computer.
2. Change the Administrative Password on your
Wireless Routers Each manufacturer ships their
wireless routers with a default password for easy initial
access. These passwords are easy to find on vendor
support sites, and should therefore be changed
immediately.
3. Change the Default SSID Name and Turn Off SSID
Broadcasting This will require your wireless client
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computers to manually enter the name of your SSID


(Service Set Identifier) before they can connect to your
network, greatly minimizing the damage from the
casual user whose laptop is configured to connect to any
available SSID broadcast it finds. You should also
change the SSID name from the factory default, since
these are just as well-known as the default passwords

4. Disable DHCP For a SOHO network with only a few


computers, consider disabling DHCP (Dynamic Host
Configuration Protocol) on your router and assigning
IP addresses to your client computers manually. On
newer wireless routers, you can even restrict access to
the router to specific MAC addresses.
5. Replace WEP with WPA WEP (Wired Equivalent
Privacy) is a security protocol that was designed to
provide a wireless computer network with a level of
security and privacy comparable to what is usually
expected of a wired computer network. WEP is a very
weak form of security that uses common 60 or 108 bit
key shared among all of the devices on the network to
encrypt the wireless data. Hackers can access tools
freely available on the Internet that can crack a WEP
key in as little as 15 minutes. Once the WEP key is
cracked, the network traffic instantly turns into clear
text making it easy for the hacker to treat the network
like any open network. WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access)
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is a powerful, standards-based, interoperable security


technology for wireless computer networks. It provides
strong data protection by using 128-bit encryption keys
and dynamic session keys to ensure a wireless computer
network's privacy and security. Many cryptographers
are confident that WPA addresses all the known attacks
on WEP. It also adds strong user authentication, which
was absent in WEP.

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123

What is Session Hijacking?


Session Hijacking is Stealing the
existing active Session. The main
purpose of Session Hijacking is to
bypass authentication process and
gain unauthorized access to the
computer or Website. In simple
words , hackers will login as some
other client using their Sessions.
TCP session hijacking is when a
hacker takes over a TCP session
between two machines. Since most
authentication only occurs at the
start of a TCP session, this allows
the hacker to gain access to a
machine
Different Session Hijacking methods:
Session stealing is achieved by
following methods
1. Session fixation: In this method,
the Hacker sets a user's session id
to known victim. For example,
Hacker will send email to known
victim with a link that contains a
particular session id. If the victim
followed that link, the hacker can
use that session and gain access.
2. Session SideJacking(session
Sniffing): In this method, the
attacker use packet sniffing to and
steal the Session cookie. In order to
prevent this, some websites use SSL
(encrypts the session). but do not
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use encryption for the rest of the


site once authenticated. This allows
attackers that can read the network
traffic to intercept all the data that
is submitted to the server or web
pages viewed by the client.
Unsecured Hotspots are vulnerable
to this type of Session Hijacking.
3. Client-side attacks (XSS, Malicious
JavaScript Codes, Trojans, etc):
Hacker can steal the Session by
running the Malicious Javascript
codes in client system. Usually
hackers attack some websites using
XSS and insert their own Malicious
Javascript codes.
In client point view it is trusted
website, he will visit the website.
When victim visit the link ,
Malicious Javascript will executed. It
will steal the Session cookies and
other confidential data.
4. Physical access: If the hacker has
physical access, it is easy for him to
steal the Session. Usually this will
occur in public cafe. In public cafe ,
one use login to some websites
(facebook, gmail). A hacker come
after victim can steal the session
cookies

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What is "ETHERNET
A physical and data link layer technology for local
area networks (LANs). Ethernet was invented by
engineer Robert Metcalfe.
When first widely deployed in the 1980s, Ethernet
supported a maximum theoretical data rate of 10
megabits per second (Mbps). Later, so-called
"Fast Ethernet" standards increased this
maximum data rate to 100 Mbps. Today, Gigabit
Ethernet technology further extends peak
performance up to 1000 Mbps.
Higher level network protocols like Internet
Protocol (IP) use Ethernet as their transmission
medium. Data travels over Ethernet inside
protocol units called frames.
The run length of individual Ethernet cables is
limited to roughly 100 meters, but Ethernet
networks can be easily extended to link entire
schools or office buildings using network bridge
devices.

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How to Hide your IP Address in


Windows 7 and Vista

Step 1: If you have a router


Turn your router AND modem OFF.
Disconnect the Ethernet cables from
your router.
Plug the cable from your modem
directly into your computer.
Restart both the computer and
modem.
Wait for your Internet connection
to become active again.
Launch a web browser to confirm
that your internet connection is
working.
If you run into any difficulties,
restart your modem and computer
again. First, disable your Local Area
Connection (LAN). Then, enable the
LAN connection. Most likely that will
bring your connection back.
Step 2: Confirm your current IP
address
Visit CheckIP.org to see your
current IP address (for comparison
purposes later). Paste the IP into
Notepad or write it down.
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Step 3: Launch Command Prompt


Click the START menu, then type
cmd in the white search box (dont
include the quotes) and hit Enter.
Step 4: Release the current IP
When the window pops up and
prompt appears, type ipconfig /
release (with a space before the
slash) and hit Enter.
Step 5: Reset your modem
Turn your modem OFF and wait
30-45 seconds before switching it
back ON.
Wait another 30-45 seconds after
restarting the modem. Watch as the
LED lights light up.
Step 6: Reset your connection
Go back to your START Menu then
click on Control Panel.
Click Network and Internet, then
Network and Sharing Center (click
the big green text, not the blue
links)
In the left-side pane, click the link
for Manage network connections
Select your Local Area Connection,
Right-click it, and choose Disable.
Wait 10-15 seconds.
Once more, right-click on Local
Area Connection, and this time
select Enable.
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Wait 30-60 seconds. This is an


IMPORTANT step. Do not try to
proceed before giving it some time
to work.
Step 7: Confirm the changes
Go to CheckIP.org to see your
current IP address. Compare the
original IP you either pasted into
Notepad or wrote down to the IP in
your web browser.

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Hack To Change Your IP Address


1. Click on "Start" in the bottom left hand corner of
screen
2. Click on "Run"
3. Type in "cmd" and hit ok
You should now be at an MSDOS prompt screen.
4. Type "ipconfig /release" just like that, and hit
"enter"
5. Type "exit" and leave the prompt
6. Right-click on "Network Places" or "My Network
Places" on your desktop.
7. Click on "properties
You should now be on a screen with something titled
"Local Area Connection", or something close to that,
and, if you have a network hooked up, all of your other
networks.
8. Right click on "Local Area Connection" and click
"properties"
9. Double-click on the "Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)"
from
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the list under the "General" tab


10. Click on "Use the following IP address" under the
"General"
tab
11. Create an IP address (It doesn't matter what it is. I
just type 1 and 2 until i fill the area up).
12. Press "Tab" and it should automatically fill in the
"Subnet Mask" section with default numbers.
13. Hit the "Ok" button here
14. Hit the "Ok" button again
You should now be back to the "Local Area
Connection" screen.
15. Right-click back on "Local Area Connection" and
go to properties again.
16. Go back to the "TCP/IP" settings
17. This time, select "Obtain an IP address
automatically" tongue.gif
18. Hit "Ok"
19. Hit "Ok" again

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20. You now have a new IP address


With a little practice, you can easily get this process
down to 15 seconds.
This only changes your dynamic IP address, not your
ISP/IP address. If you plan on hacking a website with
this trick be extremely careful, because if they try a
little, they can trace it back.

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32-bit or 64-bit, what to choose


and Why
The tendency of a computers
processer to deal with information
on RAM (random access memory)
depends upon 32 bit and 64 bit
version of Windows. 64 bit version
can handle more RAM and apps than
32 bit.
Lets understand it in a simple way.
64 bit version can deal with physical
memory (RAM) above 4 GB and up
to 128GB (yes, it exists!) while 32bit version ...
can address RAM up to 4 GB only.
Therefore, if you have a 32 bit
version of Windows installed on
your computer then installing RAM
above 4 GB doesnt make sense.
The ability to handle large memory
makes the 64 bit version more
efficient while dealing with
processes. Hence, it increases the
overall performance of your PC. So
64 bit is more powerful in a
nutshell. Now lets check some more
things related to these two
technologies.
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Advantages of 64 bit computer-?The main advantage of using 64-bit


version of Windows is that it offers
better memory accessibility and
management.
?Enhanced security features like
Kernel p@tch Protection, support
for hardware-backed data execution
protection, mandatory driver
signing, removal of support for 32bit drivers and removal of the 16bit subsystem available.
?Performance of those programs
that are specially written for 64 bit
operating system is great.
Disadvantages of 64 bit computer-There is no specific disadvantage of
using this version but there are
some things you have to take care
of before deciding to use it.
?You should check availability of
device drivers because 32 bit device
drivers do not work on 64 bit
version.
?Most of the hardware devices are
not compatible with 64-bit
computer.
?Device drivers must be digitally
signed by the developer.
?Some programs of 32 bit arent
compatible with 64 bit.
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[How to Choose a correct version of


Windows]
64 bit version-?Selecting correct version of
Windows depends upon your
priority and need. If you want to
take advantage of large memory
(more than 4 GB) then you could go
for 64-bit version. But do check for
the 64-bit versions of various tools
and programs you use everyday
before making the switch.
?Most of new software and
hardware are supported by 64-bit
version. Check compatibility status
of your software and devices.
32 bit version-?32 bit versions are cheaper than
64 bit versions.
?If you are using old software and
hardware then you could go with
32-bit version because it can
support all your program and
devices.
Note: Most programs designed for
32 bit version can support 64-bit
version too (except some antivirus
programs). But if a program is
designed for 64 bit version then it
wont work on 32 bit version.

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How Email Works?


Do You Ever Wonder How your email Client works ?
ok. if you have not thought about it watch this complete
tutorial.
ok. so let's get started
Email sending and receiving is controlled by the Email
servers. All Email service providers like gmail , yahoo
etc configure Email Server
before anyone can Sign into his or her account and start
communicating digitally.
Once the servers are ready to go, users from across the
world register in to these Email servers and setup an
Email account. When they have a fully working Email
account, they sign into their accounts and start
connecting to other users using the Email services.
We will talk Later about setting up an email server ,
register process and how the data is stored and how
login process works.
But now let's talk about email routing process. The
word Routing means the way it has come from or the
way it is going to .
So what is possibly routing process for your email ?
Have any guesses ? No . Don't worry i will tell you in
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deep.
Email Travelling Path
Lets say we have two Email providers, one is
Server1.com and other is Server2.com, ABC is a
registered user in
Server1.com and XYZ is a registered user in
Server2.com .
In this case we will just pretend that both users are
using the websites of server1.com and server2.com No
emailing programms are used.
Step one: ABC signs in to his Email account in
Server1.com, he then writes a mail to the
xyz@server2.com and click on Send
and gets the message that the Email is sent successfully.
So easy ?
But what happens behind the curtain ?
Behind the curtains the Email from the computer of
abc@server1.com is forwarded to the
Email server of Server1.com. Server1 then look.s for
server2.com on the internet and forwards the Email of
the server2.com for the account of XYZ. Server2.com
receives the Email from server1.com and puts it in the
account of
XYZ.
This was just simple mechanism. Actually When abc
clicks on send email his ip address is tracked by
server1.com and it is saved in the email id as headers .
Now a days almost all servers track user's ip address.
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But what if the ip address tracking is disabled ?


By the way you can also disable it . Tutorial coming
soon.
So if the ip address tracking is disabled server sends it's
own ip address .
And by Editing or Watching these header you can
either send fake mail or can track the sender of email.
Header contains all the details about the route. More
talking later.
So when server2.com recieves an email from
server1.com , the server then cheks about the previous
spam reports from that server , ip address of that server
and reputation and certificate of the server . Yes ,
actually these all process is done within few seconds.
Every good spam protected email server has antispam
measures like gmail.com shows a warning when a email
is from gmailteam.com that this email might not be
from google team .
and many keywords like you have won an iphone is
marked as spam. Email servers have huge database of
it.
So if the server1.com checks and thinks that the email is
not a spam and not harm full it sends it to xyz's part .
yes , yes
an anti virus scan is also done .
And if the message is spam or server thinks so it is
stored to your spam box.
if every thing goes right
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XYZ sits on computer and signs in to her Email


account. Now she has the message in her Email inbox.
So that is all for email Routing process
if you have an email client then that it is another long
story which we will talk about in next tutorials.
I Hope that you enjoyed this tutorial.

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Protect Email Accounts From Spam


The following methods can be used to combat email
spam.
1. Use spam filters for your email account. If youre
using email services like Gmail, Yahoo, Hotmail etc.
then spam filters are used by default. Each Spam filter
has its algorithm to detect spam emails and will
automatically move them to SPAM folder. This keeps
your inbox free from spam. However some spam emails
become successful to make their way into the inbox by
successfully bypassing the filters.
2. Do not post your email address in public forums, user
comments and chat-rooms. Give your email address
only to trustworthy websites while signing up for
newsletters.
3. While taking up online surveys and filling up
feedback forms, it is better not to give your personal
email address. Instead signup for a dummy email
account and use this for surveys and feedback forms.
4. While posting your contact email address on your
website use this format: emailaddress [at] mysite.com
instead of emailaddress@mysite.com. This protects
your email address from being indexed by spam bots.
5. Do not respond to unknown messages. When you
receive a unknown email, avoid forwarding it to your
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friends. Examples of unknown messages can be found


at www.hoax-slayer.com. If you really want to forward
it to your friends, make sure that you use Bcc
(blind certified copy) option to send the email. This will
hide all the email IDs to which the mail is forwarded.

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"HOW TO TRACE AN EMAIL"

So here is the method of tracing the exact location


from the email sent.I am showing the email
tracing on yahoo here but gmail and other mail
providing services have same concept.
Step 1:-First open up your email account and click
on your inbox.
Step 2:-Now Select any email that you want to
trace
Step 3:-After Opening scrool the mail at the end
and in right corner you will see a option FULL
HEADER click on it

Step 4:- Now Closely Look at the the header you


will find the whole detail that from which IP
address it is sent.

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What is Phishing?
Phishing is a method used by
internet thieves to acquire
sensitive information like
usernames, passwords, credit
card details, by disguising as a
trustworthy entity, and using
different ways of instant
messaging, web pages, software
and even text messages.
Why is phishing so spread?
Phishing has been known since
1996. Internet thieves had
published web pages that looked
similar to the original ones in
order to steal login information
from legitimate users and use
their accounts for spamming or
other purposes.
Phishing can be controlled, but
user intervention and caution is
required too. New phishing web
pages and e-mails are published
and sent daily and lots of
accounts are stolen.
E-mail phishing
Every internet user received at
least one e-mail telling him that
the bank wants his card details
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for security purposes, or to enter


some link and log-in with his
credentials on a fake website.
Here is an example of an e-mail
sent from a bank.
As you can see the bank informs
the user that an unauthorized
withdrawal was attempted,
encouraging him to click the link
and enter his personal
information for verification. As
you may know, banks never ask
for personal confidential
information (like your card
details) via e-mail/web/phone.
The banks e-mail address can be
easily faked with a simple (even
free) cPanel e-mail account. In
order to avoid e-mail phishing,
do not enter your e-mail address
on webpages that you dont trust,
use an e-mail client along with a
spam filter, or anti-virus. Its best
to use an e-mail client with an
anti-virus capable of filtering
spam and detecting phishing.
Most of the online e-mail
providers have a spam filter, but
not all bad e-mails are filtered.
Thieves use programs to harvest
e-mails from internet, especially
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facebook.com. So its very easy to


find your e-mail address if its
listed on public websites.
Online phishing
Phishing through websites is very
common, and now, that everyone
has a Facebook account, hackers
are very determinate to access
their personal information,
especially for spamming.
For example, if you mistype
Facebook and you enter
facexook.com (DO NOT enter this
website!) you will see a page that
is identical to facebook.com.
On the right is a screenshot of
the website.If you can see, the
page looks exactly like
facebook.com but its not
Facebook. If you enter your email and password, you will be
redirected to the Facebook login
page, to make you think that you
didnt enter the e-mail and
password correctly. Fortunately,
the hackers forgot to change the
year of the copyright, making
some users recheck the URL of
the page.
Unfortunately, neither anti-virus
programs nor browsers can detect
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this page as phishing attempt and


block it. You however can
manually set your anti-virus to
block this page.
In order to be safe, use an antivirus program and use its antiphishing feature to prevent these
sites from stealing your personal
information.
IM phishing
Phishing may occur when using
an instant messenger, most often
from other stolen accounts that
send a mass message containing a
link where your login credentials
are stolen. Dont ever trust IMs
that say something like: check
out my new pic :D http://...
Also through IM, you can receive
links that will lead you to an .exe
file. Do not download any exe file
(or save any .exe file) from
anyone. Even if you trust the
user, his account may be stolen.
Its best to use an anti-virus
program and scan every
attachment.
Software phishing
If you ever got an e-mail
containing a zip attachment from
IRS, you know that you must not
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download any files, especially


executable files without scanning
them first. If you dont like an
anti-virus program (although it is
strongly advised to use one), use
a free online service like
VirusTotal.com. However,
attachments can contain viruses.
You might say, what can a virus
do to my computer, Ill just
reinstall my operating system and
thats all.
No. They can do more. A
computer virus can spread to
other locations on your
computer, and even if you
completely delete all your
partitions, the virus might have
already sent your sensitive
personal information to a hacker.
What can it steal?
Well, if you have saved passwords
in your browser, its very easy.
Many viruses look for saved
passwords and auto-fill form data
in common used browsers. If they
find anything, they send all data
to a hacker that will then have
access to your passwords.
I dont save my passwords. I cant
get hacked.
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Yes, you can. Some of these


viruses are key loggers. They
write a log file containing each
key you typed using your
keyboard. After some time, they
send the file to a hacker that uses
a program to analyze the file and
extract login info.
In order to be safe, use an antivirus program. Most anti-virus
program can detect a key logger.
Text message phishing
In some situations (in
some countries), you can receive
a call from an unknown number
that will say that theres a
problem with your phone
number, and in order to fix it,
you have to type a code and press
Green. When you do that, you
charge that SIM user account
from your account. Never trust
someone whos calling you with
an unknown number and never
give away your personal details.

Note: You should always


double-check the websites and
software where you enter your
personal details.
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WHAT IS TABNAPPING

Phishing is the most popular and widely used method


for hacking email accounts. Phishing is not as easy as
it's name. Creating a phishing page is an easy task and
any one can download it from various hacking forums
for free. The main step of phishing comes after creation
of fake login page..
How to send this fake page to the victim?
Here comes the Tab Napping which can make your
second step easy than before. No need to send fake page
via email to victim.
Tab Napping use the modern browser's multi tabbed
environment. Now a days all people use multiple tabs
for accessing Gmail, facebook, orkut and other websites
simultaneously. The trick is to confuse user in his/her
multiple tabs and redirect any of idle tab of his browser
to your phishing silently. Tab Napping works on the
user's assumption that a tabbed web page stays the
same when other Internet services are being accessed.
How does tab napping work?
It is done by checking wether your page is idle or not, if
it is idle or not used for some particular time period
then it gets redirected:
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Things to be done:
1.check for mouse movement
2.check for scroll bar movement
3.check for keystrokes
If any of the above event is not triggered till few seconds
, this means user is not using that tab, either is off from
system or using other tab, so if these coditions are met,
then we redirect it to our phished page, which user
thinks it to be genuine page.
The idea behind this is very simple and is done by
javascript. Tab napping is all about the relation of 2
pages. suppose Page A and Page B. Victim was viewing
page A in a tab of a browser and then left this idle and
and now using some other website in another tab of
browser. If the user will not return to page A for some
pre-specified time, page A will automatically redirect to
Page B. This Page B is your phishing page. This
redirection and cheking for user actions is done by
Javascript.
Make a web page and use the tab napping script in that
page say it page A. This script will not affect the layout
or content of the page. This script will check for user
actions. If the page is idle for some time, this script will
redirect this page to a pre-specified page which may be
your phishing page. You have to specify this page in the
script. Be sure to change this in script.
check script for this line...

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timerRedirect =
setInterval("location.href='http://www.yourwebsite.co
m/'",10000);
this line will redirect to Gmail after 10 sec. Change this
location to the address of your phishing page. This line
is used 2 times in the script so change is both lines.
so, page A with tab napping script will redirect to
phishing page B.
Now send the link of the page A to your victim. This is a
normal page. If the page is idle for some time it will be
changed to page B otherwise no effect.

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Cross Site Scripting (XSS)


It is a vulnerability found in websites which allows an
malicious attack/cracker to inject client-side scripts into
the web pages. By using this vulnerability an attaker
can deface a website, redirection attacks can be done
and session cookie stealing is also possiable by
exploiting this vulnerability.
There are two types of XSS vulnerability found in web
applications.
1. Non-persistent
2. Persistent
Non-persistent
Non-persistent type of XSS vulnerability is the most
comman one. Non-persistent XSS happens when a
malicious HTML query is done by an attacker and that
query is used immiediatly by the server-side to generate
the page result.
Persistent
Persistent type of XSS vulnerability is a dangerous kind
of vulnerability. This happens when a malicious HTML
query is done by the attacker and that query is
immediatly saved by the server and is permanently
displayed on the normal pages.
In this tutorial I'm going to show you how to deface a
XSS vulnerable site via Non-persistent XSS
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vulnerabillty.
In order to find sites vulnerable to XSS use google
dorks. The most comman google dork used by attackers
to exploit the XSS vulnerability is:
inurl:search.php?q=
How to find if the website is XSS vulnerable or not.
Example Website: "www.website.com/search.php?q="
Open the website, you will find a search box. in that
search box type this code:
<script>alert("XSS Detected !!")</script>
And click on search. If the site is vulnerable, you will
get a Jquery box saying "XSS Detected", if you got that
you can move foreward to deface the website site.
Now if you want just to display a simple message like
"H4CK3D", Enter the below HTML code and click on
search.
<h1><center><b>Hacked by
H@x0r_C0d3/K!lL</h1></center></b>

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What are Batch Files?

Lets begin with a simple example ,


Open your command prompt and
change your current directory to
'desktop' by typing 'cd desktop'
without quotes.
Now type these commands one by
one
1. md x //makes directory 'x' on
desktop
2. cd x // changes current directory
to 'x'
3. md y // makes a directory 'y' in
directory 'x'
We first make a folder/directory 'x',
then enter in folder 'x',then make a
folder 'y' in folder 'x' . Now delete
the folder 'x'.
Lets do the same thing in an other
way. Copy these three commands in
notepad and save file as
anything.bat
Now just double click on this batch
file and the same work would be
done , You will get a folder 'x' on
your desktop and folder 'y' in it.
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This means the three commands


executed line by line when we ran
the batch file.
So a batch file is simply a text
containing series of commands
which are executed automatically
line by line when the batch file is
run.

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How To Protect Your Facebook Account


from Hackers
Here are some simple practices that will help to prevent
that from happening.
#1 Enable HTTPS
When you bookmark the URL for Facebook or any of
your other social networks, be sure to use HTTPS
instead of HTTP. This encrypts your communications.
In fact, you will have to temporarily disable this feature
any time you give access to a new application. That
alone should give you confidence that you have achieved
a greater level of protection.
#2 Disable Online Chat
All of us have witnessed Facebook scams, with the most
common being the infamous chat message Im in
the UK and have been mugged please send money so I
can get back home.
While I have no technical basis for this, it stands to
reason that the hackers get in through the chat service.
Every time I have noticed bogus comments allegedly
made by me to my Facebook friends, it is because I had
previously used the online chat.
To disable chat just click on the little wheel in the right
sidebar and take yourself offline. Then close the window
and make sure is registers as chat offline.
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#3 Review Permissions Granted to Third Party Apps


When you grant access to Facebook apps, those
permissions endure long after you top using them.
Go to this link
to https://www.facebook.com/settings/?tab=applications
and disable any you are no longer using.
You will probably be surprised at the long list
permissions your have previously granted!
#4 Activate Text Message Notifications
Facebook allows you to receive text notifications
whenever your account is accessed from a device other
than your primary computer or mobile device.
You simply go to Account Settings and then to Security
Settings to set-up the proper notifications to your
mobile device.
First go to login approvals then login notifications.
You can only choose email or text notifications. By
choosing text notifications you not only get an
immediate notice, but you also activate both your
mobile device and your primary computer as approved
access points.
#5 Maintain Public and Private Email Addresses
The email address you use for Facebook should be
distinct from the one you use where security is more
critical such as your online banking or Paypal
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account.
If your Facebook account gets hacked its embarrassing.
If that is the same email used on your more secure
accounts, now that vulnerability could be costly.
Obviously, if you are selective with your email
addresses and periodically change your passwords, you
minimize your chances of being hacked.
Did you know that anyone can search Facebook for an
email address? For example, if you are looking a
common name such as John Smith, you only need to
search with their email to find the right one.
This is handy for finding your friends on Facebook, but
also useful for hackers. The safe bet is to use distinct
passwords for your public and private email addresses.
There are even more ways to protect your Facebook
and other online accounts, but these 5 are the most
essential, and they are specific to Facebook, which
seems to be the site that is the most vulnerable.
Would You Like More Facebook Tips?
Then consider joining thousands of other small
businesses that have signed up for our monthly Web
Marketing News to get the good stuff a concise
synthesis of what is covered every day here on
JeffKorhan.com excluding weekends, of course.
Good luck
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158

Indroduction of BacktraCk :

Backtrack is a live Linux Distribution made with this


goal, be the best penetration and learning tool around.
It's Based on Ubuntu Lucid LTS (10.04). Kernel 2.6.38,
patched with all relevant wireless injection patches.
Fully open source and GPL compliant. In this release
you can choose to have Gnome or KDE and install it on
32 or 64 bit computer. The former release supported
only 32 bit installation.
Talking of computer security tools not separrated with
the most popular computer security tool of the year
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'backtrack', backtrack has so many tools and


application to do such security penetration testing,
security attack and also computer security action for
computer/digital forensic purpose.
Backtrack linux have some potential resource to be
reliable digital forensic tools. Backtrack have so many
tools to help computer analyst to do some jobs like
Examine drive, Analyzing drive, Recovery drive,
Vulnerabilitiescheck, Penetration testing, and File
interogation.
Backtrack loaded with tools of different categories:
Information Gathering
Vulnerability Assessment
Exploitation Tools
Privilege Escalation
Maintaining Access
Reverse Engineering
RFID Tools
Stress Testing
Forensics
Reporting Tools
Services
Miscellaneous

BackTrack is a powerful hacking suite. It is well made,


with stylish touches that add to the overall feel of the
distribution. It runs very fast in the live mode, even
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faster than most installed distributions. Most


importantly, the array of tool is rich, well balanced and
overall quite impressive.
For security professionals looking for a complete testing
package that has all their favorite gadgets neatly
arrayed, on top of a stable, popular distribution and
with Synaptic package management for easy
replenishment of any missing bits, BackTrack is an
excellent candidate for their work.

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161

BACKTRACK TERMINAL COMMANDS


PROGRAMS
Vlc = Video/Music
Flash Plugin = BT5 Forums
Feh = Picture Viewer
Easytether = Android Tethering
Bless = Hex Editor
Gparted = HDD partition Editor
Transmission = Torrent Client
Crunch = Passwordlist generator
###############
###############
#################### ##
FIXES
NO STARTX
rm -rf /root/.kde/cache-bt
rm -rf /root/.kde/cache-root
FIREFOX FLASH PLAYER "FILES
NEEDED"
tar xvfz flashplayer10_2
_p3_64bit_linux_111710.tar.gz
chown root:root libflashplayer.so
chmod 0644 libflashplayer.so
cp -f libflashplayer.so /usr/lib/
mozilla/plugins/
rm -rf libflashplayer.so
ln -s /usr/lib/mozilla/plugins/
libflashplayer.so /usr/lib/firefox/
plugins/
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tar xvfz install_flash_p


layer_10_linux.tar.gz
mkdir ~/.mozilla/plugins
mv -f libflashplayer.so ~/.mozilla/
plugins/
VLC RUN AS ROOT FIX
/usr/bin/vlc
edit with hex editor
change the line
geteuid._libc_start_main
to
getppid._libc_start_main
###############
###############
#################### ##
Commands = Action **** = your
input
root:toor
startx = GUI
alsamixer = Volume Control
cd = change working directory
reboot = reboot
poweroff = shutdown
rfkill list = wifi problems
rfkill unblock all = wifi on
rm /***/** = delete file
rm -rf /****/** = harsh delete
iwconfig = wireless config/list
ifconfig = wired config/list
###############
###############
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#################### ##
TASKKILLER
kill **** = PID number
###############
###############
#################### ##
BLUETOOTH
hciconfig hci0 up = on
hciconfig hci0 = info
hcitool scan hci0 = find devices
###############
###############
#################### ##
ANDROID TETHERING
easytether connect
***new konsole
dhclient eaytether0
###############
###############
#################### ##
TAR/RAR/ZIP = cd to directory
tar zxf file.tar.gz
tar xvfz ******.tar.gz
tar -zxvf ******.tgz
tar xvf *******.tar.gz2
tar jxf file.tar.bz2
tar zxvf file.tgz
unzip ******.zip
unrar x ****.rar
###############
###############
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#################### ##
INSTALL PROGRAMS
aptitude install **** =install
apt-get **** = install
apt-get update = update repos
apt-get remove [--purge] **** =
uninstall plue dependencies
apt-cache search = search repos
###############
###############
#################### ##
BLUETOOTH
start device
>> hciconfig hci0 up
find device info
>> hciconfig hci0
###############
###############
#################### ##
WPACRACKING
rfkill unblock all = start wifi
airmon-ng start wlan0 = start
monitor mode
airdump-ng mon0 = monitor all
airdump-ng -c *channel -*****bssid -w psk mon0 = catch
handshake
aireplay-ng -0 5 -a****acsespoint c ***conectdcomp mon0 = deauth
attack
mdk3 = stronger deauth attack
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Conclusion
Thanks for Reading This Book and I
hope The Contents Describe in the book
Will Help you to become A Hacker. Now
You Are Own Capable Of Securing your
Own and your Surrounding Computers
from the Threat that we Called
HACKING.

A BOOK BY NAMIT BEHL

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