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Consumers Behavior

Chapter 5
Attention and Comprehension
Exposure to Information is critical for consumers interpretation processes.
There are two types of exposure to marketing information are intentional ( goal
directed search behavior) and accidental exposure. The levels of intentional
exposure to marketing information are rather low. Most exposures are random that
occur as consumers move through their environments and accidentally come into
contact with marketing information.
Selective exposure - is a concept in media and communication research that
refers to individuals tendency to favor information that reinforces pre-existing
views while avoiding contradictory information. In this theory people tend to select
specific aspects of exposed information based on their perspective, beliefs,
attitudes and decisions. People can determine the information exposed to them and
select favorable evidence, while ignoring the unfavorable. This theory has been
explored using the cognitive dissonance theory, which suggests information
consumers strive for results of cognitive equilibrium. In order to attain this
equilibrium, individuals may either reinterpret the information they are exposed to
or select information that are consonant with their view.
Selective exposure to marketing occurs when:
consumers become more adept at avoiding exposure.
consumers do not maintain accidental exposure to marketing
Exposure to Information- Marketing implications
Strategies to enhance consumers exposure to information and products

Facilitate intentional exposure

Maximize accidental exposure
Create appropriate level of exposure
Maintain exposure

Attention Processes - Paying attention is a task many of us take for granted,

except perhaps when were daydreaming or otherwise distracted. Rarely do we stop
to consider the elaborate neurocognitive processes involved in paying attention.
Just for a moment, think about all the things that are stimulating your senses as you
read this sentence background noises, the aroma of food, distractions in your
peripheral vision, thoughts of other things you need to do.
Attention - is the cognitive process of selectively concentrating on one aspect of the
environment while ignoring other things. Attention has also been referred to as the
allocation of processing resources.

Attention Process includes:

Attention implies selectivity.
It connotes awareness and consciousness.
Attention also suggests intensity and arousal.
Factors Influencing Attention
Affective states

Low arousal reduces the amount and intensity of attention.

A state of high affective arousal can narrow consumers focus of
attention and make attention more selective.

Motivational state guiding stimuli selection for focal attention and

Is determined by the meansend chains activated from memory,
related affective responses, and arousal level.
Environmental prominence
The most prominent marketing stimuli are most likely to attract
Attention Processes - Marketing Implications
Intrinsic self-relevance - Identify the product consequences and values
consumers consider most important.
Situational self-relevance - Generates higher levels of involvement and
motivation to attend to marketing information.
Factors affecting environmental prominence
Vivid pictorial images
Novel or unusual stimuli
Comprehension An interpretation processes by which consumers
understand or make sense of their own behavior.
Variations in Comprehension

Inferences During Comprehension - Inferences are interpretations that

produce knowledge or beliefs that go beyond the information given.

Play a large role in the construction of means-end chains.

Are influenced by consumers existing knowledge in memory.
Consumers use cues in making inferences.
Marketers may try to stimulate consumers to form inferences
during comprehension.

Factors Influencing Comprehension

Knowledge in memory

Consumers knowledge in determined in terms of being an expert or a

Marketers need to understand existing knowledge structures of target
audience to develop effective marketing strategies
Has a major influence on consumers motivation to comprehend
marketing information at the time of exposure.
Exposure environment

Can affect consumers opportunity to comprehend marketing

Factors influencing consumer comprehension:
Time pressure
Consumers affective states

Comprehension - Marketing implications - Marketers need to understand

consumers comprehension processes to design effective marketing strategies
Knowledge and involvement
Ability to recall meanings
Miscomprehension of marketing information
Exposure environment