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BATCH 1

PROJECT NAME:
DESIGN OF ENERGY EFFICIENT EMBEDDED SENSOR NETWORK PROCESSOR
USING VLSI
BATCH MEMBERS:
ABINAYA.B

(080107143001)

ADHIRAI.R

(080107143003)

ALAMEILU.RM

(080107143006)

BANUSELVASARASWATHY

(080107143011)

ABSTRACT
Sensor network processors and their applications are a growing area of focus in computer
system research and design. Inherent to this design space is a reduced processing performance
requirement and extremely high energy constraints, such that sensor network processors must
execute low-performance tasks for long durations on small energy supplies. In this paper, we
demonstrate that subthreshold-voltage circuit design (400 mV and below) lends itself well to the
performance and energy demands of sensor network processors. Moreover, we show that the
landscape for micro-architectural energy optimization dramatically changes in the subthreshold
domain. The dominance of leakage power in the subthreshold regime demands architectures that
reduce overall area, increase the utility of transistors, while maintaining acceptable CPI
efficiency. We confirm these observations by performing SPICE-level analysis of 21 sensor
network processors and memory architectures. Our best sensor platform, implemented in 130nm
CMOS and operating at 235 mV, only consumes 1.38 pJ/instruction, nearly an order of
magnitude less energy than previously published sensor network processor results. This design,
accompanied by bulk-silicon solar cells for energy scavenging, has been manufactured by IBM
and is currently being tested.

BATCH 2
PROJECT NAME:
AN EAR-LEAD ECG BASED SMART SENSOR SYSTEM
BATCH MEMBERS:
ABINAYA.C (080107143002)
CHITRA.V

(080107143014)

DHARANI.R

(080107143016)

LAVANYA .A (080107143034)
ABSTRACT
The computer-based portable devices lead our societies to the world of healthcare, so that
people may monitor their heart rate outside hospitals. The paper proposes an ultra-wearable
smart sensor system combines electrocardiogram(ear-lead ECG),tri-axial accelerometer, and
GPS sensor to measure normal or elderly persons daily Activities. The ear-lead makes possible
to measure ECG signals without any chest belt or sticky tape. It measures the ECG signals from
an ear to an arm. According to our research, the ear-lead is linear combination with regular ECG
lead I and III. For most of people, especially, the ear-lead is highly correlated with lead-I ECG.
Lead I can be used to detect life threatening ECG signals with critical heart rate or morphology
changes such as ventricular tachycardia(VT), ventricular flutter(VFL), or ventricular
fibrillation(VFib).

The

hardware

of

the

smart

sensor

integrates

TI

MSP430

microprocessor,Bluetooth wireless transmission to PC client software , micro SD card


storage,and LCD display. The embedded algorithm combines two sensors for noise reduction and
utilizes voice biofeedback for exercise overload working.

BATCH 3
PROJECT NAME:
COMPRESSION OF COLOR IMAGES USING SPIHT ALGORITHM
BATCH MEMBERS:
M.AHILAPRIYADARSINI
S.LAKSHMI PRIYA

(080107143004)
(080107143033)

D.JAYASRI

(080107143024)

N.PRIYA

(080107143049)

ABSTRACT
In recent years there has been an astronomical increase in the usage of computers for a
variety of tasks. In multimedia application, most of the images are in color. Color images contain
lot of data redundancy and require a large amount of storage space. In this R, G and B
component of color image are converted to YCBCR before wavelet transform. In this work, we
are presenting the performance of haar wavelet transform and we are using SPIHT algorithm for
compressing color image. Mat lab software is used for simulation.

BATCH 4
PROJECT NAME:
DESIGN OF ADAPTIVE HUFFMAN DATA COMPRESSION ALGORITHM FOR
WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK
BATCH MEMBERS:
N.U.AISWARYA

(080107143005)

T.MONICA

(080107143039)

A.MYTHELI

(080107143040)

I.PRABHA

(080107143047)

ABSTRACT
In wireless sensor networks (WSNs), one of the main design challenges is to save
severely constrained energy resources and obtain long system lifetime. In this paper novel
compression algorithm based on the principle of Adaptive Huffman Code is proposed for the
collected temperature data in real environment by the sensor nodes are continuous and slow
changing in order to reduce power or energy consumption in Wireless Sensor Network. The
algorithm is simple, easy to implement, and suitable for application in wireless sensor networks.
It can achieve lossless compression with required accuracy by making the full use of the
difference value of the data.

BATCH 5
PROJECT NAME:
DETECTION OF PARALYSIS USING MEMS TECHNOLOGY
BATCH MEMBERS:
ANJALINE A
GAYATHRI DEVI P
KANCHANA M
KRITHIKA PRIYADHARSHNI S

(080107143007)
(080107143020)
(080107143029)
(080107143032)

ABSTRACT
Paralysis is the permanent inability to consciously control the movement of muscles.
Most of the muscles get affected due to paralysis. Diagnosis is the critical challenge in medical
field. One of the symptoms of paralysis is the change in vision resulting in eye disorders.
Paralysis cannot be cured permanently but some preventive measures can be taken by finding the
stage of eye disorder. This project reports the preliminary work in designing a sensor in MEMS
technology using COMSOL software to detect the changes in vision. Thus based on the changes
detected the stage of paralysis can be identified and necessary measures can be taken by the
doctors accordingly .This work is purely focused on designing and implementing a sensor which
can help physicians in taking preventive measures against paralysis.

BATCH 6
PROJECT NAME:
TRAIN MONITORING AND ROUTEMAPPING USING GPS
BATCH MEMBERS:
ANJU RAJAGURU

(080107143008)

JISHA SANKAR P

(080107143026)

JUNA ANNA THOMAS

(080107143027)

LIDIYA C JOY

(080107143035)

ABSTRACT
In this modern moving world, people migrate often from one place to another for
several purposes. A considerable percentage of people use train as their mode of transportation.
One has to verify the railway information boards to know his current position. It is difficult to
trace the place we are passing through until we reach a particular station. Train monitoring using
GPS provides solution for this difficulty. It is a GPS based tracking system used to monitor the
position of train. This is done with the help of GPS satellite and a GPS module attached to the
train. The GPS antenna present in the GPS module receives the information from the GPS
satellite and thus reveals the position information. This information from the GPS antenna has to
be sent to base station wherein it is decoded. This can be monitored using a LCD monitor placed
in compartments .The route maps of various town through which the train travels can also be
displayed. When the train reaches each station the route map of the particular town is also
displayed along with the position of the train.

BATCH 7
PROJECT NAME:
ELIMINATION OF CANCER CELLS USING COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS
TECHNIQUE
BATCH MEMBERS:
ANUSREE M

(080107143009)

DHARANYA M

(080107143017)

DIYA R P

(080107143019)

PRIYADARSHIKA K(080107143050)
ABSTRACT
Localized heating is poised to become an integral part of microfluidic devices in various
life-science applications. The elimination of cancer cells are done using resistive heating method.
Many methods are adopted for cancer elimination. But this method will be more useful for
eliminating cancer cells. By using mems, COMSOL Multiphysics technique by resistive heating
method the cancer cells will be get eliminated. This is catalyzed by the scale of economics, the
advantageous fluidic behavior at small volumes, and the ever increasing need for rapid and high
throughput assays for pharmaceutical industry and other combinatorial based studies.
For precision confined heating, thin film resistive heaters have proven to be superior to
the conventionally used Peltier elements, which are often a hindrance to miniaturization and
functionality integration for thermally sensitive application. The resistivity of certain metals
varies predictably with temperature, making them suitable for use as temperature sensors. If a
thin film could be designed so that it preserves a uniform temperature distribution during
heating, its total resistance would accurately reflect its temperature, allowing it to simultaneously
act as both a temperature sensor and a heater.

BATCH 8
PROJECT NAME:
A NOVEL APPROACH FOR HIDING MESSAGES IN IMAGES
BATCH MEMBERS:
ARUNAA C

(080107143010)

BRINDHA D

(080107143013)

KALPANA K

(080107143028)

NITHYA C

(080107143042)

ABSTRACT
In this project, a spiral based Least Significant Bit (LSB) approach for hiding messages in
images is represented. The proposed approach is based on the LSB substitution technique
applied on RGB color components of BMP images. The key idea is to divide the image into
segments and process them differently. The presented approach considers three algorithms
corresponding to three spiral substitution. The proposed algorithms are presented and their
performance against attacks and processing time are evaluated. The embedding time was
compared for the proposed algorithms as function of the message length up to 20KB.

BATCH 9
PROJECT NAME:
COLLEGE INFORMATION ACCESS SYSTEM USING EMBEDDED TOUCH
SCREEN
BATCH MEMBERS:
BIJITHA M P

(080107143012)

JENCY SARA JACOB

(080107143025)

SARANYA B

(080107143057)

SARANYA P M

(080107143058)

BATCH 10
PROJECT NAME:
CONTRAST ENHANCEMENT OF IMAGES WITH UNIFORM 1-D GRAY SCALE
HISTOGRAM
BATCH MEMBERS:
DEEPIKA R

(080107143015)

GIRIJA S

(080107143021)

GOKILA DEVI S

(080107143022)

GOWRI J

(080107143023)

ABSTRACT
Histogram equalization is a simple and effective technique for contrast enhancement of
images. However, conventional histogram equalization (HE) usually results in excessive contrast
enhancement, which in turn gives the processed image an unnatural look and creates visual
artifacts. There is always a need of uniform histogram in order to obtain effective enhancement
of images. Although there are many histogram equalization methods to obtain uniform histogram
in gray scale, most of them do not yield uniform histogram which is expected. After converting a
color histogram equalized image into gray scale, the contrast of the converted image is worse
than that of a 1-D gray scale histogram equalized image. We propose a novel 3-D color
histogram equalization method that produces uniform distribution in gray scale histogram. In the
proposed method, we define a cumulative probability density function in 3-D color space which
acts an essence to enhance the images. In most of the techniques involving the processing of
intensity and saturation in color images and keeping hue unaltered is by transforming the image
data from RGB space to other color spaces such as LHS, HSI, YIQ, HSV, etc. Transforming from
one space to another and processing in these spaces usually generate gamut problem, i.e., the
values of the variables may not be in their respective intervals. Enhancement techniques for color
images are studied here theoretically in a generalized setup. A principle is suggested to make the
transformations gamut problem free in this regard. Using the same principle a class of hue
preserving contrast enhancement transformations are used in our technique. Test results with

natural and synthetic images are presented followed by comparison and analysis of various color
histogram equalization algorithms based upon 3-D color histograms. We also present the
theoretical analysis for non ideal performance of existing methods in our work.

BATCH 11
PROJECT NAME:
MEMS BASED HUMITITY SENSOR USING Si CANTILEVER BEAM FOR HARSH
ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
BATCH MEMBERS:
DIVYA K

(080107143018)

KARTHIKA S

(080107143030)

KRITHIKA M

(080107143031)

MYTHILI B S

(080107143041)

ABSTRACT
Sensing and controlling of humidity is a major issue in various industries. Many of the
equipments in industries require monitoring and controlling humidity for its efficient and
reliable operation. This paper presents the design, fabrication and complete characterization of a
micro cantilever based humidity sensor for harsh environmental conditions. A Si cantilever
humidity sensor based on capacitive principle is designed and displacement analysis is
performed on the sensor. The polyimide, acts as a sensing material for this sensor. The polyimide
is coated over the beam to sense the humidity. If the humidity absorbed by the polyimide
material increases, the mass of the beam is also increased. The deflection of the beam causes the
change in capacitance. The relative humidity can be calculated using the change in capacitance.
The beam had an appreciable deflection causing a notable change in capacitance. The variation
of capacitance is in the order of Pico farads. The sensor is designed in a structure that can tolerate
the harsh environmental conditions like pressure, temperature, etc.

BATCH 12
PROJECT NAME:
A LOW-COST EXTENDABLE FRAMEWORK FOR EMBEDDED BASED SMART
CAR SECURITY SYSTEM
BATCH MEMBERS:
S.SHALINI

(080107143061)

S.MIRNALINI

(090407143011)

T.VANITHA

(090407143020)

ABSTRACT
In this proposed embedded car security system, FDS (Face Detection System) is used to
detect the face of the driver and compare it with the predefined face. For example, in the night
when the cars owner is sleeping and someone theft the car then FDS obtains image by one tiny
web camera which can be hidden easily in somewhere in the car. If suppose the driver is sleeping
in the car without his knowledge, an alarm is placed to alert the driver in the car. FDS compares
the obtained image with the predefined images if the image doesnt match, then the information
is sent to the owner through MMS.
So now owner can obtain the image of the unauthorized person in his mobile as well as
he can trace the location through GPS. The location of the car as well as its speed can be
displayed to the owner through SMS. So by using this system, owner can identify the
unauthorized person image as well as the location of the car.

BATCH 13
PROJECT NAME:
THE ELECTRONIC PASSPORT FOR THE FUTURE GOVERNMENT ISSUED
BASED ON RF ID IDENTIFICATION
BATCH MEMBERS:
C.MALATHI

(080107143037)

N.SANGEETHA

(080107143056)

K.YUVARANI

(090407143077)

S.SINDHU

(090407143017)

ABSTRACT
Passports and other identification documents may be enhanced using recent
advancements in technology. Various national and international bodies are pursuing machinereadable approaches with biometric information. In particular, the International Civil Aviation
Organization (ICAO) has adopted standards whereby passports can store biometric identifiers.
Countries that participate in the Visa Waiver Program (VWP) began issuing electronic
passports in 2006. However, the selection of technologies remains questionable due to privacy
and security concerns. This paper examines policy regarding these electronic approaches and
developments toward electronic data storage and transmission. Radio-frequency identification
(RFID) devices for electronic passports and other existing identity documents are discussed.

BATCH 14
PROJECT NAME:
GPS-GSM BASED BUS TRANSPORTATION
BATCH MEMBERS:
R.MANO

(080107143038)

N.NITHYASHRI

(080107143043)

A.POORNIMA

(080107143045)

M.POORNIMA

(08010714346)

ABSTRACT
This paper is an implementation of enhancing public transportation
management services based on GPS & GSM.
It consists of four modules:
Bus station module& Base station module
In-bus module
Bus stop module
The In-module consist of a GPS receiver and GSM modem which are PC
based and hence starts transmitting its location and number of passengers travelling
in the bus to the base station module .the base station module in turn consists of the
microcontroller units and GSM modems interfaced to PCs which is designed to track
of every bus .It updates the details of the bus location based on the users request at
the bus stops. Every bus stop consists of a GSM modem, Bus stop module, Memory
units and dot matrix display interfaced to a microcontroller .The dot matrix display
the information of the buses location and which bus is coming towards the stop as
this bus stop module receives this details from base station module .This result is
useful for people using public transportation services.

BATCH 15

PROJECT NAME:
HUMAN INTERACTING DEVICE (HID) WITH BLUETOOTH FOR DISABLED
BATCH MEMBERS:
POOJA A K

(080107143044)

SHAJEELA V C

(080107143060)

SOUMYA K R

(080107143064)

VREESHA E P

(080107143076)

ABSTRACT
The project presents a novel method to control computer mouse cursor movement and
keyboard with head and eyes. Using this system, computer can be used by persons with
disabilities for Internet browsing, communication, environmental control, source of information
and entertainment. The device can be found most useful by handicapped people who can no
longer control the computers using their hands. Since the device relies on users head and eye
movements, it can be used even by patients who are paralyzed from shoulder downward. Simple
head movements dont require too much energy, and neither does eye blinking. Therefore users
wont get tired from using this device, and in contrast, theyll get exercise on the neck, which
tends to be the problem for most regular computer users.
This device is an interface system that would allow a similarly paralyzed user to interact
with a computer with almost full functional capability. That is, the system operates as a mouse
initially, but the user has the ability to toggle in and out of a keyboard mode allowing the entry of
text. This is achieved by using the control from a single eye, tracking the position of the pupil for
direction, and using blinking as an input.

BATCH 16

PROJECT NAME:
DIFFERENTIATION OF REAL AND ARTIFICIAL FRUITS USING NEURAL
NETWORK AND DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING
BATCH MEMBERS:
K.PRERNA TIWARI

(080107143048)

P.RAJITHA

(080107143052)

M.MUTHUKRITHIKA

(090407143012)

M.WAHEEDHA BEGAM

(090407143021)

ABSTRACT
The quality of the fruit is largely depends on type of defects, skin color and size
of the fruit. In this research, we develop an image recognition system to identify the level of
maturity of fruit and classify them into various categories. A common problem in fruit
production systems is sorting and classification. A usual procedure to carry out this task is based
on human visual inspection considering general fruit attributes like color and size. Color contains
important information about fruit status and in some cases it is decisive for fruit quality
differentiation. An adequate color classification can improve system accuracy and productivity.
Large-scale utilization of automatic classification system for this purpose demands a robust color
classification even under different color saturation, variations of environment lighting and light
reflections. This paper provides an investigation on the applicability of color classification using
an artificial neural network in the fruit-sorting domain. Using the well-known network
generalization property we investigate the applicability of this approach to the segmentation of
colored images represented by the RGB color system. Jointly with color analysis, we also use
some shape analysis to generate a robust and real time system that was tested for orange
classification according to a Brazilian standard and which was able to provide fruit classification
under less restricted visual conditions. A back propagation diagnosis model (BPDM) is adopted
to recognize the image of the matured fruits. Color indices associated with image pixels are used
as input. As a result, the developed BPMD can give 95% accuracy based on samples of twentyseven images. It can be ascertained that our proposed BPDM can achieved its performance
function.
BATCH 17

PROJECT NAME:
PROGRAMMABLE FREQUENCY DOWN CONVERTERS FOR SATELLITE
GROUND STATION
BATCH MEMBERS:
RAGAVI.K (080107143051)
SHIFANA.S (080107143062)
SUJITHA.G (080107143069)
VIVITHA.T (080107143075)
ABSTRACT
The satellite ground station is used to receive data from various remote sensing satellites.
The high data rate modulated signals are transmitted from these satellites at different frequencies
in X-Band range from 8000 to 8400 MHz
The frequency converters are used in data reception station to receive X-Band signals and
down convert to an Intermediate Frequency (IF). The frequency synthesizers are used to generate
the Local Oscillator signals for down conversion.
The frequency is programmable to cater for the signal reception at any frequency over the
band.
The down converter is realized using Frequency mixer, Isolator, Band pass filter and
Amplifiers. The specifications and desired performance for satellite data reception are achieved
through proper selection of the components used in the down converter.
An algorithm will be developed to realize all the above functions. The tracking error
signal will be generated and used for the simulation and testing of the developed algorithm.

BATCH 18

PROJECT NAME:
MONITORING AND CONTROLLING OF ENVIRONMENTAL PARAMETERS AND
INDUSTRIAL DEVICES USING ZIGBEE
BATCH MEMBERS:
M.RAMYA

(080107143053)

S.SOUNDHARYAM

(080107143065)

B.SUGANYA

(080107143067)

S.THARANI

(080107143072)

ABSTRACT
According to the environmental parameter monitoring requirements in greenhouse and
the devices in the industries, a wireless measurement and control system for temperature and
light is developed. It overcomes the disadvantages of wired monitoring system, such as
complicated wiring, and difficult maintenance. The environmental parameters in every
greenhouse and the devices in the industries were measured and controlled by microcontroller.
The hardware and software of the monitoring system are discussed in detail. The experimental
results show that the developed monitoring system has the following features, such as simple
structure, high reliability, good extensibility and flexible configuration.
With the continued expansion of production scale, the disadvantage of serial
communication is replaced by Zigbee, which is used for parallel communication. monitoring
system through Zigbee is more prodominent.
Development of data acquisition is the process of gathering signals from the remote
sources and digitizing those signals for storage, transmission and analysis. Data logging, carried
out by a data acquisition system(DAS), is used to measure real world parameters in real time. In
this system data logging systems consists of measuring outputs (sensors).
In this project microcontroller collects the data continuously from the sensors, and sends
the data to the one end of the Zigbee transmitter and it is received by the Zigbee receiver. The
data is sent to pc continuously. It updates the different sensors and controls the parameters that
affects the environment.

The greenhouse parameter and devices in the industries are monitored and controlled
through the microcontroller. The status of the parameters are sent to LCD display placed at the
remote side. The commands given by the user at the remote client will be received by the
microcontroller through Zigbee and get executed.

BATCH 19
PROJECT NAME:

TEXT SEGMENTATION FOR MRC DOCUMENT COMPRESSION


BATCH MEMBERS:
N.SATHIYAPRIYA

(080107143059)

P.THANGAMANI

(080107143071)

P.VINOTHINI

(080107143074)

S.DIVYA

(090407143004)

ABSTRACT
The mixed raster content (MRC) standard specifies a framework for document
compression which can dramatically improve the compression/quality tradeoff as compared to
traditional lossy image compression algorithms. The key to MRC compression is the separation
of the document into foreground and background layers, represented as a binary mask.
Therefore, the resulting quality and compression ratio of a MRC document encoder is highly
dependent upon the segmentation algorithm used to compute the binary mask. In this paper, we
propose a novel multiscale segmentation scheme for MRC document encoding based upon the
sequential application of two algorithms. The first algorithm, cost optimized segmentation
(COS), is a blockwise segmentation algorithm formulated in a global cost optimization
framework. The second algorithm, connected component classification (CCC), refines the initial
segmentation by classifying feature vectors of connected components using an Markov random
field (MRF) model. The combined COS/CCC segmentation algorithms are then incorporated into
a multiscale framework in order to improve the segmentation accuracy of text with varying size.
In comparisons to state-of-the-art commercial MRC products and selected segmentation
algorithms in the literature, we show that the new algorithm achieves greater accuracy of text
detection but with a lower false detection rate of nontext features. We also demonstrate that the
proposed segmentation algorithm can improve the quality of decoded documents while
simultaneously lowering the bit rate.
BATCH 20
PROJECT NAME:

DESIGN OF FIXED-WIDTH MULTIPLIERS WITH LINEAR COMPENSATION


FUNCTION
BATCH MEMBERS:
SOWMIYA.T

(080107143063)

ANUSUYA.K

(090407143001)

KAVIYA.S

(090407143008)

VANI.A

(090407143019)

ABSTRACT
This paper focuses on xed-width multipliers with linear compensation function by
investigating in detail the effect of coefficients quantization. New fixed-width multiplier
topologies, with different accuracy versus hardware complexity trade-off, are obtained by
varying the quantization scheme. Two topologies are in particular selected as the most effective
ones. The first one is based on a uniform coefficient quantization while the second topology uses
a non uniform quantization scheme. The novel fixed-width multiplier exhibit better accuracy
with respect to previous solutions, closed to the theoretical lower bound. The electrical
performances of the proposed fixed-width multipliers are compared with previous architectures.
It is found that in most of the investigated cases the new topologies are Pareto-optimal regarding
the area-accuracy trade-off.

BATCH 21
PROJECT NAME:

AN ADAPTIVE HANDS-FREE DESIGN TECHNIQUE FOR MOBILE


COMMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
BATCH MEMBERS:
SRIVINUSATHYA.A

(080107143066)

SUKANYA.R

(080107143070)

DHATCHYAYINI.I
MAHESWARI.N

(090407143003)
(090407143009)

ABSTRACT
To overcome the accident while driving with mobile conversation ,we decided to do a
project in hand-free mobile design technique .Our project consist of two sections former section
is vehicle section and the other one is mobile section ,Once we start the ignition the RF signal
transfers from the vehicle to mobile immediately it changes to driving mode .If mobile received
the call , it attends and gives the intimation on the display, in case of emergency it will inform
the driver through displaying on mobile section.

BATCH 22
PROJECT NAME:

A SIMPLE AND FAST ALGORITHM TO DETECT THE FOVEA REGION IN THE


FUNDUS RETINAL IMAGE
BATCH MEMBERS:
SUGANYA.M
VIDTHYA.G
THARUNYA.T
ABSTRACT
Retinal image analysis is one of the crucial topics in medical image processing. During
the last three decades, people are trying to extract the different features (like blood vessels, optic
disk, macula, fovea etc.) automatically from retinal image. Fovea is one of the important features
of a fundus retinal image. This project presents a simple and fast algorithm using Mathematical
Morphology to find the fovea region. Proposed algorithm is based on the structure of the blood
vessels and information on the optic disk. Manual detection of fovea region by ophthalmologists
is time consuming. Due to unavailability of trained ophthalmologists especially in developing
countries like India, automation is highly needed. Fovea is characterized by the center of the
macula. In fundus retinal image the macula is the darkest part approximated by a circle.
Geometrically fovea is said to be located at a distance 2.5 times the diameter of the Optic Disk
(OD) from its center. Various attempts were made for the successful detection of fovea region. In
one of such attempts they have used a template of size 4040 with Gaussian distribution = 2.2.
They measure the maximum correlation coefficient between template and intensity image to find
the fovea region subject to the condition that it will be an acceptable distance from the OD and in
a region of darkest intensity. They proposed a method based on Parabola fitting on the main
blood vessels. In fact many techniques first detect the blood vessels to locate the fovea. In this
project, we have localized the fovea region in a different way. Our method is focused on the
structure of the blood vessels around the macula region. We have used OD and the blood vessels
structure information around the macula region to localize the fovea region accurately.
BATCH 23
PROJECT NAME:

A NEW SCHEME FOR MANAGEMENT OF CINEMA MULTIPLEX


SYSTEM IN A COST EFFECTIVE WAY
BATCH MEMBERS:
ASHA J

(090407143002)

NIROSHA K.S

(090407143013)

PAVITHRA K

(090407143014)

PREMALATHA C (090407143015)

BATCH 24

PROJECT NAME:
DIGITALLYCALIBRATED PLL WITH SUPPLY-SENSITIVITY SUPPRESSION
BATCH MEMBERS:
GEETHALAKSHMI B

(090407143005)

GOKILA R

(090407143006)

GOWRI M

(090407143007)

SHOBANA J

(090407143016)

ABSTRACT
A phase-locked loop or phase lock loop is an electronic circuit consisting of a variable
frequency oscillator and a phase detector. This circuit compares the phase of the input signal with the
phase of the signal derived from its output oscillator and adjusts the frequency of its oscillator to keep
the phases matched. A VCO is one of the key components in a PLL, and it has a great impact on the
PLLs overall performance. The main drawback in VCO is , it has more supply sensitivity and jitter.
Jitter can also occur due to substrate conditions. Isolation of key components such as the VCO and
charge pump from the outputs and on-chip digital circuitry can reduce jitter .Due to many oscillations
in VCO there is more supply sensitivity. The main aim of this project is to suppress the supply
voltage sensitivity, this can be achieved by using a VCO with a digitally-calibrated opposite-supplysensitivity pair .To save the power consumption, and the digital calibration circuit is turned off once
the calibration is completed. To reduce the calibration time, the successive approximation register
method is adopted.