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Numeri al Fluid Dynami s 414/814


2 hours

Prof G.D. Thiart

Full marks:

Mar h 2010


Mr S.J. van der Spuy
Certi ation



Instru tions:
1. Open book examination - only the book An Introdu tion to Computational Fluid
Dynami s (se ond edition) by Versteeg & Malalasekera may be used.
2. Answer all the questions.
3. Show all steps of derivations and al ulations.
4. Po ket al ulators may be used.
5. If a question does not provide su ient information, make a realisti assumption.
6. State all assumptions.

Question 1 [15 marks

The gure shows a omputational domain for numeri ally simulating the ow through a
steam ondenser onsisting of two rows of tubes. The tube spa ing is the same for both
rows. Air (relatively old) is blown over the tubes ontaining the steam (relatively hot),
thus providing the ooling e e t to ondense the steam in the tubes. The ow internal to
the tubes is NOT to be modelled as part of the simulation; it may be assumed that the
surfa e temperature of the tubes is equal to the temperature of the steam.
(a) Spe ify boundary types and (typi al) boundary onditions for ea h of the boundaries
labeled A to G.
(b) Dis uss the impli ations on your answers in part (a) if the relative ow is at an angle
of in iden e, say 10 , with respe t to the x-axis.

Question 2 [30 marks

In a steady one-dimensional situation, the variable  is governed by



+ a b

where  = 8, = 5, a = 10 and b = 20. The ow eld is su h that u = 2. For the uniform

grid in the a ompanying gure, x = 21 .
(a) Using \half" ontrol volumes at the boundaries, set up the system of dis retised equations that is ne essary to al ulate the values of 0 , 1 and 2 by use of the hybrid
s heme.
(b) Apply the \forward elimination" step of the TDMA to the system of equations obtained
in part (a).
( ) Obtain the values of 0 , 1 and 2 by appli ation of the \ba kward substitution" step
of the TDMA to the result of part (b).
(d) Graph (sket h!) the solution and omment on its realism, et .



= 120

Question 3 [15 marks

For the steady, one-dimensional, onstant-density situation shown in the gure, both the
pressure p and the velo ity u are al ulated at the positions marked 1, 2 and 3 (i.e., a
olloa ted grid is employed, not a staggered grid). The velo ity orre tion formula is

= u  + d p0


p0i+ 1

where the subs ripts i 21 and i + 21 denote the positions of the ontrol volume fa es on either
side of the position of node i. The value of d is equal to 2 everywhere, and at a ertain stage
of the iteration pro edure u1 = 10, u2 = 8, u3 = 12, and p2 = 10.
(a) Using the Rhie & Chow interpolation pra ti e, set up the pressure orre tion equation
for the ontrol volume surrounding grid point 2.
(b) Determine the value of p02 , assuming that p01 = 2 and p03 = 2.
( ) Update the pressure and velo ity values at grid point 2 by means of the pressure
orre tions spe i ed and obtained in part (b).

1 12

2 12