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Present Simple Tense

Forme
Afirmativ :
Subiect + Verbul la infinitiv
Exceptie : La pers a III sg verbul se termina mereu in s sau es :
The boy wants a toy car for Christmas. Baiatul vrea o masina de jucarie
pentru Craciun.
Atentie!
1. Verbele care se termina in y (atunci cand y urmeaza dupa o consoana) la pers
a III sg, y se transforma in -ies:
I cry She cries.
I play He plays.
2. Verbele care se termina in o, -ss, -x, -sh, -ch primesc la pers a III sg - es
My mother usually goes to the market in the morning. Mama se duce
de obicei in piata dimineata.
Negativ :
Subiect+ do not/ does not + verb
She does not sing in the school chorus. Ea nu canta in corul scolii.
Interogativ :
do not/ does not + Subiect + verb
Does she want to participate in the competition? - Vrea ea sa participle in
competitie?

Present Simple Tense se foloseste pentru a exprima :


- Adevaruri general valabile :
The earth has 2 emispheres. - Pamantul are 2 emisfere.
The Sun rises from east. Soarele rasare de la est.
- Actiuni repetitive:
She takes piano lessons each day at 5 oclock. Ea ia lectii de pian in fiecare
zi la ora 5.
- Actiuni de moment, terminate in momentul in care sunt savarsite :

Mark gets out of bed, goes to the bathroom and washes his teeth. Mark se da
jos din pat, se duce la baie si se spala pe dinti.
- Actiuni obisnuite :
My grandfather and I usually look at the stars when the sky is clear. Bunicul
meu si cu mine, noi ne uitam de obicei la stele cand e senin.
- Actiuni planificate in viitor, obligatorii (cu verbe de miscare) :
The year ends with the 31st of December. Anul se termina cu 31 decembrie.
Adverbs of frequency: always, usually, often, sometimes, never, every day, every
week, every .
Adverbe folosite cu Present Tense Simple : de obicei, des, mereu, in fiecare
dimineata, cateodata, noaptea, dimineata.

Present Continuous / Present progressive


Forme
Afirmativ :
Subiect + Prezentul verbului a fi(to be) +VB- ing :
She is cutting the cake in slices. (Ea taie prajitura felii.)
Negativ :
Subiect + Prezentul verbului a fi(to be) + not + verb + ing :
She is not talking at the moment, she is eating. (In acest moment ea nu
vorbeste, mananca.)
Interogativ :
Prezentul verbului a fi + Subiect + verb + ing :
Is she smiling ? (Ea zambeste ?)

Prezentul continuu se foloseste pentru a exprima :


- actiune care se intampla in momentul vorbirii
Ex. The wind is blowing.- Vantul sufla.
It is raining outside. - Ploua afara.
- actiune care se extinde pe o perioada putin mai lunga de timp
Ex. Julia is reading a novel by Dickens. - Iulia citeste un roman de Dickens.
- actiune temporara, limitata
Ex. I live in Cluj but this year I am living in Bucuresti. Traiesc in Cluj dar in acest
an locuiesc in Bucuresti.
- planuri imediate pentru viitorul apropiat
Ex. The children are going camping today. Copiii merg cu cortul astazi.
- actiune frecvent repetata, suparatoare se foloseste deseori cu adverbele always,
forever, constantly
Ex. Ann is always making plans without taking into consideration all the facts.
Ann isi face mereu planuri fara sa ia in considerare toate aspectele.
- in propozitii subordonate
Ex They will go jogging while the babies are sleeping. Ei vor face jogging cat
timp copii dorm.

Atentie!
Exista o serie de verbe care nu se folosesc la Prezent Continuu!
Ele se impart in urmatoarele categorii :
Verbe de perceptie : feel, hear, see, smell, taste
Verbe de opinie : assume, believe, consider, doubt, feel (= a crede), find (= a
considera), suppose, think
Verbe care se refera la perceptie mentala: forget, imagine, know, mean, notice,
recognize, remember, understand
Verbe care exprima emotii sau chiar dorinte : envy, fear, dislike, hate, hope, like,
love, mind, prefer, regret, want, wish
Verbe folosite pentru masurat : contain, cost, hold, measure, weigh
Alte verbe : look (= a se asemana), seem, be (in majoritatea cazurilor), have =
a poseda)
Unele verbe pot fi folosite la forma continua dar isi schimba sensul :
Exemple:
Verbul to see (a imagina) :
I think you are seeing things, there is no one in the house. Cred ca iti
imaginezi lucruri, nu e nimeni in casa.
Verbul to smell (a adulmeca, a mirosi) :
She is smelling the roses.- Ea miroase trandafirii.
Verbul to look (a se uita) :
Tom is looking at Maria.
Verbul to be (a se comporta) :
She is being rude. Ea se comporta nepoliticos.
Expresii de timp folosite cu prezentul continuu : now, at the moment, at
present, these days, still, nowadays, today, tonight.

Reguli de scriere
- verbele monosilabice i dubleaz ntotdeauna consoana final: to sit sitting; to put
putting; to run running; to prefer preffering; to offer offering.

- verbele formate din dou sau mai multe silabe i dubleaz consoana final numai dac
silaba final este accentuat: to being beggining; dar to differ differing; to refer
referring;
- verbele care se termin n e mut, la adugarea terminaiei -ing pierd vocala e: to
make making; to like liking; to notice noticing;
- verbele to see i to be nu pierd vocala final naintea adugrii terminaiei ing, pentru c
vocala nu este mut: to see seeing; to be being;
- dac verbul se termin n y regula se menine, adic se adaug terminaia ing,
fr a face modificri (regula se aplic i pentru verbele care se termin n ch, sh, o,
s, ss, z, zz, x):

to beg
(a implora)

I am begging
You are begging
He / She / It is begging
I am trying

to try
(a ncerca)

You are trying

to fly

He / She / It is
trying

(a zbura)

I am flying
You are flying
He / She / It is flying

- verbele care se termin n y i pstreaz ultima vocal naintea adugrii terminaiei


ing: to try trying ;
- verbele care se termin n ic schimb cele dou litere in ick naintea adugrii
terminaiei ing: to picnic picnicking;
- verbele care se termin n L i dubleaz ultima consoan naintea adugrii terminaiei
ing: to travel travelling.

Simple Past Tense


Forme
Afirmativ :
S + verbul la forma a II a de pe lista verbelor iregulate
We went to the zoo yesterday. Am fost la zoo ieri.
S + verb + ed pentru cele regulate
I phoned her. I-am dat telefon.
Negativ :
S + aux DO la trecut (did) + not + verbul la infinitiv
We did not finish the project in due time. Noi nu am terminat proiectul la
timp.
Interogativ :
Did + S + verbul la infinitiv ?
Did you eat all the chocolate? Ai mancat toata ciocolata?
Trecutul simplu (Simple Past Tense) se foloseste pentru a exprima :

A. Actiuni terminate in trecut la un timp stabilit


o Cand locul si timpul unde se petrece actiunea ne sunt date
Marta called me in the morning from the hospital. Marta m-a sunat
dimineata de la spital.
o Cand se intreaba timpul
When did you go to the Opera? Cand ai fost la Opera?
o Cand timpul e definit ca rezultat al unei intrebari
When did they find her? They found her 2 hours ago. Cand au gasit-o? Ei au
gasit-o acum 2 ore.
B. Actiuni care s-au intamplat imediat una dupa alta in trecut
They went into the house, brought food from the fridge and set the table in the
yard. Ei s-au dus in casa, au adus mancare din frigider si au pus masa in
curte.
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C. Obiceiuri in trecut care acum sunt terminate


I used to go to ballet 5 years ago. Obisnuiam sa ma duc la cursuri de balet
acum 5 ani.
Adverbe ce se folosesc cu Simple Past Tense : yesterday, the day before yesterday,
last week, two weeks ago

Past Continuous Tense


Forme
Afirmativ :
S + verbul To BE la past tense + verbul de conjugat + ING
I was reading the lesson when the teacher came in. Citeam lectia cand a
intrat profesoara.
Negativ :
S + verbul To BE la past tense la forma negativa + verbul de conjugat +
ING
They werent looking for Susan; they were looking for her sister. Ei nu o
cautau pe Susan, ei o cautau pe sora ei.
Interogativ :
Verbul To BE la past tense + S + verbul de conjugat + ING
Was he driving too fast when he had the accident? Conducea el prea
repede cand a avut accidentul?
Trecutul simplu (Past Continuous Tense) se foloseste pentru a exprima :
actiune care se afla in desfasurare la un moment dat in trecut.
While you were having a bath, the phone rang. In timp ce faceai baie a
sunat telefonul.

actiune care continua de ceva vreme


Yesterday I was jogging in the park. Ieri, faceam jogging in park.
actiune care are loc in acelasi timp cu o alta actiune in trecut
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While I was reviewing the article my husband was watching his favourite tv
show. In timp ce eu revizuiam articolul sotul meu urmarea show-ul tv favorit.
un echivalent in trecut al prezentului continuu
They told us they were spending the night at Select. Ei ne-au spus ca o sasi petreaca noaptea la Select.
Adverbe folosite cu Past Continuous Tense: while, when , all morning, all
night, as

Present Perfect Tense


Forme
Afirmativ :
Subiectul + Auxiliarul HAVE la prezent + past participle al verbului de
conjugat (forma a 3 a)
We are not going on holiday since the prices have rise. Noi nu mai mergem
in vacant de cand preturile au crescut.
Negativ :
Subiectul + have/has not + past participle al verbului de conjugat
I havent seen her this morning, she is probably sleeping. Nu am vazut-o
de dimineata, probabil doarme.
Interogativ :
Auxiliarul HAVE la prezent + Subiectul + past participle al verbului de
conjugat
Havent you eaten too much chocolate already? Nu ai mancat deja destula
ciocolata?
Present Perfect Tense se foloseste pentru a exprima :
- o actiune care incepe in trecut, continua in trecut si se termina in prezent sau
foarte aproape de prezent.
Tell me, what have you done? Spune-mi, ce ai facut?
- o actiune care s-a terminat recent al carei rezultat este vizibil si in prezent
We have just finished redecorating our house. Tocmai am terminat de
redecorat casa noastra.
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Adverbe folosite cu Present Perfect Tense: since , for, already, yet, just, ever, how
long, recently

Present Perfect Continuous Tense


Forme
Afirmativ :
Subiectul + prezentul perfect al verbului to be (have/has been)+ participul
prezent al verbului de conjugat (baza + ing)
They have been reading a lot of books lately. Ei au citit o multime de carti
in ultima vreme.
Negativ :
Subiectul + prezentul perfect al verbului to be (have/has been)+ NOT +
participul prezent al verbului de conjugat
They havent been watching TV this afternoon. Ei nu s-au uitat la tv in
acesta dupa-amiaza.
Interogativ :
To have / has + Subiectul + been + participul prezent al verbului de
conjugat
What have you been doing ? I have been working on a new project. Ce ai
mai facut? Am lucrat la un nou proiect.
Present Perfect Continuous se foloseste pentru a exprima :
- o actiune care incepe in trecut, ajunge in prezent si are sanse de a continua in
viitor.
It has been snowing for 4 hours. Ninge de 4 ore.

- o actiune recenta ar carei rezultat poate fi vazut


Why is you hair wet? Because I have been swimming. De ce ai parul ud?
Pentru ca am inotat.
Adverbe folosite cu Present Perfect Continuous : for, since

Past Perfect Tense


Forme
Afirmativ :
S + Past tense al verbului To HAVE + participiu trecut
Atentie: La verbele regulate participiul trecut = verb + ed iar la cele
neregulate este forma a 3a de pe lista verbelor iregulate.
At last she showed me the dress she had bought. Intr-un sfarsit, mi-a
aratat rochia pe care si-o cumparase.
Negativ :
S + Past tense al verbului To HAVE + Not + participiu trecut
They hadnt gone to Mt. Omu, they had gone to another peak. Ei nu au
mers pe varful Omu, au mers pe alt varf.
Interogativ :
Past tense al verbului To HAVE + S + participiu trecut
Hadnt he loved you? Nu te iubea?
Past Perfect Tense se foloseste pentru a exprima :
- O actiune care a avut loc inaintea altei actiuni in trecut.
By 12 o clock the cleaning lady had aired all the rooms in the hotel. Pana la
ora 12 camerista aerisise toate camerele din hotel.

- Cauza unui efect trecut


Why did the window break? Because he had thrown a stone at it. De ce s-a
spart geamul? Pentru ca el a aruncat o piatra in el.
Adverbe care se folosesc cu Past Perfect Tense: just, already, by, hardly,
scarcely

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Past Perfect Continuous Tense


Forme
Afirmativ :
S+ had been + participiu prezent

Participiu prezent = verb + ing

I have been thinking of writing you a mail when you called me. Eu ma
gandisem sa iti scriu un mail cand tu m-ai sunat.
Negativ :
S + had + Not + been + present participle
I hadnt been waiting long in a queue when I heard a voice calling my
name. Nu stateam de mult la rand, cand au auzit o voce strigandu-mi
numele.
Interogativ:
Had + S + been + present participle
They hadnt been doing their tasks so they didnt get a bonus. Ei nu si-au
indeplinit din taskuri deci nu au primit un bonus.
Past Perfect Continuous se foloseste pentru a exprima :

- O actiune in desfasurare la un moment dat in trecut, durata fiind precizata.


They had been working for over an hour until the bus came. Ei vorbisera
timp de o ora pana a venit autobuzul.
Arata efectul unei actiuni intamplate in trecut.
Marc was tired because he had been working for a project all night long Marc era
obosit pentru ca a lucrat pentru un proiect toata noaptea.
Adverbe care se folosesc cu Past Perfect Continuous Tense: by the time, since, for,
before

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Simple Future Tense


Forme
Afirmativ :
S + will + verbul la infinitiv
You will feel better if you take this pill. - Tu o sa te simti mult mai bine daca
iei acesta pastila.
Negativ :
S + will not (wont) + verbul la infinitiv
I wont tell where she is. Nu iti voi spune unde este ea.
Interogativ:
Will + S + verbul la infinitiv
Will you love me in 10 years? O sa ma iubesti si peste 10 ani?
Future simple se foloseste pentru a exprima :

- Promisiuni, amenintari, cereri, sperante


I will never tell you anything. Nu o sa iti mai spun niciodata nimic.
- Actiuni care vor avea loc in viitor si peste care nu putem avea control
Next year Easter will be on 15 of April.
- Decizii luate pe moment, spontane
I will buy this car, I love it. Voi cumpara acesta masina, imi place.
- Previziuni despre viitor
I believe she will be a great politician one day. Cred ca va fi un bun
politician intr-o zi.

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Going To Future
Se foloseste pentru a exprima :
- Planuri, intentii pentru viitor
I am going to travel to Spain one day. Intentionez sa vizitez Spania intr-o zi.
- Predictii bazate pe ceea ce stim sau ce vedem
Look at the sky. It is going to rain soon. Uita-te la cer, va ploua in curand.
- Actiuni la care ne-am hotarat deja sa le facem in viitorul apropiat
We are going to visit our relatives in the weekend. Noi vom merge sa ne
vizitam rudele in acest weekend.
Adverbe folosite cu Simple

Future Tense : tomorrow, the day after

tomorrow, soon, next week, in a week, month

Future Perfect Tense


Forme
Afirmativ :
S + will have + past participle al verbului de conjugat

past

participle = forma a III a verbului


Tomorrow at 9 they will have left for Sibiu. Maine la ora 9 ei vor fi
plecat spre Sibiu.
Negativ :
S + will not have + past participle al verbului de conjugat
When you phone Julie I will not have arrived at the station. Cand o suni
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pe Julie eu nu voi fi ajuns in statie.


Future perfect se foloseste pentru a exprima :

- O actiune vazuta din viitor dar care se intampla in trecut


They will have had dinner by the time their friend arrives. Ei vor fi luat cina
pana vor ajunge prietenii lor.
Adverbe ce se folosesc cu Future Perfect Tense : by the time, after, until, by

Future Continuous Tense


Future Continuous Tense: Forme
Afirmativ :
S + Will be + present participle
The Health Organisation will be opening a new hospital in this city.
Organizatia de sanatate va deschide un nou spital in acest oras.
Negativ :
S + will not (wont) + present participle
The train wont be arriving any time soon; there was an accident on the
road. Trenul nu va ajunge prea curand, a avut loc un accident pe drum.
Interogativ:
Will + S + be + present participle
Will you be shouting at me if I tell you the truth? Vei tipa daca iti voi
spune adevarul?
Future Continuous Tense se foloseste pentru a exprima :
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- Actiuni care se vor desfasura intr-un anumit punct din viitor


By this time tomorrow I will be sailing on the Mediteranean Sea.
- Actiuni care vor avea loc in viitor ca urmare a unei actiuni de rutina sau unui
aranjament
Do not interrupt her now. She will be signing a contract. Nu o intrerupe acum. E pe
cale de a semna un contract.
Adverbe si locutiuni adverbiale folosite cu Future Continuous Tense : tomorrow, by
this time tomorrow.

Future Perfect Continuous Tense


Future Perfect Continuous Tense: Forme
Afirmativ :
S + will have been + present participle al verbului de conjugat

present

participle = verbul + ing


While Michael will have been writing his exercices, Maria will have been
playing the violin. Cat timp Mihai isi va fi scris exercitiile, Maria va fi cantat
la vioara.
Negativ :
S + will not have been + present participle al verbului de conjugat
You will not have been working here by this summer. Tu nu vei fi lucrat
aici pana in aceasta vara.
Future Perfect Continuous se foloseste pentru a exprima :
- O actiune in desfasurare la un moment dat in viitor, durata actiunii find precizata.
Tomorrow at 7 I will have been sleeping for 10 hours. Maine la ora 7 voi fi dormit
de 10 ore.
Adverbe ce se folosesc cu Future Perfect Continuous Tense : byfor

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Future-in-the-Past Tense
Forme
Afirmativ :
S + would + infinitivul verbului de conjugat
She told me I would be in trouble Ea mi-a spus ca voi intra in bucluc.
Negativ :
S + would not + infinitivul verbului de conjugat
We never thought they would not win. Noi nu ne-am gandit niciodata ca
ei nu vor castiga.
Future-in-the-past se foloseste pentru a exprima :
- o actiune posterioara unei actiuni din trecut.
They knew the boss would not call them back to work. Ei stiau ca seful nu ii va
chema inapoi la munca.

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