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Kelainan sirkulasi dan frekuensi denyut jantung

Pasokan darah yang terus menerus dan cukup sangat penting bagi jaringan sehat.
Jika terjadi sumbatan pada sebuah pembuluh darah, jaringan di sekitarnya dapat
kehilangan oksigen, sehingga jaringa rusak atau dalam kasus lebih berat, jaringan
mati. Jantung juga dapat terganggu jika system listrik, yang menjaga frekuensi
denyut dan ritme jantung terganggu.
Emboli
Sebuah embolus serpihan zat yang lepas dari asalnya dapat menyebabkan
sumbatan pembuluh darah sebagian atau menyeluruh.
Sebagian besar emboli merupakan serpihan gumpalan darah (trombus), atau
bahkan seluruh gumpalan yang terlepas dari tempat asalnya dan beredar dalam
aliran darah untuk menyumbat sebuah pembuluh darah. Embolus dapat juga
terbentuk dari zat berlemak dari plak aterom (lihat hal. 122) dalam sebuah dinding
arteri, Kristal kolestrol, sumsum tulang berlemak yang telah masuk ke peredaran
darah setelah terjadi patah tulang, atau sebuah gelembung udara atau cairan
amnion. Pada emboli pulmonal, gumpalan dari bagian tubuh lain beredar sampai ke
vena paru-paru. Gumpalan dari jantung atau arteri dapat menyumbat peredaran
darah dibagian tubuh mana saja. Embolus cenderung menyumbat pembuluh darah
yang menyempit atau bercabang, menyebabkan jaringan yang ada setelah
percabangan tersebut kehilangan pasokan oksigen. Gejala tergantung tempat yang
terkena; misalnya embolus yang menyumbat arteri pemasok otak akan
menimbulkan stroke. Jika embolus adalah serpihan gumpalan darah, embolus ini
dapat diobati dengan obat trombolitik atau Penghilang Gumpalan.
Emboli Pulmonal
Serpihan gumpalan darah dari vena tungkai kaki dapat beredar melalui siste vena
sampai ke sisi kanan jantung, lalu keluar ke arteri pulmonal menuju paru-paru.
Serpihan ini dapat tertinggal di sana, menybabkan jarungan paru paru kehilangan
oksigen dan mengurangi pengambilan oksigen oleh sirkulasi pulmonal.
Embolus trombotik
Serpihan (embolus) terbentuk dari gumpalan darah (trombotik), dapat timbul dari
bagian tubuh mana saja, tapi yang paling sering adalah vena tungkai kaki dan
pelvis.
Thrombosis
Sumbatan sebuah arteri, vena atau bahakan jantung, sebagian atau menyeluruh,
dapat terjadi jika gumpalan darah (thrombus) terbentuk akibat kelainan sirkulasi.
Trombosis cenderung terjadi jika aliran darah yang halus terganggu, baik menjadi
lambat atau menjadi berputar. Gangguan ini dapat disebabkan oleh plak jaringan
aterom berlemak dalam dinding sebuah arteri atau adanya radang pembuluh darah.
Gumpalan akhirnya mempersempit atau menyumbat jalur aliran darah sehingga

jaringan selanjutnya kehilangan oksigen dan zat gizi. Akibat yang terjadi tergantung
pada letak thrombosis.
Pembentukan thrombus
Thrombosis dapat terjadi dalam arteri dan vena, tapi lebih sering terjadi pada lokasi
atherosclerosis dalam dinding arteri, yang mengganggu aliran darah.
1. Kerusakan internal
Jika lapisan arteri dirusak oleh plak, trombosit di daerah tersebut bergabung,
melekat pada dinding dan melepas zat kimia yang memulai proses
penggumpalan atau pembekuan.
2. Pembentukan gumpalan
Zat kimia membantu mengubah fibrinogen menjadi serat fibrin yang tidak
larut. Ini mengikat trombosit dan sel darah lain, dan pembentukan gumpalan
semakin banyak.
Trombosis Vena Dalam
Darah yang mengalir lambat cenderung mudah terkena thrombosis, atau
menggumpal. Ini dapat terjadi di vena dalam daerah tungkai kaki dan tubuh bagian
bawah, yang bergantung pada otot yang berkontraksi agar membantu aliran darah.
Thrombosis vena dalam (DVT) cenderung terjadi saat lama tak bergerak, khususnya
saat perjelanan panjang, saat otot berelaksasi dan darah terkumpul dalam vena.
Untuk membantu menghindari pembentukan gumpalan, tetaplah bergerak dan
minum minuman non- alcohol. Gejala DVT yaitu rasa nyeri dan bengkak pada
tungkai kaki, dan vena terlihat sangat bengkak. Perawatan dengan obat
antikoagulan dapat mengurangi risiko sebagian gumpalan terpecah dan beredar ke
paru-paru.
Diagnosa SInar X
Trombosis vena di tungkai dapat terlihat di sini dengan menyuntikkan zat warna
putih ke dalam perdaran darah dan mengambil foto sinar X.

Circulatory disorders and heart rate


Continuous blood supply and sufficient is very important for healthy tissue. If there is a blockage
in a blood vessel, the surrounding tissue can lose oxygen, resulting in damaged tissue or in more
severe cases, tissue death. Heart can also be disrupted if the electrical system, which keeps the
pulse frequency and rhythm of the heart is interrupted.
Embolism
An embolus - a substance that flakes off of origin - can cause blockage of blood
vessels in part or whole.
Most of the debris embolism is a blood clot ( thrombus ) , or even the entire blob
that regardless of the place of origin and circulate in the bloodstream to clog a
blood vessel . Embolus can also be formed from fatty substances of plaque aterom (
see p . 122 ) in an artery wall , cholesterol crystals , fatty bone marrow that has
been entered into the blood circulation after a fracture, or an air bubble or amniotic
fluid . In pulmonary embolism , a clot from another part of the body to the venous
circulation to the lungs . Clumps of the heart or arteries can clog blood circulation
section of the body. Embolus tends to clog blood vessels are narrowed or branched ,
causing existing networks after the branching loss of oxygen supply . Symptoms
depend places affected ; for example, an embolus that clog arteries supply the
brain will cause a stroke . If the embolus is a blood clot fragments , the embolus can
be treated with thrombolytic drugs or " blobs Remover " .
Pulmonary embolism
Flakes of blood clots from leg veins to circulate through the venous system to the
right side of the heart , and then out into the pulmonary artery to the lungs . Flakes
can be left there , bring about loss of lung tissue of oxygen and reduces oxygen
uptake by the pulmonary circulation .
thrombotic embolus
Flakes ( embolus ) formed from blood clots ( thrombotic ) , can arise from any part
of the body , but is most often the legs and pelvic veins .
thrombosis
Blockage of an artery , vein or even the heart , in part or whole , can occur when a
blood clot ( thrombus) forms due to circulatory disorders .
Thrombosis tends to occur when blood flow is interrupted smooth , either be slow or
be spun . This disorder can be caused by plaque aterom fatty tissue in the wall of an
artery or the presence of inflammation of the blood vessels . Clumps eventually
narrowed or clogged blood flow path so that the subsequent loss of tissue oxygen
and nutrients . Result will depend on the location of thrombosis.Emboli
An embolus - a substance that flakes off of origin - can cause blockage of blood
vessels in part or whole.
Most of the debris embolism is a blood clot ( thrombus ) , or even the entire blob
that regardless of the place of origin and circulate in the bloodstream to clog a
blood vessel . Embolus can also be formed from fatty substances of plaque aterom (
see p . 122 ) in an artery wall , cholesterol crystals , fatty bone marrow that has
been entered into the blood circulation after a fracture, or an air bubble or amniotic
fluid . In pulmonary embolism , a clot from another part of the body to the venous
circulation to the lungs . Clumps of the heart or arteries can clog blood circulation

section of the body. Embolus tends to clog blood vessels are narrowed or branched ,
causing existing networks after the branching loss of oxygen supply . Symptoms
depend places affected ; for example, an embolus that clog arteries supply the
brain will cause a stroke . If the embolus is a blood clot fragments , the embolus can
be treated with thrombolytic drugs or " blobs Remover " .
Pulmonary embolism
Flakes of blood clots from leg veins to circulate through the venous system to the
right side of the heart , and then out into the pulmonary artery to the lungs . Flakes
can be left there , bring about loss of lung tissue of oxygen and reduces oxygen
uptake by the pulmonary circulation .
thrombotic embolus
Flakes ( embolus ) formed from blood clots ( thrombotic ) , can arise from any part
of the body , but is most often the legs and pelvic veins .
thrombosis
Blockage of an artery , vein or even the heart , in part or whole , can occur when a
blood clot ( thrombus) forms due to circulatory disorders .
Thrombosis tends to occur when blood flow is interrupted smooth , either be slow or
be spun . This disorder can be caused by plaque aterom fatty tissue in the wall of an
artery or the presence of inflammation of the blood vessels . Clumps eventually
narrowed or clogged blood flow path so that the subsequent loss of tissue oxygen
and nutrients . Result will depend on the location of thrombosis .
thrombus formation
Thrombosis can occur in arteries and veins , but are more common in the location of
atherosclerosis in the arterial wall , which interferes with blood flow .
1 . Internal damage
If damaged by plaque lining the arteries , platelets in the area joined , attached to
the wall and release chemicals that start the clotting process or freezing .
2 . Formation of clots
Chemicals helps convert fibrinogen into insoluble fibrin fibers . It binds to platelets
and other blood cells , and clot formation more .
Vein Thrombosis
Slow flowing blood are prone to thrombosis , or clot . It can occur in veins in the leg
area and lower body , which depends on the muscle to contract in order to help the
blood flow . Deep vein thrombosis ( DVT ) occurs when a long tend not to move ,
especially during long trips , when the muscles relax and blood collects in the
veins . To help avoid the formation of clots , keep moving and non - alcohol drink .
Symptoms of DVT are pain and swelling in the legs , and it looks very swollen veins .
Treatment with anticoagulant drugs may reduce the risk of clot partially split and
circulated to the lungs .
X-ray Diagnosis
Venous thrombosis in the legs can be seen here with a white substance injected into
the blood perdaran and take X -ray photographs