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Silabus

Nama Matakuliah : Geografi Manusia (Wajib Fak)

Geografi Manusia
OLEH:
DJAKA MARWASTA
FAKULTAS GEOGRAFI UGM

Tujuan Pembelajaran

Kredit : 2 SKS (2 jam tatap muka, 2 jam tugas


terstruktur, 2 jam tugas mandiri)
Jumlah Tatap Muka : 16 Kali

Metode Pembelajaran

(Course Objectives)

(Class Lectures)

Merupakan mata kuliah pengantar (introduction course),


menjelaskan tentang definisi dan posisi keilmuan geografi
manusia, teori-teori dasar dalam kajian geografi manusia,
cabang-cabang ilmu dan topik-topik penelitian, serta isueisue terkini (state of the arts) penelitian geografi manusia

Perkuliahan klasikal (kuliah tatap muka)


Diskusi kelompok
Tugas terstruktur : membaca referensi (reading
assignment), menganalisis data, membuat paper
Tugas mandiri (praktek di lapangan secara berkelompok)
Quiz

Kontrak Pembelajaran
Kuliah dimulai pukul 7.00 WIB
Toleransi keterlambatan selama 15, setelah 15
tidak diperkenankan masuk ruang kuliah
Tidak diperbolehkan menggunakan HP (telepon,
sms, chatting, dll) selama perkuliahan berlangsung
Mematuhi semua peraturan perkuliahan

Penilaian
50% s.d Ujian Mid (materi dari saya)
50% setelah Ujian Mid s.d Ujian Akhir (materi dari
Ibu Kistini)
Komponen penilaian antara keduanya bisa
berbeda

Komponen Penilaian (50%)


No
1
2
4
5

Komponen Yang Dinilai


Ujian mid semester
Quiz
Tugas Terstruktur
Tugas Mandiri & Diskusi kelompok
Total

Proporsi
35%
10%
30%
25%
100%

Literatur
Human geography: an Essential Anthology; Agnew
et al; 1999; Blackwell
Geography: a Modern Synthesis, Hagget, P; 1983;
Harper&Row
An Introduction to Human Geography; Cox, Kevin
R., 1972; John Wiley

Bab I
Pendekatan & Teori (Minggu II & III)
Kedudukan dan Definisi Geografi Manusia
Landasan Filosofis, Teori dan Konsep, Pendekatan
dan Analisis
Isu-isu mutakhir kajian Geografi Manusia

Literatur
Rubenstein, J. 2009. Human Geography. 9th ed.,
Prentice-Hall
Human Geography: People, Place, and Culture; de
Blij, H.J. 2007; Wiley
Human Geography: Places and Regions in Global
Context. Knox, P & Marston,S. 2004; Prentice Hall

Diktat Kuliah
Berisi print out power point materi kuliah lengkap
Dapat dipesan dalam bentuk copy cetak di bagian
pelayanan foto copy Fakultas Geografi UGM
seharga Rp. 22.500.000,oo
Tidak wajib (menyesuaikan dengan isi dompet
masing-masing)

Bab II
Kependudukan (Minggu IV & V)
Aspek-aspek dasar studi kependudukan; ukuran
statis dan dinamis kependudukan
Migrasi Penduduk
Isu-isu kependudukan terkini

Bab III
Proses dan Pola Kebudayaan (Minggu VI&VII)
Pendekatan konseptual kebudayaan dan Geografi
Kebudayaan & Perkembangan spasial kebudayaan
Identitas: Ras, Etnik, Gender
Bahasa & Agama

Bab IV
Organisasi Politik & Ruang (Minggu IX)
Konsep Politik, Negara, Bangsa, Pemerintahan
Konsep Wilayah
Isu Geopolitik Dunia

Bab VI
Pembangunan Ekonomi & Industrialisasi (Minggu XII)
Konsep Pembangunan
Indikator-indikator pembangunan
Revolusi Industri, industrialisasi, dan
perkembangan ekonomi tersier (jasa)

(Minggu VIII)

Ujian Mid Semester

Bab V
Pertanian & Penggunaan Lahan Kedesaan
(Minggu X & XI)
Sejarah perkembangan pertanian; Revolusi
pertanian, penggunaan lahan kedesaan
Pertanian subsisten, agrobisnis, dan agroindustri

Bab VII
Urbanisasi & Penggunaan Lahan Kekotaan
(Minggu XIII&XIV)
Konsep urban & urbanisasi
Teori-teori dan pendekatan dalam kajian geografi
perkotaan

Bab VIII
Globalisasi & Isu Lingkungan Global (Minggu XV)
Konsep globalisasi
Isu-isu dan permasalahan global

Pertemuan Minggu II

Kedudukan

(Minggu XVI)

Ujian Akhir Semester

What is Human Geography?

Kedudukan
Geografi memiliki 2 cabang yang saling melengkapi
(Complementary)
1. Geografi Fisik (Hidrosfir, Litosfir, Atmosfir, Biosfir)
2. Geografi Manusia (Antroposfir)

Kedudukan

Kedudukan

proses geologi menyusun geografi fisik


dan
aktivitas ekonomi menyusun geografi manusia

What is Human Geography?


Human = Manusia Kemanusiaan
Geography = Ilmu yang mempelajari muka bumi
Yang membedakan manusia budaya
Human Geography = Cultural Geography = Social Geography

What is Human Geography?


The study of how people make places, how people organize
space and society, how people interact with each other in
places and across space, and how people make sense of
others and theirselves in their locality, region, and world.
( de Blij, 2007)

What is Human Geography?

What is Human Geography?

Human geography = the study of how societies construct


places, how humans use the surface of the earth, how
social phenomena are distributed spatially, and how we
bring space into consciousness

Human geography is part of GEOGRAPHY


concerned with the spatial analysis of the
human population.

(Encyclopedia of Human Geography:2006)

(A Modern Dictionary of Geography:2001)

What is Human Geography?


What is Human Geography?
Human Geography is one of the two main parts of geography
(the other being physical geography) studying the spatial
and temporal distribution of population, their activities,
social organization and culture on a local to global scale.
(Dictionary of Geography:2007)

Geography was no exception to this and gradually, through the


1980s, all of the sub-disciplines of human geography came
to be conscious of the cultural dimensions of their field of
study: economic geographers discovered embeddedness of
local economies in local social practices; political
geographers became aware of new nationalisms and
notions of identity in boundary formation and exclusion;
urban geographers turned their attention to lifestyle and they
became enthusiastic about cultural regeneration of cities; the
countryside was rethought as a cultural construction, as was
nature itself; retail geographers became enthusiastic about
sites of consumption, as opposed to patterns of distribution.

......Like Geography as a whole, human geography covers


three related themes: (1) spatial analysis the recording
and description of human phenomena around the earths
surface, with special attention to the significance of space
as a variable; (2) the study of the inter-relationships
between human beings and their environment, both natural
and socio-economic; (3) a regional synthesis which
combines the first two themes in specified localities.
(Goodall:1987)

Geograf membiasakan kerja lapangan


(fieldwork) untuk memahami variasi
tempat dan ruang serta kompleksitas
permasalahannya
Contoh
Mengapa
Daerah
Lembang
ditanami
teh dan
kopi?

(Social Geography Study Group Institute of British Geographers:1988)

Geographic inquiry
focuses on the spatial:

Key Question:

What are Geographic Questions?

- the spatial arrangement of places and


phenomena (human and physical).
- how are things organized on Earth?
- how do they appear on the landscape?
- why? where? so what?

Spatial distribution
What processes create and sustain the pattern of a distribution?
Map of Cholera Victims
in Londons Soho District
in 1854.

Five Themes of Geography


The patterns of victims
homes and water pump
locations helped uncover
the source of the disease.

Absolute Location

Theme 1: Location
Where is It?
Why is It There?

Two Types of
Location
Absolute
Relative

North Carolina

Absolute Location
North Carolina
36 N Latitude
79 W longitude
Chapel Hill
35 55' N Latitude
79 05' W Longitude

Location
Place
Human-Environment Interaction
Movement
Region

A specific place on the Earths surface


Uses a grid system
Latitude and longitude
A global address

Relative Location
Where a place is
in relation to
another place
Uses directional
words to describe
Cardinal and
intermediate
directions

Theme 2: Place
Physical Characteristics

North Carolina
North Carolina is bordered by Virginia on
the north, South Carolina and Georgia on
the south, and Tennessee on the west.
The Atlantic Ocean forms North Carolina's
east coast.
North Carolina is one of the Southeastern
States

Land Features
Mountains, plains,
and plateaus
Climate
Bodies of Water

Theme 2: Place
Human Characteristics

North Carolina:
Physical
Characteristics

People
Culture
Language
Religion
Buildings and
Landmarks
Cities

Photos above: Steve Pierce


http://www.wetmaap.org/Cape_Hatteras/ch_tm_2.html

North Carolina: Human


Characteristics

Place
Sense of place: infusing a place with meaning and
emotion.
http://www.rivinus.com/camerastuff/charlotte_nc.htm

National Geographic Magazine

Top right:http://graphics.fansonly.com/photos/schools/unc/nonsport/school-bio/unc-oldwell2-lg.jpg

Perception of place: belief or understanding of what a


place is like, often based on books, movies, stories,
or pictures.

Perception
of Place

Theme 3: Human
Environment Interaction
How People Interact With Their
Environment
People . . .
Adapt to Their Environment
Modify Their Environment
Depend on Their Environment

http://www.fotosearch.com/comp/corbis/DGT119/BAG0017.jpg

North Carolina: Human


Environment Interaction

Human - Environment
Spatial interaction
Human Ecology
Biogeography
Sociology

http://aam.wcu.edu/grant/images/Fontana%20Dam%20Shirley.jpg
http://www.dukemagazine.duke.edu/dukemag/issues/091002/images/mallc.jpg
http://www.ee.duke.edu/~sag8/Duke/02-03/PiKA/Fall%20Break/Fall_Break_02.htm

Theme 4: Movement
The Mobility of
People
Goods
Ideas
How Places are
linked to one
another and the
world

Movement
Spatial interaction: the interconnectedness between places
depends upon:
Distance
Accessibility
Connectivity

North Carolina: Movement

Theme 5: Regions
What Places Have in Common
Political Regions
Landform Regions
Agricultural Regions
Cultural Regions

http://www.marad.dot.gov/Gallery/MoreheadCity/pages/Ming%20Europe.htm

http://www.evertize.com/land/images/I-40-64%20interchange.JPG

Regions
Formal region: defined by a commonality, typically a cultural
linkage or a physical characteristic.
e.g. German speaking region of Europe

Region

Functional region: defined by a set of social, political, or


economic activities or the interactions that occur within it.
e.g. an urban area

Formal
Fungsional
Perseptual

Regions
Perceptual Region: ideas in our minds, based on
accumulated knowledge of places and regions, that define
an area of sameness or connectedness.
e.g. the South
the Mid-Atlantic
the Middle East

10

North Carolina: Regions

Any Questions?

Steve Pierce
http://home.neo.rr.com/rodsphotogallery/NaturalWonders/SeaSand/Images/JockeysRidge.jpg
http://www.ncbbi.org/images/piedmont-images/piedmont-nc-heartland-golf.jpg

http://www.homestead.com/pncfa/files/piedmontmap.jpg
http://www.shorebirdworld.org/fromthefield/Images/Hatteras%20Light.JPG

Quiz 10
Auf Wiedersehen
See U Next Week

Pertemuan Minggu III

1. Jelaskan apa yang anda pahami tentang


geografi manusia!
2. Jelaskan permasalahan di sekitar anda
yang terkait dengan geografi manusia!

Key Words:

Geographic Concepts and Approach

11

Old Approaches to
Human-Environment Questions:
Environmental Determinism (has been rejected by almost
all geographers)
Possibilism (less accepted today)
New Approaches to
Human-Environment Questions:
Cultural ecology
Political ecology

Key Word:

Geographers Concerned with Scale


Local
Regional
National
Global

Scale

Scale is a powerful concept because:


- Processes operating at different scales influence
one another.
- What is occurring across scales provides
context for us to understand a
phenomenon.
- People can use scale politically to change
who is involved or how an issue is
perceived.

Four Branch of Human Geography


Cultural (social) Geography
Population Geography
Political Geography
Economic Geography

12

An in-depth Social Science

Thinking
Geographically

Where we find Geography?


Geography exist in the global
issues receiving attention at
this time things such as
Population growth
Terrorism
Cultural diffusion.
Diffusion is defined as the spread
of linguistic or cultural practices
or innovations within a
community or from one
community to another.

Thinking Geographically
In addition to political rule, boundaries can be drawn based on
various components of culture including language, religion,
values.

Many people have


misconceptions about
geography and think of the
discipline as simply an
exercise in memorizing
place names.

Location, Location, Location


Geography's importance can
also be established by looking
at community issues, such as:

Water supply
Pollution
Growth management
Housing
Retail
Openings
Closures

Questions to Ponder
Where would the most
desirable places to live be
located?
What impacts would this
population increase
cause?

13

Every Story Can be approached from a


Geographers Perspective

Spatial analysis
Geography by its nature is a spatial science.
Geographers therefore study space in order to locate
the distribution of people and objects. Geographers ask
two main questions, where and why. Spatial analysis
is concerned with analyzing regularities achieved
through interaction. Regularities result in a distinctive
distribution of a feature. Distribution has three
properties:

Consider natural events and


natural disasters. Do humans
choose to live in harms way?

World Political Boundaries (2004)

Density
Concentration
Pattern

How Geographers Address


Location
Maps

Early mapmaking
Map scale
Projection
Land Ordinance of 1785

Contemporary Tools
GIS
Remote sensing
GPS
Fig. 1-1: National political boundaries are among the most significant
elements of the cultural landscape

Ptolemys view of the world c150AD

Old Islamic Maps


Fulfilling the duties of formal prayers and the pilgrimage, Muslims need
to find the direction and routes leading to al Ka'ba from virtually any
spot on the globe. The Ka'ba is the house of Abraham in Mecca. And it
is the point at which Muslims must face when they perform prayers.
Left - map of
the world in
1154 by
Idrissi
Right - map
of the world
made by the
Muslim
geographer
Jihani in the
10th century
of the
Christian era.

14

Maps of the Marshall Islands

Fig. 1-2: A Polynesian stick chart depicts patterns of waves on the sea route
between two South Pacific islands. Modern maps show the locations of
these Marshall Islands.

Examples of Map Projections

Scale Differences: Maps of Florida

Fig. 1-3: The effects of scale in maps of Florida.


(Scales from 1:10 million to 1:10,000)

Township and Range System in the U.S.

Mollweid - Equal Area Map

http://www.nationalatlas.gov/articles/
mapping/a_projections.html

Layers of a GIS

Fig. 1-4: Principal meridians and east-west baselines of the township system.
Townships in northwest Mississippi and topographic map of the area.

GPS

Fig. 1-5: A geographic information system (GIS) stores information about a


location in several layers. Each layer represents a different
category of information.

15

Uniqueness of Places and Regions

Site: Lower Manhattan Island

Place: Unique location of a feature

Place names
Site
Situation
Mathematical location

Regions: Areas of unique characteristics

Cultural landscape
Types of regions
Regional integration of culture
Cultural ecology
Fig. 1-6: Site of lower Manhattan Island, New York City. There have been many
changes to the area over the last 200 years.

Situation: Singapore

Djibouti & Lahore

Fig. 1-7: Singapore is situated at a key location for international trade.

World Geographic Grid

Fig. 1-8: The world geographic grid consists of meridians of longitude and
parallels of latitude. The prime meridian (0) passes through
Greenwich, England.

World Time Zones

Fig. 1-9: The worlds 24 standard time zones are often depicted using the
Mercator projection.

16

Election 2000: Regional Differences

Fig. 1-10: Presidential election results by county and state illustrate differences
in regional voting patterns.

Vernacular Regions

Formal and Functional Regions

Fig. 1-11: The state of Iowa is an example of a formal region; the areas of
influence of various television stations are examples of functional
regions.

Vernacular Region - Kurdistan

Fig. 1-12: A number of factors are often used to define the South as a
vernacular region, each of which identifies somewhat different
boundaries.

Spatial Association at Various Scales

What is Culture?
Your book defines culture as a
body of customary believes,
material trades, and social
forms that together constitute
the distinct tradition of a group
of people.
The Latin root of culture is
cultus, which means to care
for. Example Agriculture (term
for growing things)

Fig. 1-13: Death rates from cancer in the U.S., Maryland, and
Baltimore show different patterns that can identify
associations with different factors.

17

World Climate Regions

Cultural Ecology
Geographers also consider environmental factors as well as cultural
factors, when looking at regions.
This is cultural ecology.
Basically, this is the geographic study of human-environmental relations.

In the 19th Century some geographers said that human actions were
caused by environmental conditions. (environmental determinism)
This is rejected by modern geographers that say some environmental
conditions limit human actions. (possibilism)
Of course now we are realizing that humans can actually adjust their
environment. (For good or bad)

Fig. 1-14: The modified Kppen system divides the world


into five main climate regions.

Geomorphology

Environmental Modification in the Netherlands

This is the branch of


geology that studies the
characteristics and
configuration and evolution
of rocks and land forms.

Fig. 1-15: Polders and dikes have been


used for extensive
environmental modification in
the Netherlands.

Environmental Modification in Florida

Similarity of Different Places


Scale: From local to global

View
of
Miami
Beach

Globalization of economy
Globalization of culture

Space: Distribution of features


Distribution
Gender and ethnic diversity in space

Fig. 1-16: Straightening the


Kissimmee River has had many
unintended side effects.

The
barrier
Island Orchid
Island
in the
town I
grew up
in.

Connections between places


Spatial interaction
Diffusion

18

Globalization of the Economy

Globalization of culture
What are the major Elements of culture?
Customary beliefs
Social customs
Material traits

Affects of globalization of culture

Fewer local differences


Enhanced communications
Unequal access
Difficulty in maintaining of local traditions

There is also globalization of environment

Sensitive and insensitive environmental modification

Fig. 1-17: The Denso corporation is headquartered in Japan, but it has


regional headquarters and other facilities in North America and
Western Europe.

Density, Concentration, and Pattern

Density and Concentration of Baseball Teams,


19522000

Fig. 1-19: The changing distribution of North American baseball teams


illustrates the differences between density and concentration.

Housing density in Hong


Kong

Fig. 1-18: The density, concentration, and


pattern (of houses in this
example) may each vary in an
area or landscape.

Space-Time Compression, 14921962

Spatial Interaction
Interdependence exists among places based upon the degree of spatial
interaction.
Spatial interaction is established through the movement of people, ideas, and
objects between regions.
For example, Travel has changed considerably over the last 500 years.

In the past, most forms of interaction among cultural groups required


the physical movement of settlers, explores, and plunders from one
place to another.

Today travel by car or plane is much faster and communication is instantaneous.


When places are connected to each other through a network, geographers say
there is a spatial interaction between them.

Fig. 1-20: The times required to cross the Atlantic, or orbit the Earth,
illustrate how transport improvements have shrunk the world.

19

Airline Route Networks

Diffusion
Diffusion is the process by which a characteristic spreads
across space from one place to another over time.
The place of origin of the characteristic is called the hearth.

For example US, Canadian, and many Latin cultures can be traced back to
the European Hearth.

There are two basic types of diffusion:

Relocation diffusion
Expansion diffusion

Hierarchical diffusion
Contagious diffusion
Stimulus diffusion

Expansion Diffusion includes-

Fig. 1-21: Delta Airlines, like many others, has configured its route
network in a hub and spoke system.

AIDS Diffusion in the U.S., 19812001

Any Questions?

Fig. 1-22: New AIDS cases were concentrated in three nodes in 1981. They
spread through the country in the 1980s, but declined in the original
nodes in the late 1990s.

Tugas Mandiri
Give one Elementery Student a blank piece of paper.
Ask the person to draw a detailed map of how he or
she gets from home to the school where most of his
or her weekdays are spent. Note the age of the
person and the length of time he or she has lived in
the place and traveled the route. Analyze the map.

Tugas Terstruktur (kelompok)


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Auf Wiedersehen
See U Next Week

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