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June 2002

FACT SHEET

RC PAPERS

PROCESSING
B&W PAPER

PROCESSING AND FINISHING ILFORD RESIN COATED PAPERS


ILFORD resin coated papers are processed in a
similar way to other resin coated papers. All
ILFORD resin coated papers can be dish/tray or
machine processed.
Additional recommendations on processing
ILFORD MULTIGRADE RC WARMTONE and
ILFORD MULTIGRADE RC COOLTONE papers are
given in their respective fact sheets.
Note Photographic chemicals are not hazardous
when used correctly. Always follow the health and
safety recommendations on the packaging.
Photochemicals material safety data sheets
containing full details for the safe handling,
disposal and transportation of ILFORD chemicals
are available from ILFORD.
DISH/TRAY PROCESSING
Agitation
Use intermittent agitation when dish/tray
processing prints, that is, intermittently rock the
dish/tray when processing single sheets, or
interleave them when processing several sheets of
paper at once.
To interleave prints, slip the sheets face down, one
at a time, into the dish/tray. Then pull out the
bottom sheet and place it on top of the remaining
sheets in the dish/tray. Continue moving the
bottom sheet to the top, until the processing step is
complete.
Development
ILFORD
Dilution C/F
Time
developer
(min:sec)
Liquids
MULTIGRADE
1+9
20/68
1:00
MULTIGRADE
1+14
20/68
1:30
PQ UNIVERSAL 1+9
20/68
2:00
Powder
BROMOPHEN 1+3
20/68
2:00
* Approximately double these times are
recommended with MULTIGRADE RC COOLTONE
paper to obtain the coolest image colour see the
MULTIGRADE RC COOLTONE fact sheet.
To maintain print to print consistency when batch
processing a large number of prints, it may be
advantageous to reduce exposure slightly and
extend development.
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MULTIGRADE 1+9
On correctly exposed prints, the image will begin
to appear after about 615 seconds with these
developers. The minimum recommended
development time for high quality prints is
approximately 45 seconds; after this time there is
a more gradual image build-up. Overexposed
prints developed for a minimum of 35 seconds are
acceptable for those applications where the
highest quality is not required.
Developer capacity
The following table gives the developing capacity
of 1 litre/1 US quart of working strength developer.
ILFORD
developer

Dilution

20.3x25.4cm
(8x10 inch)
ILFORD prints

Liquids
MULTIGRADE
1+9
100
MULTIGRADE
1+14
70
PQ UNIVERSAL
1+9
70
Powder
BROMOPHEN
1+3
70
* Approximately half these capacities are
achieved if only MULTIGRADE RC COOLTONE is
processed. This is because of the longer
development times recommended with
MULTIGRADE RC COOLTONE paper.
MULTIGRADE Developer
MULTIGRADE developer is suitable for developing
all black and white papers. MULTIGRADE
developer can be used at the standard dilution of
1+9 or at 1+14 for greater development control
and for economy.
MULTIGRADE developer is clean working and has
excellent keeping properties. It can be stored as
concentrate in full unopened bottles for up to 2
years; in half full bottles, it has a shelf life of 6
months. Diluted developer will stay in good
condition in the open dish/tray for two working
days, at dilution 1+9, and for one working day, at
dilution 1+14.

PROCESSING B&W RESIN COATED PAPERS


PQ UNIVERSAL developer
PQ UNIVERSAL developer is supplied as a liquid
concentrate. A full, tightly capped bottle of PQ
UNIVERSAL developer concentrate will keep for up
to two years; in half full tightly capped bottles it
will keep for about six months. During use, PQ
UNIVERSAL will keep in good condition for about
24 hours in the open dish/tray.
BROMOPHEN developer
BROMOPHEN developer is supplied as a powder
which is mixed to make a stock solution, which is
then diluted before use. BROMOPHEN powder
can be stored indefinitely in a dry place. A full,
tightly capped bottle of stock solution
BROMOPHEN developer will keep for six months;
in half full tightly capped bottles it will keep for
about two months. During use, BROMOPHEN will
keep in good condition for about 24 hours in the
open dish/tray.
Stop bath
After development, rinse prints in an acid stop
bath, such as ILFOSTOP or ILFOSTOP PRO. A stop
bath stops development immediately, reduces the
risk of staining and will extend the life of the fixer
bath. The use of a stop bath is strongly
recommended.
ILFORD
stop bath
Liquid
ILFOSTOP
ILFOSTOP PRO

Dilution

C/F

Time
(sec)

1+19 1824/6475
1+19 1824/6475

10
10

A guide to the capacity of ILFOSTOP solution is 60


20.3x25.4cm (8x10 inch) prints per1 litre /1 US
quart of working strength solution. ILFOSTOP
contains a colour indicator which turns from yellow
to purple when the working solution is exhausted.
ILFOSTOP PRO has a higher capacity of 90
20.3x25.4cm (8x10 inch) prints in 1 litre/1 US
quart of working strength solution. Alternatively,
discard the solution if the prints still feel slimy after
10 seconds in the bath.
Fixation
ILFORD
non-hardening
Liquids
ILFORD RAPID
FIXER
HYPAM
Powder
ILFOFIX II

Dilution
fixer

C/F

Time
(min:sec)

1824/6475
1824/6475
1824/6475
1824/6475

0:30
1:00
0:30
1:00

stock 1824/6475

2:00

1+4
1+9
1+4
1+9

The use of a hardening fixer is not recommended


as it reduces washing efficiency. There is no
benefit in extending fixation beyond the
recommended time; some loss of print quality
might be seen when long fixing times are given,
due to image etching.
Fixer capacity
The capacity of a fixer is limited by the build up of
silver in the bath. A silver level of 46g/l (US
quart) is safe for all commercial use with resin
coated papers. This approximates to 80
20.3x25.4cm (8x10 inch) prints per litre (US
quart) of working strength fixer. For prints with
maximum stability, that is, for long term storage, a
silver level of 1g/l (US quart) should be used. This
approximates to 20 20.3x25.4cm (8x10 inch)
prints per litre (US quart) of working strength fixer.
Two-bath fixing
Although not normally recommended with resin
coated papers, two-bath fixing can be beneficial
when toning for aesthetic effect or to protect the
print for display.
Two-bath fixing at 1824C/6475F
Dilution
Fixing time (min)
Bath 1
Bath 2
Liquids
1/2
1/2
+
ILFORD RAPID FIXER 1+4
ILFORD RAPID FIXER 1+9
1
+
1
1/2
1/2
+
HYPAM
1+4
HYPAM
1+9
1
+
1
Powder
ILFOFIX II
stock
2
+
2
Washing

Fresh, running water

Temperature
(C/F)
Above 5/41

Time
(sec)
120

When it is important to obtain a print in the


shortest possible time, vigorously wash ILFORD
resin coated papers for 30 seconds in running
water.
Prolonged immersion in water can cause edge
penetration and print curl with resin coated
papers: for this reason, avoid wet times longer
than 15 minutes.
Drying
A final rinse in ILFORD ILFOTOL, diluted 1+200
with water, aids even and rapid drying.
Optimum quality results are obtained with the
ILFORD series of dryers, for example, the ILFOLAB
1250RC. ILFORD dryers give the best possible
finish on all ILFORD paper surfaces, and produce
a high gloss finish on ILFORD glossy papers.
When a dryer for resin coated prints is not
available, remove surplus water from the prints

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PROCESSING B&W RESIN COATED PAPERS


and leave them to dry. At room temperature, prints
dry in 1020 minutes.
Note ILFORD resin coated paper, as with other
resin coated papers, should not be
glazed/ferrotyped or dried on a drum or flatbed
glazer, as this can cause the polyethylene in the
paper to stick to the glazing surface.
MACHINE PROCESSING
ILFORD resin coated papers can be processed in
all conventional machines for black and white
resin coated papers. They are not suitable,
however, for activation type processing.
ILFORD processors
ILFORD 2000RT developer/replenisher and
fixer/replenisher are recommended for use with all
ILFORD black & white processors. They are
supplied as liquid concentrates. A developer
starter is not needed.
For the convenience of automatic processing
without the need to use large, floor standing
equipment, the ILFOLAB 2150RC table-top
processor is recommended. ILFORD 2150XL
developer and fixer kits are recommended for use
with this processor. They are supplied as 3 litre
packs of liquid concentrate, which are simply
poured into the processor and mixed to the correct
dilution automatically by the processor.
Other processors
This section is a guide to setting up processors for
ILFORD resin coated papers using ILFORD 2000RT
developer/replenisher and fixer/replenisher. These
are diluted 1+4 to make tank or replenisher
solution. These suggestions are only a guide, and
the processing cycle should be checked in the
processor. For further guidance, contact your local
ILFORD company or distributor.
Suggested development times
The preferred temperature range is
2030C/6886F.
Temperature
(C/F)
20/68
25/77
30/86
35/95
40/104

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Development time (sec)


including transfer time to next tank
46
32
22
15
12

These times are for non-replenished systems, with a


maximum solution life of seven days. They are also
for replenished systems with a solution life of up to
three months. The suggested developer
replenishment rate is 150250ml/m2
(1423ml/ft2) paper processed.
The solution life is dependent on paper throughput,
and a suggested minimum is 2.8m2 of paper/l
(31ft2/US quart) of working strength solution per
week. If paper throughput is considerably less than
this, to maintain print quality, it may be necessary
either to make up fresh tank solution every 6
weeks instead of 12 weeks, or to double the
replenishment rates.
Suggested fixing times
The same times and temperatures as for
development can be used for fixing. The actual
fixing time, however, is shorter, and 20 seconds is
ample above 20C/68F. These recommendations
are suitable for both replenished and nonreplenished systems. In non-replenished systems,
the maximum paper throughput is 4m2/l
(44ft2/US quart) of working strength solution. The
suggested fixer replenishment rate for replenished
systems is 300450ml/m2 (2841ml/ft2) of paper
processed. The maximum silver concentration in
the fixer bath can be 46g/l.
Note If fixing is not complete, then adequate
washing is impossible.
Washing times
Wash for at least 15 seconds at temperatures
above 5C/41F. Set the water flow so as to fill
the wash tank in 4 minutes or less.
Hot air drying
Use temperatures up to 85C/185F.
TONING AND CHEMICAL REDUCTION
ILFORD papers respond in a similar way to other
resin coated papers to the usual techniques of
toning and chemical reduction.
RETOUCHING
ILFORD prints can be spotted and air brushed
using dye (for a glossy finish) or water colour (for
a matt finish), in the same way as most resin
coated papers.
When knifing resin coated prints, damp the area
to be knifed, then use a sharp, pointed blade to
scrape away the emulsion. Alternatively, bleach
out specks completely using local chemical
reduction. After knifing or local reduction, rewash
and dry the print, then spot the resulting white
area in the usual way.

PROCESSING B&W RESIN COATED PAPERS


BACKWRITING
The back of ILFORD resin coated papers is treated
to accept pencil, most ball pens, non-water-soluble
felt-tipped pens, fast drying stamp pad inks and all
printing inks formulated for polyethylene printing.
Many users also photocopy information onto the
back of prints, although, strictly, this is not
recommended.
MOUNTING
ILFORD prints can be mounted in one of the
following ways. Where prints are to be mounted
for long periods (in excess of 12 years), the dry
mounting method is recommended.
Dry mounting
ILFORD prints can be dry mounted in the usual
way. The use of a foil overlay is recommended for
glossy surfaces and the use of silicone release
paper for other surfaces.
Although the manufacturers recommendations
should be followed, most tissues will give good
results in a dry mounting press at a temperature of
8090C/176194F with prints under pressure
for about 3040 seconds.
Double-sided adhesive sheets/cold
mounting films
These provide a very effective and convenient
means of mounting ILFORD papers onto porous or
non-porous surfaces, without the need for special
machinery. Some adhesive sheets allow the print to
be repositioned after fixing. Several makes are
available in sheet or roll form.
Spray adhesives
Spray adhesives are suitable for mounting ILFORD
papers.
Note Always read the safety advice given by the
manufacturers before using spray adhesives.
Contact adhesives
These adhesives are available in liquid form for
brushing or spraying and are suitable for mounting
ILFORD prints onto porous or non-porous mounts.
Solvents must be allowed to evaporate completely
from both print and mount before the two are
brought into contact.
Wet mounting
ILFORD papers can be mounted onto porous
surfaces (eg hardboard) using wet adhesives such
as those designed for wall coverings. When
mounting large prints, this method is an
advantage, as there is time to position the print
correctly and remove any air bubbles that might
have become trapped between the print and the
mount, without damaging the print. Wet mounting
resin coated prints on non-porous materials (eg
metal) is not recommended.

DISPLAY OF PRINTS
Prints made for display must be toned to protect
them from the oxidising gases that are found in
many environments. Oxidising gases come from
everyday items such as newly laid carpet, wet
gloss paint, newly applied adhesives and traffic
fumes. Selenium toner is recommended as it has
little effect on the image colour. Sulphide (or sepia)
toning also gives an image of increased stability,
as do polysulphide toners (for example, Kodak
Brown Toner).
Some metal replacement toners, for example, gold
toner and platinum toner can protect the image,
but other metal replacement toners, such as blue
(iron) toner and red (copper) toner may not give
extra protection as the image might fade. Dye
toners do not give extra protection.
Also recommended for image protection are image
stabilising solutions, such as Agfa Sistan, Tetenal
Stabinal and Fuji AgGard.
Laminating may also help to protect the image, but
ideally prints should be toned before laminating.
ILFORD ILFOGUARD laminating and encapsulating
films are recommended.
Long term print storage
When exceptionally long term print life is needed,
prints must be processed as described in this fact
sheet and then stored under special storage
conditions. The ISO standard on print storage
(ISO IT9.201994) has two levels of storage
conditions: medium term and extended term.
Medium term is for prints with a life expectancy of
at least 10 years. Extended term is for prints with
a longer life expectancy and to prolong the life of
all prints. Briefly, the main conditions are:
Freedom from chemical contamination, either
airborne or from storage containers. Also
protection from high levels of ultra-violet radiation,
particularly sunlight but also fluorescent lighting.
For medium term storage: a stable temperature up
to 25C/77F (but preferably below 20C/68F)
with a maximum daily cycling of 2C/4F; and a
stable humidity between approximately 20%RH
and 50%RH with a maximum daily cycling of
10%.
For extended term storage: a stable temperature
up to 18C/65F (but preferably lower) with a
maximum daily cycling of 1C/2F; and a stable
humidity between approximately 30%RH and
50%RH with a maximum daily cycling of 5%.
A wide range of fact sheets is available which describe and
give guidance on using ILFORD products. Some products in
this fact sheet might not be available in your country

ILFORD Imaging UK Limited, Town Lane, Mobberley,


Knutsford, Cheshire WA16 7JL, England
www.ilford.com

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94056.GB.www

June 2002