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X STD - GEOGRAPHY DISTINGUISH BETWEEN

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GMT

IST

GMT means Greenwich Mean Time

IST means Indian Standard Time

It is calculated at 00 longitude

In India the centrally located longtitude


820.30E has been selected as standard

meridian for the whole country


GMT is the reference time for the world IST is the official time for the whole of
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time zone

India once 5 hours 30 minutes a head of


GMT

Meridian of GMT passes through London

Meridian of IST passes through Allahabad

WESTERN GHATS

EASTERN GHATS

It is a system of continuous hills.


It

extends

from

Tapti

valley

It is a system of discontinuous hills.


to It extends from Mahanadi river in Orissa

kaniyakumari

to Vaigai river in Tamil Nadu

It is parallel to west coast line

It is almost parallel to east coast line.

Most of the rivers originate in the Drain into Bay of Bengal.


Western ghats drain into the Arabian Sea.

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The highest peak Dottapetta is in Nilgiris

WEST COASTAL PLAINS

The highest peak is Mahendra Giri.

EAST COASTAL PLAINS

The western coastal plain extend from The eastern coastal plain extend from
ran of kutch to kanniya kumara

west Bengal to kanniya kumari

Northern Part Konkan coast

Northern part Northern circars

Southern part Malabar coast

Southern part coromandel coast

The plain has numberous back waters These plans has numerous lakes much as
and lagoons

By B. SRINIVASAN, KRISHNAGIRI

chilka, kolleru & pulicat lake

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WIND WARD SIDE

LEE WARD SIDE

The side of region of the landscape that The side or region of the landscape that
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lies facing ward moist see wind is known opposite to moist see wind is known as
as wind ward side
West

coastal

line

Lee ward side


including Mubai, Eastern coastal line including pure and

Coastal Karnataka and northern kerala lie Bangalore lie on the Lee ward side
on the wind ward side of western ghates

Wind ward side received very heavy to Lee ward side receives scanty rainfall.
heavy rainfall

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western Ghats

SOUTH WEST MONSOON

NORTH EAST MONSOON

South West Monsoon blows for June to North East Monsoon blows during
September.

October and November.

These winds originate from Indian Ocean These winds blow from land to sea.
to land
These winds are moisture laden winds

It is cold dry wind.

These winds give heavy rainfall to These


western coastal plan

winds

give

heavy

rain

to

Coromandal Coast.

WESTERN DISTURBANCE

TROPICAL CYCLONES

Western Disturbances are winds that Tropical Cyclones are formed due to low
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originate in Mediterranean sea and travel pressure area in Bay of Bengal and travel
east ward across Iran and Pakistan

across Coromandel Coast.

Western Disturbances are moisture laden Cyclones are moisture laden and bring
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winds

rainfall to Southern Andra Pradesh and


Tamil Nadu.

Western disturbances bring rainfall to Cyclones not only bring rainfall but also
Himachal Pradesh, Punjab and Haryana.

damage life and property.

They bring snowfall to hill of Jammu and They do not bring snowfall to any of the
Kashmir

By B. SRINIVASAN, KRISHNAGIRI

hills.

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WEATHER

CLIMATE

Weather is a day to day condition of Climate is the average state of weather


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atmosphere at any place in regard to for a longer period of time at any place.
temperature, pressure, wind, humidity
and rainfall.

It is the condition of atmosphere for only To get reliable average of climate a


a short period

minimum of 35 years is needed.

Weather of a place may change daily.

Climate of a place remains constant over


a long period.

LOO

NORWESTERS

Loo wind originate in desert area of blow Norwesters originate in Bay of Bengal
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over north and North western part of the blow over North and North Eastern part
country

of country.

They are strong, dry as well as hot wind

They are strong as well as moisture laden


winds

They do not bring rainfall

They bring heavy to very heavy rainfall

These winds are dry and dust storms

These winds are local thunder storms

TROPICAL EVER GREEN FOREST

TROPICAL MONSOON FORESH

Evergreen forests are found in the Monsoon forest are found in areas where
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regions where the range of annual rainfall range of annual rainfall is 100-200cm
is more than 200 cm
These forest are found in western slopes Monsoon forests cover a large area of

of Western Ghats &north Eastern region southern as well as Northern India


of India
ebhony,mahagony,bamboo,rubber,teak,r

are

osewood,iron-wood trees are the trees the most commonly found in the
are the trees found in these forest

sandalwood,sesham,sal&redwood

monsoon forest

These forest are evergreen and do not They are not so dense as evergreen and
shed their leaves

By B. SRINIVASAN, KRISHNAGIRI

shed their leaves in summer

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RENEWABLE RESOURCE
Renewable

resources

are

NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCE

resources Non-renewable resources are resources

which can be reproduced again and again which cannot be replaced again after
after utilization

utilization

The time taken to renew the resources They are formed over a very long
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may be different from one resources to geological periods


another

Sunlight,air,water

forests

are Minerals like coal and petroleum are

examples of renewable resources

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and

examples of non renewable resources

WIND ENERGY

THERMAL ENERGY

It is produced from the speed of wind

it is produced by using coal petroleum,

using wind mill

natural gas etc.,

Tamilnadu, Andra Pradesh, Karnataka, Assam, Jharkhand, Uttarpradesh, West


Gujarat,
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Kerala,

Madhya

Pradesh,

Bengal and Tamilnadu depend mainly on

Maharashtra and Lakshadweep have

thermal electricity. Punjab, Haryana,

wind energy producing centers

Rajasthan , Karnataka, Kerala ,Orissa and


Delhi have thermal energy producing
centers

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The initial expenses for erection of wind The initial expenses are much more than
mills are huge

wind energy

SUBSISTANCE AGRI CULTURE

COMMERCIAL AGRI CULTURE

In this tytpe crops are produced for In this type crops are produced on a large
family consumption

scale

Mainly food crops are produced

These crops are mainly cash crops

This type of agriculture is known as This type of agriculture is otherwise


Intensive agriculture
called Extensive agriculture
example: rice and wheat
example: cereals, cotton, sugarcane, jute
etc.,
The rest is sold in the nearby markets
Exporting them to goods and services

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By B. SRINIVASAN, KRISHNAGIRI

bought from overseas producers

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KHARIF CROP

RABI CROP

It is an important cropping season that It is an important cropping season that


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starts before monsoon and ends after starts at beginning of winter and ends at
autumn season

beginning of summer

Duration- June to November

Duration-November to March

Eg: paddy, maize, cotton, millet, jute, Eg: wheat, tobacco, mustard, pulses,
sugarcane

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linseed, grains

UNI-CROPPING

DUAL- CROPPING

If only one crop is raised in a field at a If only two crops are raised in a field at a
time it is called as uni- cropping

time it is called as dual- cropping

It is also known as mono cropping

It is also known as double cropping

Eg: Tea ,coffee, sugarcane etc.,

Eg: wheat with mustard

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MINERAL BASED INDUSTRY

AGRO BASED INDUSTRY

These industries use both metallic and These


non metalliuc minerals as raw material

industries

use

agri

cultural

products as their raw materials

Ex: cotton textile industry and jute Ex: iron and steel industry
industry

IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY

SOFTWARE INDUSTRY

These industries are based on mineral these industries are based on human
resources

resources

These industries are applicable for both These industries are applicable only for
skilled and unskilled labours

skilled and young professionals

Tisco, Bhilai, Bokaro

Bangalore, Mumbai, Chennai

By B. SRINIVASAN, KRISHNAGIRI

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AIRWAYS

WATER WAYS

Airways are the quickest, costliest most Waterways are the cheapest means of
modern means of transport

transport

They carry passengers, freight and mail

They are most suitable for carrying heavy


and bulky goods at low cost

They

link local, regional, national and Water ways are i8n the for of rivers,

international cites.

canals, backwaters seas and oceans.

Airways are classified into domestic Water ways are classified into island
airway and international air ways.

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waterways and ocean routes.

ROAD WAYS

RAIL WAYS

Roadways are cost efficient and the most Indian Railways provide the principal
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popular dominant mode of transport

mode of transport for freight and


passengers

They link different parts of our country

It brings people from the farthest corner


of our country

It is used by all sections of people in the It promotes trade, tourism education and
society

national integration

The roads are classified into village roads, Railway lines are classified into three
District roads, State Highways, National categories namely Broad guage, Meter
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Highway, Golden Quadrilateral Super Gauge and narrow guage.


ways, Express ways, Border roads and
international High ways.
Road network in India is the second Indian railways is the second largest

largest in the world accounting for 3,314 network in the world. It traverses across
million km.

the length and breadth for 63,273 km


connecting 7,025 stations.

By B. SRINIVASAN, KRISHNAGIRI

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NATIONAL HIGHWAYS

National highways links the state capitals State highways links the state capitals
with national capital

with the different headquarters

They are maintained by the central public They are maintained by the state public
works department(CPWD)

works department

Eg: Varanasi to Kanyakumari NH-7

Eg: Cuddalore to Chitoor

Ernakulam to cochin-NH-47

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STATE HIGHWAYS

EXPORT

IMPORT

Export means goods and services sold for Import refers to goods and services
foreign currency

bought from overseas producers

India exports nearly 7500 goods to 190 India imports nearly 6000 goods from
countries of the world

140 countries

Eg: tea, spices, iron ore, leather, cotton, Eg: machines, transport equipments,
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textile

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wheat, petroleum and newsprint

WATER POLLUTION

LAND POLLUTION

Water pollution is any chemical, physical Land pollution is contaminating the land
or biological change in the quality of surface of the earth through dumping of
water that has a harmful effect on any urban waste matter and it arises from
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living thing that drinks or uses or lives in the breakage of underground storage
it

tanks, application of pesticides and


percolation of contaminated surface
water

Water can also be polluted by a number Direct discharge of Industrial waste, oil
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of organic compounds such as oil, plastics and fuel dumping leaking of waste from
and pesticides in the water which are land fills are also the cauces of land
harmful to humans and animals

By B. SRINIVASAN, KRISHNAGIRI

pollution

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