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http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.

gov/compound/ketamine
Ketamine tidak terlalu sering digunakan sebagai Psychoaktivum. Oleh karena itu, informasi dalam publikasi
adegan yang relevan hanya tersebar langka. Solen tapi self-percobaan dengan ketamine yang akan dibuat,
sehingga Anda perlu informasi yang dapat dipercaya tentang substansi. Namun, ketamin adalah anestesi klinis
dan praklinis, bukan obat partai. Mengikuti prinsip minimalisasi risiko menetapkan semua informasi yang
diperlukan untuk keamanan dan tanpa ausholendes besar jargon dalam artikel berikut. Ketika ketamin adalah
obat resep di Jerman.
Sejarah:
Ketamine pertama kali disintesis pada tahun 1962 oleh Calvin Stevens di Davis Laboratorium Parke, sementara
ia sedang mencari pengganti PCP anestesi. Ia menyebut zat baru "CI-581". 1965 diikuti pengenalan klinis
sebagai obat bius oleh University of Michigan. Produksi dan distribusi dilakukan oleh Parke-Davis .

Kimia:
Sinonim: 2- (2-Chlorphenyl) -2-methylaminocyclohexanon, CI-581 Sum Formula: C13 H16 NociBerat
molekul: 237,7285 g / mol CAS-Nummer: 6740-88-1 ACX-Nummer: X1008159-1 Ketamine termasuk kelas
kimia Phencyclidinderivate dan

dengan Phencyclidin (PCP,

und Cyclohexylamin (Z.B.

dem Arylcyclohexylamin

Angel

debu,

pil

Perdamaian

Dan

Tiletamine)

...)

digunakan

sebagai Enansiomer atau Razemat (S-dan R-ketamin) Tersedia. Substansi yang larut dalam air (1 g dalam 5 ml
air dan 14 ml alkohol) pada nilai pH 3,5-5,5 dan pK 7,5. Biasanya Ketaminprparate berisi 50 atau 100 miligram
bahan aktif per mililiter larutan. Apakah kondomBenzethoniumchlorid.

Nama Trivial:
Cumi Blind, Cat Valium, Gas, Good, Hijau, Madu Minyak, Jet, K, Kate Keller, hari Kelly, Ket, Keta, Kit-Kat, Kitty,
Pferdenarkosemittel,

Ungu,

Special

K,

khusus

LA

Coke,

Super

Asam

Super

C,

Super-K,

SYNTHETIC Kokain [Nama tolol!], Vitamin K, Vit K


Ketaminerfahrungen dikenal antara lain sebagai K-lubang (Ketamindelirium), K-lahan, Makanan Bayi dan
Tuhan.
Bentuk sediaan:
cair

Kristalline Bentuk Bubuk


Tablettenform (zB als MDMA-TAMBAH oder -Substitut)
mengambil teknik:
Pemakanan (minum, makan, menelan)
i.v. Tahap i.m. Spritz
rhinitis
merokok bedak (jarang)
Penggunaan medis:
Ketamine diterapkan baik pada manusia dan kedokteran hewan.
Selain diperkirakan pada kalangan psiko-nautical efek psychedelic, memiliki Ketamine spektrum medis terapi
relevan tindakan dalam kaitannya dengan masalah kardiovaskular, sehingga misalnya diterapkan dalam
penangkapan kardiovaskular. Substansi menginduksi konsumsi oksigen yang meningkat dari otot jantung dan
halusinogen (psychotomimentische) reaksi.Ketamine memiliki analgesik kuat (nyeri-relieving) dan amnesia
(hilang ingatan inducing) efek.
Selain itu, Ketamine digunakan dalam Abszessspaltungen, Frakturrepositionen, perawatan permukaan, status
asmatikus, Wundinzisionen dan untuk pengobatan luka septik atau selama berpakaian perubahan luka bakar.
Persiapan Temukan Pengobatan Manusia
Ketajet, Ketaject, Ketalar, Ketalin, Ketamin50 Rotexmedica, ketamin Ratiopharm, ketamin Curamed,
Ketamine Panpharma, Ketanest, Ketanet, Ketaset
Persiapan Hewan pilihan
Anasket, Ketaminol, Ketanarkon, Ketaphorte, Ketasol, Ketavet, Kettamina, Narketan, Vetalar
Dosis:
Oral: 200-450 mg Nasal: 50-150 mg Intramuskular: 30-120 mg; Karena sangat cepat tindakan masuk dan
kekerasan, injeksi intravena Ketamine tidak sangat populer.
Efek:

The dissoziativ1 akting Ketamine fisiologis berikatan dengan reseptor NMDA dan dimetabolisme di hati
untuk Norketamin (Memiliki sekitar 1/3 dari Ketaminpotenz pada) dan Dehydronorketamin.
Dengan dosis tepat tinggi substansi menghambat rasa sakit dan sensasi tubuh. Pengguna melewati u.U. dari
pengalaman tubuh dan menyatu dengan lingkungannya, yaitu ia tidak lagi dalam posisi untuk secara rasional
memisahkan kesadarannya dari dunia luar. Kadang-kadang rasanya seperti mimpi dan menjadi satu dengan
alam semesta. Gejala khas dari dosis tergantungKetamine-Rausches Bisa:
halusinasi auditori (pendengaran suara atau persepsi terdistorsi tidak ada nada nyata)
Dari pengalaman tubuh
Resolusi dari lingkungan
Perasaan penyerapan dalam kosmos
meringankan perasaan
Kelemahan , kusam, kurangnya motivasi
transformasi Dua-dimensi ruang dan / atau objek
kehilangan atau pembatasan Geschmacksund penciuman
Risiko dan efek samping:
Alptrume
kecemasan
Atemstillstand
bronkodilatasi
muntah (ingat kasus ketidaksadaran, posisi Pemulihan sesak napas!)
Peningkatan denyut jantung (takikardia)
Peningkatan tekanan darah (hipertensi)
peningkatan tekanan intrakranial
halusinasi

Koma
Paranoia
jatuh atau cedera dampak (dengan Wi-orientasi berjalan sekitar)
pusing
pendidikan toleransi
mual
kehilangan motor koordinasi;
Kontraindikation:
Orang yang menderita penyakit-penyakit berikut, cedera dan gangguan kesehatan mungkin tidak mengambil
ketamine yang akan diberikan dan mendapatkan:
aorta dan stenosis mitral (penyempitan katup aorta atau mitral)
Aortenaneurysma
cedera mata
1 sub, obat disosiatif 'diartikan secara sederhana, psikotropika, menyampaikan kepada pengguna selama
kesibukan, perasaan bahwa ia terpisah dari tubuhnya sendiri atau bahkan kesadaran.
2 Untuk menghindari pengalaman disosiatif, yang biasanya disebut mimpi buruk, pasien klinis menerima
ketamine dalam kombinasi dengan benzodiazepin (misalnya diazepam atau midazolam).
intervensi dalam hidung dan tenggorokan
eklampsia (kehamilan diinduksi kejang)
EPH Gestose (Preklampsie, Vorstufe of Eklampsia)
serangan jantung Terbaru
Glaukoma
gagal jantung

penyakit jantung katup


hipertiroidisme (terlalu aktif tiroid)
hipertensi (tekanan darah abnormal rendah)
Penyakit jantung koroner
Manifester tekanan intrakranial (cedera otak traumatis)
kabel prolaps
pheochromocytoma (tumor kelenjar adrenal)
Gangguan Jiwa
rahim (rahim dinding-air mata)
Penyalahgunaan kronis berkepanjangan menyebabkan pendidikan toleransi. Yang terus meningkat karena
dosis toleransi yang dihasilkan nikmat gangguan memori, dan dalam kasus terburuk bahkan saraf dan
kerusakan otak.
Kewaspadaan, penggunaan yang lebih aman:
orang yang menderita tekanan darah tinggi atau penyakit kardiovaskular lainnya, pasti harus menahan diri
dari ketamin
Jangan pernah mengambil ketamin pada perut penuh
Jangan pernah mengambil ketamine dengan alkohol, opioid, benzodiazepin, barbiturat dan obat depresan
pernafasan lainnya
Auf optimales Set und Pengaturan ACHTEN
Jangan berenang di bawah Ketamineinfluss
Jangan gunakan sebagai obat partai!
bawah Ketamineinfluss pernah Kendaraan
memimpin atau mengoperasikan mesin
Jangan pernah mengambil ketamin tanpa tripsitter

Dalam kasus injeksi steril menggunakan peralatan suntik


Peraturan, skrining obat dan perundang-undangan:
Ketamine adalah obat resep yang tidak tunduk pada BtmG. Perdagangan pribadi dengan ketamin
dilarang dan akan dihukum sesuai dengan hukum obat. Ketamine biasanya tidak diteliti dalam skrining
obat. Dalam kasus dugaan ketamin dapat dengan cara HPLC (kromatografi cair kinerja tinggi)
diidentifikasi. Produk degradasi Dehydronorketamin terdeteksi sampai tiga hari dalam urin.
Tambahan Editor
Ketamine adalah obat yang sering digunakan dalam pengobatan darurat untuk memuaskan sakit parah, itu
untuk korban kecelakaan, atau penderitaan-terkait penyakit. Kursus disebutkan dalam pendidikan toleransi
Pasal tidak berhenti ketika seorang dokter darurat ingin menggunakan obat. Dokter dapat mengetahui apa-apa
tentang toleransi ini, berjalan dengan terapi nya ke ruang angkasa dan kemudian tidak dapat memberikan
opioid sebagai pemain pengganti.
Untuk dijadwalkan, mungkin diulang pada interval pendek self-eksperimen, sehingga harus diingat bahwa Anda
mungkin menginstal kesempatan untuk bantuan cepat dalam keadaan darurat. Jika opioid digunakan sebagai
Notfallansthetikum pertama, sehingga sangat berbahaya. Pada kemungkinan cara yang cukup darurat yang
telah dikatakan dalam artikel.
Sastra:
Adams, H.A., Werner, C. (1997), Tema: Dari rasemat untuk eutomer: (S) -Ketamin. Renaissance suatu zat?,
Der Ansthesist 46 (12): 1026-1042
Anonymous (o.J.), Ketamine, Manchester: Lifeline Publikasi
Bolle, Ralf H. (1988), Pada asal kerinduan. Dalam kesadaran bangun psikologis menyatakan di
Contoh anestesi Ketanest, Berlin: VWB Bornscheuer, A., Lbbe, N., Mahr, KH, H. A. Adams, bunyi Brock, S., E.
Kirchner (1997),
Reaksi endokrin, sirkulasi dan Aufwachverhalten dengan ketamin / midazolam anestesi. Sebuah perbandingan
Studi ketamin rasemat vs (S) -Ketamin selama operasi di lutut, Der Anaesthesist 46 (12): 1043-1049
Dotson, J.W., Ackerman D.L., Barat, L.J. (1995), Ketamine penyalahgunaan, J Obat Isu 25: 751-757
Berhala-Nielsen, T., Kendall, SA, Henrikksson, KG, Bengtsson, M., Sorensen, J., Hansen, G., Jensen,

S.B., Chandresh, L., Hilden, T. (1988), The Psikotropika Pengaruh Ketamine, J. Psycho Aktif Obat 20: 419-425
Hirlinger, WK, Pfenninger, E. (1987), Analgesia intravena dengan ketamin untuk pasien darurat, Anaesthesist
36 (3): 140-142
Jansen, Karl gelar M.D. Ph. D., Ketamine: Mimpi dan Kenyataan, ISBN: 0-9660019-3-1
Kelly, Kit (1999), Sedikit buku Ketamine, Ronin Penerbitan Inc
Klose, Roderich, Koppe, Uwe (2001), (S) -Ketamin. Aspek interdisipliner saat ini,Berlin Heidelberg: Springer
Lehmann, K.A., Klaschik, M. (2001), Studi klinis dari analgesia preemptive oleh dosis rendah ketamin. Sebuah
prospektif, acak studi double-blind dibandingkan dengan plasebo, Nyeri 15: 248-53
Merchant, S. (1996), Ketamine sakit kanker: Pembaruan, paliatif Med 10: 225-230
Naguib, M., Adu-SERVICE, Y., Kawana, Y., Sato, H. (1988), Ketamin Epidural analgesia pascaoperasi, Anesth
Analg 67: 798-799
Vollenweider,

F.X.

(1992), Penerapan

psychomimetics

dalam

penelitian

skizofrenia,

mempertimbangkan ketamin / PCP Model psikosis, Ketergantungan 38: 398-409


Wiedemann, B. (1997), Ketamine untuk pengobatan nyeri kronis: meta-analisis, Nyeri 11: 276-281

dengan

http://www.chemspider.com/Chemical-Structure.3689.html

Ketamine

ChemSpider ID: 3689


Molecular Formula: C13H16ClNO
Average mass: 237.725 Da

Monoisotopic mass: 237.092041 Da


Systematic name:
2-(2-Chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)cyclohexanone
SMILES and InChIs
Smiles:
CNC1(CCCCC1=O)c2ccccc2Cl
Std. InChI:
InChI=1S/C13H16ClNO/c1-15-13(9-5-4-8-12(13)16)10-6-2-3-7-11(10)14/h2-3,6-7,15H,4-5,89H2,1H3
Std. InChIKey:
YQEZLKZALYSWHR-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Cite this record
CSID:3689, http://www.chemspider.com/Chemical-Structure.3689.html (accessed 02:40, Feb
18, 2015)

Spectra:
Type: Infrared
Comments: These data were collected from standards supplied by legitimate manufacturers or
synthesized in forensic laboratories under controlled conditions. Supplied by John Meyers, Member of the
ChemSpider Advisory Group.
Approved: No
Submitted by: Antony Williams

Computed Properties
Molecular Weight

237.72524 g/mol

Molecular Formula

C13H16ClNO

XLogP3

2.2

Hydrogen Bond Donor Count

Hydrogen Bond Acceptor Count

Rotatable Bond Count

Exact Mass

237.092042 g/mol

Monoisotopic Mass

237.092042 g/mol

Topological Polar Surface Area

29.1 A^2

Heavy Atom Count

16

Formal Charge

Complexity

269

Isotope Atom Count

Defined Atom Stereocenter Count

Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count

Defined Bond Stereocenter Count

Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count

Covalently-Bonded Unit Count

Methods of Manufacturing
... Prepared by bromination of o-chlorophenyl cyclopentyl ketone, which is then reacted with
methylamine to give the methylimino alcohol. Thermolysis of the imino hydrochloride yields
ketamine by ring expansion.
Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. 6th ed.Vol 1: Federal Republic of Germany: Wiley-VCH
Verlag GmbH & Co. 2003 to Present, p. V3 155 (2003)

from HSDB [1]

PRODUCT RESULTING FROM GRIGNARD REACTION INVOLVING OCHLOROBENZONITRILE & BROMOCYCLOPENTANE IS TREATED IN PRESENCE OF
STRONG ALKALI TO FORM EPOXY CMPD... REACTION OF THIS WITH METHYLAMINE
YIELDS IMINE WHICH REARRANGES ON HEATING IN PRESENCE OF HCL.
Osol, A. (ed.). Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences. 16th ed. Easton, Pennsylvania: Mack Publishing
Co., 1980., p. 988

Impurities
1-[(2-chlorophenyl)(methylimino)methyl]cyclopentanol; (2-chlorophenyl)(1hydroxycyclopentyl)methanone; (2RS)-2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-hydroxycyclohexanone
Council of Europe, European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines. European Pharmacopoeia, 5th Ed.,
Supplement 5.5; Strasbourg, France, p.3963 (2005)

Formulations/Preparations
Trade Names. Ketanest (Parke-Davis); Ketaject (Bristol); Ketalar (Parke-Davis; Sankyo); Ketaset
(Bristol); Vetalar (Parke-Davis, veterinary anesthetic).
Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. 6th ed.Vol 1: Federal Republic of Germany: Wiley-VCH
Verlag GmbH & Co. 2003 to Present, p. V3 155 (2003)

Ketamine ... is available as 10, 50, and 100 mg/mL solutions in sodium chloride plus the
preservative benzethonium chloride.
Hardman, J.G., L.E. Limbird, P.B., A.G. Gilman. Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological
Basis of Therapeutics. 11th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2006., p. 351

Analytic Laboratory Methods


Analyte: ketamine hydrochloride; matrix: chemical identification; procedure: infrared absorption
spectrophotometry with comparison to standards /ketamine hydrochloride/
U.S. Pharmacopeia. The United States Pharmacopeia, USP 31/The National Formulary, NF 26; Rockville,
MD: U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention, Inc., p.2487 (2008)

Analyte: ketamine hydrochloride; matrix: chemical identification; procedure: ultraviolet


absorption spectrophotometry (acid solvent: hydrochloric acid) at about 269 and 276 nm with
comparison to standards /ketamine hydrochloride/

U.S. Pharmacopeia. The United States Pharmacopeia, USP 31/The National Formulary, NF 26;
Rockville, MD: U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention, Inc., p.2487 (2008)
Analyte: ketamine hydrochloride; matrix: chemical identification; procedure: ultraviolet
absorption spectrophotometry (basic solvent: sodium hydroxide) at about 302 nm with
comparison to standards /ketamine hydrochloride/
U.S. Pharmacopeia. The United States Pharmacopeia, USP 31/The National Formulary, NF 26;
Rockville, MD: U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention, Inc., p.2487 (2008)
Analyte: ketamine hydrochloride; matrix: chemical purity; procedure: liquid chromatography with
ultraviolet detection at 220 nm with comparison to standards /ketamine hydrochloride/
U.S. Pharmacopeia. The United States Pharmacopeia, USP 31/The National Formulary, NF 26;
Rockville, MD: U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention, Inc., p.2487 (2008)
Analyte: ketamine hydrochloride; matrix: pharmaceutical preparation (injection solution);
procedure: ultraviolet absorption spectrophotometry at 250 to 350 nm with comparison to
standards (chemical identification) /ketamine hydrochloride/
U.S. Pharmacopeia. The United States Pharmacopeia, USP 31/The National Formulary, NF 26;
Rockville, MD: U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention, Inc., p.2488 (2008)
Analyte: ketamine hydrochloride; matrix: pharmaceutical preparation (injection solution);
procedure: ultraviolet absorption spectrophotometry at 269 nm with comparison to standards
(chemical purity) /ketamine hydrochloride/
U.S. Pharmacopeia. The United States Pharmacopeia, USP 31/The National Formulary, NF 26;
Rockville, MD: U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention, Inc., p.2488 (2008)
Analyte: ketamine hydrochloride; matrix: chemical identification; procedure: infrared absorption
spectrophotometry with comparison to standards /ketamine hydrochloride/
Council of Europe, European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines. European
Pharmacopoeia, 5th Ed., Supplement 5.5; Strasbourg, France, p.3963 (2005)
Analyte: ketamine hydrochloride; matrix: chemical purity; procedure: dissolution in methanol;
addition of hydrochloric acid; potentiometric titration with sodium hydroxide /ketamine
hydrochloride/
Council of Europe, European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines. European
Pharmacopoeia, 5th Ed., Supplement 5.5; Strasbourg, France, p.3963 (2005)

Clinical Laboratory Methods


DETERMINATION OF KETAMINE IN HUMAN PLASMA BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY.
CHANG T ET AL; ANESTHESIOLOGY 36 (4): 401 (1972)

Analyte: ketamine; matrix: blood (plasma); procedure: high-performance liquid chromatography


with ultraviolet detection at 215 nm; limit of detection: 20 ng/mL; limit of quantitation: 40 ng/mL
Geisslinger G et al; J Chromatogr 568: 165-176 (1991). As cited in: Lunn G; HPLC and CE Methods for
Pharmaceutical Analysis. CD-ROM. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons (2000)

from HSDB [1]


Analyte: ketamine; matrix: blood (plasma); procedure: high-performance liquid chromatography
with mass spectrometry detection; limit of detection: 0.5-2.5 ng/mL
Kanazawa H et al; J Chromatogr 631: 215-220 (1993). As cited in: Lunn G; HPLC and CE Methods for
Pharmaceutical Analysis. CD-ROM. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons (2000)

from HSDB [1]


Analyte: ketamine; matrix: blood (serum); procedure: high-performance liquid chromatography
with ultraviolet detection at 215 nm; limit of detection: 5 ng/mL
Seay SS et al; J Chromatogr 620: 281-287 (1993). As cited in: Lunn G; HPLC and CE Methods for
Pharmaceutical Analysis. CD-ROM. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons (2000)

from HSDB [1]


Analyte: ketamine; matrix: blood (plasma, whole); procedure: high-performance liquid
chromatography with ultraviolet detection at 269 nm; limit of detection: <120 ng/mL

Tracqui A et al; J Forensic Sci 40: 254-262 (1995). As cited in: Lunn G; HPLC and CE Methods for
Pharmaceutical Analysis. CD-ROM. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons (2000)

from HSDB [1]


Analyte: ketamine; matrix: blood (plasma); procedure: high-performance liquid chromatography
with ultraviolet detection at 220 nm; limit of detection: 1.7 ng/mL (S), 2.0 ng/mL (R); limit of
quantitation: 10 ng/mL
Svensson JO, Gustafsson LL; J Chromatogr B 678: 373-376 (1996). As cited in: Lunn G; HPLC and CE
Methods for Pharmaceutical Analysis. CD-ROM. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons (2000)

from HSDB [1]


Analyte: ketamine; matrix: blood (plasma); procedure: high-performance liquid chromatography
with ultraviolet detection at 220 nm; limit of detection: 3 ng; limit of quantitation: 5 ug/L
Bolze S, Boulieu R; Clin Chem 44: 560-564 (1998). As cited in: Lunn G; HPLC and CE Methods for
Pharmaceutical Analysis. CD-ROM. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons (2000)

from HSDB [1]


Analyte: ketamine; matrix: blood (whole), urine; procedure: high-performance liquid
chromatography with ultraviolet detection at 202.8 nm

Gaillard Y, Pepin G; J Chromatogr A 763: 149-163 (1997). As cited in: Lunn G; HPLC and CE Methods for
Pharmaceutical Analysis. CD-ROM. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons (2000)

Mechanism of Action
Ketamine is a noncompetitive antagonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, similar to PCP. The
primary site of action is the cerebral cortex and limbic system. It causes electrophysiologic
dissociation between the limbic and cortical systems. It also inhibits the reuptake of
catecholamines, resulting in increased sympathetic activity and hypertension and tachycardia.

Cerebral blood flow, metabolic rate, and intracranial pressure are increased. Other sites of
action include muscarinic and opiate receptors.
Dart, R.C. (ed). Medical Toxicology. Third Edition, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Philadelphia, PA. 2004.,
p. 1109

from HSDB [1]


The general anesthetic ketamine is known to be an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor blocker.
Although ketamine also blocks voltage-gated sodium channels in a local anesthetic-like fashion,
little information exists on the molecular pharmacology of this interaction. ... The effects of
ketamine on sodium channels /was measured/. Wild-type and mutant (F1579A) recombinant rat
skeletal muscle sodium channels were expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The F1579A amino acid
substitution site is part of the intrapore local anesthetic receptor. The effect of ketamine was
measured in oocytes expressing wild-type or mutant sodium channels using two-electrode
voltage clamp. Ketamine blocked sodium channels in a local anesthetic-like fashion, exhibiting
tonic blockade (concentration for half-maximal inhibition [IC50] = 0.8 mm), phasic blockade
(IC50 = 2.3 mm), and leftward shift of the steady-state inactivation; the parameters of these
actions were strongly modified by alteration of the intrapore local anesthetic binding site (IC50 =
2.1 mm and IC50 = 10.3 mm for tonic and phasic blockade, respectively). Compared with
lidocaine, ketamine showed greater tonic inhibition but less phasic blockade. Ketamine interacts
with sodium channels in a local anesthetic-like fashion, including sharing a binding site with
commonly used clinical local anesthetics.
Gingrich KJ et al; Anesthesiology 95 (6): 1406-13 (2001)

from HSDB [1]


The precise mechanism of action is unknown. Ketamine has been shown to block afferent
impulses associated with the affective-emotional component of pain perception within the medial
medullary reticular formation, to suppress spinal cord activity, and to interact with several central
nervous system (CNS) transmitter systems. /Ketamine/
USP Convention. USPDI - Drug Information for the Health Care Professional. 17th ed. Volume I.
Rockville, MD: Convention, Inc., 1997. (Plus Updates)., p. 1782

from HSDB [1]


Ketamine has several clinically useful properties, including analgesia and less cardiorespiratory
depressant effects than other anaesthetic agents, it also causes some stimulation of the

cardiocascular system. Ketamine has been reported to produce general as well as local
anaesthesia. It interacts with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, opioid receptors,
monoaminergic receptors, muscarinic receptors and voltage sensitive Ca ion channels. Unlike
other general anaesthetic agents, ketamine does not interact with GABA receptors.

http://www.newdruginfo.com/pharmacopeia/usp28/v28230/usp28nf23s0_m43960.htm

C13H16ClNOHCl 274.19
Cyclohexanone,2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)-,hydrochloride.
()-2-(o-Chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)cyclohexanone hydrochloride [1867-66-9].

Ketamine Hydrochloride contains not less than 98.0percent and not more
than 102.0percent of C13H16ClNOHCl.
Packaging and storage Preserve in well-closed containers.Store at 25 ,excursions
permitted between 15 and 30 .
USP Reference standards 11 USP Ketamine Hydrochloride RS.USP Ketamine
Related Compound A RS.
Clarity and color of solution Dissolve 1g in 5mLof water:the solution is clear and
colorless.
Identification
A:Infrared Absorption 197K Do not dry specimens.
B:Acid solvent The UVabsorption spectrum of a solution in 0.1Nhydrochloric acid (1in
3000)exhibits maxima and minima at the same wavelengths as that of a similar solution
of USP Ketamine Hydrochloride RS,concomitantly measured,and the respective
absorptivities,at the wavelengths of maximum absorbance at about 269and 276nm,do
not differ by more than 3.0%.
Basic solvent The UVabsorption spectrum of a solution in 0.01Nsodium hydroxide
(1in 1250),in a mixture of water and methanol (1in 20),exhibits maxima and minima at
the same wavelengths as that of a similar solution of USP Ketamine Hydrochloride
RS,concomitantly measured,and the respective absorptivities,at the wavelength of
maximum absorbance at about 302nm,do not differ by more than 3.0%.
pH791: between 3.5and 4.1,in a solution (1in 10).
Residue on ignition 281: not more than 0.1%.
Heavy metals,Method I231: 0.002%.
Related compounds
Mobile phase Dissolve 0.95g of sodium 1-hexanesulfonate in 1Lof a solution
consisting of a mixture of water and acetonitrile (3:1).Add 4mLof acetic acid,and mix.
Standard solution Dissolve accurately weighed quantities of USP Ketamine
Hydrochloride RSand USP Ketamine Related Compound A RSin Mobile

phase (sonicate if necessary)to prepare a solution containing about 0.005mg per mLof
each compound.Prepare immediately before use.
Test solution Transfer an accurately weighed quantity of about 50.0mg of Ketamine
Hydrochloride to a 50-mLvolumetric flask.Dissolve in and dilute withMobile phase to
volume,sonicating if necessary.
Chromatographic system(see Chromatography 621) The liquid chromatograph is
equipped with a 215-nm detector and a 4.0-mm 4.0-mm guard column with a 4.0-mm
12.5-cm analytical column that contains 5-m packing L1.The flow rate is about
1.0mLper minute.Chromatograph the Standard solution,and record the peak responses
as directed forProcedure:the order of elution is ketamine hydrochloride followed by
ketamine related compound A;the resolution,R,between these two peaks is not less
than 2.0;the retention time of ketamine hydrochloride is between 3.0and 4.5minutes (if
necessary,adjust the concentration of water and acetonitrile);and the tailing factor is not
greater than 1.5.
Procedure Separately inject equal volumes (about 20L)of the Standard solution and
theTest solution into the chromatograph,record the chromatograms,identify the ketamine
hydrochloride and ketamine related compound Apeaks,and measure the areas of the
major peaks.Calculate the area percentage of each impurity,relative to ketamine
hydrochloride,in the portion of Ketamine Hydrochloride taken by the formula:
5000(C/W)(r /r ),
in which Cis the concentration,in mg per mL,of USP Ketamine Hydrochloride RSin
the Standard solution;Wis the weight,in mg,of Ketamine Hydrochloride taken to prepare
the Test solution;r is the peak area of each individual impurity peak in the Test
solution;and r is the response of the ketamine hydrochloride peak obtained from
the Standard solution.Not more than 0.1%of ketamine related compound Ais found;the
response of no other unknown impurity is greater than 0.3%of the ketamine peak
area;and the sum of the responses of all unknown impurity peaks is not greater than
1.0%of the ketamine peak response.
i

Assay
Buffer Dissolve 5.75g of monobasic ammonium phosphate in 1000mLof water.Add
6mLof triethylamine,and adjust with phosphoric acid to a pHof 3.0.
Mobile phase Prepare a filtered and degassed mixture of Bufferand methanol
(65:35).Make adjustments if necessary (seeSystem
Suitabilityunder Chromatography 621).
System suitability solution Transfer about 12.5mg each,of USP Ketamine
Hydrochloride RSand USP Ketamine Related Compound A RS,both accurately
weighed,to a 50-mLvolumetric flask,dissolve in Mobile phasewith the aid of sonification
if necessary,dilute with Mobile phaseto volume,and mix.Transfer 10.0mLof the solution
so obtained to a 100-mLvolumetric flask,dilute with Mobile phaseto volume,and mix.
Standard preparation Transfer about 10mg of USP Ketamine Hydrochloride
RS,accurately weighed,to a 50-mLvolumetric flask,add about 20mLof Mobile phase,and
sonicate to dissolve.Dilute with Mobile phaseto volume,and mix.

Assay preparation Transfer about 20mg of Ketamine Hydrochloride,accurately


weighed,to a 100-mLvolumetric flask,add about 35mLof Mobile phase,and sonicate to
dissolve.Dilute with Mobile phaseto volume,and mix.
Chromatographic system (see Chromatography 621) The liquid chromatograph is
equipped with a 220-nm detector and a 4.6-mm 25-cm column that contains 5-m
packing L1.The flow rate is about 1.0mLper minute.Chromatograph the System
suitability solution,and record the peak responses as directed for Procedure:the order of
elution is ketamine followed by ketamine related compound A;the resolution,R,between
ketamine and ketamine related compound Ais not less than 2.0;the column efficiency
determined from the ketamine peak is not less than 9400theoretical plates;and the
tailing factor determined from the ketamine peak is not more than 1.6.Chromatograph
the Standard preparation,and record the ketamine peak response as directed
for Procedure:the relative standard deviation for replicate injections is not more than
0.6%.
Procedure Separately inject equal volumes (about 20L)of the Standard
preparationand the Assay preparationinto the chromatograph,record the
chromatograms,and measure the responses for the major peaks.Calculate the
quantity,in mg,of C13H16ClNOHCl in the portion of Ketamine Hydrochloride taken by the
formula:
100C(r /r ),
in which Cis the concentration,in mg per mL,of USP Ketamine Hydrochloride RSin
the Standard preparation;and r and r are the ketamine peak responses obtained from
the Assay preparationand the Standard preparation,respectively.
U

Auxiliary Information Staff Liaison:Ian DeVeau,Ph.D.,Senior Scientist


Expert Committee:(VET)Veterinary Drugs
USP28NF23Page 1096
Pharmacopeial Forum:Volume No.29(6)Page 1913
Phone Number:1-301-816-8178