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DESIGN OF STEEL PLATE GIRDER BRIDGE

1.0

DATA
Effective span of girder

FLL

Equivalent total moving load per track for bending moment


calculation

Wm

Equivalent total moving load per track for shear force


calculation

Ws

Top of rail level

TRL

Foundation level

FL

Embankment side slope

ES

Width of abutment

Wa

Permissible bending stress

bc

Average shear stress for mild steel having yield stress of 236
N/sq.mm

T_V

Interval of cross bearings as effective length of compression


flange

Lf

Permissible shear stress through fillet weld

tt

Constant 'K' for angle between plates

PBS

Permanenet load as open floor


Rail Gauge

Permissible bearing stress

2.0

Wind load

Pw

Coefficient for wind load on Leeward Girder

Cw

Lateral load by racking forces

pl

Length of cross frame for lateral bracking

Llb

Tensile strength of steel

st

Depth of web plate

Dw

Thickness of web plate

tw

PERMANENT LOAD
Permanent load of open floor track

Self weight

=
=

Total Permanent Load

Wf

3.0

4.0

MOVING LOAD
Total moving load per girder for B.M.

Wl1

Total moving load per girder for S.F.

Wl2

IMPACT FACTOR
The impact factor for steel rail bridge is given by Coefficient
of Dynamic Augment

5.0

BENDING MOMENTS
B.M. by Permanent Load

=
=

B.M. by Moving Load

=
=

B.M. by Impact on Moving Load


Total Design Bending Moment

6.0

=
M

SHEAR FORCE
S.F. by Permanent Load

=
=

S.F. by Moving Load

=
=

S.F. by Impact on Moving Load


Total Design Shear Force

7.0

=
V

D1

TRIAL SECTION OF WEB PLATE


Tentative depth of girder

=
Economical depth of girder

D2

=
=

Web depth of girder based on Shear Force consideration


assuming 12 mm thick plate is calculated as:

D3

=
=

Let us adopt a web plate

Aw

Dw

8.0

tw

Af

TRIAL SECTION OF FLANGE PLATE


Tentative flange area

Flange width

B1

=
=

Let us try

B2

Bf

Required thickness of Flange Plate

=
=
=

Let us adopt the Flange Plates

9.0

Af

Bf

tf

CHECK FOR MAXIMUM STRESSES


Distance from centre of flange plate to x-x axis located at
mid section

=
Moment of inertia about x-x axis

Ixx

=
=

Moment of inertia about y-y axis, which vertical passing


through the web

Iyy

=
=

=
=

ry

=
=

The critical compressive stress for I-sections having equal Moment of Inertia about y-y axis is give
Le

=
=

D0

=
=

Cs

=
=

The permissible working stress bc for different values of critical stress Cs is given in Table 2
From the Table 2 corresponding to Cs

and

sy

Permissible bending stress

bc

Distance from top fibre to mid section

=
=

Actual maximum bending stress

bc

=
=

Hence actual flexural stresses are within SAFE permissible limits.


Permissible Average Shear Stress depends on

=
=

With stiffner spacing

=
=

Adopt stiffner spacing

From Table 3, the permissible average shear stress for steel for sy = 236 N/sq.mm is obtained as 8
N/sq.mm
Average shear stress

=
=

Hence average shear stress is within permissible limits.

10.0

JOINT OF FLANGE AND WEB


Maximum shear force at the joint of web and flange is given by
T

Af

=
=

=
=

T
Providing continuous fillet weld on either side,

Strength of weld of size

=
=

Adopt, 6 mm fillet weld on either side continuously.

11.0

INTERMEDIATE STIFFENERS
Dw/tw

Vertical stiffeners are required


Spacing

=
=
to

=
=

Adopt Spacing

=
~

Maximum unsupported panel length of web

Requirement

=
=

Intermediate stiffeners are desired for minimum moment of inertia


I

=
=

For 10mm thick stiffeners plate, outstand should not exceed


h

=
=

Adopt stiffeners plate of size

=
=
I

12.0

CONNECTIONS OF VERTICAL STIFFENERS TO WEB


Shear on welds joining stiffeners to web

=
=

For size of weld

=
=

Effective minimum length of weld

=
Adopt Lc = 160 mm long, 5 mm minimum size intermittent fillet welds
on either side.

13.0

END BEARING STIFFENER


Maximum shear force

he

The end bearing stiffener is designed as column

he/tw

Bearing area required

=
=

Using two plates of size 300mm x 25 mm provided.


=
=
>
tb

Db

The length of web plates which acts along with the stiffener plates to bear
the end reaction

Wb

=
=

Moment of Inertia of end bearing two stiffeners plates


I

=
Area

=
=

=
=

Slenderness ratio

=
=

From Table 4, Permissible stress in axial compression


ac
Area required

=
=

14.0

CONNECTIONS BETWEEN BEARING STIFFENERS AND WEB


Length available for welding using alternate intermittent welds
=
=
Required strength of weld

=
=

Size of weld

Adopt 6 mm fillet welds of length Lc = 160 mm intermittently on either side.

15.0

LATERAL BRACING
To resist the structure against wind, racking and centrifugal forces, lateral
bracing is provided End cross frames and intermediate cross frames are
provided for spans more than 20 m.
Wind load

Pw

Coeff

Cw

Depth of girder

=
Span
Wind load on windward girder

=
=
=

Wind load on leeward girder

=
=

Total wind load

Lateral load by racking forces

=
=

Total racking force

=
=

Total lateral load

Lateral load at each end

Considering length of each cross frames

=
=

Maximum tension in the diagonal

Area required

Adopt angle section 100mm x 100mm with 10mm thickness


Maximum compressive force in horizontal member of each frame
=
Length of Members

Effective Length

=
=
=

For angle section 100 mm x 75 mm with 10 mm thickness


Area

Slenderness ratio
From Table 4, Permissible Stress
Safe load on member

=
ac

=
=
=
>

16.0

DESIGN OF CROSS FRAMES


Lateral load to be resisted by one frame

Tension in the diagonal

=
=

Area required

Provide angle section 90mm x 60mm with 10mm thickness


Area provided
Adopt interval of cross frames at 6m.

BRIDGE
30 m
7.50 kN/m
1.676 m
2727 kN
2927 kN
108 m
100.50 m
01:01.5
4m
141 N/sq.mm
85 N/sq.mm
6m
102 N/sq.mm
0.7
189 N/sq.mm
1.5 kN/sq.m
0.25
6 kN/m
2m
250 N/sq.mm
1500 mm
12 mm

7.50 kN/m
0.2 * L + 1
7.00 kN/m
14.50 kN/m

1363.50 kN
1463.50 kN

0.372

Wf*L2/8
1631.25 kN-m
Wl*L/8
5488.13 kN-m
2041.58 kN-m
9160.96 kN-m

Wf*L/2
217.50 kN
Wl2/2
731.75 kN
272.21 kN
1221.46 kN

L*1000/10
3000.00 mm
5*((M/bc)*(2/3))
2165.71 mm
V/(T_V*12)
1197.51 mm
Dw * tw
1600 mm

12 mm

[(M/bc*Dw)-(Aw/6)]
40114.22 sq.mm

L*1000/40
750 mm
L*1000/45
666.67 mm
700 mm
tf
Af/Bf
57.31 mm
Bf*tf
700 mm
53 mm

(Dw/2) + (tf/2)
827 mm
(tw*Dw3/12)+(2*Af*r2)
54782186950 mm4
(2*tf*Bf3/12)+(2*Aw/12)
3029836533.3 mm4
2*tf*Bf + Dw*tw
93400 sq.mm
sqrt(Iyy/A)
180.11 mm

ent of Inertia about y-y axis is given by:


Lf*1000
6000 mm

Dw + 2*tf
1706 mm
1.1609194002
2473 N/sq.mm

l stress Cs is given in Table 2


2473 N/sq.mm
236 N/sq.mm
158 N/sq.mm
(Dw/2) + tf
853 mm
M*y/Ixx
142.64 N/sq.mm

Dw/tw
133.33
0.9 * Dw
1440 mm
1500 mm

sy = 236 N/sq.mm is obtained as 87


V*103/(Dw*tw)
63.62 N/sq.mm

V * Af * y/Ixx
1221.46 kN
Bf * tf
37100 sq.mm
(Dw/2) + (tf/2)
826.50 mm
683.69 N/mm

2 * K * S * tt
142.8 S N/mm
4.79 mm

133 > T_V

0.33*Dw
528 mm
1.5*Dw
2400 mm
1464 mm
1500 mm
1500 mm
270*tw
3240 mm
> 1500 mm

1.5*Dw3*Tw3/C2
4718592 mm4

12*t
120 mm
10 mm
120 mm
5760000 mm4

125*tw*tw/h
150 N/mm
150/(K*tt)
2.10 mm
10 * tw

120 mm

1221.46 kN

300 mm
25 > 12
V / PBS
6463 sq.mm

2*300*25
15000 sq.mm
6463 sq.mm
25 mm
300 mm

ates to bear
20*tw
240 mm

((tb*((Db*2+tw)3)/12)+
((2*Wb*tw3)/12)
477612720 mm4
(Db*2+tw)*tb + 2*Wb*tw
21060 sq.mm
1120 mm
sqrt(I/A)
151 mm
L/r
7.44

138 N/sq.mm
V/ac

8851.17 sq.mm

2*(Dw-40)
3120 mm
V/L
391.49 N/mm
5.48 mm

n either side.

ces, lateral

1.5 kN/sq.mm
0.25
(Dw+2*tw)/1000
1.624 m
30 m
Pw*D*L
73.08 kN
Cw*73.08
18.27 kN
91.35 kN
pl
6 kN/m
6*L
180 kN
271.35 kN
135.68 kN
L/b
2m
211.24 kN

1408.24 sq.mm

135.68 kN
1.676 m
0.65 * G
1.089 m

1650 sq.mm
21.6 mm
50.4
124 N/sq.mm
(Dw+tw/2)*ac/1000
199 kN
271/2

kN

135.68 kN
136*sec
177 kN
1183 sq.mm

1401 sq.mm

PERMANENT LOAD

MOVING LOAD

IMPACT FACTOR

BENDING MOMENTS

SHEAR FORCE

TRIAL SECTION OF WEB PLATE

TRIAL SECTION OF FLANGE PLATE

CHECK FOR MAXIMUM STRESSES

JOINT OF FLANGE AND WEB

10

INTERMEDIATE STIFFENERS

11

CONNECTIONS OF VERTICAL STIFFENERS TO WEB

12

END BEARING STIFFENER

13

CONNECTIONS BETWEEN BEARING STIFFENERS AND WEB

14

LATERAL BRACING

15

DESIGN OF CROSS FRAMES