Identification of Bending Moment in Semi-Fixed Beam

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Identification of Bending Moment in Semi-Fixed Beam

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MBMST 2013

Jaroslaw Malesza*

Department of Structural Mechanics, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Bialystok University of Technology, Wiejska 45 E, 15-351

Bialystok, Poland

Abstract

Paper presents procedure of identification of supporting moment in the statically indeterminable, partly fixed reinforced concrete beam.

Examined beam is a part of reinforced concrete frame, where rate of fixing is subjected variation under influence of continually increasing

loading. Bending moment at the fixing end remains the unknown internal force in the beam. This internal force is determined on the basis

of identification of theoretical and experimentally measured deflections in the selected sections of element. Theoretical deflections are

computed numerically integrated curvature equation of the beam axis under assumption that effects of physical nonlinearity of reinforced

concrete reveal in the process of loading. These effects describes quantitatively the Muraszews theory of stiffness changes. Boundary

problem of partly fixed beam is solved applying iterative procedure characteristic the initial problem applying integration schema ahead

with increased accuracy.

2013

2013The

TheAuthors.

Authors.

Published

by Elsevier

Published

by Elsevier

Ltd. Ltd.

Open access under CC BY-NC-ND license.

Selectionand

andpeer-review

peer-review

under

responsibility

the Vilnius

Gediminas

Technical

University.

Selection

under

responsibility

of theofVilnius

Gediminas

Technical

University

Keywords: bending stiffness of RC section; generalized bending law of RC beam; parametric identification.

1. Introduction

Assignation of most unfavorable loadings combination and compliance of the load bearing capacity and serviceability

limit states remain the basic requirements and expectations in process of designing the reinforced concrete structures.

Application of the elastic analysis methods as a rule are used in determination of the internal forces in the structure.

Statically undetermined systems require determination of cross-sectional stiffness distribution. Initial sectional stiffness is

determined by their geometry, materials modulus of deformations of concrete and reinforcing steel, and displacement and

the cross-sectional area of the main reinforcement. During the stressing increase of reinforced concrete structure the initial

stiffness distribution undergoes changing, which are influencing the internal forces including supernumerary values.

Physical nonlinearity of reinforced concrete is expressed by relation of the cross-sections stiffness to their stressing. Nonelastic properties of tensile as well as compressed concrete with its limited deformational abilities remain the factors of that

nonlinearity. Cracks formation generates the change of cross-section geometry. Spatial 3D blocks are forming between the

cracks where strain and stress state does not correspond the beam reaction. Hence cracking contributes non-uniform

deformation of reinforced concrete elements. Changing of cracking the cross-section geometry causes degradation of its

stiffness in the process of loading. Degradation intensity along the element length is varying. Reinforced concrete element

converts in result into element with continually developing distribution of spatial stiffness. Negligence in static analysis of

reinforced concrete physical non-linearity shall be considered as an assumption of strongly simplifying problem. Internal

forces determined applying the elastic analysis methods are directly proportional to the external loading. Evaluation of this

loading on the design level does not allow to determine the internal forced distribution in the stages preceding exhaust of the

load bearing capacity of structure. The bending moments determined in the critical sections in the span and in the adjoining

nodal sections retain constant proportions independently to the intensity of stressing of the structure. This is influencing the

correctness of designing decisions concerning distribution of reinforcement in sections and along the critical parts of

* Corresponding author.

E-mail address: j.malesza@pb.edu.pl

1877-7058 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Open access under CC BY-NC-ND license.

Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the Vilnius Gediminas Technical University

doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2013.04.094

747

elements. Effects of nonlinear behavior of the reinforced concrete beams can be considered throughout the static analysis

where evolutional stiffness changes developed by loading are taken into account. An acceptable way in formulation of these

changes is the assumption that determination of deflection for reinforced concrete element is based on curvature of its

deflected axis,

k ( x) =

d 2 y ( x) M ( x)

=

B ( x)

dx 2

(1)

Initial heterogeneity of the stiffness distribution in the beam as well as change of the cross-sectional stiffness due to

bending moment is considered in the formula (1), hence B(x) B(x,M).

Many proposals being considered as a trial of the theoretical seizure of the stiffness changes phenomena in concrete

structures are found in literature. Most of these methods assume that relation between the curvature k and bending moment

M can be approximated applying selected function M(k). The function may have the curvilinear character [1]. The other

function has the sectional-linear dependence as it is presented in [2]. Such dependence reflects strong change of stiffness in

result of cracking without description of progressed defect of this stiffness. Proposal of the other non-linear law M-k

considered as the basis determining deflections are presented in [3].

An analytical model for fly ash ordinary grade concrete was developed for obtaining the complete moment curvature

diagram in [4]. The ultimate moments obtained from the proposed analytical procedure are found to be in good agreement

with the experimental values. Presented in [5] approach considers RC/LRC as a homogenous material whose stress-strain

characteristics are derived based on the moment-curvature relationship of the structural component. Numerical studies on

Laced Reinforced Concrete beams where structural element consists of equal reinforcement in tension and compression

faces along with lacings, are carried out and the results are compared with those of the experimental values to validate the

proposed approach. The application of the proposed approach for analysis of uniformly loaded LRC slabs is demonstrated.

The proposed approach can be extended to ordinary RC by modifying the ultimate stress and strain values.

Moment-curvature plots and moment-axial force interaction diagrams are essential tools for understanding the loaddeformation behavior of structural elements. To make the use of these tools simpler, numerical program was created [6] that

can generate moment-curvature plots and moment-axial force interaction diagrams for reinforced concrete sections. These

plots can include the effects of confinement provided by transverse reinforcement on the stress-strain relationship of

concrete.

Paper [7] presents several modifications to existing analytical methods for predicting the behavior of reinforced concrete

beams under severe concentrated loads. The modifications include failure criteria for the cross section at the collapse

condition, formation and development of plastic hinges, and influence of shear on flexural performance of the beam. This

approach allows to study the response of reinforced concrete beams under the combined influence of flexure, shear, and

axial thrust from impose of loading to collapse. The procedure was used to derive moment-curvature and load-deflection

relationships and obtained results compared well with experimental data.

A trilinear moment-curvature curve is constructed in [8] by describing as linear segments each of uncracked, cracked,

and yielded behavior of reinforced concrete beams. Moment-curvature and load-deflection curves derived by Branson's

formula and a recent nonlinear model by Bazant and Oh have been compared with those produced by the trilinear model for

several example beams. The main advantage of the trilinear model is in computer applications related to analysis and design

of reinforced concrete beams and frames.

The stress-strain curves for concrete in compression obtained in [9] from the flexural tests are remarkably similar to

those generated from uni-axially loaded specimens. The analysis based on the usual flexural theory, but using the stressstrain curves for uni-axially loaded specimens, gives close predictions of the experiment data on moment-curvature

relationship and ultimate moment capacity of the beams.

Nonlinear characteristics of constitutive materials were mathematically modeled according to Eurocode 2, to estimate the

moment-curvature response [10]. The closed form solutions were verified with those from numerical procedures.

Calculations of M-c relationship were based on their nonlinear characteristic for different ratios of reinforcement in tension

and compression. Failure criteria in stress space is characterized by parabolic stress-strain relations. Elastic limit stress and

strain at cracking were limited to 0.2% and 0.35% (as prescribed by the Code). Tensile stress in concrete were ignored.

Basing on model of laminated material, in which the mechanical properties of separated layers may have discreet

different values depending on the volume of external load. A laminated medium model witch different geometrical and

mechanical properties of layers are used for determination of deflection. Values of normal stresses in axial direction of

beam are constant in each i-layer [11-12].

The theory of W.I. Murashev adopted for practical application in Polish Standards, former [13] and later [14] can be

considered as an example of conception of stiffness changes considering section (weakening) attenuation in result of

cracking. The curvature of the element section between cracks according to this theory is computed on the base of the

748

average strains of tensile steel and outlining fiber of compressed concrete. These strains depend on adequate values

appearing in the cracked section. The cross-sections stiffness along the parts of beam under uniform sign of bending

moment fixed as a constant in intervals, determined for the extremely stressed section.

Relations between stiffness and curvature of deflected elements decidedly influence in determination of elements

deflections. Deflections of reinforced concrete beams were proposed to be determined for stiffness of the most stressed

critical section of the simply supported beam. The possibilities of application of such an approach in the statically

undetermined continuous beams were analyzed in the work [2].

The aim of the work is determination of the supporting bending moment evolution in result of continual stiffness defect

in the statically undetermined reinforced concrete beam. The beam remains a part of frame semi-fixed on the supports and it

is subjected of increasing action of loading. Procedure of semi-fixing supports has non-elastic character. It remains a semistiff fixing with the indeterminate stiffness modulus and depends on the level of loading. Fixing joint exhibits effects of

cracks which are influencing on distribution of bending moments in the beam under continually changing loading. The

physical law of bending sections according to W. I. Murashov being a base to determine deflections according to [13] are

taken into consideration and it is compared with the solutions actually proposed in the Standard [14]. The problem is solved

assisting the experimental tests results where are obtained deformations of beam in the form of angle of rotation in the partly

fixed section or displacements of selected points located along the span of beam.

2. Experimental data

The initial beam is divided into sectional parts as in figure 1 with similar non-differing more than for 5% stiffness. This

division is resulted from arrangement of reinforcing bars in the beam.

Fig.1. Static scheme of the frame beam, loadings and initial stiffness distribution

The bending moments identification has been conducted basing on results of beam displacements and on the base of the

angle of rotation of frame joint obtained from experimental data of P. Bodzak and A. Czkwianianc presented in the work

[15]. Monolithic reinforced concrete frame in the form of capital letter H has been investigated. The beam of the frame was

loaded with two concentrated forces. Loading was rising from zero value to 180 kN with constant step of 10 kN. The beam

of the frame with the cross-section 2030 cm and span of 2.76 m was reinforced in the way adequate to the distribution of

the different signs bending moments: negative and positive. Three segments along the length of the beam with varying

stiffness located symmetrically from the centre of beam were distinguished. The stiffness of the particular segments were

Supporting parts 0.30 m are doubly reinforced top and bottom symmetrically with

marked B01, B02, B03.

As1 = As2 = 6.16 cm2. Indirect segments length of 0.58 m are bottom reinforced As1 = 8.17 cm2 and top reinforcement

As2 = 3.13 cm2 . These segments envelopes parts of beam where bending moments are changing signs. Span segment length

of 1.00 m reinforced with bottom As1 = 8.17 cm2 and top As2 = 2.26 cm2 envelope middle part of beam. Stirrups of diameter

8mm makes the transverse reinforcement. The statical scheme of the beam is presented in figure 1. Beam of the frame was

concrete made with the compressive strength marked in the cube test fc,cube = 41.8 MPa. The other parameters of concrete

were obtained from the test in values: design compressive strength fc = 27.5 MPa, tensile strength fct = 3.14 MPa, and

average longitudinal modulus of elasticity Ecm = 23 300 MPa.

In the experiment displacements and strains of the selected points of structure were recorded. Displacements of the beam

were measured twice, directly after load rising and before the sequent step of loading. Displacements measured in the

sections: 0, 1, 2, 3 indicated on Figure 1 were considered in the analysis due to symmetrical arrangement of reinforcement.

Diagrams of displacements in figure 2 displays characteristic singularities of deformational reaction for reinforced

concrete. Three-segmental run of changes evidently appears in the line illustrating deflection of the middle point of beam

under rising loading. The stage of elastic strains of the phase before cracking occurred until loading reaches value of 35 kN.

The process of identification was not influenced by the value of cracking moment obtained in the experiment. The value of

this moment were determined on the base of Standard recommendations [13].

Analysis were conducted in the range of exploitation loadings to the value of 0,8Pmax = 145 kN. Deflections diagrams

within this stage are curvilinear in general without abrupt increment of displacements.

Effects of reinforcement yielding appears in the phase of the load bearing capacity exhaust under loading (P > 145 kN).

They do not lead to the element failure in result of plastic strengthening of reinforcement while concrete does not undergo

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crushing. Rise of loading were noticed to the value of loading 180 kN. Tests were ended when displacements in the middle

point of span exceeded 50 mm and the last reading comparing o the preceding characterized 15% of deflection increase.

Description of exhaust of the load bearing capacity does not remain the aim of this work.

The theoretical deflections in the mid-span are searched in analyzed case of both sides semi-fixed beam loaded with two

concentrated forces like in figure 1. Determination of deflections resolves itself into twice integration of equation (1) under

assumption of adequate boundary conditions. In case of classic fixing the boundary conditions are to be assumed where

y(0) = y(l) = 0 and y(0) = y(l) = 0. Results of experimental tests displayed that in the frame joints occur deformations

being related to rotation and coming from displacements. Fixing of the beam end becomes partial, maintaining the internal

forces of both sides fixed beam. The boundary conditions are therefore modified taking y(0) = f3 and y(0) = eksp , y(l) = f0 f3 where f0 and f3 are the measured beam deflections in the sections 0 and 3 from figure 1, while eksp is the angle of rotation

of fixing section obtained in the experiment and f0 is the measured displacement in the mid-span of beam 0.The values of

bending moments in the diagram remains unknown due to the statically indeterminate system.

The form of the bending moment diagram is bi-linear like in figure 3 and the bending moments equations (2) are

determined with accuracy to the value to unknown supporting fixing moment MU.

M 1 = M U P x1

M ( x) =

M 2 = M P = M U P ( x2 0,88)

(2)

The unknown value of MU are determined utilizing way of numerical integration of equation (1) in the iteration

algorithm. The axis of the beam is divided into nodes with steps x. The integration step x was assigned as a fraction of

the beam length, as an example x = L/N where N = 1000. Searched line of deflected beam is described applying Taylors

series. Integral formula is obtained reducing to four initial terms of expansion (3)

y ( x + x ) = y ( x ) + y ' ( x ) x + y '' ( x )

( x ) 2

2!

+ y ''' ( x )

( x )3 .

3!

(3)

The second and the third derivatives of function of deflection is determined on the base of internal forces. Function

y"(x) = M(x)/Biis defined, where M(x) represents the bending moment in the current section and Bi corresponding stiffness

750

on the segment 1, 2 or 3. Influence of the shear forces with known distribution along the length of the beam is considered,

taking y"'(x) = T(x)/Bi.

Integration according to formula (3) is conducted with simultaneous adoption of value MU adequate for given level of

loading. Compatibility criterion of theoretical deflection value y(l/2) and measured value f0 with assumed accuracy decides

on correctness of MU selection. In the integrating procedure the cross-section stiffness in the nodes of beam were fixed as a

dependent from bending moment Mi = M(xi). W.I. Murashovs formula described in [13] was used for this purpose in the

form:

where M M cr

B0 = Ecm J 0 ,

z f h0

B ( x) = BII =

where M > M cr

a

0,9

Ea Fa Eb Fbc

(4)

M cr = 0, 292 + 1,5

bh

(5)

where:

and formula given in the actual Standard for RC structures [14], assuming the stiffness under short - term acting loading

BII =

Ecm J II

2

J

1 1 2 sr 1 II

J0

(6)

In the Eq. (6) the fraction of sr / s is substituted by the ratio of the cracking bending moment and searched value of

bending moment in the most stressed section adjacent to frame joint Mcr / MU and in the span cross-section Mcr / MP.

Coefficients 1 and 2 were taken as equal 1 considering the ribbed bars of the main tensile reinforcement and immediate

loading acting on structure.

4. Results of numerical analysis

Dependence loading P deflection f in the mid-span; experimental f0 or theoretically (l/2) are quite in compliance as it is

presented in figure 4. This testifies on correctness of theoretic W. I. Murashovs theory describing stiffness of reinforced

concrete cross-section under bending. The bending moment MU in the support adjacent cross-section remains the main

parameter used in governing due to obtain deflections conformability. This value determines the span bending moment MP.

The diagram of variation of both bending moments is presented in Fig. 5.

Proportional and linear increase of bending moments is observed till loading reaches value of 42 kN. In the experimental

investigations this loading generates the first cracks along the mid-segment of the beam. The value of cracking loading

corresponds to cracking bending moment close to 23 kNm being determined on the basis of Eq. (5) of the Standard [13].

The span bending moment reaches value of the cracking moment earlier than the bending moment in the section adjacent to

supports, which the cross-section is strongly reinforced. Cracking appearing generates loss of stiffness and disturbance of

proportional relations of analyzed bending moments.

Fig. 5. Diagram of variation of the span bending moment M and supporting bending moment MU, under assumption of the cross-section stiffness changes

according to PN-B-03264:1984 and 2002

Selected characteristic points 1, 2, 10 presented in figure 5 were marked due to analyze changes of stiffness on the

path of bending moments variations in the process of loading. The ratios of the supporting bending moment to the span

bending illustrates Figure 6. They are were determined in those points. This ratio remains the stiffness measure of semifixing beam in the frame columns. Its characteristic values are set in the open polygon where the evolution of semi-fixed

support of beam can be isolated. The ratio is constant in the range up to the loading forceending linear-elastic stressing of

span cross-section (P = 32 kN = 0,75 Pcr).This indicates that distribution of the global moment for beam Mg = P a on the

supporting moment and the span bending moment is realized proportionally. Effects of cracking in the span and adjacent to

the supports appear in the range of loading from P = 32 kN to P = 83 kN. Inter relation of bending moments in those

sections is non-stabilized. Averaging prognosis of this variation correctly corresponding with the non-cracked phase of

beam is obtained when line is drawn between value of ratio in point 2 and adequate value in point 6. The effectiveness of

supporting section in transmission of bending moments is increasing continually in the range of loading from 83 kN to

146 kN. The terminal value of loading P = 146 kN corresponds to value of bending moment MU , where in the supporting

section the internal lever arm is equal z = d a2. The force in the top tensile reinforcement is equal to plastifying force on

the level of characteristic loading Zk = As1 fyk = 250 kN. The above allows for conclusion that, subsequent process of

loading leads to decrease of ratio MU / MP, hence the span cross-section becomes more effective in transmission of the

global bending moment. This prognosis confirm segment 8-10 of broken line in Fig. 6.

The further subsequent process of loading causes the phase of exhaust of the load bearing capacity and generally are

appearing phenomena assisting yielding of tensile reinforcement.

Varying stiffness of partly-fixed frame beam in the columns can be determined in the formula K = MU / eksp , what is

presented in Fig. 6. General conformity of variation character of curve K and ratio MU / MP is observed.

Results of numerical analysis in the aspect of changes of stiffness decrements in the process of loading are presented in

Fig. 7. As it comes from the spatial distribution of these losses they are concentrated mainly along the segments in the span

and at joint with columns. In the experiment cracking of both segments were very intensive. They were divided by noncracked intermediate segment.

751

752

Fig. 6. Ratio of fixing moment value to the span bending moment and stiffness of partial fixing K

Fig.7a. Evolution of stiffness distribution along the length of the frame beam in different stages of loading, according to PN-B-03264:1984

Fig.7b. Evolution of stiffness distribution along the length of the frame beam in different stages of loading, according to PN-B-03264:2002.

5. Final conclusions

Experimental investigation exhibits that beam connection in the frame joint is rigid with stiffness undergoing changing as

a result of rotation of frame joint as well as its deformation. Composite state of stress is generated in joint. Results of

analysis indicate that assumption of partly fixing support is correct to determination of bending moment distribution on

the basis of identification procedure. Assumed conformity criterion of theoretical and experimental deflections became the

basis in determination of unknown internal force; the bending moment in the fixing joint in the analyzed statically

indeterminate scheme. That bending moment decides on distribution of the banding moments along the length of all

element. The segment of linear decrements of bending moments testifying the proportional response of structure on

introduced loading makes 20% of all range of loading. All process of loading can be divided into phases of differing

increased of both internal forces. Results of analysis indicates that process of redistribution of internal forces undergoes

between the span section and the column adjacent sections of the frame beam.

Evolution of spatial stiffness variations along the length of element confirm strong cracking at the adjacent to joint cross

sections as well as along the middle-segment of the frame beam.

Achieved good conformity of experimentally obtained and theoretical deflections results confirms of W. I. Murashovs

bending theory of reinforced concrete as well as it confirms the correctness of proposed identification to determination of

internal forces approach in the static indeterminate beam system.

Acknowledgements

The research has been financed by projects No. S/WBiIS/3/08 to be realized in period of 2008-2012.

References

[1] Kuczynski, W., 1971. Concrete structures. Continual theory of bending. PWN. Warsaw.

[2] Knauf, M., 1979. On computation of deflections of reinforced concrete beams applying bi-line method. Editions of Warsaw University of Technology,

Science Fascicle. Building. Z. 65. Warsaw.

[3] Malesza, J. 2008. Nonlinear M-k law as the base in determination of reinforced concrete beams deflection, Bialystok University of Technology, Science

Fascicle. Building. Z. 32, pp. 103-114.

[4] Dakshina Murthy, Sudheer Reddy. 2010. Moment-Curvature Characteristics of Ordinary Grade Fly Ash Concrete Beams, International Journal of Civil

and Structural Engineering 1(3), pp. 497-508.

[5] Anandavalli, A., Lakshmann, N., Knight, G.M.S., 2012. Simplified Approach for Finite Element Analysis of Laced Reinforced Concrete Beams, ACI

Structural Journal 109(January), pp. 91-100.

[6] Alaoui, S., Klingner, R.E., 2007. Reinforced Concrete Section under Moment and Axial Load, Concrete International 29( October), pp. 63-67.

[7] Krauthammer, T., Rauthammer-Shashiriar, S., Shanaa, H.M., 1987. Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Beams Subjected to Severe Concentrated Load,

ACI Structural Journal 84(November), pp. 473-480.

[8] Alwis, W.A.M., 1990. Trilinear Moment-Curvature Relationship for Reinforced Concrete Beams, ACI Structural Journal 87(May), pp. 276-283.

[9] Mansur, M.A., Chin, M.S., Wee, T.H., 1997. Flexural Behavior of High Strength Concrete Beams, ACI Structural Journal 94(November), pp. 663-674.

[10] Chandrasekaran, S., Nunziante, L., Serino, G., Carannante, F. 2011. Curvature Ductility of RC Section Based on Eurocode: Analytical Procedure,

KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering 15(1), pp. 131-144.

[11] Bulavs, F., Radinsh, I., Tirans, N., 2003. Method of Prediction of the Deflection of Reinforced Concrete Beams Considering Cracking, Scientific

Proceedings of Riga Technical University. Architecture and construction science. RTU. Riga.

[12] Bulavs, F., Radinsh, I., Tiraus, N., 2004. Forecasting of Deflection of Reinforced Concrete Beams Strengthened with Carbon Plastic Sheets, The 8th

International Conference Modern Building Materials, Structures and Techniques. May 19-24. Vilnius, Lithuania.

[13] PN-B-03264:1984. Polish Standard. Concrete, reinforced concrete and prestressed structures. Static analysis and design.

[14] PN-B-03264:2002. Polish Standard. Concrete, reinforced concrete and prestressed structures. Static analysis and design.

[15] Bodzak, P., Czkwianianc, A., 2001. Experimental investigations of reinforced concrete monolithic frames zone of edge node, Experimental tests of

concrete elements and structures. Science Fascicle No. 11. Lodz.

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