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300 kN

200
150

A= 13744.468 mm2
=

21.8 N/mm2

50 mm

25 mm

100 kN

A= 490.874 mm2
=

203.7 N/mm2

A= 1963.5 mm2
=

50.9 N/mm2

Maximum Stress =

200 N/mm2

25 mm

15 mm
12
mm Dia.

F kN

Cross Sectional Area of Link =


F max =

Cross Sectional Area of Eye =


F max =

150 mm2
30000 N
30 kN
130 mm2
26000 N
26 kN

10 mm

1 Tie
L=

A=
E=

500
200

mm2
kN/mm2

=
=
Elongation=

2 Strut
L=

1.5

A=
E=

250
70

mm2
kN/mm2

=
=
Elongation=

N=

75

kN

Tension

kN

Compression

150
N/mm2
7.500E-04
3.75

mm

N=

-30

-120
N/mm2
-1.71E-03
-2.57

mm

Determine the Percentage change in the volume of the cube


Material
E= 1.00E+05
Poisson's ratio =
0.25

Assuming cube size is 1000x1000x1000 (could have u


Long.
-8.00E-04

Delta Long.
-8.00E-01 mm

Stress =

-80

N/mm2

of the cube
N/mm2

1000 (could have used 1x1x1)


Lat.
2.00E-04

Delta Lat.
2.00E-01 mm

Original Vol. New Vol.


mm3
mm3
1000000000 999599719.968

Delta Vol.
0.04%

1000 mm

50 mm

Diameter

Calculate :

1. The vertical movement of B


2. The total extension
3.The Change in lateral dimen
4. The change in volume of the

1000 mm

35 mm

Diameter

135 KN
Material Steel
E=
Poisson's ratio =

A-B
B-C

200
0.3

Stress Long.
Delta Long.
N/mm2
68.7549 0.000344 0.34377 mm
140.316 0.000702 0.70158 mm
Total
1.0454 mm

135000

KN/mm2
Lat.
-0.0001031
-0.0002105

vertical movement of B
total extension
Change in lateral dimensions of AB and BC
change in volume of the hanger

Delta Lat.

Original Vol. New Vol.


mm3
mm3
-0.0051566 mm
1963495 1963765
-0.0073666 mm
962112.75 962382.51
2925608 2926148 -539.6 mm3

Stress in Timber Beam (4x2)due overweight Le


50

Breadth

z max
y

100 Depth

z max

Load

I=

1962 N

### mm4

I=bd3/12
where

M
z max =

1962 Nm
50 mm

max =

23.54 N/mm2

23.54 N/mm2 Compression

Neutral

Axis

23.54 N/mm2 Tension

verweight Lecturer at midspam


Me at Midspan

Span =

b is breadth and d is depth

Me at Midspan

Span = 4

200 kg

Stress in Concrete Beam due to self weight


300

Breadth

z
y

800 Depth

z max

Density

Concrete

2400 kg/m3

M=
I=
z max =

5650.56 N/m
5.65056 kN/m
70.632 kNm
1.280E+10 mm4
400 mm
W top/bot=

max =

2.21 N/mm2

2.21 N/mm2

Neutral

Compression

Axis

2.21 N/mm2

Tension

self weight

Span

70632000 Nmm

I=bd3/12
where

32000000 mm3

b is breadth and d is depth

10

Compression

T Beam subject

7.00 kNm Moment


100

28.75

y
28.75
78.750

15

A1
A2
A

1500
1500
3000

Moments of Areas about the Base


3000

y'
y'

=
=

Iyy1 = 2.813E+04
Iyy2 = 1.250E+06
Iy'y' = 3.758E+06 mm4
Wtop = 1.037E+05 mm3
Wbot = 4.772E+04 mm3

top

67.53 N/mm2

bot

146.69 N/mm2

Neutral

wl2/8

L (say)
w

=
=

15

100

h1
h2

1500
78.75

28.75 mm
28.75 mm

50
mm

1500

107.5

7.00
10 m
0.56

67.53 N/mm2 Compression

Axis

146.69 N/mm2 Tension

span continuous over one support plus cantilever ma

175 kN

A
B

2m

RA + RC =

225 kN

M about A
175

RC = 105.56 kN
RA = 119.44 kN
Moment about end of Cantilever = 0
Check =

Therefore
M at B 238.89 kNm
M at C

BMD

-150 kNm

+
238.89 kNm
Section

250

I=
zmax

top/bot =

### mm4
150 mm

s max = 102.53 N/mm2


-102.5 N/mm2

Compression

Neutral

Axis

102.5

s cantilever made from steel box section given


Section
50 kN

3m

50

12

-150 kNm
-

RC

mm

N/mm2

300 mm

Tension

250
mm

300
mm

Given that the maximum permissible str


What is the maximum value of F

70 mm

64 mm

Standard I section Iyy =

218

cm4

Underneath the point load

Use paraleel Axis Theorem to Calculate I value at cent


Part
Top Plate
Standard Beam
Bottom Plate

Icc

Area

2.00E+03
2.18E+06 ....
2.00E+03
2.18E+06

zmax =

58 mm

W=

8.78E+04 mm3

M=

1.45E+07 Nmm

490
490

Ah2
54.5
0
54.5

1455423
0
1455423
2.91E+06

14.49 kNm

F=

9.66 kN

Checking Curtailment of Flange Plate


At this point
I = 2.18E+06 mm4
zmax =

51 mm

W = 4.27E+04 mm3
Based on F =

9.66

M@D=

9.66264 kNm

Hence the stress at this point = 226.05 N/mm2 which would c


permissible moment 7.05E+06 Nmm
7.05 kNm

Based on M = 7.0529

F=

7.05 kN

165 N/mm2

7 mm
D
54.5

mm
6
102 mm

54.5

mm

7 mm

I value at centre

Total I = 5.1E+06 mm4

which would cause failure

F
2
C

m
B

E
m

100 x

50 x 10

PFC (Parallel Flange Channel

Neglecting self-weight calculate the


max =

200 N/mm2

10 mm

Part
Top Plate
Standard Sections
Bottom Plate

Icc
Area
9.17E+03
1100
4.16E+06 ....
9.17E+03
1100
4.18E+06

Total I =

h
55
0
55

1.1E+07

M=

3.61E+07 Nmm

36.1 kNm

= wl2/8

w=

2.9 kN/m

nge Channel)s with 10mm cover plates

alculate the maximum distributed load on a


I of 1 Channel

208 cm4

10 mm
w kN/m

10 m Span

y
100 mm

10 mm

Ah2
3327500
0
3327500
6.66E+06

mm4

oad on a 10m span .. Given :

Given that:

Area (cm2)
38
60.8

Channel
Universal Beam (UB)
total

9880

What are the maximum tensile and compressive stresses on t

8 mm

155

mm

Determine position of Centroid of Compound section


Taking Moments of areas about the Base
A z' = Sum(Ai z'i)
9880 z'
z'
ztop

=
=
=

zbot

Use Parallel Axis Theorem to Calculate I value of comp


Part
Channel
Universal Beam
Total

Icc
2.64E+06
9.50E+07
9.76E+07

Area
3800
6080

h
84
52.5

Total I =

top

bot

70.43 N/mm2 Compression


132.25 N/mm2 Tension

Area (cm2)

Icc (cm4)
264
9500

mm2

97640000 mm4

ssive stresses on the combined/compound section

26.5 mm
To Centroid of Channel

310 mm

Mmax =

ompound section

Mmax =

um(Ai z'i)
3800
207.5 mm
110.5 mm

291.5

207.5 mm

ate I value of compound at new centriod


Ah2
26812800
16758000
4.36E+07

6080

155

Total I = 1.412E+08 mm4

Compression

Tension

20 kN/m

6m

B.M.D
90 kNm
90000000 Nmm

Given that:

Span =
8m
With Superimposed
The density of the Fibre Reinforced Concrete =

What are the maximum tensile and compressive stresses on t

300 mm

Fibre Reincorced Co
300

460 mm

40 mm

Y
z'

C
500 mm

Determine position of Centroid of Compound section


Taking Moments of areas about the Base
A z' = Sum(Ai z'i)
A
B
C

18000
12000
50000

430
250
50

80000 mm2

Total

A z' = Sum(Ai z'i)


80000 z'

z'

13240000

165.50

Use Parallel Axis Theorem to Calculate I value of A,B &


Part
A
B
C
Total

Icc
5.4000E+06
9.0000E+07
4.1667E+07
1.3707E+08

Area
18000
12000
50000

h
264.50
84.50
115.50

Bending Moment due to self weight


Volume of Beam =

Area

Length =

80,000

Therefore Weight =

0.08

2400

1.88352

Therefore Maximum moment at midspan = wl2/8

15.07

Bending Moment due to self weight


Reaction VA = VB =

6.25

Therefore Maximum Moment (at midspan)

/
12.5

37.50

Stresses due to combined Moment


Combined Maximum Moment (at midspan)

15.07

Due to Combined loading the maximum tensile and compress

top

7.20 N/mm2 Compression

bot

4.05 N/mm2 Tension

h Superimposed Load as Indicated


orced Concrete = 2400
kg/m3

ve stresses on the section due to a combiantion of self weight and i

60 mm
2m

re Reincorced Concrete I-Beam

100 mm

Mmax (SDL)=

Mmax (SW)=

mpound section

7740000
3000000
2500000
13240000 mm3

mm

e I value of A,B & C about this centriod


Ah2
1.26E+09
8.57E+07
6.67E+08
2.0120E+09

2.1490E+09

Total I = 2.15E+09 mm4

9.81

0.08

m3/m

1.88352

kN/m

Knm

12.5

kN

12.5

52.57 Knm

Knm

37.50

e and compressive stresses on the section

mpression

7.20E+00
4.05E+00

6.25 kN/m

4m
8m

B.M.D

SDL
37.5 kNm

15.06816 kNm

2m