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Krasznai Mnika

AN INTRODUCTION TO BASIC MEDICAL


ENGLISH TERMINOLOGY 1
Coursebook for Students of Medicine

Lektorlta: Mezei Zsuzsa Lvia


A segdanyagot ksztettk:
Szabn Enyedi Gabriella,
Papp Eszter,
John Graham,
Farkas Jnos,
Hajdu Zita,
Dr. Nyilas Istvnn
Dr. Laczkn Rcz Edit,
Louis J. Mattia,
Major Judit,
George Seel

TMOP-4.1.2.D-12/1/KONV-2012-0008

Debrecen
2014
1

CONTENTS
UNIT 1 THE HUMAN BODY ...................................................................15
1.1 FEATURES OF THE HUMAN BODY.. 16
1.1.1 Interesting Facts about the Human Body (W) ............................................................... 16
1.1.2 Pair-Work (S) .................................................................................................................. 16
1.1.3 The Human Body in Numbers (W) .................................................................................. 17
1.1.4 Interesting Activities of the Human Body (V) ................................................................. 17

1.2 BODY PARTS AND ORGANS 19


1.2.1 A: The Body (V) ............................................................................................................... 19
1.2.2 B: The Hand (V) ............................................................................................................... 20
1.2.3 C: The Head (V) ............................................................................................................... 20
1.2.4 D: The Eye (V) ................................................................................................................. 20
1.2.5 E: The Foot (V) ................................................................................................................ 20
1.2.6 F: The Internal Organs (W) ............................................................................................. 21
1.2.7 Body Systems and Organs (V)......................................................................................... 22

1.3 MEDICAL SPECIALISTS 24


1.3.1 Medical Specialists and Activities (V) ............................................................................. 24
1.3.2 Definition of Specialists (W) ........................................................................................... 24

1.4 A PHYSICAL EXAMINATION 25


1.4.1 Pair - Work (S)................................................................................................................. 25
1.4.2 Doctor - Patient Dialogue (R) ......................................................................................... 26
2

1.4.3 Explaining Words (W) ..................................................................................................... 27

1.5 DISEASES. 27
1.5.1 Diseases - Categories (V) ................................................................................................ 27
1.5.2 Common Infectious Diseases Worldwide (S) .................................................................. 30
1.5.3 Common Infectious Diseases (R) .................................................................................... 31
1.5.4 Health Tips to Tourists Travelling to Hungary (W) ......................................................... 34

1.6 MEDICAL ABBREVIATIONS.. 34


1.6.1 Medical Abbreviations Guessing (W) .......................................................................... 34
1.6.2 Medical Abbreviations Completion (W) ...................................................................... 35

1.7 DOCTORS INSTRUMENTS AND EQUIPMENT.. 35


1.7.1 Names of Instruments (V)............................................................................................... 35
1.7.2 Usage of Instruments (S) ................................................................................................ 37
1.7.3 Matching Instrument and Definition (V) ........................................................................ 37

1.8 BODY PLANES 38


1.8.1 Body Planes in Different Fields of Medicine (S) .............................................................. 38
1.8.2 Definitions (S) ................................................................................................................. 38
1.8.3 Body Planes Listening Comprehension (L) ...................................................................... 38

1.9 PHYSICALLY PAINFUL AND DESCRIBING PAIN.39


1.9.1 Matching Pain and Description (V) ................................................................................ 39
1.9.2 Pair-Work (S) .................................................................................................................. 40
1.9.3 What is Chronic Pain? (R) ............................................................................................... 40

1.9.4 Pain that Comes and Goes (S) ........................................................................................ 41


1.9.5 Doctor-Patient Dialogue Completion (R) ........................................................................ 42

1.10 SOME COMMON PROBLEMS.. 43


1.10.1 Some Troubling Symptoms (S) ...................................................................................... 43
1.10.2 Doctor - Patient Dialogue: Pain (R) .............................................................................. 43

1.11 STRESS 44
1.11.1 Matching Pictures and Definitions (V).......................................................................... 44
1.11.2 Adjective Forms of Verbs (V) ........................................................................................ 45
1.11.3 Verbs and Nouns (V) ..................................................................................................... 45
1.11.4 Stress (L) ....................................................................................................................... 45
1.11.5 Stress Test (R) ............................................................................................................... 47

1.12 TYPES OF MEDICINE.. 48


1.12.1 Medicine and Definition (V) .......................................................................................... 48
1.12.2 Medicine Table Completion (V) ................................................................................. 49
1.12.3 A Prescription (S) .......................................................................................................... 51
1.12.4 Completing Prepositions Doctor-Patient Dialogue (R) .............................................. 51
1.12.5 Expressions (W) ............................................................................................................ 52

1.13 MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY..52


1.13.1 Combining Forms (V) .................................................................................................... 52

UNIT 2 THE SKELETAL SYSTEM .............................................................54


2.1 THE SKELETON.55
4

2.1.1 Structure and Function of the Skeletal System (V) ......................................................... 55


2.1.2 Five Functions of Skeletal System (R) ............................................................................. 56
2.1.3 Bone Structure (R) .......................................................................................................... 56
2.1.4 Bone Development and Growth (R)................................................................................ 57
2.1.5 Other Elements of the Skeletal System (V) ..................................................................... 58

2.2 JOINT PAIN.59


2.2.1 What Keeps the Joints Healthy? (S) ................................................................................ 59
2.2.2 Doctor - Patient Dialogue - Joints ................................................................................... 59
2.2.3 Summing up a Case (W) ................................................................................................. 60

2.3 THE SPINAL COLUMN. 60


2.3.1 Parts of the Spinal Column (V) ........................................................................................ 60
2.3.2 Noun Forms of Adjectives (V) ......................................................................................... 62

2.4 HERNIATED DISC. 62


2.4.1 The Definition of Hernia (S) ............................................................................................ 62
2.4.2 Herniated Disc (R) ........................................................................................................... 63

2.5 SKELETAL SYSTEM TERMINOLOGY.64


2.5.1 Skeletal System Root Words (V) ..................................................................................... 64
2.5.2 Analyzing Words (W) ...................................................................................................... 65

2.6 SPORTS INJURIES.. 66


2.6.1 Sports Injuries Pictures (S) ........................................................................................... 66
2.6.2 Sports Injuries (R) ........................................................................................................... 67

2.6.3 Synonyms (W) ................................................................................................................. 70

2.7 OSTEOARTHRITIS 71
2.7.1 Osteoarthritis (L) ............................................................................................................ 71

2.8 FRACTURES. 72
2.8.1 Fractures (S).................................................................................................................... 72
2.8.2 What Are Fractures? (R) ................................................................................................. 72
2.8.3 Fracture Types (V)........................................................................................................... 73

2.9 BONES AND FEATURES OF THE FOOT. 74


2.9.1 Bones and Arches of the Foot (V) ................................................................................... 74
2.9.2 Matching Foot Related Words (V) .................................................................................. 76
2.9.3 Flat Feet (L) ..................................................................................................................... 76

2.10 World Spine Day. 77


2.10.1 World Spine Day (R)...................................................................................................... 77

Unit 3 THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM ................................................79


3.1 THE HEART.. 80
3.1.1 The Heart (R) .................................................................................................................. 80
3.1.2 Chambers and Valves of the Heart (V) .......................................................................... 81
3.1.3 Heart Cycle (R) ................................................................................................................ 82

3.2 HEART HEALTH TIPS 83


3.2.1 Giving Advice to Your Patient How to Keep His Heart Healthy (R)................................. 83
3.2.2 Diet Tips for a Healthy Heart (V) .................................................................................... 84
6

3.2.3 Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Health (S) ............................................................. 84


3.2.4 Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Health (R) ............................................................. 85
3.2.5 Changing Exercise Habits (S) .......................................................................................... 86

3.3 CHECK YOUR KNOWLEDGE ON THE HEART..86


3.3.1 Healthy Heart Quiz (R) .................................................................................................... 86
3.3.2 Exploding Exercise Myths (V).......................................................................................... 87
3.3.3 Exploding Exercise Myths (R).......................................................................................... 88

3.4 HEART CONDITIONS 92


3.4.1 High Blood Pressure (S) .................................................................................................. 92
3.4.2 High Blood Pressure (L)................................................................................................... 93

3.5 CIRCULATORY SYSTEM COMMON AILMENTS.94


3.5.1 Cardiovascular Problems (S) ........................................................................................... 94
3.5.2 Common Heart Ailments (L) ........................................................................................... 96

3.6 STROKE..96
3.6.1 Warning Signs and Symptoms of Stroke (S) ................................................................... 96
3.6.2 Stroke - Warning Signs and Symptoms (L) ..................................................................... 97
3.6.3 Stroke (R) ........................................................................................................................ 97
3.6.4 Stroke Survivors (L) ......................................................................................................... 99

3.7 WORLD HEART DAY..100


3.7.1 World Heart Day (R) ..................................................................................................... 100

3.8 CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM TERMINOLOGY.102

3.8.1 Cardiovascular System Combining Forms (V) ............................................................... 102


3.8.2 Specialist Words for Definitions (W)............................................................................. 103

Unit 4 THE URINARY SYSTEM ............................................................. 104


4.1 FUNCTION AND PARTS OF THE KIDNEY..104
4.1.1 The Kidney (R) ............................................................................................................... 105
4.1.2 Parts of the Urinary Bladder (V) ................................................................................... 107
4.1.3 The Kidney Sentence Completion (V) ......................................................................... 107
4.1.4 Matching Tests and Definitions (W) ............................................................................. 108
4.1.5 Matching Bladder Treatments (W)............................................................................ 109

4.2 BLADDER PROBLEMS.. 109


4.2.1 Interstitial Cysitis (V)..................................................................................................... 109
4.2.2 Bladder Inflammation (S) ............................................................................................. 110
4.2.3 Interstitial Cystitis (L) .................................................................................................... 110
4.2.4 Myths and Facts about the Bladder (R) ........................................................................ 111

4.3 URINARY SYSTEM TERMINOLOGY..115


4.3.1 Root Words (V) ............................................................................................................. 115
4.3.2 Specialist Words (W) .................................................................................................... 115
4.3.3 Urinary System Specialists and Procedures (V) ............................................................ 116

4.4 KIDNEY CONDITIONS.. 118


4.4.1 Kidney Conditions and Definitions (V) .......................................................................... 118
4.4.2 Kidney Diseases Pictures (W) ..................................................................................... 119

4.4.3 10 Tips to Prevent Kidney Disease (R) .......................................................................... 121


4.4.4 Advice to Patients Based on Pictures (W) .................................................................... 122

4.5 WORLD KIDNEY DAY 125


4.5.1 World Kidney Day Sentence Completion (R).............................................................. 125

Unit 5 THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM ................................................... 127


5.1 THE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS 128
5.1.1 Parts of Female and Male Bodies (W) .......................................................................... 128

5.2 MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM TERMINOLOGY 128


5.2.1 Root Words (V) ............................................................................................................. 129
5.2.2 Analyzing Medical Words (W) ...................................................................................... 130

5.3 ANATOMY OF THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM. 131


5.3.1 Parts of the System (V) ................................................................................................. 131
5.3.2 Article on Female Reproductive Organs (R) ................................................................. 131
5.3.3 Opposite Words (V) ...................................................................................................... 133
5.3.4 Female Reproductive System Physiology Processes (S).............................................. 133
5.3.5 Physiology of the Female Reproductive System (R) ..................................................... 135

5.4 ANATOMY OF THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM 136


5.4.1 Parts of the System (V) ................................................................................................. 136
5.4.2 Parts of the Male Reproductive System (R) .................................................................. 136
5.4.3 Physiology of the Male Reproductive System (R) ......................................................... 139

5.5 PREGNANT BODY 140


9

5.5.1 Pregnancy and Childbirth (S) ........................................................................................ 140


5.5.2 Labelling a Picture (W) ................................................................................................. 140
5.5.3 Pregnancy (L) ................................................................................................................ 141
5.5.4 Pregnancy Myths and Facts (R) .................................................................................... 142

5.6 DISORDERS OF THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM. 144


5.6.1 Uterine Fibroids (S) ....................................................................................................... 144
5.6.2 Uterine Fibroids Facts (V) ............................................................................................. 145
5.6.3 The Nature of Uterine Fibroids (V) ............................................................................... 145
5.6.4 Background, Prevalence and Symptoms of Fibroids (V) ............................................... 146
5.6.5 Diagnosis and Treatment of Fibroids (W) .................................................................... 147

5.7 OVARIAN CANCER.. 151


5.7.1 Opposite Words (V) ...................................................................................................... 151
5.7.2 Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer (L) .................................................................................. 151
5.7.3 World Ovarian Cancer Day (R) ..................................................................................... 152

5.8 DISORDERS OF THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM 154


5.8.1 Prostate Facts (S) .......................................................................................................... 154
5.8.2 Prostatitis (R) ................................................................................................................ 154
5.8.3 Testicular Cancer (S) ..................................................................................................... 159
5.8.4 Testicular Cancer (L) ..................................................................................................... 160

Unit 6 FINDING A JOB AND CREATING YOUR PROFILE ........................ 161


6.1 GETTING YOUR CAREER STARTED 162

10

6.1.1 Assessing Yourself (S) ................................................................................................... 162


6.1.2 Choosing a Career (S) ................................................................................................... 164
6.1.3 What Employees Are Looking For (L) ........................................................................... 165
6.1.4. Starting Your Career (V) .............................................................................................. 165
6.1.5 Steve Jobs (L) ............................................................................................................... 166

6.2 FINDING JOBS USING SOCIAL MEDIA, INTERVIEWS. 168


6.2.1 How to Find a Graduate Job Using Social Media (R) .................................................... 168
6.2.2 The Rules of Social Recruiting (R) ................................................................................. 172
6.2.3 Should You Pay Someone to Write Your CV? (R) .......................................................... 175
6.2.4 How to Create Your CV (W) .......................................................................................... 176

Unit 7 INTERVIEWS AND STARTING WORK ......................................... 178


7.1 PROFESSIONAL NETWORKING AND INTERVIEWS. 179
7.1.1 Social Networking (S)................................................................................................... 179
7.1.2 Focus Point: LinkedIn (R).............................................................................................. 179
7.1.3 Creating Your LinkedIn Profile (1) (R) .......................................................................... 181
7.1.4 Creating Your LinkedIn Profile (2) (W) ......................................................................... 184
7.1.5 Creating Your LinkedIn Profile (3) (S) ........................................................................... 184
7.1.6. Interviews 1 (S) ............................................................................................................ 184
7.1.7. Interviews 2 (S) ........................................................................................................... 185
7.1.8 Reported Interview Questions (V) ................................................................................ 186
7.1.9 Tricky Questions (S) ...................................................................................................... 187

11

7.2. IN THE OFFICE.. 187


7.2.1 The Perfect Office 1 (S) ................................................................................................. 187
7.2.2 The Perfect Office 2 (W) .............................................................................................. 188
7.2.3 Making a Good Impression (R) .................................................................................... 189
7.2.4 Benefits at Work 1 (R) .................................................................................................. 191
7.2.5 Benefits at Work 2 (S) .................................................................................................. 193
7.2.6 Codes of Practice What to Wear 1 (R) ...................................................................... 194
7.2.7 Codes of Practice - What to Wear 2 (W) ...................................................................... 195
7.2.8 Codes of Practice Privacy Issues (R) .......................................................................... 196
7.2.9 Encouraging Younger Staff (L) ..................................................................................... 197

Unit 8 mobility AND Cultural Diversity ............................................... 198


8.1 Working and Studying Abroad 1 The Advantages and Disadvantages 199
8.1.1 Understanding Cultural Differences (R) ....................................................................... 199
8.1.2 Cultural Diversity Interview (S) .................................................................................... 201
8.1.3 Should I Study Abroad? Advantages and Disadvantages (R) ...................................... 202
8.1.4 My Study Abroad Experience (L) .................................................................................. 204
8.1.5 Role-Play Dialogue to go abroad or not? (S) ............................................................ 206
8.1.6 Should You Study Abroad in Australia or New Zealand? (R) ....................................... 208

8.2 Working and Studying Abroad 2 How to Get There.. 213


8.2.1 Writing an Enquiry Letter to Study Abroad (W) .......................................................... 213
8.2.2 Application Letter - Erasmus Student Network (W) .................................................... 214

12

8.2.3 Erasmus University in a nutshell (L) ............................................................................. 216

Unit 9 Business Travel ....................................................................... 218


9.1 Travelling Abroad on Business 1 Tips for Travellers 219
9.1.1 Executive Planet Website Etiquette by Country (R) .................................................. 219
9.1.2 A Guide to Business Travel (R) ..................................................................................... 220
9.1.3 SEVEN TIPS FOR BUSINESS TRAVEL (R) ........................................................................ 223
9.1.4 Business Travel ............................................................................................................ 228
9.1.5 Discussing a Group Booking for a Hotel (S) ................................................................. 229

9.2. Travelling Abroad on Business 2 Organizing Travel 230


9.2.1 Letter of Complaint (W) ................................................................................................ 230
9.2.2 Business Travel Etiquette (L) ........................................................................................ 231
9.2.3. Corporate Travel Management from FCM (L) ............................................................. 233
9.2.4. Missed Flight Airport Ticket Counter Encounter (S) ................................................. 236

Unit 10 DEVELOPING YOUR CAREER................................................... 237


10.1 TRAINING FOR WORK.. 238
10.1.1 The Labour Market of the Future 1 (S) ...................................................................... 238
10.1.2 The Labour Market of the Future 2 (L) ...................................................................... 238
10.1.3 Its Never Too Late to Learn (R) .............................................................................. 239
10.1.4. E-Learning (L) ............................................................................................................ 241
10.1.5 Addressing Weaknesses (R) ....................................................................................... 242
10.1.6 What is E-Learning? (L).............................................................................................. 244

13

10.1.7 E-Learning (S)............................................................................................................. 245


10.1.8 Whats Your Opinion about E-Learning? (W) ............................................................ 245
10.1.9 How to Write For and Against Type Essays (1) (W) ................................................. 246
10.1.10 Writing a Letter Inviting a Tender 1 (W) ................................................................. 247
10.1.11 Writing a Letter Inviting a Tender 2 (W) ................................................................. 248

10.2.MANAGEMENT248
10.2.1 What do Managers Do? (V) ....................................................................................... 248
10.2.2 Useful People to Have in Teams (S) ........................................................................... 249
10.2.3 Selecting a Team (S) ................................................................................................... 250
10.2.4 Writing an E-Mail (W) ................................................................................................ 250
10.2.5. Motivating Staff Financially (V) ................................................................................. 251
10.2.6 How to Manage Your Staff (L) ................................................................................... 251
10.2.7. Motivating Staff (R) ................................................................................................... 253

KEY TO EXERCISES AND TRANSCRIPTS ................................................ 256

L = listening activity; R = reading activity; S = speaking activity; W = writing activity; V = vocabulary


development activity

14

UNIT 1 THE HUMAN BODY


Aims of the Unit

After completing this unit you will have the language skills that will prepare you for the start of your
medical terminology studies. The sub-units will guide you through the basics of
anatomy
medical English.

15

1.1 FEATURES OF THE HUMAN BODY


WRITING

1.1.1 Interesting Facts about the Human Body (W)

Can you finish these sentences related to the human body?


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

The brain is much more active at night than .


80% of the brain is .
The largest internal organ is .. .
The acid in your stomach is strong enough to dissolve .. .
The surface area of a human lung is equal to . .
Womens hearts beat faster .. .
Your left lung is smaller than your right lung to .
Over 90% of diseases are caused or complicated by .
Babies are born with 300 bones, but by adulthood the number is .
We are about 1 cm taller in the morning than . .
http://icantseeyou.typepad.com/my_weblog/2008/02/100-very-cool-f.html

www.thepracticeofyourlife.com

SPEAKING

1.1.2 Pair-Work (S)


Choose two interesting facts. Discuss the reason for the answers in task 1.1.1. with your partner.

16

WRITING

1.1.3 The Human Body in Numbers (W)


Can you guess the correct number in the following sentences? The numbers are given in the box
below. The number of lines will help you to find the answer.
70
1.5

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

1
3

120
30

60,000

20

100,000

166

400
600,000

The average red blood cell lives for _ _ _ days.


Nerve impulses travel at over _ _ _ km/hr.
We exercise at least _ _ muscles when we smile.
We are about _ _ percent water.
Our heart beats around _ _ _ _ _ _ times every day.
A fetus acquires fingerprints at the age of _ months.
We make _ litre of saliva a day.
A sneeze generates a wind of _ _ _ km/hr
The average human brain weighs about _ _ kg.
It takes about _ _ seconds for a red blood cell to circle the whole body.
An average human drinks about _ _ _ _ _ litres of water in a lifetime.
Humans shed about _ _ _ _ _ _ particles of skin every hour.
http://icantseeyou.typepad.com/my_weblog/2008/02/100-very-cool-f.html

www.express.co.uk

VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

1.1.4 Interesting Activities of the Human Body (V)


Choose the correct answer.
1. The higher your IQ, the more you .

17

a. dream.
b. forget
2. Facial hair . faster than any other hair on the body.
a. turns grey
b. grows
3. Women are born better smellers than men and better smellers over life.
a. form
b. remain
4. Men fat faster than women by a rate of about 50 calories a day.
a. eat
b. burn
5.

During your lifetime, you will enough saliva to fill two swimming pools.
a. produce
b. take
6. After too much, your hearing is less sharp.
a. learning
b. eating
7. Noise the pupils of your eyes to dilate. Even very small noises can do this.
a. causes
b. has
8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

Your eyes remain the same size after birth but your nose and ears never . growing.
a. stop
b. keep
The hands and feet . almost half of the total bones in the human body.
a. belong to
b. contain
Three hundred million cells . in the human body every minute.
a. lose
b. die
All babies are colour blind at birth, they .. only black and white.
a. look at
b. see
A normal human being can .. 20 days without eating .
a. stay
b. survive

http://www.nairaland.com/1178211/40-amazing-facts-human-body

www.ehow.com

18

1.2 BODY PARTS AND ORGANS


VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

1.2.1 A: The Body (V)


Can you complete the missing body parts?

http://englishpatterns.com/community/viewtopic.php?f=7&t=1726

1. face

3. chin

4.________

7. upper arm 8. ________

9. forearm

13. _______ 14. abdomen

15. buttocks

19. knee

2. mouth

5. shoulder

6. arm

10. armpit

11. _______

12. chest

16. hip

17. leg

18. _______

20. calf

19

VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

1.2.2 B: The Hand (V)


Can you complete the missing body parts?
21.________

22. knuckle

23. fingernail

24. ________

26. middle finger

27. ring finger

28. little finger

29. ________

25. index finger

VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

1.2.3 C: The Head (V)


Can you complete the missing body parts?
30. hair

31. part

32. ________

33. side burn

34. ________

35. cheek

36. _______

37. nostril

38. jaw

39. beard

40. ________

41. tongue

42. tooth

43. lip

VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

1.2.4 D: The Eye (V)


Can you complete the missing body parts?
44. ________

45. eyelid

46. _______

47. iris

VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

1.2.5 E: The Foot (V)


Can you complete the missing body parts?

49. ankle

50. _______

51. instep

52. ball

20

48. pupil

53. big toe

54. _______

55. little toe

56. toenail

http://englishpatterns.com/community/viewtopic.php?f=7&t=1726

WRITING

1.2.6 F: The Internal Organs (W)


Complete the missing letters.
57.br _ _ _
61. esophagus
65. liver
69. artery

58. spinal cord


62. mu _ _ _
66. st _ _ _ _ _
70. ki _ _ _ _

59. th _ _ _
63. lung
67. intestines
71. pancreas

21

60. windpipe
64. he _ _ _
68. ve _ _
72. bl _ _ _ _ _

http://englishpatterns.com/community/viewtopic.php?f=7&t=1726

VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

1.2.7 Body Systems and Organs (V)

What body system do the following organs belong to?


throat

esophagus

kidney

windpipe

liver

bladder

lung

stomach

..system

...system

intestines

heart
vein
artery

muscle

brain

pancreas

spinal cord
..system

bone
..system

.system

22

system

WRITING

1.2.8 Body Systems Pictures (W)


What body systems do you see in the pictures? Write underneath.

www.aokainc.com

www.aarcaro.wordpress.com

23

1.3 MEDICAL SPECIALISTS

www.omaspokane.org

VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

1.3.1 Medical Specialists and Activities (V)


Match the medical specialists and their activities.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

allergist
anesthesiologist
caridologist
dentist
dermatologist
gynecologist
midwife
naturopath
neurologist
obstetrician
oncologist
ophthalmologist
pediatrician
psychiatrist
radiologist

1.

2.

3.

4.

a. tooth specialist
b. specialist in mental health
c. brain specialist
d. specializes in natural cures and remedies
e. tumour specialist, including cancer
f. specializes in imaging tests
g. specializes in eye diseases
h. specialist for babies and children
i. heart specialist
j. specializes in pain prevention during surgery
k. specialist for pregnant women
l. spelializes in determining allergies
m. skin specialist
n. specializes in womens diseases
o. helps women deliver babies in a natural way
5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

http://www.englishclub.com/english-for-work/medical-specialists.htm

WRITING

1.3.2 Definition of Specialists (W)


Give a definition of what the following specialists do.
a. gastroenterologist

24

b. general practitioner

c. internist

d. ENT (ear, nose, throat) specialist


..
..
e. pathologist
.
.
f. plastic surgeon
.
.
g. rheumatologist

h. sports medicine specialist


..
..
i. urologist
..
..
www.webmd.com

1.4 A PHYSICAL EXAMINATION

www.discovery.com

SPEAKING

1.4.1 Pair - Work (S)


Discuss your last visit at the general practitioner with your partner. Mention when it happened,
what your complaints were, what examinations the doctor performed, and what he suggested.

25

READING

1.4.2 Doctor - Patient Dialogue (R)


Complete the text with the words given.
run up, listen to, take, roll up, hold, exercise, order, have, open, come in for
Doctor: When did you last 1. a physical exam?
Patient: I had my last physical two years ago.
Doctor: Have you had any other exams recently? Blood test, an ECG or an ultra-sound?
Patient: Well, I had a few X-rays at the dentist's.
Doctor: How have you been feeling in general?
Patient: Pretty well. No complaints, really.
Doctor: Could you 2. . your left sleeve? I'd like to 3. .. your blood pressure.
Patient: Certainly.
Doctor: 120 over 80. That's fine. You don't seem to be overweight, that's good. Do you 4. .
regularly?
Patient: No, not really. If I 5. a flight of stairs, it takes me a while to get my breath back.
Doctor: How about your diet?
Patient: I think I eat a pretty balanced diet. You know, I 6. a hamburger from time to time,
but generally I have well-balanced meals.
Doctor: That's good. Now, I'm going to 7. .. to your heart.
Patient: Ooh, that's cold!
Doctor: Don't worry it's just my stethoscope. Now, breathe in and 8. . your breath. Please
pull up your shirt, and breathe deeply... Everything sounds good. Let's take a look at your throat.
Please 9. . wide and say 'ah'.
Patient: 'ah'
Doctor: OK. Everything looks ship shape. I'm going to 10. some blood test and that's
about it. Take this slip to the front desk and they'll arrange an appointment for the tests.
Patient: Thank you doctor. Have a nice day.
http://esl.about.com/od/intermediatereading

26

www.uctclinic.com

WRITING

1.4.3 Explaining Words (W)


Explain the following with your own words:
physical examination (exam): ...
ultra-sound:
overweight: .
balanced diet: ...................................
stethoscope:
to look ship shape: .................................
slip: ........................................
to arrange an appointment: .

1.5 DISEASES
VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

1.5.1 Diseases - Categories (V)


Put the following diseases and health problems in one of the categories below. There are three
diseases in each category.

www.sparticl.org

Musculoskeletal:

27

www.drstandley.com

Hormonal:

www.nursingcrib.com

Neurologic:

www.grendahl.com

Visual:

www.medimoon.com

Cardiovascular:

www.clker.com

Lungs:

28

www.aminoacidstudies.org

Skin and hair:.

www.jonbarron.org

Gastrointestinal:

www.ladycarehealth.com

Urinary:.

www.nedelta.com

Oral and dental:..

www.healthimpactnews.com

Psychiatric:

www.beautyhealthtips.in

General problems:..

29

anxiety

appetite loss

cataracts

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

dementia

depression

diabetes

dry skin

dsyuria

fatigue

fracture

glaucoma

gout

gum disease

hair loss

heart attack

heartburn

hypertension

insomnia

irregular heart rhythm


osteoporosis

itching
Parkinson's disease

poorly fitting dentures


weight gain

asthma

dry mouth

macular degeneration menopause


pneumonia

thyroid dysfunction
constipation

balance problem

polyuria
urinary incontinence

stomach ulcer

http://www.medicinenet.com/senior_health/page2.htm

SPEAKING

1.5.2 Common Infectious Diseases Worldwide (S)


What do you see in the following pictures? What diseases are they related to?

1..
www.enwikipedia.org

2.
www.micro.magnet.fsu.edu

30

3.
www.en.ird.fr

4.

5.

www.tabletsmanual.com

www.fitsana.com

READING

1.5.3 Common Infectious Diseases (R)


Read the following section on common infectious diseases and choose the word that completes the
sentence.

The following is a list of the most common infectious diseases throughout the world today.
Accurate numbers are difficult to determine, especially because so many of these diseases are
endemic to 1. developed/developing countries, where many people do not have access to modern
medical care.
African Trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness): African trypanosomiasis is spread by the tsetse fly,
which is common to many African countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that
nearly 450,000 cases occur each year. Symptoms of the disease 2. contain/include fever,
headaches, joint pains, and itching in the early stage, and confusion, sensory disturbances, poor
coordination, and disrupted sleep cycles in the second stage. If the disease goes untreated in its
first stage, it causes irreparable neurological damage; if it goes untreated in its second stage, it is 3.
fatal/fetal.
Cholera: Cholera is a disease spread mostly through contaminated drinking water and unsanitary
conditions. It is endemic in the Indian subcontinent, Russia, and sub-Saharan Africa. It is an acute
infection of the intestines with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. Its main symptom is copious
diarrhoea. Between 5% and 10% of those infected 4. from/with the disease will develop severe
symptoms, which also include vomiting and leg cramps. In its severe form, cholera can cause death
by 5. dehydration/rehydration. An estimated 200,000 cases are reported to WHO annually.
Cryptosporidiosis: Cryptosporidiosis has become one of the most common causes of waterborne
disease in the United States in recent years; it is also found throughout the rest of the world. It is
caused by a parasite that spreads when a water source is contaminated, usually with the faeces of

31

6. infecting/infected animals or humans. Symptoms include diarrhoea, stomach cramps, an upset


stomach, and slight fever. Some people do not exhibit any symptoms.
Dengue: WHO estimates that 50 million cases of dengue fever appear each year. It is spread
through the bite of the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Recent years have seen dengue outbreaks all over
Asia and Africa. Dengue fever can be 7. mild/mildly to moderate, and occasionally severe, though it
is rarely fatal. Mild cases, which usually affect infants and young children, involve a nonspecific
febrile illness, while moderate cases, seen in older children and adults, display high fever, 8.
several/severe headaches, muscle and joint pains, and rash. Severe cases develop into dengue
hemorrhagic fever, which involves high fever, hemorrhaging, and sometimes circulatory failure.
Hepatitis A: Hepatitis A is a highly contagious liver disease caused by the hepatitis A virus. Spread
primarily by the fecal-oral route or by ingestion of contaminated water or food, the number of
annual infections worldwide is estimated at 1.4 million. Symptoms include fever, fatigue, jaundice,
and dark urine. Although those exposed usually 9. develop/improve lifelong immunity, the best
protection against Hepatitis A is vaccination.
Hepatitis B: Approximately 2 billion people are infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV), making it
the most common infectious disease in the world today. Over 350 million of those infected never
rid themselves 10. from/of the infection. Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver that causes
symptoms such as jaundice, extreme fatigue, nausea, vomiting, and stomach pain; hepatitis B is the
most serious form of the disease. Chronic infections can cause cirrhosis of the liver or liver cancer in
later years.
Hepatitis C: Hepatitis C is a less common, and less severe, form of hepatitis. An estimated 180
million people worldwide are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV); 34 million more are infected
every year. The 11. major/majority of HCV cases are asymptomatic, even in people who develop
chronic infection.
Influenza: Several influenza epidemics in the 20th century caused millions of deaths worldwide,
including the worst epidemic in American history, the Spanish influenza outbreak that killed more
than 500,000 in 1918. Today influenza is less of a public health threat, though it continues to be a
serious disease that affects many people. Approximately 20,000 people die 12. in/of the flu in the
United States every year. The influenza virus attacks the human respiratory tract, causing
symptoms such as fever, headaches, fatigue, coughing, sore throat, nasal congestion, and body
aches.
Malaria: Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease that affects more than 500 million people annually,
causing between 1 and 3 million deaths. It is most common in tropical and subtropical climates and
is found in 90 countriesbut 90% of all cases are found in Sub-Saharan Africa. Most of its 13.
victims/patients are children. The first stage consists of shaking and chills, the next stage involves
high fever and severe headache, and in the final stage the infected person's temperature drops and
he or she sweats profusely. Infected people also often suffer from anemia, weakness, and a
swelling of the spleen. Malaria was almost eradicated 30 years ago; now it is on the rise again.

32

www.etravelblog.com

Measles: Measles is a disease that has seen a drastic reduction in countries where a vaccine is
readily available, but it is still 14. prevalent/prevalence in developing countries. Symptoms include
high fever, coughing, and a rash; common complications include diarrhoea, pneumonia, and ear
infections.
Meningitis: Meningitis, often known as spinal meningitis, is an infection of the spinal cord. It is
usually the result of a viral or bacterial infection. Bacterial meningitis is more severe than viral
meningitis and may cause brain damage, hearing loss, and learning disabilities. Symptoms include
severe headache, fever, nausea, vomiting, 15. lethargic/lethargy, delirium, photophobia, and a stiff
neck.
Pneumonia: Pneumonia has many possible causes, but it is usually an infection of the streptococcus
or mycoplasma bacteria. These bacteria can live in the human body without causing infection for
years, and only surface when another illness has lowered the person's 16. immune/immunity to
disease. Streptococcus pneumoniae causes streptococcal pneumonia, the most common kind,
which is more severe than mycoplasmal pneumonia.
Rotavirus: Rotavirus is the most common cause of viral gastroenteritis worldwide. It kills more than
600,000 children each year, mostly in developing countries. Symptoms include vomiting, 17.
water/watery diarrhoea, fever, and abdominal pain.
Tuberculosis: Tuberculosis causes nearly 2 million deaths every year, and WHO estimates that
nearly 1 billion people will be infected between 2000 and 2020 if more effective preventive 18.
procedures/ processes are not adopted. The TB bacteria are most often found in the lungs, where
they can cause chest pain and a bad cough that brings up phlegm with blood. Other symptoms
include fatigue, weight loss, appetite loss, chills, fever, and night sweats.
Typhoid: Typhoid fever causes an estimated 600,000 deaths annually, out of 1217 million cases. It
is usually spread through infected food or water. Symptoms include a sudden and 19. sustaining/
sustained fever, severe headache, nausea, severe appetite loss, constipation, and sometimes
diarrhoea.
Yellow Fever: Yellow fever causes an estimated 30,000 deaths each year, out of 200,000 cases. The
disease has two phases. In the acute phase, symptoms include fever, muscle pain, headache,
shivers, appetite loss, nausea, and vomiting. This lasts for 34 days, after which most patients 20.
cure/recover. But 15% will enter the toxic phase, in which fever reappears, along with other
symptoms, including jaundice; abdominal pain; vomiting; bleeding from the mouth, nose, eyes, and
stomach. Half of all patients in the toxic phase die within two weeks; the other half recover.

33

http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0903696.html

WRITING

1.5.4 Health Tips to Tourists Travelling to Hungary (W)

Give health tips to a tourist before travelling to Hungary. Write five sentences at least.

www.implant.uk.com

1.6 MEDICAL ABBREVIATIONS


WRITING

1.6.1 Medical Abbreviations Guessing (W)


Can you find out what these medical abbreviations stand for?

www.misslosaga26.soup.io

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

BP: .
COPD: .
CNS: ...
ER:
ECG:
IM: ..

34

7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

IV:
M.D.: .
OR: .
OTC: ..
STD: ..
W: ..
http://medicalterminology4fun.com/medical-abbreviations-list/

WRITING

1.6.2 Medical Abbreviations Completion (W)


Complete the missing words for the following medical abbreviations.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

ABR: absolute bed


ABT: antibiotic
ADH: antidiuretic ..
CBC: complete blood .
CSF: cerebrospinal ..
DOA: . on arrival
GI: ......intestinal
ICP: intracranial
MI: myocardial ....
SOB: shortness of ..
S/S: signs and
TPR:.., pulse, respiration
UTI: urinary tract
VS: vital .
WBC: white .. ..

http://medicalterminology4fun.com/medical-abbreviations-list/

1.7 DOCTORS INSTRUMENTS AND EQUIPMENT


VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

1.7.1 Names of Instruments (V)


Write the name of the instrument below the pictures. The words have been given for you.

35

Blood infusion set

Bandage

Endoscope

Defibrillator

Hemodialysis machine

Syringe and needle

Stethoscope

Reflex hammer

Mercury thermometer

Weighing scale

Nebulizer

Kidney dish

1.............................

4...................................

7.......................................

10...................................

2......................................

3...................................

5....................................

6.......................................

8...............................

9.................................

11................................

12..................................

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instruments_used_in_general_medicine

36

SPEAKING

1.7.2 Usage of Instruments (S)


What do you use these tools and instruments for?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Bandage
Blood infusion set
Defibrillator
Endoscope
Hemodialysis machine
Kidney dish
Mercury thermometers
Nebulizer
Reflex hammer
Stethoscope
Syringe and needle
Weighing scale

VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

1.7.3 Matching Instrument and Definition (V)


Match the instrument and its definition.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Bedpan
Cannula
Catheter
Enema set
Instrument sterilizer
Ophthalmoscope
Otoscope
Oxygen mask or tube
Sphygmomanometer
Sucker
Tongue depressor
Tuning fork

a. It records the patients blood pressure.


b. This is used for an oral examination.
c. It is used as a test for deafness.
d. This is for patients who cannot walk to the toilet.
e. It assists oxygen intake.
f. This is used for cleaning the doctors tools.
g. This drains and collects urine from the bladder.
h. This needle creates a permanent pathway to a vein.
i. It drains blood or bodily secretions.
j. It is used for evacuating the rectum of faeces.
k. You can take a look at the retina with this.
l. You can look at the external ear cavity using this.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instruments_used_in_general_medicine

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

37

9.

10.

11.

12.

1.8 BODY PLANES


SPEAKING

1.8.1 Body Planes in Different Fields of Medicine (S)


Answer the question: In what fields of medicine are body planes especially important? Discuss the
question with your partner.

SPEAKING
1.8.2 Definitions (S)
You can see two definitions below. Decide which one is section and which one is plane.

a. An imaginary flat surface passing through the body.


b. It is a slice or cut to expose the internal anatomy.

LISTENING

1.8.3 Body Planes Listening Comprehension (L)

Now listen to the recording and complete the tasks.


Source: http://youtu.be/oxJ4fARh9gE

Task 1
What do we understand by anatomical position? Take notes.

Task 2
Label the picture below.

38

www.lifehealthwellness.com

Task 3
Find synonyms for 1. , 2. , and 3. ..
Task 4
Write down what directional aspects we get from
1. ...........
2.
3. ..
Task 5
What other plane is mentioned? Can you define it?

1.9 PHYSICALLY PAINFUL AND DESCRIBING PAIN


VOCABULARY

1.9.1 Matching Pain and Description (V)


Match the Pain and its Description.
39

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

acute
burning
chronic
dull
exruciating
griping
sharp
stabbing
tender
unendurable

a. This pain is serious and lasts for a long time.


b. It causes extreme pysical pain.
c. This pain is sudden and severe.
d. It has been injured and it is painful when you touch it.
e. This pain is too unpleasant to bear it.
f. This pain is not very strong and usually lasts for a long time.
g. It feels as if some part of your body is touching something hot.
h. A sharp and sudden pain in your stomach.
i. This pain is strong and lasts for a short time.
j. It feels like a knife.
www.macmillanictionary.com

SPEAKING

1.9.2 Pair-Work (S)


Discuss the following with your partner: When did you last experience pain? What was the matter
with you? What did you do to manage the pain?

READING

1.9.3 What is Chronic Pain? (R)


Read this article on chronic pain and decide if the statements are true or false.

Several people suffer from chronic pain, defined as pain that lasts longer than six months. Chronic
pain can be mild or excruciating, episodic or continuous, merely inconvenient or totally
incapacitating.
The most common sources of pain stem from headaches, joint pain, pain from injury, and
backaches. Other kinds of chronic pain include tendinitis, sinus pain and pain affecting specific parts
of the body, such as the shoulders, pelvis, and neck. Generalized muscle or nerve pain can also
develop into a chronic condition.
Chronic pain may originate from an initial trauma/injury or infection, or there may be an ongoing
cause of pain. Some people suffer chronic pain in the absence of any past injury or evidence of
body damage.
The emotional toll of chronic pain also can make pain worse. Anxiety, stress, depression, anger, and
fatigue interact in complex ways with chronic pain and may decrease the body's production of

40

natural painkillers; moreover, such negative feelings may increase the level of substances that
amplify sensations of pain, causing a vicious cycle of pain for the person. There is evidence that
unrelenting pain can suppress the immune system.
Because of the mind-body links associated with chronic pain, effective treatment requires
addressing psychological as well as physical aspects of the condition.
The symptoms of chronic pain include:

Mild to severe pain that does not go away


Pain that may be described as shooting, burning, aching, or electrical
Feeling of discomfort, soreness, tightness, or stiffness

Pain is not a symptom that exists alone. Other problems associated with pain can include:

Fatigue
Sleeplessness
Withdrawal from activity and increased need to rest
Weakened immune system
Changes in mood including hopelessness, fear, depression, irritability, anxiety, and stress
Disability

http://www.webmd.com/pain-management/guide/understanding-pain-management-chronic-pain

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Chronic pain can have different features. T/F


Specific muscle pain can turn to chronic pain. T/F
Chronic pain is always related to trauma. T/F
Negative feelings can generally worsen pain. T/F
Treatment should be focusing on the body exclusively. T/F
Pain can lead to further symptoms. T/F
Insomnia is usually not associated with pain. T/F
The immune system is still effective if you have pain. T/F

SPEAKING
1.9.4 Pain that Comes and Goes (S)
Try and guess the meaning of the following words and expressions with your partner:

to get to the bottom of something


eating habits

41

to come and go
on a scale of one to ten
heavy foods

READING
1.9.5 Doctor-Patient Dialogue Completion (R)
Choose the word that completes the dialogue.
Doctor: How long have you been having this pain?
Patient: It started in June. So for more than five months now. My 1. stomach/back hurts after some
meals, but not always.
Doctor: You should have come in 2. later/earlier. Let's get to the bottom of this. Have you changed
your eating habits during this period?
Patient: No, not really. Well, that's not true. I'm eating the same foods, 3. despite/but less. You
know, the pain seems to come and go.
Doctor: How 4. strong/heavy is the pain exactly? On a scale of one to ten, how would you describe
the intensity of the pain?
Patient: Well, I'd say the pain is about a two on a scale of one to ten. Like I 5. tell/say, it's not really
bad. It just keeps coming back...
Doctor: How long does the pain last when you get it?
Patient: It comes and goes. Sometimes, I 6. almost/hardly feel anything. Other times, it can last up
to half an hour or more.
Doctor: Is there a type of food that seems to 7. cause/give stronger pain than other types?
Patient: Hmmm ... heavy foods like steak or lasagna usually brings it on. I've been trying to avoid
those.
Doctor: Does the pain 8. travel/run to any other parts of your body - chest, shoulder or back? Or
does it remain around the stomach area.
Patient: No, it just hurts here.
http://esl.about.com/od/intermediatereading

42

1.10 SOME COMMON PROBLEMS

www.prathama.org

SPEAKING

1.10.1 Some Troubling Symptoms (S)


Guess the word with your partner. The definitions have been given for you.

High body temperature.


Sign, indication; something caused by and indicative of a certain disease or disorder.
Abnormally frequent and loose bowel movements.
Thick, sticky mucus secreted by the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract, as during a cold or
other respiratory infection.
Having knowledge of something.
Having the respiratory passages blocked.
An abnormally high sensitivity to certain substances, such as pollens or foods. .

READING

1.10.2 Doctor - Patient Dialogue: Pain (R)


Complete the text with the missing words. The first two letters have been given for you.

43

Patient: Good afternoon.


Doctor: Good afternoon. Take a seat. So, what have you come in for today?
Patient: Thank you. I'm feeling ill, I've got quite a bad 1. co_ _ _, but I don't seem to have a fever.
Doctor: I see. How long have you had these symptoms?
Patient: Oh, I've had the cough for two weeks, but I have been 2. fe _ _ _ _ _ ill just these past few
days.
Doctor: Are you having any other problems?
Patient: Well, I've got a 3. he_ _ _ _ _ _. I've also had a little bit of diarrhoea.
Doctor: Do you 4. pr _ _ _ _ _ any phlegm when coughing?
Patient: Sometimes, but it's usually pretty dry.
Doctor: Do you smoke?
Patient: Yes, a few cigarettes a day. Certainly no more than a half a 5. pa _ _ _ _ a day.
Doctor: How about 6. al _ _ _ _ _ _ _? Do you have any allergies?
Patient: Not that I'm aware of.
Doctor: Does your head feel stuffy?
Patient: Yes, for the 7. pa _ _ few days.
Doctor: OK. Now let's have a look. Could you please open your 8. mo _ _ _ and say 'ah'?
http://esl.about.com/od/intermediatereading

1.11 STRESS
VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

1.11.1 Matching Pictures and Definitions (V)


Match the pictures and the following expressions.

1.
www.metaversemodsquad.com

2. ..
www.sortednest.com

44

3. .
www.article.wn.com

Fight or flight response


Don't sweat it./ Don't sweat the small stuff.
Hectic life

VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

1.11.2 Adjective Forms of Verbs (V)


What are the adjective forms of these verbs?
a.
b.
c.
d.

circulate
digest
diaphragm
reproduce

..
..
..
..

VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

1.11.3 Verbs and Nouns (V)


Can you complete this table?
Verb

Noun

digestion

breathe

..

perspire

sweating

exhaust

grow

..

accumulation

LISTENING

1.11.4 Stress (L)


1. Now listen to the recording and write down the 12 areas that are affected when you face
stress.

Source: http://youtu.be/Ho_a5FlcsJ4
45

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
and ..
..

www.lifecoachingcourses.ie

2. Listen to the recording again and complete the sentences. Use one word only.
1. When you're stressed your body a. instantly.
2. Your heart beats b. . and you put excess strain on it.
3. Your blood pressure further rises because your body also narrows and constricts
your blood vessels to prevent you from bleeding to c. from
injury.
4. Here's the challenge: your d. ... will clot regardless of whether
or not you really are injured.
5. So, even if you're eating healthy foods your body won't be able to e.
digest that food.
6. Your body will suppress your f. . system.
7. Anxiety and panic g. can also accompany shallow
breathing.
8. Under stress we can h. . excessively.
9. Some of our bodies are not equipped to adequately process that lot of blood sugar
and that can lead to i. health problems.
10. Your body reduces the flow of anti-aging growth hormones, so as a j.
. our bodies age faster.
11. Your reproductive systems are suppressed and you
produce k.
sex hormones, so this can result in you feeling a drop in your
libido, your sex drive.

46

12. Your body pumps out adrenaline and noradrenaline which alert our body that it's in
l. .. .
13. Your body also pumps out cortisol which is considered the m.
.. stress hormone.

READING

1.11.5 Stress Test (R)


Complete this stress test and then check your result.

www.mymentalhealthday.org

In the last month, how often have you: Never

Almost
never
(1 point)

1. Been upset because of something that


happened unexpectedly?
2. Felt that you were unable to control
the important things in your life?
3. Felt nervous and "stressed"?
4. Felt unsure about your ability to
handle your personal problems?
5. Felt that things werent going your
way?
6. Found that you could not cope with all
the things that you had to do?
7. Been unable to control irritations in
your life?
8. Felt that you werent on top of things?
9. Been angered because of things that
were outside of your control?
10. Felt difficulties were piling up so high
that you could not overcome them?

47

Some-times Fairly
(2 points) often
(3 points)

Very often
(4 points)

Score:

Interpreting the score:


Score your stress level

0-10 Below average. Congratulations, you seem to be handling lifes stressors well at the moment.

11- Average. Your life is far from stress-free so now is the time to learn how to reduce your stress
14 to healthier levels.

15- Medium-High. You may not realize how much stress is already affecting your mood,
18 productivity, and relationships.

19 + High. Youre experiencing high levels of stress. The higher your score, the more damage stress
is doing to your mind, body, and behavior.

http://www.helpguide.org/topics/stress.htm

1.12 TYPES OF MEDICINE


VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

1.12.1 Medicine and Definition (V)


Match the medicine with its definition.

www.passkontrol.net

www.ehow.com

48

1.anaesthetic

A. A drug that makes people calmer when they are very worried or nervous.

2.analgesic

B. A medicine you use for helping you to cough liquid up from your lung.

3.antacid

C . A drug that we use in order to sleep better.

4.antibiotic

D. A substance that prevents a poison from having bad effects.

5.antidote

E. A drug or gas that is given to someone before a medical operation.

6.antihistamine

F. A drug that reduces pain.

7.anti-inflammatory

G. A pill that you take to help you to sleep.

8.contraceptive

H. A drug taken to reduce inflammation (= swelling, heat, and pain).

9.emetic

I. A drug used for preventing a woman from becoming pregnant.

10.expectorant

J. A drug used to treat an allergy.

11.laxative

K. A drug that makes someone calmer, or makes them sleep.

12.narcotic

L. A medicine that reduces the amount of acid in your stomach.

13.sedative

M. A drug that cures illnesses and infections caused by bacteria.

14.sleeping pill

N. A medicine that helps you to make solid waste.

15.tranquillizer

O. A drug that makes you vomit.

http://www.macmillandictionary.com/thesaurus-category/american/Types-and-forms-of-medicine

VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

1.12.2 Medicine Table Completion (V)

Complete the table with the words given.


antibiotics
antidepressants
anxiety

49

blood pressure pills


blood thinners
diuretics
epilepsy drugs
headaches, muscle aches and pains
heart medicine
indigestion pills
insomnia
lower high blood sugar
mans best friend
moms bone pills
rheumatoid arthritis

Professional English word

Common English word

Usage

Analgesics

pain pills

Antacids

heartburn

Antiarthritic

rheumatism pills

..

..

bug killers

microbial infections

Anticoagulants

..

prevent blood clots

Anticonvulsants

prevent seizures

..

uppers

relieve depression

Antihypertensives

lower high blood pressure

Cardiac drugs

treat abnornal heart rhythms, heart


failure and angina pectoris

water pills

remove excess water from the body

Erectile disfunction

...

impotency

Hypnotics

sleeping pills

50

Hypoglycemic agents

diabetic drugs

Osteoporosis medicine

..

strengthens bones

Tranquillizers

downers

..
www.dmu.edu

www.en.wikipedia.org

www.dailymail.co.uk

www.worldhealth.net

SPEAKING

1.12.3 A Prescription (S)


Discuss the questions with your partner.
When did you last take medicine? What was your problem? What medicine did you get?

READING

1.12.4 Completing Prepositions Doctor-Patient Dialogue (R)


Complete the missing prepositions.
Patient: What about my sleeping problems I've been having?
Doctor: I'm going to give you a prescription 1. some medicine to help you get a better night's
sleep.
Patient: Thank you doctor.
Doctor: Here, you can get this prescription 2. any pharmacy.
Patient: How often should I take the medicine?
Doctor: Just take one pill about 30 minutes before you go 3. .bed.

51

Patient: How long should I take them?


Doctor: The prescription is 4. thirty days. If you're not sleeping well after thirty days, I'd like you
to come 5. .
Patient: Is there anything else I can do to help me sleep 6. night?
Doctor: Don't worry so much about things 7. work. I know, I know. Easier said than done.
Patient: Should I stay home 8. work?
Doctor: No, I don't think that's necessary. Just remember to stay calm.
http://esl.about.com/od/intermediatereading

WRITING

1.12.5 Expressions (W)


Put the following words and expressions in a sentence:
prescription ...
to get a good night's sleep ..
pharmacy ...
to take medicine ...
take a pill ...
stay calm .

1.13 MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY

www.nlm.nih.gov

VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

1.13.1 Combining Forms (V)


Match the root words and their meaning.
1. bio2. cyan(o)3. dors(o)-

A. red, redness
B. white
C. night

52

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

erythr(o)fibr(o)gyn(o)hydr(o)immun(o)kinesi(o)leuk(o)lip(o)melan(o)micr(o)noct(i)oncophagophyt(o)pharmacospir(o)therm(o)-

D. heat
E. woman
F. eating, swallowing
G. blue
H. tumour
I. life
J. back
K. fibre
L. plant
M. breathing
N. water
O. safe, immune
P. fat
Q. motion
R. black, pigmented
S. small
T. drugs, medicine

www.medicalterminology4fun.com

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

53

UNIT 2 THE SKELETAL SYSTEM


Aims of the Unit

After completing this unit you will know parts and functions of the skeletal system. You will also
learn about the most common
diseases
disorders affecting this system.

54

2.1 THE SKELETON


VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

2.1.1 Structure and Function of the Skeletal System (V)


1.Complete the missing vowels.
The skeletal system includes the bones of the sk_l_t_n and the c_rt_l_g_s, l_g_m_nts, and other
c_nn_ct_ve t_ss_ _ that stabilize or connect the bones. In addition to supporting the weight of the
body, bones work together with m_scl_s to maintain body position and to produce controlled,
precise movements.
http://my.clevelandclinic.org/anatomy/musculoskeletal_system
The skeleton is divided into two sections. One is appendicular skeleton - the bones of the limbs and

supporting thoracic (pectoral) and pelvic girdles. The other is the axial skeleton - the bones of the
body axis.
2.Based on the definitions above which one is appendicular and which one is axial skeleton in this
picture?

www.wcc.hawaii.edu

55

READING

2.1.2 Five Functions of Skeletal System (R)


Match the five functions of the skeletal system with their definitions:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

It provides support for the body.


It stores minerals and lipids.
It produces blood cells.
It protects body organs.
It provides leverage and movement.

A. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body. (Ninety-nine percent of the body's
calcium is found in the skeleton.) The calcium salts of bone are a valuable mineral reserve
that maintains normal concentrations of calcium and phosphate ions in body fluids. The
bones of the skeleton also store energy reserves as fat in areas filled with yellow marrow.
B. Many bones function as levers that can change the magnitude and direction of the forces
generated by muscles.
C. Many soft tissues and organs are surrounded by skeletal elements. For example, the rib
cage protects the heart and lungs, the skull protects the brain, the vertebrae protect the
spinal cord, and the pelvis protects the reproductive organs.
D. Red blood cells, white blood cells, and other blood elements are produced in the red
marrow, which fills the internal cavities of many bones.
E. The skeletal system provides structural framework for the entire body. Individual bones or
groups of bones provide a framework for the attachment of soft tissues and organs.
http://my.clevelandclinic.org/anatomy/musculoskeletal_system

READING

2.1.3 Bone Structure (R)


Read this section and take notes about compact and spongy bones in the table below.
Each bone in the skeleton contains two forms of tissue: compact (dense) bone that is relatively
solid and spongy (cancellous) bone that forms an open network of struts and plates. Compact bone
is found on the external surface of the bone. Spongy bone is located inside the bone. The
proportion of compact and spongy bone varies with the shape of the bone. Compact bone is
thickest where stresses arrive from a limited range of directions. Spongy bone is located where
bones are not heavily stressed or where stresses arrive from many directions. Spongy bone is much

56

lighter than compact bone, which helps reduce the weight of the skeleton and makes it easier for
muscles to move the bones.
http://my.clevelandclinic.org/anatomy/musculoskeletal_system

Type of bone

Features of bone

READING

2.1.4 Bone Development and Growth (R)


Put the verbs in the correct form.
The growth of the skeleton 1. (determine) . the size and proportions of the body. Bones
2. (begin) to form in a mother's womb about six weeks after fertilization, and
portions of the skeleton 3. (not stop).. growing until about the age of 25. Most bones 4.
(originate) as hyaline cartilage. The cartilage gradually 5. (convert) . to bone
through a process called ossification. Bone growth 6. (begin) . at the center of the
cartilage. As bones 7.(enlarge) .., bone growth activity 8. (shift) to the ends of
the bones (an area commonly 9. (call) .. the growth plate), which 10. (result)
.. in an increase in bone length.
Bone growth facts

Twenty percent of the adult skeleton 11. (replace) .. each year.


Moderate amounts of physical activity and weight-bearing activities 12. (be) ..
essential to stimulate bone maintenance and to maintain adequate bone strength.
http://my.clevelandclinic.org/anatomy/musculoskeletal_system

57

VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

2.1.5 Other Elements of the Skeletal System (V)


Complete the definitions with the words given.
cartilage, tendons, skeletal muscles, fibrocartilage, joints, nerves, ligaments, hyaline cartilage,
elastic cartilage
1. ... are where two bones interconnect. Each joint reflects a compromise
between stability and range of motion. For example, the bones of the skull are very stable
but with little motion, whereas the shoulder joint allows for a full range of motion but is a
relatively unstable joint.
2. .... attach muscle to bone.
3. .... attach bone to bone.
4. .... contract to pull on tendons and move the bones of the skeleton. In addition
to producing skeletal movement, muscles also maintain posture and body position, support
soft tissues, guard entrances and exits to the digestive and urinary tracts, and maintain
body temperature.
5. .. control the contraction of skeletal muscles, interpret sensory information,
and coordinate the activities of the body's organ systems.
6. . ..is a type of connective tissue. It is a firm gel-like substance. The body
contains three major types of cartilage: hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage, and
fibrocartilage.
7. .. is the most common type of cartilage. This type of cartilage provides stiff but
somewhat flexible support. Examples in adults include the tips of ribs (where they meet the
sternum) and part of the nasal septum. Another example is articular cartilage, which is
cartilage that covers the ends of bones within a joint. The surfaces of articular cartilage are
slick and smooth, which reduces friction during joint movement.
8. provides support but can tolerate distortion without damage and return to its
original shape. The external flap of the ear is one place where elastic cartilage can be
found.
9. ... resists compression, prevents bone-to-bone contact, and limits relative
movement. Fibrocartilage can be found within the knee joint, between the pubic bones of
the pelvis, and between the spinal vertebrae.
http://my.clevelandclinic.org/anatomy/musculoskeletal_system

58

www.nlm.nih.gov

www.click4biology.info

www.aviva.co.uk

2.2 JOINT PAIN


SPEAKING

2.2.1 What Keeps the Joints Healthy? (S)


What would you suggest to a patient with joint problems? Discuss the question with your partner.

VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

2.2.2 Doctor - Patient Dialogue - Joints


Complete the dialogues with the missing words. The first two letters have been given for you.
Patient: Good morning. Doctor Smith?
Doctor: Yes, please come in.
Patient: Thank you. My name is Daniel Smith.
Doctor: What have you come in for 1. to _ _ _ Mrs Brown?

59

Patient: I've been having some pain in my joints, especially the 2. kn _ _ _.


Doctor: How long have you been having the pain?
Patient: I'd say it started three or four months ago. It's been getting 3. wo _ _ _ recently.
Doctor: Are you having any other problems like weakness, 4. fa _ _ _ _ _ or headaches?
Patient: Well I've certainly 5. fe_ _ under the weather.
Doctor: Right. How much physical 6. ac _ _ _ _ _ _ do you get? Do you do any sports?
Patient: Some. I like to play tennis about 7. on _ _ a week. I take my dog for a walk every morning.
Doctor: OK. Let's have a look. Can you 8. po_ _ _ to the area where you are having pain?
http://esl.about.com/od/intermediatereading

WRITING

2.2.3 Summing up a Case (W)


Sum up Mrs Browns case in 5 sentences.

2.3 THE SPINAL COLUMN


VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

2.3.1 Parts of the Spinal Column (V)


Complete the missing words with the help of the pictures.

60

www.spineuniverse.com

The vertebral column (spinal column) supports the head and encloses the spinal cord. The spinal
column is comprised of 26 individual bones, these bones are referred to as vertebrae. The spinal
column is divided into 5 different areas containing groups of vertebrae and are grouped as follows:
7 cervical vertebrae in the
12 thoracic vertebrae in the upper . corresponding to each pair of ribs
5 lumbar vertebrae in the back
5 sacral vertebrae which are fused together to form one called the sacrum
4 coccygeal vertebrae that are fused together to form the coccyx or ..
The vertebrae are referred to by their name and number, counting down from the top of the spinal
column as follows:
The cervical vertebrae are C1 - C7
The thoracic vertebrae are T1 T12
The lumbar vertebrae are L1 L5
The sacrum and coccyx do not have numbers and each is thought of as one bone. Spinal nerves exit
the sacrum and coccyx at levels within the main structure of each vertebra.
http://www.apparelyzed.com/spine.html

61

VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

2.3.2 Noun Forms of Adjectives (V)


What are the noun forms of these adjectives?
Adjective

Noun

vertebral

spinal

cervical

thoracic

lumbar

sacral

coccygeal

...

2.4 HERNIATED DISC


SPEAKING

2.4.1 The Definition of Hernia (S)


What do we understand by hernia? Can you give a definition?

www.mdguidelines.com

62

READING
2.4.2 Herniated Disc (R)
Choose the word that completes the sentence.
Herniated disc is a relatively 1. common/commonly condition that can occur anywhere along the
spine, but most often affects the lower back or neck region. Also known as a slipped disc or
ruptured disc, a herniated disc develops when one of the cushion-like pads between the vertebrae
moves out of position and presses on adjacent nerves.
Herniated discs are typically 2. causing/caused by overuse injuries or trauma to the spine; however,
disc conditions can also develop as a result of the normal aging process. It is also known that there
is a genetic factor that contributes to the development of disc degeneration and herniated disc. In
most cases, a herniated disc in the 3. upper/lower back will heal within six months, as the size of
herniation shrinks with time via resorption. Surgery may be needed if medication, physical therapy
and other treatments fail.
What is a disc?
Spinal discs are cushion-like pads located 4. between/among the vertebrae. Without these shock
absorbers, the bones in the spine would grind against one another. In addition to giving the spine
flexibility, discs protect the spine by absorbing the impact of trauma and body weight. A herniated
disc occurs when the outer layer tears or ruptures and the gel-like center 5. drips/leaks into the
spinal canal.
When a disc herniates and spills into the spinal canal, it can cause compression of the nerves or
spinal cord. Intense, debilitating pain and alterations in sensation often occur. In addition, the gellike substance inside the disc releases chemical irritants that 6. contribute/belong to nerve
inflammation and pain.
What causes a herniated disc?
As we age, the spinal discs gradually lose fluid volume. This process starts at about age 30 and
progresses slowly, over time. As the discs dry out, microscopic cracks or tears 7. should/ can form
on the outer surface, causing it to become brittle, weak and more susceptible to injury. The most
common causes of herniated disc are:

Wear and tear: Discs dry out and arent as flexible as they once were.
Repetitive movements: Work, lifestyle, and certain sports activities that put stress on the
spine, especially the lower back, further weaken an 8. already/almost vulnerable area.
Lifting the wrong way: Never lift while bent at the waist. Proper lifting entails lifting with
your legs and a straight back.
Injury: High-impact trauma can cause the disc to bulge, tear or rupture.
Obesity: Carrying excess weight puts an undue amount of strain on the spine.
Genetics: There are some genes that are more commonly present in individuals with disc
degeneration.

63

What are the symptoms of a herniated disc?


Pain 9. from/on a herniated disc can vary, depending on the location and severity of the injury. It is
typically felt on one side of the body.
Herniated disc can manifest itself with a range of symptoms, including:

Dull ache to severe pain


Numbness, tingling, burning
Muscle 10. weak/weakness, spasm, altered reflexes
Loss of bowel or bladder control (Note: These symptoms constitute a medical emergency. If
they occur, seek medical attention immediately).

How is a herniated disc diagnosed?


A herniated disc is likely if low back pain is accompanied by radiating leg pain in a nerve root
distribution, and other neurologic deficits such as numbness, weakness, and altered reflexes.
Imaging studies are usually ordered to 11. strengthen/confirm a diagnosis of herniated disc. X-rays
are not the imaging medium of choice because soft tissues (eg, discs, nerves) are hard to capture
with this technology. However, they may be used as an initial tool to rule out other disorders such
as a growth or fracture. Confirmation of the suspicion of herniated disc is generally accomplished
with:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): This technology reveals the spinal cord, surrounding
soft tissue and nerves. It is the best imaging study to support the diagnosis of a herniated
disc.

Herniated discs sometimes heal on their own 12. through/across a process called resorption. This
means that the disc fragments are absorbed by the body. Most people suffering from herniated
disc respond well to conservative treatment and do not require surgery.
www.spineuniverse.com

2.5 SKELETAL SYSTEM TERMINOLOGY


VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

2.5.1 Skeletal System Root Words (V)


Memorize the most important skeletal system root words.
oste/o
chondr/o
arthr/o
myel/o

bone
cartilage
joint
bone marrow

64

ten/o, tendin/o
ligament/o
burs/o
my/o, myos/o

tendon (binds muscle to bone)


ligament (binds bone to bone)
bursa, bag, (shock absorber between tendons and bones)
muscle

www.dmu.edu

Suffixes:
-malacia
-porosis
-trophy
-algia, algesia
-itis

softening
porous
development, stimulation, maintenance (increase in size and strength of muscles)
pain
inflammation

-oma

tumour

-cyte

cell

-plasty

surgical repair

www.dmu.edu

WRITING

2.5.2 Analyzing Words (W)

Based on the information above analyze the following words:


osteitis ..
osteocyte .
chondroma .
arthroplasty ..
myeloma .
tendonitis
bursitis .
myoma .
osteomalacia
osteoporosis .
myalgia .
arthralgia
www.dmu.edu

65

2.6 SPORTS INJURIES


SPEAKING

2.6.1 Sports Injuries Pictures (S)


Look at the pictures below. What has happened to the sports people?

Picture 1

www.huffingtonpost.com

Picture 2

www.orthopedicsurgeonaz.com

Picture 3

www.sportorvos.hu

66

Picture 4

www.insuranceclaims.co.uk

Picture 5

www.healthmeup.com

READING

2.6.2 Sports Injuries (R)


Read the following section on sports injuries and answer the questions.
The term sports injury, in the broadest sense, refers to the kinds of injuries that most commonly
occur during sports or exercise. Some sports injuries result from accidents, others are due to poor
training practices, improper equipment, lack of conditioning, or insufficient warm-up and
stretching.
Although any part of your body can be injured during sports or exercise, the term is usually
reserved for injuries that involve the musculoskeletal system, which includes the muscles, bones,
and associated tissues like cartilage.
A strain is an injury which occurs to a muscle in which the muscle fibers tear as a result of
overstretching. Strains are also colloquially known as pulled muscles. The equivalent injury to a
ligament is a sprain. Typical symptoms of a strain include localized pain, stiffness, swelling,
inflammation, and bruising around the strained muscle.

67

Strains can happen to anyone and are certainly not restricted to athletes; nevertheless, people who
are involved in sports are more at risk of developing a strain.
A sprain is an injury which occurs to ligaments caused by a sudden overstretching. The ligament is
usually only stretched, but sometimes it can be snapped, slightly torn, or ruptured, all of which are
more serious and require longer to heal.
Sprains are graded in three degrees. Although some signs and symptoms can be used to assess the
severity of a sprain, the most definitive method is with the use of Magnetic Resonance Imaging
(MRI). A first degree sprain has only minor tearing of the ligament whereas a third degree sprain is
characterized by complete rupture.
The typical signs and symptoms associated with a sprain are the cardinal signs of inflammation:
localized pain, swelling, and loss of function.
Although any joint can experience a sprain, some of the more common include the ankle, knee, and
fingers. Perhaps one of the more spoken about sprains is that to the anterior cruciate ligament of
the knee. This is a disabling sprain common to athletes, especially basketball, soccer, and judo
players.
Sprains can best be prevented by proper use of safety equipment (wrist, ankle guards), warm-ups
and cool-downs (including stretching), being aware of your surroundings and maintaining strength
and flexibility.
Achilles tendon injuries refer to a stretch, tear, or irritation to the tendon connecting the calf
muscle to the back of the heel. The most common cause of Achilles tendon tears is a problem called
tendinitis, a degenerative condition caused by aging or overuse. When a tendon is weakened,
trauma can cause it to rupture.
Stress fractures occur largely in the weight-bearing bones, such as the tibia or fibula (bones of the
lower leg) and metatarsals (bones of the foot), and are common in sports that require repetitive
impact, primarily running/jumping sports such as gymnastics or track and field. Running creates
forces two to three times a person's body weight on the lower limbs.
Stress fractures usually have a narrow list of symptoms. It could present as a generalized area of
pain, tenderness, and pain with weight-bearing. Usually when running, a stress fracture has severe
pain in the beginning of the run, moderate pain in the middle of the run, and severe pain at the end
and after the run. X-rays usually do not show any evidence of stress fractures, so a CT scan, or MRI
may be more effective in unclear cases.
Joint dislocation takes place when bones in a joint become displaced or misaligned. It is often
caused by a sudden impact to the joint. The ligaments almost always become damaged as a result
of a dislocation. Once a joint is dislocated, it may reduce (return to its proper position) on its own,
or it may require physical manipulation. Once reduction is achieved, the joint is held in place
through a splint (for straight joints like fingers and toes) or a bandage (for complex joints like
shoulders). Even if a dislocated joint reduces on its own, it should be immobilized and medical

68

attention should be sought. Contact sports such as football and basketball, as well as high-impact
sports and sports that can result in excessive stretching or falling, cause the majority of
dislocations. The shoulders, fingers, and wrists are all common places for a dislocation to occur.
Menisci are cartilaginous elements within the knee joint which serve to protect the ends of the
bones from rubbing on each other and to effectively deepen the tibial sockets into which the femur
attaches. There are two menisci in each knee, the medial and the lateral meniscus. Either or both
may be cracked, or torn, when the knee is forcefully rotated and/or bent.
Overtraining occurs when the volume and intensity of an exercise exceeds the organisms recovery
capacity. Improvements in strength and fitness occur only during the rest period following the
training. This process takes at least 36 hours to complete. If sufficient rest is not available then
complete regeneration cannot occur. If this imbalance between excess training and inadequate rest
persists then the individual's performance will eventually plateau and decline. Overtraining may be
accompanied by one or more of the following symptoms: persistent muscle soreness, persistent
fatigue, elevated resting heart rate, increased susceptibility to infections, increased incidence of
injuries, irritability, depression and loss of motivation.
Fortunately, most sports injuries can be treated effectively, and most people who suffer injuries can
return to a satisfying level of physical activity after an injury. Even better, many sports injuries can
be prevented if people take the proper precautions.
www.ftvs.cuni.cz

1. What do sports injuries result from?

.
2. What are the typical symptoms of strain?

.
3. What are the characteristic sites of sprain?

.
4. How can you prevent sprains?

..

69

5. What do Achilles tendon injuries refer to?

..
6. Where do stress fractures happen most often?

..
7. How can dislocation be treated?

..
8. How can you injure your menisci?

.
9. When can overtraining occur?

..
10. What other symptoms can accompany overtraining?

WRITING

2.6.3 Synonyms (W)


Find synonyms for the following from the text.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

pulled muscles: .
third degree sprain:
tear of Achilles tendon:
bones of the foot:
a displaced joint: .
reduce: ..

70

2.7 OSTEOARTHRITIS
LISTENING

2.7.1 Osteoarthritis (L)


Listen to the recording and answer the following questions:

Source: http://youtu.be/F8YLJxiNh9Y
1. What joints can osteoarthritis affect most commonly?

2. What role does the cartilage play in the knee?

3. What function does the synovial fluid have?

4. What happenes to the bones when the cartilage is worn away?

5. What is seen in the joint space?

www.altimawellness.com

71

2.8 FRACTURES
SPEAKING

2.8.1 Fractures (S)


Discuss the following questions with your partner.
Have you had a break in the bone? If yes, when did it happen? How did it happen? How was it
treated?

READING

2.8.2 What Are Fractures? (R)


Find synoyms for the following from the text below:
a.
b.
c.
d.

A broken bone. ..
The bone breaks but there is no open wound in the skin.
The bone breaks through the skin. ..
The bone cracks either part or all of the way through, but does move and maintains its
proper alignment.
e. The bone is in many pieces. ..
f. The bone snaps into two or more parts and moves so that the two ends are not lined up
straight. ...

A fracture is the medical term for a broken bone.


Fractures are common; the average person has two during a lifetime. They occur when the physical
force exerted on the bone is stronger than the bone itself.
Understanding Bone Fractures
Your risk of fracture depends, in part, on your age. Broken bones are very common in childhood,
though children's fractures are generally less complicated than fractures in adults. As you age, your
bones become more brittle and you are more likely to suffer fractures from falls that would not
occur when you were young.
There are many types of fractures, but the main categories are displaced, non-displaced, open, and
closed. Displaced and non-displaced fractures refer to the way the bone breaks.

72

www.eorthopod.com

In a displaced fracture, the bone snaps into two or more parts and moves so that the two ends are
not lined up straight. If the bone is in many pieces, it is called a comminuted fracture. In a nondisplaced fracture, the bone cracks either part or all of the way through, but does move and
maintains its proper alignment.

http://firstaid.lastingaid.co.za

A closed fracture is when the bone breaks but there is no puncture or open wound in the skin. An
open fracture is one in which the bone breaks through the skin; it may then recede back into the
wound and not be visible through the skin. This is an important difference from a closed fracture
because with an open fracture there is a risk of a deep bone infection.

VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

2.8.3 Fracture Types (V)


What types of fracture can you see in the pictures below? Match fracture types 1-6 with the correct
pictures A-F.

73

1. Greenstick fracture: an incomplete fracture in which the bone is bent. This type occurs
most often in children.
2. Spiral racture: a fracture which is characterised by a spiral. It is often denoted as being
caused by torsion or force onto the bone.
3. Transverse fracture: a fracture at a right angle to the bone's axis.
4. Oblique fracture: a fracture in which the break has a curved or sloped pattern.
5. Comminuted fracture: a fracture in which the bone fragments into several pieces.
6. An impacted fracture is one whose ends are driven into each other. This is commonly
seen in arm fractures in children and is sometimes known as a buckle fracture. Other
types of fracture are pathologic fracture, caused by a disease that weakens the bones,
and stress fracture, a hairline crack.
http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/understanding-fractures-basic-information

2.9 BONES AND FEATURES OF THE FOOT

VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

2.9.1 Bones and Arches of the Foot (V)

Revise your knowledge about the foot with the help of the pictures.

74

https://myhealth.alberta.ca

www.danceproject.ca

www.footpainreliefstore.com

VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

75

2.9.2 Matching Foot Related Words (V)

Try and guess the meaning of the following words by matching the pairs.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.

chiropodist, podiatrist
pes planus
congenital
arch support
initial
temporary
orthotic
prominent
gait
athlete

1. a person trained to compete in sports or exercises


2. a manner of walking
3. lasting for a limited time
4. a person who treats disorders of the feet
5. an abnormal condition, existing at birth
6. a foot afflicted with a fallen arch
7. relating to, or occurring at the beginning
8. a device that bears the weight of another thing, e.g. foot
9. a device used to correct an orthopedic problem
10. projecting outward or upward from a line or surface

LISTENING

2.9.3 Flat Feet (L)

Watch this video on flat feet and answer the questions.

Source: http://youtu.be/G8ZDMyxe0R0
1.What are the two types of flat feet?

.
2.How does an arch support take its effect?

3.What does prescription orthotic treatment involve?

4.What are the side effects of flat feet?

5.How can the flat footed problem affect your activity?

76

2.10 World Spine Day

www.topnews.ae

READING

2.10.1 World Spine Day (R)


Choose the word that best completes each sentence.
Every year on October 16th people from around the world join together to 1. awareness on
World Spine Day 2. part of the Bone and Joint Decades Action Week.
Spinal disorders, such as back pain, neck pain, scoliosis and disc disease, to 3. a few are
common, and they can have a profound 4. . on a persons overall health, impacting a
persons ability to work, to enjoy everyday activities and even disrupting healthy 5.
patterns.
Research has demonstrated that 6. postures and inactivity can contribute to the
development of back pain and other spinal disorders.
The good 7. is that many of these common problems can be easily avoided!
Thats why this years theme for World Spine Day is Straighten Up and Move, focusing on the 8.
. of proper posture and movement in maintaining good spinal health. To help mark World
Spine Day, participating health 9. . providers and organizations around the world will
provide important information, tips and tools to help 10. . many of these spinal disorders.

1. a.rise

b.raise

c.risen

d.rose

2. a.like

b.alike

c.as

d.likely

3. a.name

b.call

c.know

d.tell

4. a.affect

b.effect

c.affection

d.effective

77

5. a.sleepy

b.sleeping

c.sleepless

d.sleep

6. a.poor

b.poorly

c.poverty

d.poorish

7. a.new

b.newly

c.news

d. newish

8. a.important

b.importantly

c.unimportant

d.importance

9. a.caring

b.cared

c.care

d.careful

10.a.prevent

b.prevention

c.preventing

d.prevented

www.worldspineday.org

78

Unit 3 THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM


Aims of the unit

After completing this unit you will have knowledge about parts and function of the heart. You will
learn
how to keep your heart healthy
about heart problems and diseases.

79

3.1 THE HEART

www.nhlbi.nih.gov

READING

3.1.1 The Heart (R)


Complete the text with the missing words. The number of letters has been given for you.
Everyone knows that the heart is a 1. _ _ _ _ _ organ. We cannot live without our heart. However,
when you get right down to it, the heart is just a pump. A complex and important one, yes, but still
just a pump. As with all other pumps it can become clogged, 2. _ _ _ _ _ down and need repair.
This is why it is critical that we know how the heart works.
The heart is a hollow, cone-shaped 3. _ _ _ _ _ _ located between the lungs and behind the sternum
(breastbone). Two-thirds of the heart is located to the left of the midline of the body and 1/3 is to
the right.
The apex (pointed end) points down and to the 4. _ _ _ _ . It is 12 cm long, 8-9 cm wide and 6 cm
from front to back, and is roughly the size of your 5. _ _ _ _ . The average weight of a female human
heart is 255 grams and a male's heart is 300 grams.
The heart has three layers. The smooth, inside lining of the heart is called the endocardium. The
6. _ _ _ _ _ _ layer of heart muscle is called the myocardium. It is surrounded by a fluid filled sac
called the pericardium.
http://health.howstuffworks.com/human-body/systems/circulatory/heart3.htm

80

VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

3.1.2 Chambers and Valves of the Heart (V)

1.Mark the chambers in the picture below.


The heart is divided into four chambers:
1.
2.
3.
4.

right atrium (RA)


right ventricle (RV)
left atrium (LA)
left ventricle

www.uofmhealth.org

2.Find the correct word: aortic valve, tricuspid valve, mitral valve, pulmonary valve.
Each chamber has a sort of one-way valve at its exit that prevents blood from flowing backwards.
When each chamber contracts, the valve at its exit opens. When it is finished contracting, the valve
closes so that blood does not flow backwards.
1.
2.
3.
4.

The .... is at the exit of the right atrium.


The .... is at the exit of the right ventricle.
The . is at the exit of the left atrium.
The . is at the exit of the left ventricle.

http://health.howstuffworks.com/human-body/systems/circulatory/heart3.htm

81

www.drugs.com

READING

3.1.3 Heart Cycle (R)


Complete the missing words.

www.texasheartinstitute.org

When the heart muscle contracts or 1. .. (called systole), it pumps blood out of the
heart. The heart contracts in two stages. In the first stage, the right and left 2. ..
contract at the same time, pumping blood to the right and left ventricles. Then the ventricles
contract together to propel 3. . out of the heart. Then the heart muscle relaxes
(called diastole) before the next 4. .. . This allows blood to 5. .. up the
heart again.
The right and left sides of the heart have 6. functions. The right side of the heart
collects oxygen-poor blood from the body and pumps it to the 7. ... where it picks up

82

oxygen and releases carbon dioxide. The left side of the heart then collects oxygen-rich blood from
the lungs and pumps it to the body so that the cells throughout your body have the 8.
. they need to function properly.
http://health.howstuffworks.com/human-body/systems/circulatory/heart3.htm

3.2 HEART HEALTH TIPS

www.firstlighthomecare.com

READING

3.2.1 Giving Advice to Your Patient How to Keep His Heart Healthy (R)
Match the headings with their contents.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Know your numbers.


Get moving.
Eat for heart health.
Don't smoke and avoid second hand smoke.
Aim for a healthy weight.

A. People who smoke are up to six times more likely to suffer a heart attack than non-smokers. If
you smoke, QUIT!
B. Make a commitment to be more physically active. Every day, aim for 30 minutes of moderateintensity activity such as taking a brisk walk, raking, dancing, light weight lifting, house cleaning
or gardening.

83

C. If you don't know your ideal weight, ask your doctor. The more overweight you are-the higher
your risk for heart disease.
D. Choose a diet low in saturated fat, trans fat, sodium and cholesterol. Be sure to include whole
grains, vegetables, and fruits.
E. Ask your doctor to check your blood pressure, cholesterol (total, HDL, LDL, triglycerides), and
blood glucose. Work with your doctor to improve any numbers that are not normal.
http://www.bostonscientific.com

VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

3.2.2 Diet Tips for a Healthy Heart (V)


You want to give further diet tips to your patient for a healthy heart. The verbs have been removed.
Find the appropriate verb for each tip.
cook, eliminate, use, try, stay, eat, replace, choose, maintain
1. a diet low in fat, especially animal fats and palm and coconut oils. (These
foods contain saturated fat and cholesterol. Saturated fat and cholesterol can cause heart
disease.)
2. . a diet moderate in salt and sodium.
3. . or improve your weight.
4. fried foods and replace them with baked, steamed, boiled, broiled, or
microwaved foods.
5. . with oils which are low in fat and saturated fat like corn, sunflower, soybean,
olive and sesame oils. .. away from oils that are high in fat and saturated fat.
6. . fatty cuts of meat with lean cuts of meat or low-fat meat alternatives.
7. In recipes requiring one whole egg . two egg whites as a lower fat
alternative.
8. herbs and spices as seasoning for vegetables instead of salt and butter.
http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=10292

SPEAKING

3.2.3 Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Health (S)


Discuss the questions with your partner:

84

Do you prefer indoor or outdoor activities?


What do you do to keep fit?
How often do you exercise?
Do you think gardening and housework can keep you fit?

www.czineth.com

www.dailymail.co.uk

READING

3.2.4 Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Health (R)


The first word of each paragraph has been removed. Find the missing words.
Even, Surveys, Less, Participation, The, More, People, Of, Cardiovascular, Lack

1. disease is the No. 1 killer in America. About 700,000


Americans died last year of CVD, accounting for over 29% of all deaths.
2. of physical activity is clearly shown to be a risk factor for
coronary heart disease.
3. relative risk of coronary heart disease associated with
physical inactivity ranges from 1.5 to 2.4, an increase in risk comparable with that observed
for high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and cigarette smoking.
4. . active, less fit persons have a 3050% greater risk of
developing high blood pressure.
5. in regular physical activity gradually increased during the
1960s, '70s, and early '80s, but seems to have leveled off in recent years.
6. .. show that 28% of Americans age 18 or older are not active at
all. 44% of adults get some exercise, but they do not do it regularly or intensely enough to

85

7.
8.
9.

10.

protect their hearts. Only 27% of American adults get enough leisure-time exercise to
achieve cardiovascular fitness.
.. with lower incomes and poor education are more likely to be
physically inactive.
. people age 55 and older, 38% report essentially sedentary
lifestyles.
. low-to-moderate intensity activities, when done for as little as
30 minutes a day, can bring benefits. These activities include pleasure walking, climbing
stairs, gardening, yard work, moderate-to-heavy housework, dancing, and home exercise.
vigorous aerobic activities, such as brisk walking, running,
swimming, bicycling, roller skating, and jumping ropedone most days of the week for at
least 30 minutesare best for improving the fitness of the heart and lungs.
http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0904883.html

SPEAKING

3.2.5 Changing Exercise Habits (S)


Answer the question.
After having read the article would you change your exercising habits? How?

3.3 CHECK YOUR KNOWLEDGE ON THE HEART

READING

3.3.1 Healthy Heart Quiz (R)

Decide if the following statements are true or false.

www.quantachange.com

86

1. The risk factors for heart disease that you can do something about are: high blood pressure,
high blood cholesterol, smoking, obesity, and physical inactivity.
2. A stroke is often the first symptom of high blood pressure, and a heart attack is often the
first symptom of high blood cholesterol.
3. A blood pressure greater than or equal to 140/90 mm Hg is generally considered to be high.
4. The best ways to treat and control high blood pressure are to control your weight, exercise,
eat less salt (sodium), restrict your intake of alcohol, and take your high-blood-pressure
medicine, if prescribed by your doctor.
5. A blood cholesterol of 240 mg/dL is desirable for adults.
6. The most effective dietary way to lower the level of your blood cholesterol is to eat foods
low in cholesterol.
7. Lowering blood cholesterol levels can help people who have already had a heart attack.
8. Only children from families at high risk of heart disease need to have their blood
cholesterol levels checked.
9. Smoking is a major risk factor for four of the five leading causes of death including heart
attack, stroke, cancer, and lung diseases such as emphysema and bronchitis.
10. If you have had a heart attack, quitting smoking can help reduce your chances of having a
second attack.
11. Someone who has smoked for 30 to 40 years probably will not be able to quit smoking.
12. The best way to lose weight is to increase physical activity and eat fewer calories.
http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/prof/heart/obesity/hrt_n_pk/cm_hbp.pdf

VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

3.3.2 Exploding Exercise Myths (V)


Can you explain these words or phrases?

couch potato .
sedentary lifestyle
bulky
subcutaneous
expenditure
briskly .

87

flab
all for naught
overlook
lean (body) .
subtle .
vigorous .

www.nasw.org

READING

3.3.3 Exploding Exercise Myths (R)


Read this article on exploding exercise myths. The summary of every paragraph has been removed
and got mixed. Find the relevant title for each paragraph.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

You can't be fit and fat


With the right exercise, you can get rid of trouble spots
Weight gain is inevitable as you age
Strength-training will make women too muscular
No pain, no gain
Light weights on your arms or legs can boost your exercise benefit
If you don't lose weight, there's no point in exercising
If you didn't exercise when you were younger, it could be dangerous to start when you're
older
9. If you can't exercise regularly, why bother?
10. Exercise burns lots of calories

88

Many women are afraid that strength-training will make them bulky, says Miriam Nelson of the
Jean Mayer U.S. Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts
University in Boston. They think strength-training is only for men.
Women naturally have less bone and muscle than men, so they need to take care of what they've
got, says Nelson. That's why women are at greater risk of osteoporosis than men. And lost muscle
puts women at greater risk of disability as they age. And don't worry about looking like a
bodybuilder. Women don't have enough testosterone to create big, bulky muscles, says Nelson.
To become a bodybuilder, women have to do a lot of weird things that most strength-training
programs don't do.
2
Some people carry light, handheld weights when they walk or run. Others strap Velcro-fastened
weights around their ankles. Don't bother, says exercise physiologist Ben Hurley of the University of
Maryland.
It slows you down, so you get less benefit from aerobic exercise, and it doesn't add enough weight
to give you the benefits of strength-training, he explains.
To build muscle, you have to use weights that you can lift no more than eight to twelve times in a
row. If you can go beyond the twelfth repetition, the resistance is too light to stress the muscle,
says Hurley. As your muscles get stronger, you need to add more weightor other resistanceso
you can still do only eight to twelve repetitions.
3
Some people believe that if they exercise one area, it will cause fat to be removed from that area,
says Rosemary Lindle, a University of Maryland exercise physiologist. In our gym the men, who
tend to store their fat in their abdomens, are on the ab machines, and the women are on the total
hip machines for hours, she notes. But spot-reducing is a myth.
Abdominal and hip exercises can strengthen and tone the muscles. But those muscles are
underneath the subcutaneous layer of fat that gives the lovely appearance of flab. Only losing
weight can get rid of excess fat, and where you lose the weight depends on your genes. Losing
weight around the waist is easier than losing it at the hips.I tell women to do some strengthtraining in their upper body to create a better balance between upper and lower body, says Lindle.
You can build your own natural shoulder pads.
4.
People have the mistaken idea that exercise is a fabulous way to lose weight, says William Evans
of the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences. But exercising doesn't burn a lot of calories.
Walking or running a mile burns about 100 calories. But sitting still for the same time burns about
50 or 60 calories. So the extra you expend isn't huge and people get discouraged at their slow rate
of weight loss.

89

Another misconception: You keep burning considerably more calories for a long time after you stop
exercising. Calorie expenditure is elevated for the first minute or two, but by five or six minutes
the extra expenditure is pretty small, and by 40 minutes post-exercise, it's back to where you
started, says Evans. That doesn't mean dieters should give up on exercise. The more you exercise,
the more fit you'll get. That means you'll burn more calories because you can walk briskly or run for
five miles instead of one. So instead of burning 100 calories, you burn 500 (that's 250 more than if
you had stayed on the couch). What's more, says Evans, the better-conditioned you are, the more
fat you burn for energy, because your muscles adapt to using an enzyme that oxidizes fat. People
who are less trained burn more carbohydrates instead.
Dieters who exercise also lose less lean body massthat is, less musclethan dieters who just cut
calories. And physical activity can help with the toughest problem: keeping weight off. Says Evans:
Studies show that after people lose weight, the best predictor of maintaining the weight loss is
whether they exercise regularly.
5.
What gets most people off the couch and into their walking shoes? It's that unwanted flab that
motivates most of us. It shouldn't.
Many people don't see immediate weight loss and say it's all for naught and stop, says exercise
expert William Haskell of Stanford University Medical School.
In fact, exercise has a laundry list of benefits beyond any impact on your next shopping trip. Among
them:
It improves the ability of insulin to enter cells, so it lowers the risk of diabetes, says Haskell. It
also lowers the risk of heart disease by improving blood clotting mechanisms, lowering
triglycerides, and raising HDL - good - cholesterol.
Exercise alters not only your risk of disease, but your quality of life, he adds. In our studies,
exercise improved sleep in people with modest sleep dysfunction, that is, people who take a long
time to fall asleep or who wake up frequently at night.
The psychological benefits of exercise are frequently overlooked, says Haskell. Exercise isn't a
panacea, but it has consistently been shown to relieve both depression and anxiety.
6.
Most Americans get fatter as they get olderbut they don't have to. It's a matter of reduced
physical activity levels and lower metabolic rate caused by a loss of lean body mass (muscle), says
JoAnn Manson of Harvard Medical School.
The lifelong loss of lean body mass reduces our basal metabolic rate as we age, says Arkansas's
William Evans. It's a very subtle change that begins between ages 20 and 30. The percentage of
body fat gradually increases, and it produces an ever-decreasing calorie requirement. That's

90

because fat cells burn fewer calories than muscle cells. And a lower metabolic rate means that
unless you eat less, you'll gain weight over the decades.
Any activity makes you burn more calories (so you're less likely to wind up with an excess). And
strength-training can offset the loss of muscle mass.
Starting at age 40 in women and at 60 in men, we lose six to eight percent of our muscle per
decade, says Maryland's Hurley. However, after only two months of strength-training, women
recover a decade of loss and men recover two decades. That's with three weekly sessions that
take 40 minutes each, including warm-up, rest periods, and stretching. The time spent doing the
exercises that increase muscle mass is only about five minutes a session, says Hurley. Not a bad
return on your time.
7..
The notion that all fat people are sedentary and unfit and at high risk of disease is not true, says
Steven Blair of the Cooper Clinic in Dallas, Texas. Overweight and obese individuals who are fit do
not have elevated mortality rates. We need to get off those people's backs. But in Blair's study of
25,000 men who have come to the Cooper Clinic, ten percent of the normal-weight menand half
of the overweight menwere unfit.
Getting all of those unfit peoplefat or thinto move more could make a difference. In Blair's
study, low fitness was as strong (or stronger) a predictor of dying as other risk factors, like high
cholesterol, high blood pressure, and diabetes. Yet doctors rarely test a patient's fitness as part of a
checkup. Fitness is such an important predictor of mortality, it's inexcusable not to evaluate it as
part of a person's health risk, says Blair.
8
Many people still believe that you have to work at a very high intensity in order to get a benefit,
says Blair. In fact, moderate-intensity exercise lowers the risk of dying just as much as high-intensity
exercise. For example, says Manson, in the Nurses' Health Study, women who regularly engaged in
brisk walking reduced their risk of heart disease to the same degree as women who engaged in
vigorous exercise. You don't need to run a marathon.
The trick is making sure that the exercise is at least moderate-intensitythat is, equivalent to
walking at a pace of three to four miles an hour. High-intensity exercise does have one advantage:
it saves time. It takes less time to burn the same number of calories at higher intensity. You can
jog for 20 minutes or walk for 40 or 45, says Blair. You pay your money and you take your choice.
9.
It takes ten to twelve weeks of regular exercise to become fitthat is, to improve your
performance on a treadmill (a measure of your oxygen capacity). But your health can improve after
that first brisk walk or run. Take a 50-year-old man who is somewhat overweight and typically has
moderately elevated blood sugar, triglycerides, or blood pressure, says Stanford's William Haskell.

91

A single bout of exercise of moderate intensitylike 30 to 40 minutes of brisk walkingwill lower


those numbers.
People should still try to at least follow the Center for Disease Control's modest advice to get at
least 30 minutes of moderate activity on mostor preferably alldays of the week, he adds. But if
you can't, don't let that stop you from taking even a single walk. Every bout has benefits, says
Haskell.
10.
Many people think they're too old to start an exercise program, says Tufts University's Miriam
Nelson. They think it's unsafe because they have heart disease or diabetes or because they're too
out of shape to start. You're never too old to start, says Nelson. And she ought to know. In one
Tufts study, the participants were frail nursing-home residents whose ages ranged from 72 to 98.
After just ten weeks, strength-training improved their muscle strength, ability to climb stairs, and
walking speed. When they see what a difference it makes, they're thrilled, says Nelson. The same
goes for people with chronic diseases. People say they can't exercise because they have arthritis,
she adds. But we see some of the greatest benefits in people with arthritis. Exercise reduces pain
and increases range of motion, strength, and mobility.
That doesn't mean that anyone can plunge into a bout of vigorous exercise, regardless of health
history. In a recent study, ordinarily inactive peopleespecially men who had high cholesterol or
angina or were smokers or obesewere ten times more likely to have a heart attack within an hour
of exerting themselves (usually by jogging or heavy lifting) than at other times.
As for the all-too-common I don't have time to exercise, Nelson responds, somehow, you've got
to make the time, or you're going to have medical problems like heart disease, diabetes, or
osteoporosis. And it will take a lot more time to deal with them than it takes to exercise.
http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0872851.html

3.4 HEART CONDITIONS


SPEAKING

3.4.1 High Blood Pressure (S)


Answer the questions.
1. What is considered to be normal blood pressure?

92

2. What counts as elevated blood pressure?


3. What can contribute to high blood pressure?

www.foodmatters.tv

LISTENING

3.4.2 High Blood Pressure (L)


1.Listen to the recording and find synonyms for the following:

Source: http://youtu.be/diG519dFVNs

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

high blood pressure:


blood volume: .
viscosity: ..
sphygmomanometer: .
pressure when heart beats: ..
pressure between beats: .
enlarged arterial wall:
build up: ..
high blood pressure with an unknown cause: ........................
diuretic:

2.Listen to the recording again and answer these questions:


1. What do arteries supply the tissues with?

93

2. What do we understand by cardiac output?

..
3. Name two factors that can contribute to resistance besides viscosity.

..
4. What substances can form build ups?

.
5. Name three conditions artery damage and reduced blood flow can lead to.

..
..
6. List five lifestyle changes you have to make if you want to have normal blood pressure.

.
7. How do ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, calcium channel blockers, and
direct-acting vasodilators take effect?

3.5 CIRCULATORY SYSTEM COMMON AILMENTS

SPEAKING

3.5.1 Cardiovascular Problems (S)


Collect as many cardiovascular problems as you can with your partner. The pictures below may help
you.

94

www.nytimes.com

www.anticoagulant-drugs.com

www.en.wikipedia.org

95

LISTENING

3.5.2 Common Heart Ailments (L)


Listen to the recording and complete the missing words.

Source: http://youtu.be/KPwZAvKRiWU

1. The two .. cardiovascular diseases are heart disease and stroke.


2. A heart attack occurs when the blood supply to part of the heart is severely reduced or
.
3. A stroke is similar to a heart attack ...... that it impacts the brain instead of
your heart.
4. This kills brain in the immediate area.
5. Risk factors include high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, drinking, drug use,
obesity, .., diabetes and stress.

6. The older you get, the your risk.

7. Many of these risk factors can be or even preventable altogether.

8. About 61 million Americans, almost one-fourth of the population live with the
.. of stroke or heart disease.

3.6 STROKE
SPEAKING

3.6.1 Warning Signs and Symptoms of Stroke (S)

Answer the question:


What do we understand by body language?

96

LISTENING

3.6.2 Stroke - Warning Signs and Symptoms (L)


Watch this video and take notes on the meaning of F.A.S.T.

Source: http://youtu.be/wH7k5CFp4hI

www.cccma.org

READING

3.6.3 Stroke (R)


Read the text on stroke. Some words have been removed. Complete the text with the missing words.
involved, breath, respond, flow, symptom, warning,

97

disability, change, immediate, words, factors, vision


Every second counts if you or somebody else is having a stroke. A stroke is a medical emergency
that requires 1. . treatment. Just a few hours can make the difference
between recovery or learning to walk and talk all over againor worse stilldeath.
You only have three hours from the time of your first 2. to receive
treatment that can minimize the damage to your brain that can cause serious, long-term,
disabilities. If you get to the hospital and it is not a strokethat is wonderful news! If it is a stroke,
you will get the help you need.
Warning Signs
Save precious timeknow and 3. .. quickly to the warning signs of stroke:
Most of us have headaches now and then. But the symptoms of stroke will seem unusual and come
on suddenly.

A feeling of numbness or weakness in your face, arm, or leg (You might notice it on one side
more than the other.)
4. . problems in one or both eyes
Dizziness or loss of balance; difficulty walking
Confusion
Problems speaking or understanding what other people are saying
Severe headaches without 5. .. or explanation

Women may have the same symptoms as men, but they have also reported a few others. These
symptoms also happen suddenly and unexpectedly:

Pains in the face or legs


Hiccups
Nausea
Feeling weak all over
Chest pain
Shortness of 6.
Rapid heart beat

Strokes are painless, but dont let that stop you from getting help. Even though you feel better, and
it seems like the problem has passed 1 in 20 people who have a mini-stroke have another stroke in
the next two days. Just like a stroke, a mini-stroke requires immediate care and follow-up medical
treatment to control any risk 7. ., such as high blood pressure and high
cholesterol.
Quick check for strokeit can save a life

98

If you are with someone and you notice a sudden 8. .. in appearance or


behaviour, make sure its not a stroke. Ask them to do these three simple things:
1. SmileIs it the smile you know and love? Or, is one corner of the mouth drooping down?
2. Close your eyes and raise your armsAre the arms held high together, or is one drifting
back down to the side?
3. Repeat a simple phraseWhy not make it funny? If the person is fine, you can laugh about
it later. Listen for slurred 9. and unusual sounding speech.
What is a stroke? Why is it so serious?
A stroke is an interruption of the blood 10. to the brain. When the
blood supply to a part of the brain is restricted or cut off, the affected brain cells can die. That is
why it is so important to be treated for stroke as soon as possible. Your brain is 11.
in everything you dowalking, talking, stopping to smell the roses
whatever you enjoy doing. If the part of the brain involved in those activities is damaged by the
stroke, you might not be able to do those things any more.
Stroke Prevention
Stroke is the leading cause of adult 12. .. and the third leading cause
of death even though 80 percent of strokes are preventable.
www.scai.org

LISTENING

3.6.4 Stroke Survivors (L)


Watch this video on a stroke survivor and take notes under the following headings:

Source: http://youtu.be/stnGfZGBDXI

Time of accident:
Morning routine activities:
making coffee for his wife

99

Pierres speech: .
Pierres condition before stroke:
a weekend warrior

Stroke affects:
anybody

Stroke Survivor: Pierre Georges Bonnefil


www.article.wn.com

3.7 WORLD HEART DAY


READING

3.7.1 World Heart Day (R)


Choose the word that best completes each sentence.

100

World Heart Day is part of an international campaign to spread awareness about heart disease and
stroke 1. . This is the perfect day to quit smoking, get exercising and start eating healthy
all in the name of keeping your ticker in good working order, and improving the health and well 2.
.. of people all over the world.
The World Heart Federation has found that heart disease and strokes are the worlds leading 3.
... of death, killing 17.1 million people every year that is more than victims of cancer, HIV
and AIDS and malaria.
Overeating, 4. .. of exercise, unhealthy diets and high blood pressure, cholesterol and
glucose levels are all factors which can trigger heart disease and threaten our own lives, and those
of our loved ones. World Heart Day was 5. . up to spread the message that heart
problems can be prevented.
The aim is to 6. . health globally by encouraging people to make lifestyle changes and
promoting education internationally about ways to be good to your heart. This lesson is becoming
increasingly relevant as reports of obesity, poor 7. .. and physical inactivity in children and
young people become more and more common.
Events 8. . place to promote healthy hearts. Charities and other organisations
coordinate walks and runs, health checks, public talks, shows and exhibitions to name a few of the
interesting and 9. .. events which mark the day. So on World Heart Day, get 10.
.. , eat your fruit and veg and get outside; both you and your heart will feel the benefits.

www.croi.ie

1. a. prevent
2. a. be
3. a. cause
4. a. deficient
5. a. sit
6. a. improve
7. a. eating
8. a. make
9. a. information
10. a. included

b. preventing
b. been
b. reason
b. deficiency
b. set
b. develop
b. consumption
b. take
b. informing
b. involved

c. prevention
c. to be
c. background
c. lack
c. seat
c. grow
c. slimmming diet
c. hold
c. informative
c. revolved

www.daysoftheyear.com/days/heart-day/

101

d. prevented
d. being
d. origin
d. lacking
d. sat
d. enlarge
d. diet
d. keep
d. informal
d. promoted

3.8 CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM TERMINOLOGY

www.webcina.com

VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

3.8.1 Cardiovascular System Combining Forms (V)


Memorize these root words.
angi(o)

blood vessel

aort(o)

aorta

arteri(o)-, arter(o)-

artery

ather(o)-

fatty matter

atri(o)-

atrium

brady-

slow

cardi(o)-

heart

coron(o)-

heart; crown

dilat(o)-

widen; expand

ech(o)-

sound

electr(o-)

electricity, electrical activity

hemangi(o)-

blood vessel

pericardi(o)-

pericardium

phleb(o)-

vein

rhythm(o)-

rhythm

stheth(o)-

chest

102

sphygm(o)-

pulse

tachy-

fast

thromb(o)-

blood clot

valv(o)-, valvul(o)-

valve

vas(o)-

blood vessel

ven(o)-

vein

ventricul(o)-

ventricle

WRITING

3.8.2 Specialist Words for Definitions (W)


Find the specialist words for the following definitions:
inflammation of the the outer layer of the heart: .
blood clot cell:
abnormally slow heart beat: .
abnormally fast heart beat: ..
X-ray of veins: .
inflammation of veins: .
X-ray of an artery:
low levels of oxygen: .
a drug that opens up the blood vessels: .
abnormal heartbeat: .
an enlarged heart: ..
a test in which electronic sensors are placed on the body to monitor electrical activity
of the heart: .
an instrument used to measure blood pressure: ..
an instrument for listening to sounds within the chest: ..
www.dmu.edu

103

Unit 4 THE URINARY SYSTEM


Aims of the Unit

After completing this unit you will know parts and function of the urinary system. You will learn
about
kidney health
kidney problems and diseases.

104

4.1 PARTS AND FUNCTION OF THE URINARY SYSTEM

www.cancer.gov

READING

4.1.1 The Kidney (R)

Read the text. Match the paragraphs and their headings.


In addition to removing wastes, your kidneys release three important hormones:
What do my kidneys do?
What is renal function?
The kidneys remove wastes and extra water from the blood to form urine.

A.
Your kidneys are bean-shaped organs, each about the size of your fist. They are located near the
middle of your back, just below the rib cage. The kidneys are sophisticated trash collectors. Every
day, your kidneys process about 200 litres of blood to sift out about 2 litres of waste products and
extra water. The waste and extra water become urine, which flows to your bladder through tubes
called ureters. Your bladder stores urine until you go to the bathroom.
B.

105

The wastes in your blood come from the normal breakdown of active muscle and from the food you
eat. Your body uses the food for energy and self-repair. After your body has taken what it needs
from the food, waste is sent to the blood. If your kidneys did not remove these wastes, the wastes
would build up in the blood and damage your body.
The actual filtering occurs in tiny units inside your kidneys called nephrons. Every kidney has about
a million nephrons. In the nephron, tiny blood vessels called capillaries intertwine with tiny urinecarrying tubes called tubules. A complicated chemical exchange takes place, as waste materials and
water leave your blood and enter your urinary system.
At first, the tubules receive a combination of waste materials and chemicals that your body can still
use. Your kidneys measure out chemicals like sodium, phosphorus, and potassium and release them
back to the blood to return to the body. In this way, your kidneys regulate the body's level of these
substances. The right balance is necessary for life, but excess levels can be harmful.
C.

Erythropoietin, or EPO, which stimulates the bones to make red blood cells.
Renin, which regulates blood pressure.
The active form of vitamin D, which helps maintain calcium for bones and for normal
chemical balance in the body.

D.
In medical language we may talk about the work your kidneys do as renal function. If you have two
healthy kidneys, you have 100 percent of your renal function. This is more renal function than you
really need. Some people are born with only one kidney, and these people are able to lead normal,
healthy lives. Many people donate a kidney for transplantation to a family member or friend. Small
declines in renal function do not cause a problem. In fact, you can be healthy with 50 percent of
your renal function if it remains stable.
But many people with 50 percent of their renal function have a kidney disease that will get worse.
You will have some serious health problems if you have less than 20 percent of your renal function.
If your renal function drops below 10 to 15 percent, you cannot live long without some form of
renal replacement therapy - either dialysis or transplantation.
http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/function-kidneys

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www.umich.ed

VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

4.1.2 Parts of the Urinary Bladder (V)


Complete the missing parts in the picture below.

www.medicalook.com

VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

4.1.3 The Kidney Sentence Completion (V)


Choose the word that completes the text.
The urinary bladder is a muscular sac in the pelvis, just above and behind the pubic bone. When 1.
full/empty, the bladder is about the size and shape of a pear.

107

Urine is made in the kidneys, and 2. travels/arrives down two tubes called ureters to the bladder.
The bladder stores urine, 3. letting/allowing urination to be infrequent and voluntary. The bladder
is lined by layers of muscle tissue that stretch to accommodate urine. The normal capacity of the
bladder is 400 to 600 ml.
During urination, the bladder muscles 4. relax/contract, and two sphincters open to allow urine to
flow out. Urine exits the bladder into the urethra, which carries urine out of the body. Because it
passes 5. across/through the penis, the urethra is longer in men (20 cm) than in women (4 cm).
Bladder Conditions

Cystitis: Inflammation or infection of the bladder 6. causing/doing acute or chronic pain or


discomfort or urinary frequency or hesitancy.
Urinary stones: Stones (calculi) may form in the kidney and travel 7. up/down to the
bladder. If calculi block urine flow to or from the bladder, they can cause severe pain.
Bladder cancer: A tumour in the bladder is usually discovered after blood is 8. noticed/felt
in the urine. Cigarette smoking and workplace chemical exposures cause most cases of
bladder cancer.
Urinary incontinence: Involuntary urination, which may be 9. acute/chronic. Urinary
incontinence can result from a variety of causes.
Overactive bladder: The bladder muscle (detrusor) contracts 10. voluntarily/involuntarily,
causing some urine to leak out. Detrusor overactivity is a common cause of urinary
incontinence.
Hematuria: Blood in the urine. Hematuria may be benign, or may be caused 11. from/by
infection or a serious condition bladder cancer.
Urinary retention: Urine does not exit the bladder normally due to obstruction or
suppressed bladder muscle activity. The bladder may swell to 12. keep/hold more than a
litre of urine.
Cystocele: Weakened pelvic muscles (usually from childbirth) allow the bladder to press on
the vagina. Problems 13. with/in urination can result.
Bed-wetting (nocturnal enuresis): Bed-wetting is defined as a child age 5 or older who wets
the bed at 14. last/least one or two times a week over at least three months.
Dysuria (painful urination): Pain or discomfort during urination due to infection, irritation,
or inflammation of the bladder, urethra, or 15. external/internal genitals.

WRITING

4.1.4 Matching Tests and Definitions (W)


Match the bladder tests and their definitions.
Cystoscopy

Urodynamic testing

Urinalysis

108

1. : This basic test of urine is done both routinely and when looking
for problems of either the bladder or kidneys. The first part of the test is a dipstick, if this is
abnormal the urine should be looked at under microscope.
2. ..: A narrow tube is passed through the urethra into the bladder. A
light, camera, and tools allow a doctor to diagnose and treat bladder problems.
3. ..: A series of tests of urination, usually done in a doctors office.
Urine flow, pressure, bladder capacity, and other measurements can help identify bladder
problems.

WRITING

4.1.5 Matching Bladder Treatments (W)


Now do the same with bladder treatments.
Kegel exercises

Anti-spasm medications

Surgery

Bladder catheterization

1. .: Bladder cancer generally requires surgery. Some cases of urinary


incontinence and cystocoele may also be treated with surgery.
2. ....: If urine outflow is obstructed, a catheter may be necessary to
relieve pressure in the bladder.
3. ....: Medicines can help relieve some bladder (detrusor) overactivity
and incontinence.
4. .: Exercising the pelvic muscles (as when stopping your urine
stream) may improve urinary incontinence.
http://www.webmd.com/urinary-incontinence-oab/picture-of-the-bladder

4.2 BLADDER PROBLEMS


VOCABULARY

4.2.1 Interstitial Cysitis (V)


Study this definition.
Interstitial: Pertaining to being between things, especially between things that are normally closely
spaced. The word interstitial is much used in medicine and has specific meaning, depending on the
context. For instance, interstitial cystitis is a specific type of inflammation of the bladder wall.
http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=9587

109

www.sw.org

SPEAKING

4.2.2 Bladder Inflammation (S)


Answer the questions.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Have you ever had bladder inflammation?


What were the symptoms?
How was it treated?
What can you do to prevent it?

LISTENING

4.2.3 Interstitial Cystitis (L)


Listen to the recording on cystitis and answer the questions.

Source: http://youtu.be/7ub5X1hXW4M
1. What else do you call interstitial cystitis?

2. Mention four symptoms of cystitis.

110

3. What other things do we need to rule out? Mention two.


..

4. When does cystitis tend to occur?

5. What food and drinks should you avoid if you have cystitis?

6. How can you cope with stress?

..

READING

4.2.4 Myths and Facts about the Bladder (R)


Dr Scott Davidson tells you myths and facts about the bladder. Some words are missing. Find them.

Myth: Small bladder, big problems

http://www.webmd.com/urinary-incontinence-oab/oab-13/slideshow-bladder-myths-and-facts

Some people blame a small bladder 1. .. frequent leaks, but your body's normal
"capacity" is rarely the true cause of a life-disrupting problem. In healthy people, that capacity
ranges from 1 to 2 cups. The real culprit is more likely to be weak muscles, medication 2.
effects, infection, or nerve damage - and treatments are available.
Myth: You need 8 glasses a day

www.chatelaine.com

111

We do not all need eight glasses of water a day. If you tend to leak, this could be why. Fluid needs
differ, depending 3. .. your size and activity. The best advice for healthy people is to
drink when you are thirsty and stay hydrated. This keeps urine from becoming too concentrated
and lowers the 4. .. of getting kidney stones.
Myth: Drinking less is best

http://www.webmd.com/urinary-incontinence-oab/oab-13/slideshow-bladder-myths-and-facts

Waving off the waiter when he tries to refill your glass may help a little. But doctors say a healthy
bladder should be able to handle a normal 5. . of fluid. You might want to consider
downsizing that morning cup of coffee or skipping the cola, because 6. . is a
bladder stimulant.
Myth: Bladder problems are a fact of life
If bladder problems are bothering you, talk with your doctor. Incontinence is a medical problem not an inevitable 7. of aging. Treatments will depend on a persons specific
problem and overall health. People who seek help often see improvements in their symptoms and
their day-to-day 8. .

http://www.webmd.com/urinary-incontinence-oab/oab-13/slideshow-bladder-myths-and-facts

Fact: Twice a night isn't right


One bathroom trip during the night may be acceptable, but for two or more - called nocturia it is
time for a checkup. To determine if it is 9. . by a treatable condition, your doctor
will want more information: a bathroom diary, a record of fluids you drank, and a list of
medications and known illnesses. Some possible causes include drinking a lot just before bed, an
enlarged 10. ................, certain medications, and overactive bladder.

112

http://www.webmd.com/urinary-incontinence-oab/oab-13/slideshow-bladder-myths-and-facts

Fact: Anyone can have bladder trouble


Bladder problems impact men and women at many different 11. of life. Though
they might be more common in certain groups - including women who have had children, older
adults, men with a history of prostate trouble, and people with spinal 12. .. injuries nobody should suffer silently. People with problems should seek advice from a doctor.

http://www.webmd.com/urinary-incontinence-oab/oab-13/slideshow-bladder-myths-and-facts

Fact: It is not always a prostate problem


Plumbing problems in men can sometimes be caused by an overactive bladder, not related to an
enlarged prostate. Both conditions can send men running to the bathroom again and again, but the
13. . are different. Talk to your doctor about all your symptoms, 14.
.. testing may be needed, and what treatments may be appropriate.

http://www.webmd.com/urinary-incontinence-oab/oab-13/slideshow-bladder-myths-and-facts

Fact: Kegels are for men, too


You may have heard of women doing these bladder-control moves after childbirth. Doctors
recommend them for men, too. While urinating, try 15. . the flow midstream. Then,
start again. The muscles that stop your flow are what you want to work on strengthening. Next, on
an 16. .. bladder, try contracting these muscles for 3-5 seconds and then release,

113

and keep the stomach, buttocks, and legs relaxed. Work up to three sets of 10 repetitions each day.
You can do Kegels anywhere, anytime, without anyone noticing.

www.kegels.com.au

Fact: A system and schedule may help


Bladder training is a first step that may help some people 17. overactive bladders.
You resist the first urge to go and wait for the scheduled time. Gradually, you can try holding it 18.
.. . Together with Kegels, these two methods can cut overactive bladder episodes
by half.

http://www.webmd.com/urinary-incontinence-oab/oab-13/slideshow-bladder-myths-and-facts

Fact: Shaping up for bladder control


A healthy lifestyle may play a supportive 19. . in preventing and lessening some
bladder problems. Doctors say getting regular exercise and doing Kegels can curb stress
incontinence, the leakage caused by coughing, laughing, or sneezing. And because carrying a lot of
extra weight causes bladder troubles, slimming 20. .. may help, too.
http://www.webmd.com/urinary-incontinence-oab/oab-13/slideshow-bladder-myths-and-facts

http://www.webmd.com/urinary-incontinence-oab/oab-13/slideshow-bladder-myths-and-facts

114

4.3 URINARY SYSTEM TERMINOLOGY

VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

4.3.1 Root Words (V)


Memorize these root words.
nephr/o, ren/o
hydro/o
cyst/o
pyel/o
ur/o, -uria
olig/o
-pexy
-osis
polya/n-gram

kidney
water
bladder
renal collecting ducts
urine
scanty, less than normal
to reattach to normal position surgically
abnormal condition
frequent
no
record
www.dmu.edu

WRITING

4.3.2 Specialist Words (W)

Find the specialist word for the following:

inflammation of the kidney: ..


artery related to kidney:
abnormal condition involving back up of urine into the kidney: .
inflammation of the bladder:
removal of bladder: .
X-ray of the collecting ducts: ...
frequent urination: .
no urine formation:
reduced urine formation: ....
surgically attach kidney in normal anatomical position: .
www.dmu.edu

115

VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

4.3.3 Urinary System Specialists and Procedures (V)


Complete the missing words in the definitions below.
Nephrologist: this is a physician specializing in 1. . diseases.
Urologist: a physician specializing in the genitourinary tract, which includes kidneys, urinary bladder
and urethra of both men and women and the 2. .. and testes in men.
Cystoscopy: looking into the 3. with an optic instrument.

www.sparrow.org

Intravenous pyelogram: special X-rays showing the drainage pattern of the kidneys. A dye is
injected into a vein. After a waiting period for the blood and dye to pass through the kidneys, X-rays
can be 4. of the collecting system of the kidney, ureter and bladder.

www.swndha.nshealth.ca

Retrograde pyelogram: in this 5. a dye is flushed backwards up the urethra


and bladder and up the ureters to the kidneys.

116

www.shailyahospital.com

Voiding cystourethrogram: an imaging technique (X-ray) displaying the urethra and bladder while
urinating! How did the 6. .. get into the bladder? See retrograde pyelogram
above.

www.beiling.net

Dialysis - a procedure for cleansing the blood of waste products in individuals with complete kidney
failure or who have had kidneys removed by surgery. With the in-hospital procedure, the patients
blood is circulated through a machine that 7. waste products. The blood is
recirculated back into the patient.

117

www.ustudy.in

Lithotripsy - Crushing kidney stones with sound waves. The sludge from crushing kidney stones has
an easy direct pathway out of the body (down the ureter to the bladder and out the urethra).
Nephrolithotripsy is an elective procedure that may spare a patient 8. .
www.dmu.edu

www.nlm.nih.gov

4.4 KIDNEY CONDITIONS

VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

4.4.1 Kidney Conditions and Definitions (V)


Match the belonging kidney conditions and their definitions.
Renal cyst

Pyelonephritis

Polycystic kidney disease

118

Nephrotic syndrome Kidney stones (nephrolithiasis) Kidney cancer


Interstitial nephritis

Hypertensive nephropathy

Diabetic nephropathy Chronic renal failure

End stage renal disease (ESRD)


Acute renal failure (kidney failure)

1. .: (infection of kidney pelvis): Bacteria may infect the


kidney, usually causing back pain and fever. A spread of bacteria from an untreated bladder
infection is the most common cause of pyelonephritis.
2. ..: Minerals in urine form crystals (stones), which may
grow large enough to block urine flow. It's considered one of the most painful conditions.
Most kidney stones pass on their own but some are too large and need to be treated.
3. ..: Damage to the kidneys causes them to spill large
amounts of protein into the urine. Leg swelling (edema) may be a symptom.
4. .: A genetic condition resulting in large cysts in both
kidneys that impair their function.
5. .: A sudden worsening in kidney function. Dehydration,
a blockage in the urinary tract, or kidney damage can cause acute renal failure, which may
be reversible.
6. : A permanent partial loss of kidney function. Diabetes
and high blood pressure are the most common causes.
7. .: Complete loss of kidney function, usually due to
progressive chronic kidney disease. People with ESRD require regular dialysis for survival.
8. : High blood sugar from diabetes progressively
damages the kidneys, eventually causing chronic kidney disease. Protein in the urine
(nephrotic syndrome) may also result.
9. .: Kidney damage caused by high blood pressure.
Chronic renal failure may eventually result.
10. .: Renal cell carcinoma is the most common cancer
affecting the kidney. Smoking is the most common cause of kidney cancer.
11. .: Inflammation of the connective tissue inside the
kidney, often causing acute renal failure. Allergic reactions and drug side effects are the
usual causes.
12. .: A benign hollowed-out space in the kidney. Isolated
kidney cysts occur in many normal people and almost never impair kidney function.
http://www.webmd.com/urinary-incontinence-oab/picture-of-the-kidneys

WRITING

4.4.2 Kidney Diseases Pictures (W)


What kidney diesease can you see in these pictures?

119

www.savealifemissions.com

1. .

www.kidneycares.org

1.

www.dreamstime.com

2.

www.shutterstock.com

3. ..

120

www.medrevise.co.uk

4. .

READING

4.4.3 10 Tips to Prevent Kidney Disease (R)


Read this section on how to prevent kidney disease. The verbs have been removed from the
instructions. Find the appropriate verb.
drink 2x

avoid 2x

take

reduce

eat

exercise

think

manage

resist

Our kidneys are designed in a way that their filtration capacity naturally declines after the age of
30-40 years. With every decade after your 30s, your kidney function is going to reduce by 10%. But,
if youre going to increase the load on your kidneys right from the beginning, your risk of
developing kidney disease later in life will definitely be higher. Here is why the youth is more
affected by kidney diseases.
To be on the safe side, follow these few tips and take good care of your kidneys to prevent the risk
of developing kidney problems.
1. .. diabetes, high blood pressure and heart disease: In most of the
cases, kidney disease is a secondary illness that results from a primary disease or condition
such as diabetes, heart diseases or high blood pressure. Therefore, controlling sugar levels,
cholesterol and blood pressure by following a healthy diet, exercise regimen and
medication guidelines is essential to keep kidney disease at bay.
2. .. the intake of salt: Salt increases the amount of sodium in diet. It not
only increases blood pressure but also triggers the formation of kidney stones.
3. .. lots of water every day: Water keeps you hydrated and helps the
kidneys to remove all the toxins from your body. It helps the body to maintain blood
volume and concentration. It also helps in digestion and controls the body temperature.
4. Dont the urge to urinate: Filtration of blood is a key function
that your kidneys perform. When the process of filtration is done, extra amount of wastes

121

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

and water is stored in the urinary bladder that needs to be excreted. Although your bladder
can only hold a lot of urine, the urge to urinate is felt when the bladder is filled with 120150 ml of urine. If you start ignoring the urge to go to the restroom, the urinary bladder
stretches more than its capacity. This affects the filtration process of the kidney.
right: Nearly all processes taking place inside your body are
affected by what you choose to eat and how you eat. If you eat more unhealthy, junk and
fast food, then your organs have to face the consequences, including the kidneys. You
should include right foods in your diet. Especially foods that can strengthen your kidneys
like fish, asparagus, cereals, garlic and parsley. Fruits like watermelon, oranges and lemons
are also good for kidney health.
.. healthy beverages: Including fresh juices is another way of
drinking more fluids and keeping your kidneys healthy. Juices help the digestive system to
extract more water and flush out wastes from the body. Avoid drinking coffee and tea.
They contain caffeine which reduces the amount of fluids in the body. So, the kidneys have
to work harder to get rid of them. If you are already suffering from kidney problems, you
should avoid juices made from vegetables such as spinach and beets. These foods are rich
in oxalic acid and they help in the formation of kidney stones.
alcohol and smoking: Excess intake of alcohol can disturb the
electrolyte balance of the body and hormonal control that influences the kidney function.
Smoking is not directly related to kidney problems but it reduces kidney function
significantly. It also has an adverse effect on heart health which can further worsen kidney
problems.
. daily: Researchers believe that obesity is closely linked to kidney
related problems. Being overweight doubles the chances of developing kidney problems.
Exercising, eating healthy and controlling portion size can surely help you to lose extra
weight and enhance kidney health. Besides, you will always feel fresh and active.
. self medication: All the medicines you take have to pass
through the kidney for filtration. Increased dosage or taking medicines that you are not
aware of can increase the toxin load on your kidneys. That is why you should always follow
dosage recommendations and avoid self medication.
before you .. supplements and herbal
medicine: If you are on vitamin supplements or if you are taking some herbal supplements,
you should reconsider your dosage requirement. Excessive amount of vitamins and certain
plant extracts are linked to kidney damage. You should talk to your doctor about the risk of
kidney disease.

http://www.thehealthsite.com/diseases-conditions/tips-to-prevent-kidney-disease-sh11/

WRITING

4.4.4 Advice to Patients Based on Pictures (W)


Look at the pictures below. Give advice to your patient with the help of the pictures.

122

1.

www.nih.gov

2.

www.healthcareinsights.net

..
3.

www.badradical.net

..
4.

www.clipartbest.com

123

5.

www.xfinity.comcast.net

6.

www.zastavki.com

..
7.

www.medindia.net

8.

www.howtolivehealthy.net

124

9.

www.metro.us

10.

www.prevention.com

4.5 WORLD KIDNEY DAY

www.kidney.org

READING

4.5.1 World Kidney Day Sentence Completion (R)


Choose the word that best completes the sentence.

125

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

a.
a.
a.
a.
a.
a.
a.
a.
a.
a.
a.
a.

grown
jointed
rise
harmful
Couple
amazed
exact
box
access
pretty
rare
threat

b.
b.
b.
b.
b.
b.
b.
b.
b.
b.
b.
b.

growth
joints
risen
harmed
Few
amazing
exacted
bag
excess
cute
really
tweet

c.
c.
c.
c.
c.
c.
c.
c.
c.
c.
c.
c.

grower
jointly
raise
harmless
Three
amazement
exactly
room
exits
beautiful
rarely
treats

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.

grows
joint
arise
harms
Numerous
amazes
exacts
cage
except
lovely
real
treat

World Kidney Day is on the 12th of March. It started in 2006 and has 1. .. quickly. In
its first year, 66 countries celebrated it and two years later that number rose to 88. The day is a 2.
.. venture of the International Society of Nephrology and the International
Federation of Kidney Foundations. The aim of the day is to 3. .. awareness about
the importance of our kidneys. Campaigns and campaigners also want to highlight how 4.
. kidney disease is, and spread the message that most forms of kidney disease are
treatable. 5. of us ever stop to think about our kidneys. Perhaps even fewer
know exactly what they are and what they do. Our two kidneys form an 6. ..
organ that keeps our body healthy.
So just what are our kidneys and what do they do, 7. ? They are (of course)
kidney-shaped organs each about the size of an apple. They are located under our rib 8.
.., deep in our abdomen. Their main job is to keep our blood clean. They do this by
filtering and removing poisons and 9. . water from our blood - 200 litres every
day. They also help to control our blood pressure, and they produce red blood cells and keep our
bones healthy. Theyre 10. . busy all the time. Kidney disease can affect
anyone about ten percent of us suffer from it. Most of us dont know we have it because it 11.
.. causes pain. If we have regular health and blood checks, doctors can quickly
detect any disease early on and 12. . it.
www.wikipedia.com

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Unit 5 THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM


Aims of the Unit

In this unit you will learn parts of the male and female reproductive systems. We will take a look at
problems and diseases of both
the male
the female reproductive systems.

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5.1 THE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS

WRITING

5.1.1 Parts of Female and Male Bodies (W)


Can you label the parts of the female and male bodies?

www.patient.co.uk

www.tooloop.com

5.2 MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM TERMINOLOGY

VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

128

5.2.1 Root Words (V)


Memorize these root words.
aden/o: tie, connection
andr/o: male
balan/o: penis
cervic/o: cervix, neck
colp/o: vagina
fibr/o: fibers, fibrous tissue
gravid/o: pregnancy
gynec/o: woman
hyster/o: uterus
lact/o: milk
mamm/o, mast/o: breast
men/o: menses, menstruation, month
metr/o: uterus
oophar/o, ovary/o: ovary
orch/o, orchi/o, orchid/o: testis
ov/ i, ov/o, ovul/o: egg
perine/o: perineum
prostat/o: prostate gland
salping/o: fallopian tube
scrot/o: scrotum
sperm/o, spermat/o: spermatozoa, sperm
testicul/o: testicle, testis

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thel/o: nipple
umbilic/o: navel
uter/o: womb
vagin/o: vagina
vas/o: vas deferens
http://medicalterminology4fun.com/reproductive-system-combining-forms/

WRITING

5.2.2 Analyzing Medical Words (W)


Analyze the following medical words.
1. hysterectomy:
2. salpingitis:
3. hematosalpinx:
4. colpoplasty: ..
5. colposcopy: ..
6. oophorectomy: .
7. mammogram:
8. mastectomy: .
9. orchiditis:
10. orchidectomy: .
11. balanitis: ..
12. hysteroscopy: .
13. androgynous: ..

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14. prostatitis: .
15. prostatectomy: .
16. vasectomy: .
17. menopause: ..
18. gynecology: ..
19. cervical cancer: ..
20. gravid uterus: .

http://medicalterminology4fun.com/reproductive-system-combining-forms/

5.3 ANATOMY OF THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM


VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

5.3.1 Parts of the System (V)

Revise your knowledge about the female reproductive system and complete the missing parts.

www.cea1.com

READING

5.3.2 Article on Female Reproductive Organs (R)


Complete the text with the missing words.

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breastfeeding
milk

carry
push

delivery
skin

extend
superior

exterior
tissue

maturity
womb

Ovaries
The ovaries are a pair of small glands about the size and shape of almonds, located on the left and
right sides of the pelvic body cavity lateral to the 1. portion of the uterus. Ovaries
produce female sex hormones such as estrogen and progesterone as well as ova (commonly called
"eggs"), the female gametes. Ova are produced from oocyte cells that slowly develop throughout a
womans early life and reach 2. after puberty. Each month during ovulation, a
mature ovum is released. The ovum travels from the ovary to the fallopian tube, where it may be
fertilized before reaching the uterus.
Fallopian Tubes
The fallopian tubes are a pair of muscular tubes that 3. from the left and right
superior corners of the uterus to the edge of the ovaries. The fallopian tubes end in a funnelshaped structure called the infundibulum, which is covered with small finger-like projections called
fimbriae. The fimbriae swipe over the outside of the ovaries to pick up released ova and 4.
them into the infundibulum for transport to the uterus. The inside of each
fallopian tube is covered with cilia that work with the smooth muscle of the tube to carry the ovum
to the uterus.
Uterus
The uterus is a hollow, muscular, pear-shaped organ located posterior and superior to the urinary
bladder. Connected to the two fallopian tubes on its superior end and to the vagina (via the cervix)
on its inferior end, the uterus is also known as the 5. . as it surrounds and
supports the developing fetus during pregnancy. The inner lining of the uterus, known as the
endometrium, provides support to the embryo during early development. The visceral muscles of
the uterus contract during childbirth to 6. . the fetus through the birth canal.
Vagina
The vagina is an elastic, muscular tube that connects the cervix of the uterus to the 7.
of the body. It is located inferior to the uterus and posterior to the urinary bladder. The vagina
functions as the receptacle for the penis during sexual intercourse and carries sperm to the uterus
and fallopian tubes. It also serves as the birth canal by stretching to allow 8. . of
the fetus during childbirth. During menstruation, the menstrual flow exits the body via the vagina.
Vulva
The vulva is the collective name for the external female genitalia located in the pubic region of the
body. The vulva surrounds the external ends of the urethral opening and the vagina and includes
the mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora, and clitoris. The mons pubis, or pubic mound, is a raised
layer of adipose 9. .. between the skin and the pubic bone that provides
cushioning to the vulva. The inferior portion of the mons pubis splits into left and right halves called
the labia majora. The mons pubis and labia majora are covered with pubic hairs. Inside of the labia
majora are smaller, hairless folds of 10. . called the labia minora that surround the
vaginal and urethral openings.

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Breasts and Mammary Glands


The breasts are specialized organs of the female body that contain mammary glands, 11. .......
. ducts, and adipose tissue. The two breasts are located on the left and right sides of the
thoracic region of the body. In the center of each breast is a highly pigmented nipple that releases
milk when stimulated. The areola, a thickened, highly pigmented band of skin that surrounds the
nipple, protects the underlying tissues during 12. .. . The mammary glands are a
special type of sudoriferous glands that have been modified to produce milk to feed infants. Within
each breast, 15 to 20 clusters of mammary glands become active during pregnancy and remain
active until milk is no longer needed. The milk passes through milk ducts on its way to the nipple,
where it exits the body.
www.innerbody.com

VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

5.3.3 Opposite Words (V)


What is the opposite of these words?

superior .
exterior .
anterior
inner ..
external ..
medial .

SPEAKING

5.3.4 Female Reproductive System Physiology Processes (S)


What process do you see in these pictures?

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1.

www.medicinenet.com

2.

www.news.softpedia.com

3.

www.health.howstuffworks.com

4.

www.drhealth.md

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READING

5.3.5 Physiology of the Female Reproductive System (R)


Read this section about the physiology of the female reproductive system. The heading of each
paragraph has been removed. Find the belonging heading and paragraph.

Fertilization
Pregnancy

Lactation

Oogenesis and Ovulation

The Reproductive Cycle

Menstruation

A. .
This is the process of producing an ovum and readying the uterus to receive a fertilized ovum
to begin pregnancy. If an ovum is produced but not fertilized and implanted in the uterine
wall, the reproductive cycle resets itself through menstruation. The entire reproductive cycle
takes about 28 days on average, but may be as short as 24 days or as long as 36 days for some
women.
B. .
Under the influence of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH), the
ovaries produce a mature ovum in a process known as ovulation. By about 14 days into the
reproductive cycle, an oocyte reaches maturity and is released as an ovum. Although the
ovaries begin to mature many oocytes each month, usually only one ovum per cycle is
released.
C.
Once the mature ovum is released from the ovary, the fimbriae catch the egg and direct it
down the fallopian tube to the uterus. It takes about a week for the ovum to travel to the
uterus. If sperm are able to reach and penetrate the ovum, the ovum becomes a fertilized
zygote containing a full complement of DNA. After a two-week period of rapid cell division
known as the germinal period of development, the zygote forms an embryo. The embryo will
then implant itself into the uterine wall and develop there during pregnancy.
D.
While the ovum matures and travels through the fallopian tube, the endometrium grows and
develops in preparation for the embryo. If the ovum is not fertilized in time or if it fails to
implant into the endometrium, the arteries of the uterus constrict to cut off blood flow to the
endometrium. The lack of blood flow causes cell death in the endometrium and the eventual
shedding of tissue in a process known as menstruation. In a normal menstrual cycle, this
shedding begins around day 28 and continues into the first few days of the new reproductive
cycle.
E.
If the ovum is fertilized by a sperm cell, the fertilized embryo will implant itself into the
endometrium and begin to form an amniotic cavity, umbilical cord, and placenta. For the first

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8 weeks, the embryo will develop almost all of the tissues and organs present in the adult
before entering the fetal period of development during weeks 9 through 38. During the fetal
period, the fetus grows larger and more complex until it is ready to be born.
F.
This is the production and release of milk to feed an infant. The production of milk begins
prior to birth under the control of the hormone prolactin. Prolactin is produced in response to
the suckling of an infant on the nipple, so milk is produced as long as active breastfeeding
occurs. As soon as an infant is weaned, prolactin and milk production end soon after. The
release of milk by the nipples is known as the milk-letdown reflex and is controlled by the
hormone oxytocin. Oxytocin is also produced in response to infant suckling so that milk is only
released when an infant is actively feeding.

www.innerbody.com

5.4 ANATOMY OF THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

5.4.1 Parts of the System (V)


Revise your knowledge about the male reproductive system with the help of the picture.

www.uvahealth.com

READING

5.4.2 Parts of the Male Reproductive System (R)


Read this section about the parts of the male reproductive system. Choose the word that completes
each sentence.

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The male reproductive system includes the scrotum, testes, spermatic ducts, sex glands, and penis.
These organs work together to 1. create/produce sperm, the male gamete, and the other
components of semen. These organs also work together to deliver semen out of the body and into
the vagina where it can fertilize egg cells to produce offspring.
Scrotum
The scrotum is a sac-like organ made of skin and muscles that houses the testes. It is located
inferior to the penis in the 2. pubis/pubic region. The scrotum is made up of 2 side-by-side pouches
with a testis located in each pouch. The smooth muscles that make up the scrotum allow it to
regulate the distance between the testes and the rest of the body. When the testes become too
warm to support spermatogenesis, the scrotum relaxes to move the testes away from the bodys 3.
heat/hot. Conversely, the scrotum contracts to move the testes closer to the bodys core heat
when temperatures drop below the ideal range for spermatogenesis.
Testes
The 2 testes, also known as testicles, are the male gonads responsible for the production of sperm
and testosterone. The testes are ellipsoid 4. lobular/glandular organs around 1.5 to 2 inches long
and an inch in diameter. Each testis is found inside its own pouch on one side of the scrotum and is
connected to the abdomen by a spermatic 5. wire/cord and cremaster muscle. The cremaster
muscles contract and relax along with the scrotum to regulate the temperature of the testes. The
inside of the testes is divided into small compartments known as lobules. Each lobule contains a
section of seminiferous 6. tubule/tube lined with epithelial cells. These epithelial cells contain
many stem cells that divide and form sperm cells through the process of spermatogenesis.
Epididymis
The epididymis is a sperm 7. store/storage area that wraps around the superior and posterior edge
of the testes. The epididymis is made up of several feet of long, thin tubules that are tightly coiled
into a small mass. Sperm produced in the testes moves into the epididymis to mature before being
passed on through the male reproductive organs. The length of the epididymis delays the release of
the sperm and 8. allows/lets them time to mature.
Spermatic Cords and Ductus Deferens
Within the scrotum, a pair of spermatic cords connects the testes to the abdominal cavity. The
spermatic cords 9. maintain/contain the ductus deferens along with nerves, veins, arteries, and
lymphatic vessels that support the function of the testes.
The ductus deferens, also known as the vas deferens, is a muscular tube that carries sperm
superiorly from the epididymis into the abdominal cavity to the ejaculatory duct. The ductus
deferens is wider in diameter than the epididymis and uses its internal 10. space/place to store
mature sperm. The smooth muscles of the walls of the ductus deferens are used to move sperm
towards the ejaculatory duct through peristalsis.
Seminal Vesicles
The seminal vesicles are a pair of lumpy exocrine glands that store and produce some of the liquid
portion of semen. The seminal vesicles are about 2 inches in length and located posterior to the
urinary bladder and anterior to the rectum. The liquid produced by the seminal vesicles contains

137

proteins and mucus and has an alkaline pH to help sperm 11. surviving/survive in the acidic
environment of the vagina. The liquid also contains fructose to feed sperm cells so that they survive
long enough to fertilize the oocyte.
Ejaculatory Duct
The ductus deferens passes through the prostate and joins with the urethra at a structure known as
the ejaculatory duct. The ejaculatory duct contains the ducts from the seminal vesicles as well. 12.
During/While ejaculation, the ejaculatory duct opens and expels sperm and the secretions from the
seminal vesicles into the urethra.
Urethra
Semen passes from the ejaculatory duct to the exterior of the body via the urethra, an 8 to 10 inch
long muscular tube. The urethra 13. moves/passes through the prostate and ends at the external
urethral orifice located at the tip of the penis. Urine exiting the body from the urinary bladder also
passes through the urethra.
Prostate
The prostate is a walnut-sized exocrine gland that borders the inferior end of the urinary bladder
and 14. surrounds/covers the urethra. The prostate produces a large portion of the fluid that
makes up semen. This fluid is milky white in colour and contains enzymes, proteins, and other
chemicals to support and protect sperm during ejaculation. The prostate also contains smooth
muscle tissue that can constrict to prevent the flow of urine or semen.
Cowpers Glands
The Cowpers glands are a pair of pea-sized exocrine glands located inferior to the prostate and
anterior to the anus. The Cowpers glands secrete a thin alkaline fluid into the urethra that
lubricates the urethra and neutralizes acid from urine remaining in the urethra after urination. This
fluid enters the urethra during sexual arousal 15. before/prior to ejaculation to prepare the urethra
for the flow of semen.
Penis
The penis is the male external sexual organ located superior to the scrotum and inferior to the
umbilicus. The penis is 16. rough/roughly cylindrical in shape and contains the urethra and the
external opening of the urethra. Large pockets of erectile tissue in the penis allow it to fill 17.
with/in blood and become erect. The erection of the penis causes it to increase in size and become
turgid. The function of the penis is to deliver semen into the vagina during sexual intercourse. In
addition to its reproductive 18. function/functioning, the penis also allows for the excretion of
urine through the urethra to the exterior of the body.
Semen
Semen is the fluid produced by males for sexual reproduction and is ejaculated out of the body
during sexual intercourse. Semen contains sperm, the male reproductive gametes, along with a
number of chemicals suspended in a liquid medium. The chemical 19. composition/compund of
semen gives it a thick, sticky consistency and a slightly alkaline pH. These traits help semen to
support reproduction by helping sperm to 20. remain/keep within the vagina after intercourse and
to neutralize the acidic environment of the vagina. In healthy adult males, semen contains around

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100 million sperm cells per milliliter. These sperm cells fertilize oocytes inside the female fallopian
tubes.
www.innerbody.com

READING

5.4.3 Physiology of the Male Reproductive System (R)


Choose the word that best completes each sentence.

11. a. produce
12. a takes
13. a. mature
14. a. splits
15. a. heading
16. a. on
17. a. fertile
18. a. through
19. a. exterior
20. a. divide

b. to produce
b. makes
b. maturation
b. tears
b. head
b. at
b. fertilizing
b. across
b. interior
b. dividing

c. producing
c. lasts
c. maturing
c. swings
c. headed
c. up
c. fertilized
c. in
c. anterior
c. divided

d. produced
d. begins
d. matured
d. moves
d. headdress
d. into
d. fertilization
d. on
d. posterior
d. division

Spermatogenesis
Spermatogenesis is the process of 1. sperm and takes place in the testes and
epididymis of adult males. Prior to puberty, there is no spermatogenesis due to the lack of
hormonal triggers. At puberty, spermatogenesis 2. . when luteinizing hormone (LH)
and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) are produced. LH triggers the production of testosterone by
the testes while FSH triggers the 3. .. of germ cells. Testosterone stimulates stem
cells in the testes known as spermatogonium to undergo the process of developing into
spermatocytes. Each diploid spermatocyte goes through the process of meiosis I and 4.
. into 2 haploid secondary spermatocytes. The secondary spermatocytes go through
meiosis II to form 4 haploid spermatid cells. The spermatid cells then go through a process known
as spermiogenesis where they grow a flagellum and develop the structures of the sperm 5.
. After spermiogenesis, the cell is finally a sperm cell, or spermatozoa. The
spermatozoa are released 6. .. the epididymis where they complete their maturation
and become able to move on their own.

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www.commons.wikimedia.org

Fertilization
Fertilization is the process by which a sperm combines with an oocyte, or egg cell, to produce a 7.
.. zygote. The sperm released during ejaculation must first swim 8. the
vagina and uterus and into the fallopian tubes where they may find an oocyte. After encountering
the oocyte, sperm next have to penetrate the outer corona radiata and zona pellucida layers of the
oocyte. Sperm contain enzymes in the acrosome region of the head that allow them to penetrate
these layers. After penetrating the 9. .. of the oocyte, the nuclei of these haploid cells
fuse to form a diploid cell known as a zygote. The zygote cell begins cell 10. .. to form
an embryo.
www.innerbody.com

5.5 PREGNANT BODY


SPEAKING

5.5.1 Pregnancy and Childbirth (S)

The following words are related to pregnancy and childbirth. Can you define them?
labour

delivery

naval

amniotic sac

WRITING

5.5.2 Labelling a Picture (W)

Label the picture.

140

dilate

due date

www.raisingchildren.net.au

LISTENING

5.5.3 Pregnancy (L)


1. Listen to the text and find synonyms for the following.

Source: http://youtu.be/jk0F-TnKFwU

uterus: ..
vagina: ..
amniotic sac: ..
placenta:
cervix: ..

2. Listen to the text again. Write a sentence with each of the given words.
stretch:

...
amniotic fluid:

..........................................

141

umbilical cord:
.........................................

eliminate:

mucous plug:

READING

5.5.4 Pregnancy Myths and Facts (R)

Take the pregnancy myths and facts quiz. Decide if the statements are true or false.
1. Nothing can relieve the symptoms of morning sickness.

www.medicinenet.com

2. Occasionally, small amounts of alcohol are fine for pregnant women.

www.medicinenet.com

3. Fetal alcohol syndrome describes birth defects caused by alcohol consumption during
pregnancy.

www.medicinenet.com

142

4. Preconception health should be addressed five years before a planned pregnancy.

www.medicinenet.com

5. Exercise is dangerous for pregnant women and should be avoided during pregnancy.

www.bodyharmony.co.za

6. Physical activity during pregnancy can lessen the discomforts associated with pregnancy.

www.medicinenet.com

7. Folic acid is a very important vitamin to take during pregnancy.

www.medicinenet.com

8. Since a pregnant woman is eating for two, she needs an additional 1,000 calories per day.

www.medicinenet.com

9. Not including the baby, pregnancy weight gained is all fat.

143

www.medicinenet.com

10. It is impossible to prevent stretch marks from occurring during pregnancy.

www.medicinenet.com
http://www.medicinenet.com/pregnancy_myths_and_facts_quiz/faq.htm

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

5.6 DISORDERS OF THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

SPEAKING

5.6.1 Uterine Fibroids (S)


Answer the question.
What is a fibroid? Where can it be located?

www.healthcentral.com

144

9.

10.

VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

5.6.2 Uterine Fibroids Facts (V)


Read this section on uterine fibroid facts. Some root words are given to you. Use the words in their
correct form.

1. (Uterus) .. fibroids are benign tumours that originate in the uterus.


It is not known 2. (exact) . why women develop uterine fibroids.
Most women with uterine fibroids have no symptoms. However, fibroids can cause a
number of symptoms 3. (depend) . on their size, location within the
uterus, and how close they are to adjacent 4. (pelvis) organs.
These are most commonly abnormal 5. (bleed) , pain and
pressure.
Uterine fibroids are 6. (diagnose) . by pelvic exam and by
ultrasound.
If 7. (treat) .. for uterine fibroids is required, both 8. (surgery)
.. and medical treatment options are available.
http://www.medicinenet.com/uterine_fibroids/patient-comments-269.htm

VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

5.6.3 The Nature of Uterine Fibroids (V)


Read the next section on what uterine fibroids are. Some prepositions and some location words
have been removed. Find the correct preposition.
What are uterine fibroids?
Uterine fibroids are benign tumours that originate 1. the uterus (womb). Although
they are composed 2. the same smooth muscle fibers as the uterine wall
(myometrium), they are much denser than normal myometrium. Uterine fibroids are usually round.
Uterine fibroids are often described based 3. their location 4. . the
uterus. Subserosal fibroids are located 5. .. the serosa (the lining membrane 6.
the outside of the uterus). These often appear localized 7. the
outside surface of the uterus or may be attached 8. .. the outside surface by a
pedicle. Submucosal (submucous) fibroids are located 9. the uterine cavity beneath
the lining of the uterus. Intramural fibroids are located 10. the muscular wall of
the uterus.
http://www.medicinenet.com/uterine_fibroids/patient-comments-269.htm

145

www.mdguidelines.com

VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

5.6.4 Background, Prevalence and Symptoms of Fibroids (V)


Read the following two sections on the background, prevalence and symptoms of fibroids. Choose
the word that completes the sentence.

What causes uterine fibroids and how common are they?


We do not know exactly why women develop these tumours. 1. Gene/Genetic abnormalities,
alterations in growth factor (proteins formed in the body that direct the rate and extent of cell
proliferation), abnormalities in the vascular (blood vessel) system, and tissue 2. response/respond
to injury have all been suggested to play a role in the development of fibroids.
Family history is a key factor, since there is often a history of fibroids developing in women of the
same family. Race also appears to play a role. Women of African descent are two to three times
more 3. like/likely to develop fibroids than women of other races. Women of African ancestry also
develop fibroids at a younger age and may have symptoms from fibroids in their 20s, in 4.
contrary/contrast to Caucasian women with fibroids, in whom symptoms typically occur during the
30s and 40s. 5. Pregnancy/Pregnant and taking oral contraceptives both decrease the likelihood
that fibroids will develop. Fibroids have not been observed in girls who have not reached puberty,
but adolescent girls may 6. rarely/rare develop fibroids. Other factors that researchers have
associated with an increased risk of developing fibroids include having the first menstrual 7.
era/period (menarche) prior to age 10, consumption of alcohol (particularly beer), uterine
infections, and elevated blood pressure (hypertension).
Estrogen 8. tends/likes to stimulate the growth of fibroids in many cases. During the first trimester
of pregnancy, about a third of fibroids will enlarge and then shrink after the birth. In general,
fibroids tend to shrink after menopause, but postmenopausal hormone therapy may cause
symptoms to persist.

146

Overall, these tumors are 9. fair/fairly common and occur in about 70% to 80% of all women by the
time they reach age 50. Most of the time, uterine fibroids do not cause symptoms or problems, and
a woman with a fibroid is usually unaware of its 10. present/presence.
What are the symptoms of uterine fibroids?
Most women with uterine fibroids have no symptoms.
However, abnormal uterine bleeding is the most common symptom of a fibroid. If the tumours are
near the uterine lining, or interfere with the 11. blood/bloody flow to the lining, they can cause
heavy periods, painful periods, prolonged periods or spotting between menses. Women with
excessive bleeding due to fibroids may 12. develop/improve iron deficiency anemia. Uterine
fibroids that are degenerating can sometimes cause 13. severe/severely, localized pain.
Fibroids can also cause a number of symptoms depending on their size, location within the uterus,
and how close they are to adjacent pelvic organs. Large fibroids can cause:

pressure,
pelvic pain,
pressure on the bladder with frequent or even obstructed 14. urine/urination, and
pressure on the rectum with painful or difficult defecation.

While fibroids do not interfere with ovulation, some studies suggest that they may impair 15.
fertile/fertility and lead to poorer pregnancy outcomes. In particular, submucosal fibroids that
deform the inner uterine cavity are most strongly associated with decreases in fertility.
Occasionally, fibroids are the cause of 16. recur/recurrent miscarriages. If they are not removed in
these cases, the woman may not be able to sustain a pregnancy.
http://www.medicinenet.com/uterine_fibroids/patient-comments-269.htm

WRITING

5.6.5 Diagnosis and Treatment of Fibroids (W)


In the last four sections some words have been omitted and substituted with a picture. Find the
correct word.
Do untreated uterine fibroids pose a risk?
For the most part, uterine fibroids that do not cause a problem for the woman can be left
untreated. In some cases, even fibroids that are not causing symptoms require removal or at least
close 1. . Rapid growth is a reason to watch more carefully, since a
rare cancerous form of fibroid (referred to as a leiomyosarcoma) is usually a fast-growing tumor,
and it cannot be differentiated from a benign fibroid by 2. , MRI , or
other imaging studies. However, this type of tumor occurs in less than 1% of uterine fibroids.

147

Another risk of leaving these tumors alone is that they sometimes grow to a size that eventually
cause significant symptoms, thus requiring removal. If fibroids grow large enough, the surgery to
remove them can become more difficult and risky.
What are the usual ways of diagnosing uterine fibroids?
Uterine fibroids are diagnosed by pelvic exam and even more commonly by ultrasound. Often, a
pelvic mass cannot be determined to be a fibroid on pelvic exam alone, and ultrasound is very
helpful in differentiating it from other conditions such as 3. .
....s. MRI and CT scans can also play a role in diagnosing fibroids, but ultrasound is
the simplest, cheapest, and best technique for imaging the pelvis. Occasionally, when trying to
determine if a fibroid is present in the uterine cavity (endometrial cavity), a hysterosalpingogram
(HSG) is done. In this procedure, an ultrasound exam is done while contrast fluid is injected into the
uterus from the 4. . The fluid within is visualized in the endometrial cavity and can
outline any masses that are inside, such as submucosal fibroids.

Surgery for fibroids


There are many ways of managing uterine fibroids. Surgical methods are the mainstay of treatment
when treatment is necessary. Possible surgical interventions include hysterectomy, or removal of
the uterus (and the fibroids with it). Myomectomy is the selective removal of just the fibroids
within the uterus. Myomectomy can be done through a hysteroscope, laparoscope or with the
standard open 5. . on the abdominal wall. Some treatments have
involved boring holes into the fibroid with laser fibers, freezing probes (cryosurgery), and other
destructive techniques that do not actually remove the tissue but try to destroy it in place. Surgery
is necessary if there is suspicion of malignancy in any case of a leiomyoma or uterine mass.
Another technique for treating fibroids is known as uterine artery embolization (UAE). This
technique uses small beads of a compound called polyvinyl alcohol, which are injected through a 6.
... into the arteries that feed the fibroid. These beads obstruct the blood supply to the
fibroid and starve it of blood and oxygen. While this technique has not been in use long enough to
evaluate long-term effects of UAE versus surgery, it is known that women undergoing UAE for
fibroids have a shorter hospital stay than those having surgery but a greater risk of complications
and readmissions to the hospital. Studies are underway to evaluate the long-term outcomes of UAE
as opposed to surgical treatment. Uterine artery occlusion (UAO), which involves clamping the
involved uterine arteries as opposed to injecting the polyvinyl alcohol beads, is currently under
investigation as a potential alternative to UAE.
Medical treatments
Non-surgical techniques are usually hormonal in nature and include the use of drugs that turn off
the production of 7. from the ovaries (GnRH analogs). These medications
are given for three to six months and induce a hypoestrogenic (low estrogen) state. When
successful, they can shrink the fibroids by as much as 50%. Side effects of these drugs are similar to
the symptoms of the perimenopause and can include hot flashes, sleep disturbance, vaginal
dryness, and mood changes. Bone loss leading to 8. after long-term (6 to

148

12+ months) use is the most serious complication. This may be treated with hormonal add back
therapy. These drugs may also be used as preoperative treatment for large leiomyoma to shrink
them in order to make the operation less difficult and reduce surgical risk. Low dose formulations
of oral contraceptives are also sometimes given to treat the abnormal bleeding associated with
fibroids, but these do not shrink the fibroids themselves. Use of oral contraceptive pills has been
associated with a decreased risk of developing fibroids, so some women may benefit from their use
for this purpose.
http://www.medicinenet.com/uterine_fibroids/patient-comments-269.htm

1.

www.theviewfromhere.ca

2.

www.medicalnewstoday.com

3.

www.kkh.com.sg

4.

www.texaschildrens.com

149

5.

www.atlasofpelvicsurgery.com

6.

www.phys.org

7.

www.twospirit.co.uk

8.

www.healthcaresciencedegree.info

150

5.7 OVARIAN CANCER

www.bionews-tx.com

VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

5.7.1 Opposite Words (V)


What is the oppposite of these words and phrases?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

rare .
genaral .
diarrhoea
weight loss
mild
earlier ..
intermittent .....
sinister

LISTENING

5.7.2 Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer (L)


Watch this video on symptoms of ovarian cancer and take notes under the following headings.
Source: http://youtu.be/NLKg-FDFGV0

151

1. Age of women:

2. Younger women:

3. Symptoms related to eating:

4. Location of pain:

5. Symptoms related to urination:

6. You should see your GP if:

7. Diary should contain:

READING

5.7.3 World Ovarian Cancer Day (R)


Choose the word that best completes each sentence.

World Ovarian Cancer Day (WOCD) is observed on May 8. It aims to create a community where
those living with ovarian cancer, survivors and their families and friends can 1. .. , share
their experiences and help educate the public about this deadly disease.
WOCD is observed by hospitals, cancer 2. . organizations and communities worldwide. Public
educational events are held to 3. awareness about the risks, symptoms and screening of
ovarian cancer.
Past events included runs, walks and races that raised funds towards scientific research of ovarian
cancer. Campaign awareness was spread via Twitter, Facebook and other 4. media.
Every year about quarter of a million women around the world are diagnosed with ovarian cancer
and 140,000 women die of it, 5. . it the cancer for women with the lowest survival rate. Due
to a widespread lack of awareness and the absence of early screening tests many cases of ovarian
cancer are diagnosed late 6. .. to poor outcomes.
It is estimated that only 45% of women with ovarian cancer are 7. to survive for more than
five years. About 89% of breast cancer patients survive for five or more years. The 8. of

152

WOCD is to address this problem and to educate women and their communities about the risks,
symptoms and screening of ovarian cancer.
The first WOCD was 9. in 2013. The genesis of the day was in 2009, when medical
professionals got together for an international conference where they 10. their
experiences and struggles while working with ovarian cancer patients.

http://www.timeanddate.com/holidays/world/world-ovarian-cancer-day

1. a. combine
2. a. support
3. a. enlarge
4. a. society
5. a. make
6. a. driving
7. a. likely
8. a. propose
9. a. kept
10. a. shared

b. unite
b. supporting
b. distribute
b. sociable
b. made
b. leading
b. like
b. proposal
b. held
b. spread

c. connect
c. supportive
c. magnify
c. social
c. to make
c. guiding
c. alike
c. purpose
c. lasted
c. contracted

d. join
d. supported
d. spread
d. sociality
d. making
d. governing
d. liked
d. purposefulness
d. taken
d. distribute

www.ovariancancerday.org

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5.8 DISORDERS OF THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

www.macmillan.org.uk

SPEAKING

5.8.1 Prostate Facts (S)


Discuss these questions with your partner.

What size is the prostate?


What is a gland?
What is the role of the prostate gland?
Prostate problems are common in men in their 30s. True or False?
What are the symptoms of an enlarged prostate?
An enlarged prostate indicates prostate cancer. True or False?
How can a doctor usually detect an enlarged prostate?

http://www.medicinenet.com/enlarged_prostate_bph_quiz/faq.htm

READING

5.8.2 Prostatitis (R)


Read this article on prostatitis and find the relevant heading for each paragraph.
Classification of prostatitis

154

How is the diagnosis of prostatitis made?


Prostatitis conclusion
Prostatitis definition
Prostatitis facts
What are the complications of prostatitis?
What are the risk factors for prostatitis?
What are the signs and symptoms of prostatitis?
What causes prostatitis?
What is the prognosis for prostatitis?
What is the treatment for prostatitis?

When should I see my doctor for prostatitis?


1. ..

Ten to twelve percent of all men experience prostatitis symptoms.


Prostatitis is most common prostate problem in men under the age of 50.
Prostatitis can be an acute illness or a chronic condition.

2.
Prostatitis is inflammation of the prostate gland. The inflammation can be due to an infection as
well as other various causes. Nearly 10% of all males will have prostatitis at some point in their
lives. Prostatitis accounts for nearly 25% of physician office visits for genitourinary complaints in
young and middle-aged men.
The prostate gland is part of the male reproductive system, and it is a walnut-sized gland found in
men that is located below the bladder and in front of the rectum. It surrounds the urethra, the tube
through which urine and semen exit the body. Its main function is to produce seminal fluid in order
to transport sperm through the urethra.
3. .
A. Acute bacterial prostatitis: Caused by a bacterial infection and it typically starts
suddenly and may include flu-like symptoms. It is the least common of the four types of
prostatitis.

155

B. Chronic bacterial prostatitis: Characterized by recurrent bacterial infections of the


prostate gland. Between attacks the symptoms might be minor or the patient may even
be free from symptoms, however it can be difficult to treat successfully.
C. Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: Most cases of prostatitis fall into this
category, however it is the least understood. It can be further characterized as
inflammatory or non-inflammatory, depending upon the presence or absence of
infection-fighting cells in the urine, semen, and prostatic fluid. Often no specific cause
can be identified. The symptoms can come and go or remain chronically.
D. Asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis: This condition is often diagnosed incidentally
during the work-up for infertility or prostate cancer. Individuals with this form of
prostatitis will not complain of symptoms or discomfort, but they will have the
presence of infection-fighting cells present in semen/prostatic fluid.

www.soc.ucsb.edu

4. ..
Prostatitis can be caused by bacteria that leak into the prostate gland from the urinary tract (the
most common bacterial cause) and from direct extension or lymphatic spread from the rectum. It
can also result from various sexually transmitted organisms such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae,
Chlamydia trachomatis, or HIV. Other organisms responsible for infection are the same found most
frequently in urinary tract infections, such as Escherichia coli. In many instances (especially in the
chronic form of prostatitis), no specific cause of prostatitis can be found.
5.
Men of all ages can be affected by prostatitis, but it is more common in young and middle-aged
men. Other risk factors for the development of prostatitis include the following:

A prior history of prostatitis


Having a recent urinary tract infection
Recent use of a urinary catheter or a recent urologic procedure
Enlarged prostate gland
Having a structural or functional urinary tract abnormality

156

Dehydration (not enough fluids)


Local pelvic trauma or injury such as from bicycle riding or horseback riding

6.
The symptoms associated with prostatitis can vary depending on the underlying cause of
prostatitis. The symptoms may appear slowly or come on quickly, and they may improve rapidly
(depending on the cause and treatment available) or they may last for several months and they can
keep recurring (chronic prostatitis). The rapidity and severity of onset is usually most pronounced
with acute bacterial prostatitis. The following are signs and symptoms that may be present with
prostatitis:

Painful, difficult and/or frequent urinating


Blood in the urine
Groin pain, rectal pain, abdominal pain and/or low back pain
Fever and chills
Malaise and body aches
Urethral discharge
Painful ejaculation or sexual dysfunction

7. ...
If you have any of the signs or symptoms consistent with prostatitis, you should see your health
care professional for further evaluation. Depending on the symptoms and your response to
therapy, your doctor may need to refer you to a urologist.
8. .
Prostatitis is usually diagnosed by analyzing a urine sample and undergoing an examination of your
prostate gland by your health care practitioner. This examination involves a digital rectal
examination to palpate the prostate gland and feel for abnormalities of the gland. Occasionally, the
physician may also collect and test a sample of the prostatic fluid.
Additional tests that may be obtained include a complete blood count (CBC), an electrolyte panel,
blood cultures, a swab of urethral discharge if present, and sometimes a prostate-specific antigen
(PSA) level. The PSA test, which is used as a screening test for prostate cancer, may also be elevated
with prostatitis.
Other tests that may also be obtained include urodynamic tests (to check how well you empty your
bladder and establish if prostatitis is affecting your ability to urinate), ultrasound imaging, computer
tomography (CT) imaging, cystoscopy, and a prostate biopsy.
9.

157

The treatment for prostatitis depends on the underlying cause and type of prostatitis. Antibiotics
are prescribed if the cause is a bacterial infection. All forms of prostatitis require pain control, and
close follow-up with your health care professional. Treatment modalities may include the following:

Antibiotics: Your doctor will decide the specific antibiotic and the duration of treatment.
Anti-inflammatory medications: These can help manage your pain.
Alpha-blockers: By relaxing the muscle fibers around the bladder and prostate gland,
alpha-blockers may decrease your urinary symptoms and help you empty your bladder.
Avoid alcohol, caffeine and spicy foods.
Lifestyle changes: If you cycle or ride horses, it is recommended to suspend this activity
until you improve.

10.
There are several potential complications of prostatitis, which may include the following:

acute prostatitis becoming chronic prostatitis,


bladder outlet obstruction or urinary retention,
infertility,
abscess of the prostate gland,
spreading of the infection to the blood stream (bacteremia/sepsis), and rarely
death.

11.

Acute bacterial prostatitis can often be treated very successfully and has a very good
prognosis.
Chronic prostatitis, and especially chronic nonbacterial prostatitis, can often lead to longterm symptoms and discomfort if treatment is unsuccessful. It is important to have close
follow-up and continued care by either your primary care physician or a urologist.
Prostatitis does not to increase your risk of developing prostate cancer.

12. ..
Prostatitis can be an acute bacterial illness that is often easily treated with antibiotics, or it can be a
chronic condition that recurs and requires long-term medical attention.
http://www.medicinenet.com/prostatitis_inflammation_of_the_prostate_gland/article.htm

158

SPEAKING

5.8.3 Testicular Cancer (S)


Below you can see answers given to FAQs in connection with testicular cancer. Guess the questions
with your partner.

1) . ?
Testicular cancer is combinely treated by an urologist and an oncologist
2) ...?
Testicular cancers make up for 1-2% of all the cancers in men. Of late, the frequency of occurrence
has been on the rise.
3) .?
Yes testicular cancer seems to follow a familial pattern in some cases. If your father had the
disease, the chances of you getting the cancer is 3-4 times more than a person with no family
history.
4) .?
No study thus far indicates that diet plays a role in the development of testicular cancer.
5) .?
Men in the age group of 25-45 years must periodically check their testicles after a warm water
bath. On examining a testicle if they find a lump they must check the other testicle too. If the lump
is found in both the testicles then there may be no cause to worry. But if the lump is located in one
testicle alone, it is better to consult a doctor.

http://www.medindia.net/patients/patientinfo/testicular-cancer-faqs.htm#ixzz3AqcNGR1N

159

www.londonurologist.co.uk

LISTENING

5.8.4 Testicular Cancer (L)

Listen to the recording on testicular cancer and complete the sentences.


Source: http://youtu.be/_mZRsud4h2Q
1. There may be things that draw the patient's attention to the a. .., for example,
pain or b. in the groin area or trauma.
2. Sometimes people have trauma to the c. .. and they examine themselves or
someone examines that area, and they feel a firm, d. . mass within the testicle.
3. Until proven otherwise, any solid, firm mass within the testicle should be considered as a e.
cancer.
4. Testicular cancer can spread to other parts of the body including the f. . area, the
g. . , and various other areas.
5. When cancer spreads to the h. , patients may have shortness of breath or
difficulty i. .
6. Cancer can spread through the lymphatic channels to lymph j. .. in the body, so
patients may feel lumps in the k. . area or the groin area.
7. In general, most cases of testicular cancer will also have l. . of a mass within the
testicle itself.

160

Unit 6 FINDING A JOB AND CREATING YOUR PROFILE


Aims of the Unit

After completing this unit you will have the language and skills that will prepare you for the start of
your career. The two sub-units will guide you through the different stages of this wonderful
journey;

choosing your career path,


creating a modern profile.

161

6.1 GETTING YOUR CAREER STARTED


SPEAKING

6.1.1 Assessing Yourself (S)

What kind of a person are you? What have you achieved so far? What ideas do you have for the
future? Discuss these questions with your partner.

1. Where are you studying?


Im studying at the University of ..,
at the Faculty of
on the . course

2. Which year are you in?


Im in my second year / final year
Im a second year student

3. Is there anything youre really interested in?


At the moment Im specialising in ..
Im particularly interested in
Im not quite sure what I want to do, but I think Id prefer to work in the public sector / private
sector / financial sector / industrial sector / creative industries / medical sector

4. What are you working on at the moment?


At the moment Im working on (writing) my dissertation / thesis. Its about ..

5. What do you enjoy / find difficult about studying?


I particularly enjoy / I find quite difficult

162

6. Why did you choose to study this subject / why did you choose this kind of work?
I chose because Ive always been interested in / had an interest in
I think it will help me find a good job
I think its an interesting subject which can help you in many different ways.

7. Have you started to look for a job yet?


At the moment Im concentrating on my studies / dissertation, but in a couple of months Ill
start to look for a job.
Yes, Ive already done a few internet searches and Ive sent my CV off to various companies.

8. What do you think youll get from this course?


I think the course here will give me a good understanding of the .
Ill be able to analyse information more quickly and more accurately.
Maybe it will help me to make better decisions.
Its always good to have a theoretical background, but I think you can only really learn
through practical experience.

9. What kind of job would you like? / Where would you like to work?
Id like to work in the financial sector / medical sector / social care sector / agricultural sector
/ legal sector because you can use the skills you have learnt, you have to think quickly,
there is usually quite a lot of variety in the work and the financial rewards are quite good.
Id like to be a doctor / social worker / lawyer, because .
The disadvantage is that its quite risky, and there is a lot of stress.

10. What kind of organisation would you like to work in? What kind of company would you like
to work for?
My ideal job would be for a small to medium size company where I would be able to use my
initiative and also work in a small team
Ideally Id like to work for a large organisation because theres more chance for promotion
and you can learn a lot more.

163

I think Id probably prefer to be self-employed, because it gives you so much more freedom to
do the things you want to do.

11. What do you think are your main strengths?


I think Im quite good at understanding problems.
I usually manage to find ways of doing things quite efficiently
I always think carefully before making a decision

12. Do you have any weaknesses?


Im not so good at working in a big group
I dont find it easy to tolerate other people if theyre slow or not concentrating on the job
I tend to give up if things get difficult

SPEAKING

6.1.2 Choosing a Career (S)

Discuss the following questions with your partner or in a small group.

1. Make a list of things, subjects or skills that you feel you are good at; discuss your list.
2. Which factors do you take into consideration when choosing a job? Put them in order of
importance!

location
working with people
working hours
salary
promotion
fringe benefits
job satisfaction
boss
individual work

164

3. What is the most difficult or most pleasant job you can imagine?
4. Imagine that you are a careers adviser! What advice would you give someone who is:

money-motivated and prepared to take risks


a very talented musician who is not necessarily money-motivated
an achiever who has a background in IT and is a very confident person
suffering from a lack of satisfaction in their present job?

LISTENING

6.1.3 What Employees Are Looking For (L)

In the following recording Elsie Hunt, a member of a graduate recruitment team, is talking about
what employers are looking for in candidates. Listen to the recording and put a tick () next to the
item that you hear in the recording.

ability to work in a team

a degree with a good result

good language skills

motivation

computer literacy

knowledge about the firm

work experience

VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

6.1.4 Starting Your Career (V)

165

Match the words on the left with the definitions on the right.

1. Resume/rsum [AmE]

a) a job that lasts for a short time


that a student does in order to
b) the
student of a
gainformer
experience
school/college

2. internship [AmE]

3. Alumni

c) someone whose job is to give


people advice about jobs and
professional training

4. CEO

d) curriculum vitae

5. HR

e) the person with the most


authority in a large company

6. Careers adviser/officer
counsellor [AmE]

f) the department in a company


that deals with employing &
training people

g) earning money by selling your


work to several organisations

7. bonus/perks

h) something you receive as well as


your wage for doing a particular
job

8. freelance

LISTENING

6.1.5 Steve Jobs (L)


166

Do you know this man?

How did he become famous?


Watch this video (13-16 minutes) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UF8uR6Z6KLc

VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

Find the meaning of the following expressions:

dawn on somebody

visions began to diverge

screw up

side with somebody

have a falling out

let somebody down

drop the baton

1. opinions or interests are different from each other


2. have a quarrel with someone
3. support a person or a group
4. not do something that someone expects you to do
5. fail to do something
6. make a bad mistake or do something stupid

167

7. you realise it for the first time

Discuss these questions with your partner or in a small group:

1. How did Jobs enterprise start?


2. How did Apple progress in the following years?
3. What happened when he turned 30?
4. What was the reason why he was fired?
5. How did his feelings change over time?
6. What was the irony of fate in his career?
7. What advice is he giving to the graduating students?

6.2 FINDING JOBS USING SOCIAL MEDIA, INTERVIEWS


READING

6.2.1 How to Find a Graduate Job Using Social Media (R)


Read this article about how you can use social media to help you find a job. Then answer the
questions after the article.

Using social media wisely at university can help land the perfect graduate job. Ajaz Hussain offers
his tips on how to make the most of LinkedIn and Facebook as a student.

168

Photo:

ALAMY

Facebook will automatically turn as many adverts as possible into so-called "sponsored stories",
which aim to replicate the effect of word-of-mouth marketing online.

For most students, using social media and applying for graduate jobs are entirely separate
activities.
After all, status updates about your "excellent communication skills" and A* in English Literature
are as likely to interest your friends as embarrassing drunken photos are likely to impress
prospective employers. But get it right and social media can play a key role in landing the perfect
graduate job once you leave university.
Over 90 per cent of employers will use social recruiting, and among the many tools available to
students you would do well to consider your professional online brand using LinkedIn. From a
professional-looking photo, keyword-aware headline statement and summary section, to
identifying your top skills and achieving an all-star profile, there are many aspects to building an
online presence that reflects your career ambitions.
With the relationship changes between Twitter and LinkedIn, you can also ensure you have an
integrated strategy pushing your professional communications or status updates from LinkedIn
to Twitter, ensuring you have a consistent message to potential recruiters.
A useful framework for preparing your 120-character maximum headline statement is to consider
your skills, qualifications, experiences, attributes and knowledge in the form of an impact
statement. Many students need to move beyond the Student at University headline commonly

169

seen for university students to something more aspiring, for example: MSc Management student
at LUMS / Founder Lancaster University South-East European Society / seeking graduate analyst
role / Consultancy.
As in your CV, you need to say more with less, and think about your past achievements and future
ambitions, considering the language of the industry and company of interest. This improves your
chances of appearing in the search results of potential recruiters, businesses and suppliers.
There are currently over 2.9 million company pages on LinkedIn, which means you have access to
local and global companies from HP (who recently exceeded 1 million followers) to Tata
Consultancy Services (India). Use the company pages to research, be the first to share breaking
news of new products and services and let your network know about your passion and interest for
a particular industry.
You can also see new jobs and which companies people have joined. As a student you can use
LinkedIn to research companies before an interview, analyse patterns of people who have joined
and move on and begin to generate your own career ideas.
Both employers and university careers services are increasingly placing emphasis on Facebook and
LinkedIn with targeted campaigns. There are over 1.6 million groups on LinkedIn check out if your
university alumni group have a presence (if not, why not create one), join the group and seek out
groups either in the UK or overseas that you could join. Groups will allow you to accelerate your
career ambitions in ways not possible previously.
Ajaz Hussain is Postgraduate Careers Adviser at Lancaster University Management School.
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/education/universityeducation/student-life/10010861/How-to-find-a-graduatejob-using-social-media.html

1. Decide whether these statements are TRUE or FALSE!

a. When graduates apply for a job they usually do not use social media.
b. Before an interview you can get information about the company and the people.
c. Prospective employers arent likely to be influenced by embarrassing photos.
d. According to the writer the majority of employers seek candidates via social media.
e. The more you write in your headline statement, the more chances you will have with
recruiters.

2. Answer these questions!

1. What elements should your headline statement include?

170

2. How can a graduate student take advantage of LinkedIn?


3. What does the writer mean by professional online brand?
4. Apart from employers what other groups use information on Facebook and LinkedIn?
5. What is their purpose?

3. Put the words below in the proper place in the text:

How to find a graduate job using social media?

with

up

current

aware

embarrassing

chances

policy

posts

suitability

171

employees

The nature of social media is that it is social, but you should be1.. that it is not just your friends who
may read your 2.. or comments, or view your photos.
Things you do online can affect your future career and employment 3 Many employers check the
social networking accounts (e.g. Facebook and Twitter) of possible 4.. to gauge their character and
5.. for roles.
To make a positive impression 6.. employers through your social media accounts, you should:

think before you post - don't post negative comments about 7.. or former employers (venting
your anger or frustrations about your work online can be a career limiting move)
clean 8.. your accounts - remove potentially 9.. or offensive content, including
inappropriate images (even ones where your friends have tagged you)

change your privacy settings to hide certain content from work colleagues

respect your employer's social media 10.. - many employers have a 'no social networks
allowed' policy while at work.

READING

6.2.2 The Rules of Social Recruiting (R)


With more employers using LinkedIn, Twitter and Facebook to hire staff, Graham Snowdon explains
how jobseekers can use them to their advantage

172

Laws of the social recruiting jungle: it can be tricky to be spotted with so many candidates vying for the
attention of recruiters. Photograph: Richard Allen

Chances are you are already familiar with social networks as tools for keeping in touch with friends,
or to broadcast your thoughts. But if their value as a way of connecting with potential employers
has passed you by, it's time to wise up (1) fast. A recent US survey showed that nearly 90% of
employers either use, or plan to use, social media for recruiting. However, the use of social
networking to by both jobseekers and recruiters raises several tricky questions of ethics and
ettiquette.
On the web, if it can be known, it will be known
A recent article in the New York Times told the story of Social Intelligence, a company used by some
US firms to scour (2) the web for information about potential recruits.
Much of Social Intelligence's data reportedly comes from non-social internet use an individual's
comments on blogs or eBay activity records, for example. For many, it is a disturbing vision, and
Robert Hohman, chief executive of Glassdoor.com, a website that lets employees anonymously
review their employers (see below), foresees a backlash (3) against such data mining that will lead
to government regulation.
"When we get down to personal information, there's two types," he says. "There's that which you
have willingly shared with the world on social networks, and I think that's completely fair game.
Then there's information which you had no intention of sharing which, by some mechanism, is
being made available morally it runs foul of what we think of as privacy."
Tarnowski points out that the Facebook data of real interest to employers may lie beyond drunken
holiday snaps and in your primary and secondary connections which, collectively, paint a far more
accurate picture.
"The list of people I choose to be friends with says a lot about the kind of person I am," Tarnowski
says. "Past job titles say a lot about what I'm likely to do in the future. The courses I've done say a
lot about what might be suitable jobs. All these snippets,(4) if you amass them, could be incredibly
valuable."
For now, there remains an understandable risk for Facebook users regarding the kind of
information employers might be party to. The network's data privacy rules remain notoriously

173

slack,(5) and it is hard to delete permanently a Facebook profile. Google+, a new attempt to rival
Facebook, attempts to bridge these problems by allowing users to group their contacts into
"circles" of family, friends and work and share different updates with each, as well as deploying
much stronger data privacy rules.
Perhaps, thankfully for jobseekers, there is a silver lining (6) in that transparency can work both
ways. Jeffrey likens the situation for those checking out employers to that of researching a hotel on
Tripadvisor: "I don't trust the spin (7) in the brochures, I see what other people have written and
trust them to help me make my holiday decisions. You can see the same in recruitment."
For many larger employers, such openness has taken a bit of getting used to. "Companies building
social media communities are no longer in charge of the message, which is a bit scary," says Jeffery.
"In the old days, you could put a message out there in print or broadcast, and there was no way to
respond to it. In the social media age, everyone is talking out there. So whatever companies say
about themselves has to be realistic, or else we're going to get shot down. (8)"
Mirror image
Four years ago, Robert Hohman was working for the travel website Expedia and wondering about
his own next career move when he had the idea for GlassDoor.com. Seeing how easy it was for
employers to research potential recruits, why, he wondered, was it so difficult for jobseekers to see
the other way through the mirror?
"There's a tremendous information assymetry (9) between the jobseeker and the employer,"
Hohman says. "You're asking people to make some of the most important decisions of their entire
life and asking them to do it with almost no information. But it's not because it doesn't exist."
At GlassDoor workers can anonymously rate their employers on a range of criteria such as
management structure, career prospects, salary and staff morale (10). Collectively the data 1.75m
entries covering 120,000 companies so far builds up an intriguing and, at times, brutally honest
picture of corporate working life.
Hohman says the aim was to build a "constructive, balanced and fair community where we could
collect information in a responsible way". All content is reviewed by GlassDoor employees before it
goes live (11), and there are strict guidelines about what can go up. "For example, you have to give
us some good things and some things that could be improved. We don't want a puff piece, (12) or a
rant piece. (13)"
Originally a US concept, GlassDoor is now taking off globally, with the UK being the site's next
highest source of traffic. But what do employers under the microscope think of such warts-and-all
(14) exposure of their pay and practices? Hohman says much of the initial suspicion has faded away
as companies see the wisdom in being honest and open online.
"You can view employer sentiment changing as the years have gone by," he says. "I wanted to build
a community that was safe for employers. If they didn't feel that, we had failed. I think we've
largely succeeded."
Extract from:
http://www.theguardian.com/money/2011/aug/19/rules-social-recruiting-linkedin-twitter-facebook/print

174

1. to wise up

a. a text or report designed to promote something

2. to scour

b. loose, not very strict

3. a backlash

c. a positive aspect of something that is generally negative

4. a snippet

d. the (positive or negative) feeling among the workforce

5. slack

e. to become aware of something you didnt know

6. a silver lining

f. totally honest

7. spin

g. a text or report expressing anger or complaint

8. to get shot down

h. a small piece of something

9. assymetry

i. to search very carefully for something

10. staff morale

j. to be heavily criticised

11. to go live

k. to make information public

12. a puff piece

l. a sharp, usually delayed, negative reaction to something

13. a rant piece

m. very positive, often dishonest publicity

14. warts-and-all

n. inequality

READING

6.2.3 Should You Pay Someone to Write Your CV? (R)


If you have not much time (or confidence), it is possible to find a professional to write your CV for
you. Read this article and answer the questions that follow.
In a recent Question and Answer session on switching between the public and private sectors, one
of the panellists said: "Getting someone else to write your CV for you, especially a CV writing
business, is a mistake. I would always want to see how you describe yourself, rather than someone
else do it for you. Professionally-written CVs look generic and sterile and do not create a good
impression with the reader."
In my view, the belief that the individual is the best person to write their own CV is not always true.
Although many people can write their own CVs, and do it well, others struggle with a variety of
problems; such as incorrect English, not knowing how to structure a CV and not knowing how to
best highlight their most relevant strengths.
Through in-depth consultation, a professional CV writer can help identify the key achievements and
skills necessary for a particular role or sector, cut out unnecessary or irrelevant details, and pinpoint
what makes the individual stand out. This level of objectivity is one of the major benefits in working
with a professional writer. It's often difficult to be able to stand back from your own career history
to assess what's relevant or not, or to choose the most appropriate qualities.
If you do choose to work with a professional, here are some tips for working with a CV writer:
Be prepared to invest your time

175

You'll probably need to answer an in-depth email questionnaire or be interviewed before any
writing actually starts. The more information you can give your CV writer to work with, the better,
so the promise of a quick turnaround time isn't always going to result in the best possible CV. Take
the time to think about your career aims, your past achievements, and the value you bring, before
you start the whole process.
Your CV will probably be used as a springboard for questions at interview, so you need to make
sure you feel happy with the way it's written and with the choice of words. Being involved in the
writing process means your CV sounds authentic.
Look for experience in your field
Ask for a CV writer who has industry experience in your sector. HR professionals and recruiters with
relevant experience can also have valuable insights into what companies are looking for.
Choose a professional writer
The UK CV-writing market is not regulated as in the USA, where the letters CPRW (Certified
Professional Resume Writer) indicate that the writer is a trained professional. This means you'll
need to do some research and shop around to find someone with the appropriate writing skills.
Look for someone who's prepared to take the time to unearth your core accomplishments, choose
exactly the right words for maximum impact and who understands what and where to edit. Ask to
see before and after samples of their work or use personal recommendations before you choose a
CV writing service.

http://jobs.theguardian.com/article/4170823/should-you-pay-someone-to-write-your-cv-/

1. Why did one of the panellists believe that you should always write your own CV?
2. According to the author, what three main difficulties do people often encounter when they
try to write a CV?
3. What benefits can a professional CV writer bring?
4. Why is preparation of the CV important?
5. Why is it more difficult to find a professional CV writer in the UK than in the USA?
6. What should you check before you employ a CV writer?

WRITING
6.2.4 How to Create Your CV (W)
With the help of this guideline create your own CV!

1. Name and Address

176

Begin your CV with your full name and contact details. If you have a LinkedIn page you could
include the address here.
2. Personal Profile
Follow this section with a personal profile a short paragraph describing your background and why
you are right for the job. Be specific, cite specific achievements.
3. Areas of Expertise
Next, list three or four areas of expertise strengths you possess that will convince the employer
youll perform well in the position.
4. Work History
Outline your work history, most recent job first. Include dates worked, job title, employer, a brief
description of the role and its responsibilities and any goals you achieved. Place most emphasis on
the skills the prospective employer is looking for.
5. Education
Provide your education history. Include the name of the institution, dates you attended, courses
taken and qualifications gained.
6. Hobbies
Briefly mention your hobbies and interests. Pay attention to what they say about you. Are you a
team player? Are you a creative thinker?
7. Referees
List the details of two referees, preferably your last two managers. Alternatively, mention that they
can be supplied upon request.
8. To the Point
Keep your CV clear and to the point, dont use fancy fonts, pictures or coloured paper. Try not to
exceed two pages in length. Write in a manner that allows the document to be read quickly your
CV will probably be looked at for no more than 60 seconds in the first instance.
http://howto.yellow.co.nz/careers-and-work/job-search/writing-your-cv-%E2%80%93-a-quick-guide/

177

Unit 7 INTERVIEWS AND STARTING WORK


Aims of the Unit

After completing this unit you will have the language and skills that will prepare you how to
become a better communicator. The two sub-units will guide you through the different stages of
this wonderful journey;

interviews and
starting work.

178

7.1 PROFESSIONAL NETWORKING AND INTERVIEWS


SPEAKING

7.1.1 Social Networking (S)


Discuss these questions with your partner or in a small group

What are some of the different methods you can use to try to find a job?

What is social networking?

Can you use social media to find a job?

Do you already use Linkedin or know anyone who does?

READING

7.1.2 Focus Point: LinkedIn (R)


Read this short introduction to LinkedIn
LinkedIn is the worlds largest professional social network on the internet, currently counting 225
million users. It is used by industry experts and leaders (e.g. presidents and vice presidents),
university students, recent graduates and generally by anyone who is interested in advancing their
career. You can build and manage your online professional identity and power your career by
discovering job opportunities, business deals and new ventures.

What do the numbers say?

77% of all job openings are posted on LinkedIn

179

48% of recruiters post jobs on LinkedIn and nowhere else on social media

89% of recruiters have filled a position using LinkedIn at some point in time

97% of all HR and staffing professionals use LinkedIn in their recruiting efforts.

www.powerformula.net

180

READING

7.1.3 Creating Your LinkedIn Profile (1) (R)


Read the following text about how to make a great student profile on LinkedIn and answer the
questions that follow.

Building a Great Student Profile - Showcase your experience and professional interests on
LinkedIn!
1. Write an informative profile headline. Your headline is a short, memorable professional slogan.
For example, Honors student seeking marketing position. Check out the profiles of students and
recent alumni you admire for ideas.
2. Pick an appropriate photo. LinkedIn isnt Facebook. Upload a high-quality photo (your profile will
be 7 times more likely to be viewed) of you alone, professionally dressed. No party shots, cartoon
avatars, or pictures of your puppy!
3. Show off your education. Include all your high schools, major(s) and minor, courses, and study
abroad or summer programs. Dont be shy LinkedIn is an appropriate place to show off your test
scores, and honors or awards.
4. Develop a professional Summary. Your Summary statement is like the first few paragraphs of
your best-written cover letter concise and confident about your qualifications and goals. Include
relevant work and extracurricular activities.
5. Fill Skills & Expertise with keywords. This section is the place to include keywords and phrases
that recruiters search for. Find relevant ones in job listings that appeal to you and profiles of people
who have the kinds of roles you want.
6. Update your status regularly. Posting updates helps to keep you on the radar and build your
professional image. Mention your projects, professional books, articles, or events youre attending.
Many recruiters read your updates!
7. Show your connectedness. Groups you join appear at the bottom of your profile. Joining some
shows that you want to engage in professional communities and learn the lingo. Start with your
university and industry groups.
8. Collect diverse recommendations. The best profiles have at least one recommendation for each
position a person has held. Recruiters are most impressed by recommendations from people who
have directly managed you.
9. Claim your unique LinkedIn URL. To increase the professional results that appear when people
search for you online, set your LinkedIn profile to public and create a unique URL (e.g.,
www.linkedin.com/in/JohnSmith).

181

10. Share your work. You can also add actual examples of your writing, design work, or other
accomplishments on your profile, where you can share rich media or documents. What better way
to sell your skills than to show employers exactly what you can produce?
http://university.linkedin.com/content/dam/university/global/en_US/site/pdf/TipSheet_BuildingaGreatProfil
e.pdf

Now answer the questions.


Match the meaning of the word or phrase from the article with the definition below:
diverse
unique
connectedness

to be on the radar
memorable
rich

lingo
shy
engage in

(1) worth remembering or easily remembered


(2) fearful; hesitant; reluctant
(3) to be in the spotlight, the focus of attention
(4) having social or professional relationships, especially with influential or powerful persons
(5) become involved in
(6) the language and speech, especially the jargon or slang of a particular field or group
(7) different; of various kinds or forms
(8) existing as the only one or as the sole example; single
(9) of great value or worth; valuable

Answer these questions.


1. Your profile headline should be:
a. short and informative
b. memorable and long
c. clever and admirable
2. Having a photo:
a. will not help, it can be distracting

182

b. will help, but it should be something fun like a picture of your puppy
c. will result in more people looking at your profile
3. One of the following should be done frequently:
a. Developing your summary
b. Including keywords in the Skills and Expertise section
c. Updating your status
4. One way to show that you have professional relationships is by:
a. joining groups
b. learning the industry jargon
c. getting your own, unique URL
5. Sharing your work on LinkedIn will help you to:
a. make some money
b. promote your ability
c. make fewer connections

A final word!
The benefits of LinkedIn are almost endless with no downside to having a LinkedIn profile. Get
involved in forums, join groups and meet like-minded individuals like yourself. Best of all LinkedIn is
totally free. Job seeking is a tough business and applying for online jobs each and every day is a job
in itself! From a job seekers perspective, LinkedIn is another tool that you can use to help get
ahead when searching for a new job.
Dont forget one important aspect. While the advantages and benefits of having a LinkedIn profile
can help open up doors to opportunities that may never have existed previously, having an
incomplete or unprofessional LinkedIn profile can actually have a detrimental effect and portray a
negative impression of being lazy or having a lack of attention to detail. If you choose to create a
LinkedIn profile prepare it properly and utilize everything that LinkedIn has to offer.
http://www.redstarresume.com/the-advantages-and-benefits-of-creating-a-linkedin-profile/

183

WRITING

7.1.4 Creating Your LinkedIn Profile (2) (W)

Getting started on LinkedIn create your profile at www.linkedin.com


It is really easy to start building your profile on LinkedIn. Use the advice from the text above and
from this link: http://daily.undergradsuccess.com/5-tips-to-build-your-student-linkedin-profile/ to
get started:
1. Write your LinkedIn profile headline
2. Add your education
3. Write your profile summary
4. Include any work placements in the experience section
5. List your skills and expertise (5-10 skills are enough to get started)
6. Add any publications, certifications, honors and awards and the languages you speak
Now that you have your LinkedIn profile up and running you will need to start building connections
and
networking.

SPEAKING

7.1.5 Creating Your LinkedIn Profile (3) (S)

Think about these questions and discuss them with your partner or in a small group
1. Do you think having a Linkedin profile and actively using Linkedin could help you find a job?
2. Will you use Linkedin?
3. Social media is only one place where we can we build our Networks, we can also physically go
out and network. What are some of the events or places where people can go to network
professionally?

7.1.6. Interviews 1 (S)

Discuss these questions with a partner or in a small group


Which factors and characteristics do you think are the most important in order to have a successful
interview?

184

Skills / Experience /
References / Manners
interviewer

Attractiveness
/ Dress / Personality / Punctuality /
/ Confidence / Eye Contact / Smiling / Knowing the

LISTENING

7.1.7. Interviews 2 (S)

www.youtube.com/watch?v=qSylCmes5dw

Listen to this clip and answer the following questions


Top 5 job interview tips
1. Jeff and Mike are The interview guys. Listen to the first part of their discussion and answer
these questions.
a. What do they like to do when they are talking about job interviews?
b. Why does Mike think that Jeff is speaking so quickly?
c. Jeff says that understanding the 5 tips will help you do what?

2. Listen to the second part and write down the 5 tips.


a. .
b. .
c. .
d. .
e. .

3. Listen to the second part again and fill in the following sentences.
a. Its important to know exactly what they do ., and any current
events related to the company.
b. Its important that you prepare perfect answers to some of the most commonly asked and

185

c. A success story is a story from your past, work or ... that highlights an
achievement and reflects one of your strengths.
d. Asking the interviewer questions shows that you are prepared about the job.
e. You need to find out beforehand exactly what the position calls for in an employee, as well as
exactly what makes up the

VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

7.1.8 Reported Interview Questions (V)


Your resume has been successful, they have seen and liked your LinkedIn profile and now they want
to interview you. Well done!
Interviewing for a job requires a lot of preparation and practice. A large part of your success in an
interview will be determined by how well you answer the interviewers questions. Some of the most
common graduate interview questions are listed below.
Imagine that after the interview you tell your friend what the interviewer asked you. Report the
interviewers questions below to your friend.

Interviewers questions

Reported questions

1. Why do you want this job?

He asked me why I wanted the job.

2. What are you studying at university?


3. Why did you choose your degree subject?
4. What is your usual role in a team?
5. Have you got any questions?
6. Have you led a team before?
7. What do you expect to be doing in 5 years
time?
8. What are your strengths and weaknesses?
9. What other jobs have you applied for?
10. How would your worst enemy describe you?

186

11. Why did you choose your university and what


factors influenced your choice?
12. What has been your greatest achievement?
13. Who do you think are, or will be, our main
competitors?
14. What will you be doing in 10 years time?
15. How long would you stay with this company?

SPEAKING

7.1.9 Tricky Questions (S)


Using the previous list or one of your own ideas, what is the most difficult question you could be
asked in an interview?
Interviewers sometimes ask unusual questions that test your thinking style and ability. If you were
asked the following set of questions in an interview how would you answer them?
1. How do you put a giraffe into a refrigerator?
2. How do you put an elephant into a refrigerator?
3. The Lion King is hosting an animal conference. All the animals attend ... except one. Which animal
does not attend?
4. There is a river you must cross but it is used by crocodiles, and you do not have a boat. How do
you manage it?

http://jeremy.zawodny.com/blog/archives/009023.html

7.2. IN THE OFFICE


SPEAKING

7.2.1 The Perfect Office 1 (S)

187

The office layout dilemma: open-plan cubicles or separate offices? Discuss in pairs which
environment you would like to work in. Give reasons for your choice. You can find some ideas for
your discussion under the pictures.

www.dreamstime.com

isolation from colleagues

non-hierarchical

boosts creativity

easy to communicate

lack of privacy

unpleasant smells of food, body odour

team building

everyone hears others

others might disturb

difficult to concentrate

high noise level (ringing phones, pinging emails)

WRITING

7.2.2 The Perfect Office 2 (W)

Now write down your ideas using the model below.

Working in an open-plan office has both advantages and disadvantages. On the plus side
...................................................................................................................................... .
Another positive feature is
......................................................................................................................
............................................ . We should not forget about ...........................................
........................................................... However, there are a couple of drawbacks of an open plan
office, as well. First, .............................................................................................. . Another
disadvantage ........................................................................................................... . Finally,
............................................................................... ..................................................... . All in all, I

188

would prefer (not) to work in such an environment because in my opinion


................................................................................................................................................................
........................... .

READING

7.2.3 Making a Good Impression (R)

You are going to read an article about how you can make a good impression from the very first day
at work. Choose the best heading from the list for each paragraph. There are two extra headings
that you do not need to choose.

Get there early

Don't bolt at the end of the day

Prepare how to introduce yourself

Be a good listener

Plan what you are going to wear

Dont forget to take a snack with you

Take advantage of your new status to ask good questions

Remember names

Organize your workspace

Be the last to leave

Be positive

(1) _____________________________________________________

Perhaps, in the excitement of getting a job, you haven't thought much about what to wear to the
office each day. Make sure you find out the expected attire. While many workplaces are "business
casual," if your job is "suit and tie," you don't want to be worrying about going shopping on your
way home from your first day because you don't have the right clothing. Plan everything in
advance, as you would for an interview, so you will be comfortable and suitably attired from the
start.

(2)______________________________________________________

189

Make sure that you find out how long it is going to take you to get to work. Do not put yourself in a
position of offering excuses for being late on the first day because you didn't understand the traffic
patterns. "The early bird gets the worm" isn't just a cliche; it's a reminder that when you appear
prepared and ready, you'll put yourself in a position to succeed.

(3) ______________________________________________________

You thought your "elevator pitch" was history now that you have a job? Not so fast. How do you
want to introduce yourself to new colleagues? Think beyond, "My name is ... " What do you want
them to remember about you? What do you want to be known for? Be sure to work on your eye
contact, a pleasant smile and a firm handshake. All of this will contribute to the first impression that
your colleagues have of you.

(4)

______________________________________________________

Don't be the one who tells everyone you're "not good with names." People will be impressed with
someone who takes the time and effort to learn their names. Make this a priority. A few tips: Use
people's names as soon as they are introduced. Say, "Nice to meet you, Sara." If you didn't catch
the name, or are unsure of the pronunciation, ask the person to repeat his or her name, and make
a real effort to learn it. Take notes so you'll remember people later. For example, jot down
something to help you match a new colleague's name and face. Another trick? Make an association
with the person's name. If Tom is tall, think, "Tall Tom" and you're more likely to remember it later.

(5)

______________________________________________________

Look around to see how other people organize their areas. If no one else has personal items or
photos out, consider keeping your area clear of those types of things. Keep in mind, if you look
sloppy at work, people will assume you aren't well organized enough to manage important
projects.

(6)

______________________________________________________

There's never a better time to ask questions than when you start a job. Don't miss this opportunity
to find out what you'll need to know to do your job well. Be careful, though, not to ask questions
that sound like you are challenging the status quo as soon as you start the job. Keep your questions

190

to things that you are curious about and try to save the "Why do you do it that way instead of this
other way?" types of inquiries for later on.

(7)

______________________________________________________

No one at work wants to try to teach you something and to later find out that you were
daydreaming instead of listening. Make sure that you stay focused and listen carefully, especially
when you first start a job. If you have a tendency to let your mind wander, be on alert and prevent
it from affecting your work.

(8)_______________________________________________________

Everyone expects you to be happy at work when you start a new job. Stay positive and upbeat, and
make sure to appear delighted to be there. Even if it isn't your dream job, act as if it is.

(9)

_____________________________________________________

Especially when you start a new job, don't be a clock watcher. It can't hurt to stay a little beyond
your designated hours so that everyone sees that you're more interested in getting the job done
and less interested in running for the door.

http://jobs.aol.com/articles/2013/06/12/first-day-on-job-make-good-impression/

READING

7.2.4 Benefits at Work 1 (R)

The following text is about fringe benefits (Br) or perks (US) from the point of view of start-ups. Look
at the highlighted expressions in the text and choose the correct meaning.

Perks play an important role for any company, whether that company is a small start-up or a major
league player1. Aside from enticing potential new hires2, perks vastly improve both the company
culture and the mental and physical well-being of the current employees.

191

Smaller start-ups sometimes do not have the budgets that giants like Facebook and Google have to
offer insanely awesome3 office spaces and perks. Thus, they can become entrenched and fixated on
perks that are industry standard4 and within the reach of tight budgets5.

Telecommuting, catered lunches6, paid conference visits, and life coaching7 are worth considering,
but startups need to remember that there is a whole world of creative perks they can offer
employees. There are some great ideas that can build team chemistry8, attract new hires, and will
not break the bank. Always remember that even if your company is small, you can still pack a big
punch when it comes to perks.

http://tech.co/20-perks-make-startup-attractive-potential-hires-2013-09

1. a major league player

a) someone playing in the first division


b) a big and financially stable company

2. potential new hires

a) candidates with good chances to get the position


b) candidates who have good abilities

3. insanely awesome

a) incredibly fabulous
b) mad

4. industry standards

a) very typical in the particular industry


b) common measures in industry

5. tight budgets

a) strictly monitored income and expenditure


b) high deficits

6. catered lunches

a) meals provided by a company free of charge


b) meals taken to work

192

7. life coaching

a) training to improve ones quality of life


b) a lifesaving vehicle

8. team chemistry

a) a team in the chemical industry


b) relationship between members of a team

SPEAKING

7.2.5 Benefits at Work 2 (S)


What do you think your boss should do to motivate you? Discuss with a partner which of the
following perks you would like to get.

Offer in-house yoga classes

Offer the option for a dog-friendly office space

Host poker nights at the office

Send staff to telecommute in exotic locations

Host a Liquor Friday

Have employees invite their mom or dad to cook lunch with them at the office

Host an employee awards ceremony

Provide onsite massages

Offer free music lessons

Teach employees new languages

Can you add any more?

______________________________

______________________________

193

READING AND VOCABULARY WORK

7.2.6 Codes of Practice What to Wear 1 (R)

Make word partnerships from the words below.

two-word
partnerships
face-to-face

formal

three-word
partnerships
casual

environment

clothing

work

accessories

dress

business

environment

company

contact

business

down

day

appropriate

logo

fashion

brand

names

Now insert the word partnerships into the text.

Many workplaces have dress codes, particularly workplaces in industries in which image is highly
valued and workplaces in which employees have regular ______________ (1)with customers. In a
________________________ (2) the standard of dressing for men and women is a suit, a jacket and
pants or a skirt, or a dress with____________________________ (3).
Clothing that reveals too much cleavage, your back, your chest, your feet, your stomach or your
underwear is not appropriate for a place of business. In our___________________(4) , clothing
should be pressed and never wrinkled. Torn, dirty, or frayed clothing is unacceptable. Any clothing
that has words, terms, or pictures that may be offensive to other employees is unacceptable.
Certain days can be declared__________________________ (5), generally Fridays. On these days,
_____________________________ (6) is allowed. Clothing that has the __________________ (7) is
encouraged. Sports team, university, and ___________________ (8) on clothing are generally
acceptable. You might want to keep a jacket in your office for the days when a client unexpectedly
appears on a dress down day, especially if the client is wearing a suit.

194

Adapted from: http://www.onecarebhs.com/uploads/OneCare_Employment_Manual.pdf p.39

WRITING

7.2.7 Codes of Practice - What to Wear 2 (W)


Read the memo below quickly, and answer the questions.

What is the purpose of the memo?


What is the tone of the memo like?

The computer spell-checker has found eight spelling mistakes in the memo. Can you correct
them?

Date: March 10, 2013


To: All staf
From: Head of HR
Subject: Dress Code

Our firm has provided the benefit of most Fridays allowing (1) business casual attire, that is
BUSINESS casual, not business CASUAL and certainly not CASUAL. That is FRIDAYS, the rest of the
week is BUSINESS (professional) attire.

Unfortunatelly (2), each week there appears to be some confusion as to what is appropriate and
what day of the week it is. Please let common sense than fashion sense be your quide (3) when you
dress for work each day.

Denim, in particlar (4), has reached new heights of controversy. Therefore, no article of denim
fabrik (5) is appropriate at any time.

No messege (6) on any kind of clothing is allowed at any time.

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Ms Brown will exercise the right to send employees home, withot (7) pay, who are inappropriately
dressed and will take disciplinairy (8) actions for repeated violations.

READING AND LANGUAGE USE


7.2.8 Codes of Practice Privacy Issues (R)

You are going to read about company policies concerning emails at work. Some words are missing
from the text. Choose the most appropriate answer for each gap in the text.

Many workplaces rely on email to help employees stay connected and (1) ____________ with
clients. However, many companies lack a clear policy (2) ______________ how employees can and
can't use email in the workplace. If companies don't (3) _____________ these issues, they could
find themselves in an ethical and legal quandary.
Employees sometimes assume their emails are private, but a growing number of employers (4)
________________ monitor employee emails sent from company accounts or computers.
Some companies prohibit personal email (5) ______________ in the workplace, on the basis that it
distracts employees or threatens the company's computer systems. (6) _____________ use also
increases the risk of computer viruses. Or, employers may not want employees to use company
computers to send emails containing objectional (7) _______________, images or material, or
messages with religious, political or other (8) _________________ controversial content. Some
allow limited personal use, for example only during lunch breaks.

Adapted from: http://work.chron.com/ethical-issues-email-accounts-workplace-16688.html

1. a) communicating

b) to communicate

c) reply

2. a) regarding

b) with regard

c) regarded

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3. a) talk

b) speak

c) address

4. a) routinely

b) routinously

c) as routine

5. a) using

b) usage

c) use

6. a) personal

b) personality

c) personally

7. a) word

b) context

c) language

8. a) possible

b) possibly

c) possibility

LISTENING

7.2.9 Encouraging Younger Staff (L)

In the following recording you will hear about a new initiative. Listen and answer the following
questions.

1. Which age group does the Fashion Retail Academy target?


____________________________________________________
2. Does the founder hold a degree?
____________________________________________________
3. What does the academic input cover?
____________________________________________________
4. What percentage of the time do students spend in the work place?
____________________________________________________
5. What experience do the mentors have?
____________________________________________________
6. Who developed the curriculum?
____________________________________________________
7. What is the aim of the curriculum?
____________________________________________________
8. What is the real advantage of the programme for the employer?
____________________________________________________

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Unit 8 MOBILITY AND CULTURAL DIVERSITY


Aims of the Unit

The aims of this unit are to help you become more proficient in English as it is used with regard to
mobility, travel and with cultural diversity. After completing this unit you will be familiar with:

Advantages and challenges of an experience abroad


Opportunities for study abroad.

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8.1 Working and Studying Abroad 1 The Advantages and Disadvantages

READING

8.1.1 Understanding Cultural Differences (R)

http://www.dr-fdtc.com/cultural-differences/frames.html

By: Chris Storey


Friday, June 10, 2011

In todays world of globalization, where advances in transport and communication have created
what many refer to as a global village, understanding and appreciating cultural differences in
business has become of vital importance to all organizations.
Companies are increasingly operating cross-border teams, and international trade is vital in today's
business world. Rapid growth of emerging markets in Asia and South America means an increase
for many in contact with business partners in areas that are possibly alien to them. Sensitivity and
maintaining a good relationship is vital when managing a business deal understanding differences
between your own culture and an unfamiliar partners can make or break a business deal.
Insensitivity or misunderstanding can have a huge impact on your reputation.
Understanding and appreciating cultural differences is not just ensuring you avoid causing offence
however. Attitudes towards business, the way they are run and views on management styles can
vary greatly in different cultures. Geert Hofstede, a Dutch anthropologist specializing in assessing
cultures, conducted a study of IBM employees in more than 70 countries in which he was able to
identify several key sources of cultural difference. One of the most important was "power
distance", or the extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organizations
within a country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally. Hofstede also identified
other factors that help analyze cultural-based behaviour, including whether a society is generally

199

more comfortable with uncertainty, ambiguity and nuance; or if a society stresses group harmony
and "saving face".
Another example provided by Geert Hofstede is in the differing cultures of the United States and
the Middle East and the problems that can arise in business without a proper knowledge of a
prospective business partners culture. When negotiating in Western countries such as the United
States, once there is a mutual understanding between the two parties and a satisfactory conclusion
has been reached the cultural sign of the end of negotiations would be to shake hands. In Middle
Eastern countries however, a hand shake is a cultural sign that serious negotiations are just
beginning.
Internally, effective communication is key to any organizations success, and so an appreciation of
different cultures is also of great importance in maintaining a professional and harmonious
environment in the workplace. Organizations in the 21st century are a mix of people from different
cultural backgrounds who have to understand each other, interact on a daily base and often work
in more than one country. Seemingly innocuous things such as eye contact, hand gestures or work
attire can cause possible offence or misunderstanding.
Above all, it is important to ensure that the increasing diversity of workplaces and the global nature
of modern business is not seen as a hindrance, and is turned into the positive that it can and should
be. Diversity brings a wider variety of viewpoints and can bring about solutions to problems that
may not previously have been seen, as well as bringing individual talents and experiences to
provide an increased adaptability.
This article was written by Chris Storey of the Association of Executive Search Consultants (AESC).

https://www.bluesteps.com/blog/the-importance-of-cultural-understanding-in-the-global-village.aspx

Complete these sentences with the words below.


1. In order to avoid causing an offense to someone in another business, it is important to be
aware of _________________________ between your societies.
2. The extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organizations within a
country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally is called
__________________________.
3. Business
markets
in
Asia
__________________________.

and

South

America

are

identified

as

4. Our world today seems smaller and is called a ___________________ because of improved
communications and transport.
5. Some examples of non-verbal communications which may be different in other cultures are
______________________________________.
6. A _______________ in the Middle East is a sign that negotiations are just beginning.

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7. Businesses today often operate in many countries by using ___________________.


8. ____________________ can cause serious problems in business because of a violation of
cultural norms in that other culture.
9. Other factors can help us analyze cultural-based behavior, including whether a society is
generally more comfortable with ___________________________.
10. _________________ can vary in other cultures based on how that culture perceives that
businesses should be run.
Answers to choose from:
1. global village
2. cross-border teams
3. cultural differences
4. Insensitivity
5. emerging markets
6. management styles
7. power distance
8. uncertainty, ambiguity and nuance
9. hand shake
10. eye contact, hand gestures or work attire

SPEAKING

8.1.2 Cultural Diversity Interview (S)


First Student: You are thinking about taking a short term job in another country for a year. You
want to find out about the culture of that country so you go to see the Cultural Attach at that
Embassy. Of course you want to be prepared so you list out some questions in advance. You will
want to consider things like: 1) work life; 2) social customs 3) social attitudes; 4) dating; 5) food; 6)
and things not to do.
Questions to ask the Cultural Attach:

Second Student: Pick a country you are familiar with and jot down some things about the culture of
that county like: 1) work life; 2) social customs 3) social attitudes; 4) dating; 5) food; 6) and things
not to do.
Important aspects of your countrys culture to share with Inquirer:

Exercise:
1. Break up into pairs with each student picking one role above

201

2. Each student makes notes about either the questions to ask or the answers they might give.
3. Do a practice role play in pairs
4. Teacher will then call on several pairs to role play for the class

READING

8.1.3 Should I Study Abroad? Advantages and Disadvantages (R)

http://collegeinformations.com/tag/studying-abroad/

Every year thousands and thousands of people leave the comforts of their homes to learn English in
countries such as the United States, Canada, England, and Australia. Why do they do it? Many feel
that by studying a language in a country where it is spoken, they will be able to learn it more
quickly. Others feel that studying abroad gives them a kind of prestige in their home country. It may
even lead to a better job. And quite a few people want to study abroad for the pure pleasure and
excitement it brings.
But living and studying in another country can also have its problems. Almost everyone experiences
some level of homesickness. And a few people go home earlier than expected because their ideas
about living in another country were different from reality.
Is learning English abroad something you are interested in? Whether to learn a language by
studying abroad is a big decision. You should be aware of what you are getting into before you start
packing your bags.
Disadvantages of Studying Abroad
Studying abroad does not mean you will learn English magically. Many people think that they just
need to live in another country and they will learn the local language. This is not completely true.
You still need to pay attention and study. There are people who live in foreign countries for many,
many years without knowing the language well. However, it will probably come to you easier and
faster than if you just studied the language in your home country.
Studying abroad can be hard. You will probably have times when you miss your family, friends,
food, and everything familiar. Almost everyone goes through some culture shock. You will have to
realize and accept that it will take some time to adjust to a new way of living.

202

Studying abroad can be expensive. There is no doubt that it takes money to study abroad. It can
vary from kind of expensive to very expensive. Most places don't allow international students to
work. You will have to have the money before you arrive in the country or have someone from
home support you. Is this something that you and/or your family can afford?

Advantages of Studying Abroad


You are surrounded by English. Yes, you need to pay attention and do some studying, but
everything comes faster when you do because English is everywhere- on the streets, in the stores,
on the TV- you can't get away from it.
Your eyes are opened to the world. We often grow up thinking that our way of doing things is the
only way, or sometimes the best way. But living in a new culture helps us realize new ways of doing
things, and also helps us to see that even though we are different, we are all human. And in many
cases, not only will you get to know the natives of the country you are visiting, you may get to know
classmates from all over the world.
You learn to take care of yourself. Living in another country, even if it is with a host family, means
you might be doing things you may not have done in your home country. These include cooking,
cleaning, grocery shopping, washing clothes, figuring out transportation, making living
arrangements, setting up accounts for cell phones and utilities, etc. You may think of this as a
disadvantage, but many international students go home proud that they have become very selfsufficient.
Your life will be forever changed. One of the greatest things that happens when you do something
as big as live in another country is- you become a changed person- your outlook on life is different.
Your new maturity can help lead you to new places in your life.
You make memories that will last a lifetime. Your pictures, journals, and souvenirs will help you
remember your time abroad, but your memories and emotions of this special time will also be a
part of your life until you are very old.
So how can you know if studying abroad is right for you? First, start by talking to people who have
already done it. Of course everyone will have his or her own experience and point of view, but it
can be really helpful to hear what other people have to say. If you don't know anyone who has
studied abroad, ask others about their experiences through the internet. Dave's ESL Cafe is a good
place to start.
If you do decide that you are interested in going abroad, take a look at websites like
www.HyperStudy.com to search for schools and get advice on where to go.
Studying abroad can really change your life. And hopefully if you decide to do it, it will be a
wonderful experience for you. The very best of luck to you.
http://www.5minuteenglish.com/study_abroad.htm

Select a phrase to finish the sentence:


1. Studying abroad means you will learn the language .
very quickly
almost not at all
a little more quickly
2. Studying abroad can be
really easy

203

hard due to culture shock


an experience that requires little adjustment

3. Financing a study abroad experience


will be no problem
is easy because you can find scholarships
needs to be something you can afford
4. Living in a new country
will not be much different
can open your eyes to the world
helps us see that everyone does pretty much the same thing
5. When living in another country
a host family can take care of all your needs
you can pay someone to do your chores
you will have to learn to become self-sufficient
6. An experience of living abroad
will make you a changed person
is not much different than living at home
will make you less mature as you depend on others
7. A study experience abroad will give you

a lot of headaches and few memories


many low moments and depression
a lifetime of memories of a special time in your life

8. To know if studying abroad is right for you


watch television for inspiration
go to google
talk to people who have done it before

LISTENING

8.1.4 My Study Abroad Experience (L)

204

http://blog.openstudy.com/2010/04/22/5-steps-to-your-best-study-abroad-experience/

Listen to this YouTube audio: Georgia Sanders, University of Exeter

YouTube link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ywaV5NRkFik


Listen to the presentation and answer the questions.
1. Where did she study abroad?
..
2. What did she find as her best experience in her class?

3. Why did she believe that study abroad would better prepare her for her future?

4. What does she emphasize people should do if they want to get a study abroad?

5. Who can you talk to if you have any questions or to get great tips?

6. What is her field of study?

Listen to the text again and circle the correct answer.


7. What is her main reason for studying abroad?
a) earning some money
b) knowing other cultures
c) opening up career possibilities

205

8. What other reason does she think is important to study abroad?


a) experience of cultural diversity
b) making awesome friends
c) tasting other food
9. What was her work ethic discovery related to her classes?
a) there were too many students in the class
b) much of the school work was performed at home
c) the school used continual assessment and emphasized class participation

10. What slang or jargon does she use too much of?
a) You know
b) Uh, um
c) Like

SPEAKING

8.1.5 Role-Play Dialogue to go abroad or not? (S)

Role-play instructions for Student A - Anna


Your name is Anna and youve just finished high school. You are extremely disappointed about not
having been given a place on the university course of your dreams and you are sure that you are
not willing to study anything else. You are now thinking about how to spend your coming year. Ask
your familys opinion.
Role-play instructions for Student B Annas Older Sister
Your younger sister, Anna, has not been given a place on the university course of her dreams and is
thinking about how to spend her coming year. You are advising her to take a gap year abroad to
enjoy life, gain experience, work, earn money and improve her English. This will be the time of her
life. Studying can wait.
Anna is hesitating about what to do and asking for your familys advice.
Role-play instructions for Student C - Parent
Your younger daughter, Anna, has not been given a place on the university course of her dreams
and is thinking about how to spend her coming year. As a responsible parent you would like her to
stay at home and study for the next exam, which is due this time next year. You think it is a waste

206

of time and money to spend this precious time otherwise. This is the only way for her to go on with
her studies.
Anna is hesitating about what to do and asking for your familys advice.

Speaking Task:

Form groups of threes (Student A, Student B and Student C)


Try to convince Anna according to your role play card at the family table
Take turns in expressing your arguments till Anna can make a decision or you can reach a
compromise. Try not to hurt each others feelings.

Useful expressions for conducting a sophisticated argument:


Asserting your view:

I see your point, but....

I don't quite agree here.

I cannot accept your view that ...

I cannot share this view.

I really feel that..........

What I mean is..............

My impression is that

The point is that......

I (personally) believe that..

It strikes me that

I think/I dont think.

Yes, I agree up to a point, however ..

Yes, perhaps, however

Well, yes, but .....

Yes, in a way, however ...

Hmm, possibly, but

Well, you have a point there, but ...

There's something there, I suppose, however...


Yes, I suppose so, however

I guess you could be right, but ...

That's worth thinking about, but ...

Interrupting:

I'm sorry I didn't catch what you said...

Excuse me, can I just say/ask.?

Sorry to interrupt but.

Yes, but.

Stopping interruptions:

207

Er..

If I could just finish..

Ill just finish what I was saying.

http://www.teflsites.com/Expressions%20for%20Discussion%20and%20Debate%20new.pdf

READING

8.1.6 Should You Study Abroad in Australia or New Zealand? (R)

Published 05/03/2013 by Natalie Southwick

Dreaming of study abroad down under? Let's discuss if Australia or New Zealand is a better fit for
you!
Australia and New Zealand may be on the other side of the world, but they're some of the globe's
most popular study abroad destinations. Australia, in fact, is the sixth-most-popular study abroad
location for American students. Whether it's the shared language, the
stunning scenery or the locals' reputation as some of the world's nicest people, these two
countries are both incredibly appealing places to spend a semester or two.
But how to decide? Both places have tons of benefits and great study abroad options, so it may
seem impossible to choose just one. Still, there are some major factors to consider, including the
climate, culture, different types of programs, expenses, your feelings about rugby, and, most
importantly, those accents.
Read on to determine if you should study abroad in Australia or New Zealand!
Population, Climate and Location
Nestled next to each other in the Oceania corner of the world, these two island nations are not
exactly conveniently located if you're coming from - well, pretty much anywhere else. Still, their
isolation from other continents is part of their appeal - both countries boast unique flora and fauna
that can't be found in any other part of the world. With so much natural beauty, adventure sports
for adrenaline junkies and friendly locals, you won't ever want to leave - which is good, because the
nearest countries are still hundreds or even thousands of miles away!
Australia, the world's sixth-largest country, is the big brother in terms of both population and land
mass. The nation has almost 23 million residents - a big increase from the island's initial Aboriginal
population and a few thousand British prisoners - and a whopping 89 percent of them live in the
coastal urban areas. In fact, more than half of Australia's population (14 million, to be exact) lives in
the country's five largest cities.
Adventure in the hot Aussie desert!

208

The famous Outback, which takes up most of the center of the island, is still largely wild,
unpopulated territory - pretty, for sure, but probably not where you'll be doing most of your
studies. Home to the Great Barrier Reef (one of the Seven Natural Wonders of the world), Ayers
Rock, pristine beaches and everyone's favorite marsupials, Australia has an abundance of natural
riches.

http://emmakellydooz.wordpress.com/tag/ayers-rock/

With this kind of scenery, it's no wonder the locals are so cheerful. Covered by broad swaths of
desert and receiving the second-lowest rainfall of all seven continents (after Antarctica), Australia is
mostly hot and dry, with a tropical northern coast and a more temperate climate in the southeast
near Sydney. If you're heading to Australia, make sure to pack your sunscreen.
Comparatively tiny New Zealand - or Aotearoa, as it's known in the Maori language - is divided
between two main islands, creatively named the North and South Islands, and a group of much
smaller outlying islands. As one of the world's youngest and still-changing land masses, New
Zealand's volatile ground has created what might be the globe's most spectacular land of contrasts.
From the soaring peaks of the Southern Alps to the black sand beaches of Muriwai, the stunning
fjords of Te Anau National Park to the ski slopes of Queenstown, there's no reason to spend any
more time inside than absolutely necessary.

http://hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moeraki-szikl%C3%A1k

Just like the topography, the climate of New Zealand varies wildly from one location to another,
from the semi-arid Central Otago vineyard plains to the snowcapped peaks of the South Island's
mountains. The islands have mostly cool, temperate weather with plenty of rainfall, but the
weather can change unpredictably - the local wisdom is that the only dependable weather
prediction is the opposite of whatever the meteorologist on TV says.
With just 4.4 million residents in the whole country, New Zealand actually is, as the joke goes,
home to far more sheep than people (about a 7:1 sheep: human ratio, to be exact). Almost 75
percent of those people live on the North Island, with about a third concentrated in the Auckland
metropolitan area, so there are plenty of places where you can actually see the stars.

209

Cost of Living in Australia vs. New Zealand


The conventional wisdom about Australia has always been that it's expensive, and unfortunately
this is one stereotype that's based in fact. Living on an island is, by definition, rarely cheap, since
anything you might want that doesn't grow there has to be imported. Fear not though, study
abroad students! There is budget fun to be had down under.
Mercer's cost of living rankings from 2012 had Sydney at #11, just barely missing the cut to join the
illustrious club of the world's top 10 most expensive cities. Melbourne was close behind at 15,
Perth was 19th, and capital Canberra, Brisbane and Adelaide followed right behind at 23, 24 and
27, respectively. A more recent study put both Sydney and Melbourne in the world's top five, with
Sydney ranked third.

http://hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/F%C3%A1jl:Brisbane_CBDandSB.jpg

At the current exchange rate, the Australian dollar is about equal to the US dollar, but prices are far
from equivalent. Some goods retail for similar prices to those found overseas, but food in particular
can be extremely expensive. A six-pack of beer sells for around $15, while a pint out at a bar will
run you about $10 - prices that could even give pause to a New Yorker. The University of
Technology Sydney recommends that international students prepare for life in the city by arriving
with somewhere between A$14,786 and A$25,680 for a full year there. In fact, as of July 2012,
international students headed to Australia must demonstrate that they have at least $18,610 if
they intend to spend a year studying in the country. If your heart is set on Australia, you should
start saving your pennies (and hundred dollar bills) now.
In comparison, studying abroad in New Zealand is certainly a affordable option, with the highestranked city, Auckland, clocking in at #56. The only other city to land in the top 200 was the capital
of Wellington, at a respectable 74. They're still not cheap cities, compared to other regions of the
world, but next to their neighbor, they're positively a bargain.

http://hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/F%C3%A1jl:WellingtonPanorama.jpg

Right now, USD $1 will get you NZD$1.2 - not a huge difference, but that .2 adds up eventually. A
pint of beer at a bar should cost about $3.75 and an average movie ticket will be about $8.50. You
can get a basic meal at a restaurant for between $6.75- $12.50, while two miles in a taxi will cost
about $7.50. These prices still aren't dirt-cheap, but they're probably more equivalent to what
you're used to paying in cities at home.
"Between Australia and New Zealand, I would say NZ all the way. New Zealand has somewhat of a
"frontier" feel to it; people look out for each other and there is a sense that we're all in this together.
If you're looking to go to a place where you can have an adventure, meet some great people, and

210

not spend as much as you would in Europe, New Zealand is the place for you." - Sarah Timmings,
former NZ student
Universities and Programs in Australia versus New Zealand
If you choose to study abroad in Australia, you're almost certainly going to be in one of the major
cities. Sydney has the widest range of different programs and universities, including Macquarie
University and the University of Sydney, generally considered one of the top schools in the
country. Programs offer studies in fields from botany to linguistics, and many include cultural
activities and excursions to places like the Great Barrier Reef, the Outback, or even other countries
like New Zealand or Thailand. Programs in other cities like Melbourne, Brisbane and Perth all have
their own benefits like access to world-class arts programs and research, proximity to natural
attractions like the Gold Coast and koala sanctuaries, and one-of-a-kind study opportunities like
marine biology or conservation work.
With only a handful of cities, study abroad programs in New Zealand are concentrated almost
entirely in Auckland and Wellington, with a few scattered in smaller cities like Dunedin and
Christchurch. Most Auckland programs are affiliated with the highly regarded University of
Auckland (the country's top school), and they offer students the chance to study everything from
political science to Hebrew. In Dunedin, you can study at the University of Otago, New Zealand's
first university, or head to Victoria University in the cultural hub of Wellington. Some programs
also provide opportunities for internships with local businesses or organizations- considering the
country's relatively small workforce, these are a great way to get more involved with the culture
and issues you care about!
Culture and Life Down Under
As one of the world's most urbanized countries, Australia's cities are the place to be. Cosmopolitan
Sydney boasts world-famous architecture, top restaurants, excellent museums and theater and one
of the globe's best aquariums. We've heard there's a famous building there, too. Smaller cities like
culturally rich Melbourne and the more industrial western coastal city of Perth don't have the same
international draw, but still have plenty to keep you busy for a semester (constant beach access,
anyone?).
Australia is an interesting mix of Western Anglo and Aborigine influences, with the country trying to
find a balance between the two very different backgrounds of its population. Known for wine
production, tall movie stars and attractive Olympic swimmers, Australia is a relaxed nation of
friendly, fun-loving people who are just as happy to toss a Frisbee around with you as to give you
directions or share a beer (or three).
Like any siblings, New Zealand and Australia have a long-running, mostly-friendly rivalry, based
primarily on making jokes about the other nationality's romantic preferences for sheep and peculiar
accent patterns. The competition only really heats up around important rugby matches, so just be
aware which country you're in before you say anything flattering about the other nation.
Even more so than Australia, New Zealand is all about the outdoors and thrill-seaking: every
region has its own distinct features, activities and awe-inspiring scenery. It seems like everyone in
the country has a part-time job at an outdoor adventure company, at least two pair of hiking boots
and a tent ready to go at a moment's notice. With one of the lowest median incomes in the
developed world, New Zealand residents (or Kiwis, as they're better known) are used to making the
best of what they have - and for most of them, this means spending as much time as possible
enjoying the natural beauty of their surroundings. Cities like Auckland, Wellington and stillrecovering Christchurch have plenty to offer in the way of restaurants, art and nightlife, but the
main draw of the country will always be its non-manmade features.

211

Be sure to catch a New Zealand rugby game!


One of the most distinguishing characteristics of New Zealand is its renewed emphasis on
recognizing and celebrating the culture of the Maori people - the islands' original residents.
Currently, almost 15 percent of the population identifies as Maori, with an even higher percentage
among younger groups. Over the last few decades, there has been a large-scale effort to preserve
the Maori culture and incorporate it into all aspects of Kiwi life.
Many signs across the country are printed in both English and Maori, and people will often refer to
locations by their Maori names. The language is taught in schools across the country - if you have
time to study it, it's a fascinating and important piece of New Zealand's heritage.
The culture is relaxed and casual - it's not uncommon to see people walking around the streets of
urban Auckland with no shoes. There are even offices that allow their employees to go shoeless however shirts, as far as we know, are still required. Rugby is king here, so brush up on your
knowledge of tries and scrums before you venture out in an All Blacks (the beloved national team)
jersey. Kiwis are very conscious about their international image - as a foreigner, everyone in the
country will interrogate you about your experience there, and even one tiny criticism is enough to
cause concern. Luckily, there's very little to criticize about this gorgeous, friendly nation.
The Breakdown
Wanna read the fine print? Here are some conclusions: you should choose to study abroad in
Australia if you want to live in a vibrant, active city, can "keep up" with the partying locals, and
prefer hot, dry weather and beaches. It also helps if you've always wanted to see a kangaroo in
person and don't mind breaking the piggy bank to do it! You can see what other students have to
say about their time studying abroad in Australia here.
On the flip side, you should head to New Zealand if you want to be in the middle of nature, are okay
with eating lamb three times a week and don't mind changing weather (and lots of rain!). If you've
often wondered if you are a hobbit or not (shoes are overrated) and think jumping off of a bridge
sounds GREAT, New Zealand will be the perfect fit! Students in New Zealand often rave about the
fantastic time they had studying abroad there.
Both New Zealand and Australia have tons to offer study abroad students. There are differences in
price, weather, location and free-time activities, but both countries are high-demand destinations
for a reason. Most people who study abroad in either of these countries return home already
planning their next visit back. By all means, go, but be prepared to fall in love with whichever
country you ultimately choose.
http://www.gooverseas.com/blog/study-abroad-australia-or-new-zealand

True and False Exercise


1. New Zealand is the 6th most popular country for American students to go to study.
T ___ F___
2.

Both New Zealand and Australia are pretty well located, close to many other nations.
T ___ F ___

3. Australia is by far the larger of the two countries, but it has a smaller population.
T ___ F ___

212

4. Australia is quite unique, it is an island and is host to the Great Barrier Reef.
T ___ F ___
5. The

native

people

of

New

Zealand

speak

the

Maori

language.

T ___ F ___
6. International Students going to Australia must have at least 20,000 US Dollars first year.
T ___ F ___
7. If you study in New Zealand you may have a chance at internships with local businesses
T ___ F ___
8. Australia

is

one

of

the

world's

most

urbanized

countries.

T ___ F ___
9. You should head to New Zealand if you want to be in the middle of nature, dont mind
changing

weather

and

want

to

see

kangaroos.

T ___ F ___
10. You should choose to study abroad in Australia if you want to live in a vibrant, active city,
and

can

"keep

up"

with

the

partying

locals

T ___ F ___

8.2 Working and Studying Abroad 2 How to Get There


WRITING

8.2.1 Writing an Enquiry Letter to Study Abroad (W)

Below you can see a sample enquiry letter. Study the format carefully than try to write a letter of
enquiry of your own, use the same format and change the content appropriately by mentioning the
following points:
You are James Brown a student of economics and you enquire about a scholarship programme
abroad in a letter of enquiry
-

introduce yourself and say where you study;


say why you wish to apply for a scholarship abroad;
say why you feel yourself an ideal candidate for the scholarship;
write about your expectations from the programme;
enquire about housing , extra costs and the exact time period of the scholarship

213

ask if they can provide facilities for disabled students;

David Smith
14 Churchill Road
Maidstone
Kent, ME16-70X
5th September, 2013

Mr. Bill Daughton


Director of Admissions
210 Newton Road
Kingston College,
Kingston, OK 99861

Dear Mr. Bill Daughton,


I am currently a junior at Kingston College. I am enquiring at colleges that may fit my needs
and profile, and Kingston College caught my attention. Since Kingston offers an excellent
engineering program, it is on the list of my possible target schools.
Please send me any relevant information regarding admissions, financial aid, housing and
anything else you would like me to know about Kingston College that will help me with my decision
making process.
Sincerely,
David Smith

WRITING

8.2.2 Application Letter - Erasmus Student Network (W)

214

http://hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/F%C3%A1jl:Erasmus_at_EUR.JPG

Youve just seen the following job advertisement on one of your friends Facebook Timeline and
decided to send an application.

Urgent Call for Hungarian Full-time students


Join our team! ESN Debrecen is looking for You!
(Erasmus Students Network)
We are an enthusiastic team of Hungarian students organizing programs for foreign students
studying at the University of Debrecen
Applicants must

Be under 26

Have good communications skills

Speak English fluently

Have good organizing and problem-solving skills

Be able to work in a team

Be creative and open-minded

Be interested in foreign cultures

What we offer:

Endless fun with international friends from all around Europe

Free admission to all of our programs

Extra points when applying for your Erasmus scholarship in the future

215

Task:
Send your application letter to the office of Student Union of your Faculty. Respond to the criteria
above.
Start like this:
Dear ESN Debrecen, ....

LISTENING

8.2.3 Erasmus University in a nutshell (L)

Listen to the presentation via the links below:


YouTube link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fy1cef5abCQ

Circle the five points mentioned concerning the Erasmus program in Rotterdam. There are only five
correct answers.

it has a strong international appeal

it works with friendly staff

it has produced a lot of big names

it teaches theoretical concepts which can be applied in daily life

it teaches you think globally

it teaches how to find solutions to the problems

there are a lot of student associations

it has contacts with headhunting companies

Listen to the text again and answer the following questions.


1. What do we know about the size of the university?
................................................................................

216

2. On what is there a strong focus?


.
3. What education in Erasmus is about?
..
4. What do they organize for students?
.
5. What IT facilities are mentioned?

6. What feeling does Erasmus give you?


..

217

Unit 9 Business Travel


Aims of the Unit

The aims of this unit are to help you become more proficient in English as it is used with regard to
mobility, travel and with cultural diversity. After completing this unit you will be familiar with:

Issues in cultural diversity


Business travelling in which you will rehearse many of the issues and situations which you
need to deal with on business travel.

218

9.1 Travelling Abroad on Business 1 Tips for Travellers


READING
9.1.1

Executive Planet Website Etiquette by Country (R)

Guidelines for business etiquette


Executive Planet provides valuable tips on business etiquette, customs and protocol for doing
business worldwide.

Essential business culture guides for the international traveller


Argentina

Australia

Austria

Belgium

Brazil

Canada

Chile

China

Colombia

Czech Republic

Finland

France

Germany

Greece

Hong Kong

India

Indonesia

Iran

Ireland

Israel

Italy

Japan

Jamaica

Jordan

Malaysia

Mexico

Netherlands

Norway

Paraguay

Peru

Philippines

Poland

Portugal

Russia

Saudi Arabia

Singapore

South Africa

South Korea

Spain

Sweden

Switzerland

Taiwan

Thailand

Turkey

United Arab Emirates

United Kingdom

United States

Yemen

Cultural Quick Tip


Ask Open Ended Questions

219

When we function in a foreign language, we have a tendency to say yes when we are asked a
question, even if we don't understand what was asked. This is even true when we are asked "Do
you understand?" The next time you are interacting cross culturally, ask an open-ended question
such as "Can you tell me what you need to do next?" instead of "Do you understand?" If the person
is unable to answer what they need to do, then you know that you need to explain further.

http://www.executiveplanet.com/index.php?title=Main_Page

READING

9.1.2 A Guide to Business Travel (R)

http://under30ceo.com/12-top-apps-for-business-travel/

Tips that will make your business trip a success


By

Aisha

Newton

Monster Contributing Writer

Business travel can be fun! You get the chance to leave your cubicle and step into the real world.
Sometimes you get to visit new cities, or different parts of the world. Other times the location may
be familiar, but not necessarily a place you visit often. Meeting face to face with clients and
colleagues, provides you with the perfect opportunity to broaden your professional network and
forge relationships that go deeper than phone calls and email.
But lets be honest, whether travelling for business or pleasure. There are often unavoidable travel
hiccups than can make your trip less enjoyable. Long line ups, flight delays, terrible food, obnoxious
passengers and underwhelming hotel accommodations just to name a few. Whether travelling solo
or as part of team the following tips will help make your business trip a success!
First things first, confirm the travel dates and make your reservations as soon as possible. Double
check if the company uses a specific website or travel agents. Often times booking earlier can save
you money and will get you better flight times, hotel rooms and car rentals.
Another useful piece of information to have is in regards to food and drink. Find out if your
company provides you with a per diem to avoid nasty surprises when you get back. Also see if your
company has any specific rules regarding alcohol consumption. Just because you enjoy a glass of
wine with dinner doesnt mean that your company will pay for it.

220

Based on where you have to travel, make sure that your passport and travel insurance is up to
date. Whenever possible keep copies of electronic boarding passes and hotel reservations on your
smartphone. I would also suggest keeping paper copies of your travel documents in your purse or
carry on luggage. You never know when you might find yourself in the nightmare triangle; Low
battery, no Wi-Fi and no reception.
Now that youve taken care of your bookings, what are you going to wear?
Deciding what to pack can be tricky, climate, duration of stay and planned activities play a part in
your wardrobe selection. How many meeting are you scheduled to attend? Are there client dinners,
team building exercises or perhaps a round of golf?
Stick to dark coloured clothing that doesnt wrinkle easily. An added benefit is that it camouflages
dirt and stains. Try to avoid wearing loud patterns or busy prints, you want pieces that you can
easily mix and match. Same goes to the guys.
Ladies, carry a large scarf, shawl or Pashmina, it can complement your outfit and double as a
blanket on a flight or a sweater on chilly day.
Another thing to consider is what to put on your feet. Choose your footwear wisely. A six inch heel
might look fierce with your suit; but do you really want to wear them all day long? Or walking
through a large airport or train station? Try to choose stylish but comfortable shoes. Opt for
wedges, flats or shoes with a lower heel. If you plan on going to the hotel gym dont forget your
sneakers. Another tip is to keep a shoehorn in your carry-on luggage, that way if your feel swell
after a long flight. You won't have to walk off the plane barefoot.
What should you put in your carry-on luggage?
Pack a small cosmetic bag to keep track of your toiletries. If there are specific medications that
you need, be sure to keep them in your purse on your person.
Allergy medication, in case the room is dusty and musty. In my experience hotel carpeting can
trigger allergic reactions.

Snacks, because who wants to pay $6 for M&Ms?

Disinfecting wipes to clean off the common surfaces in the room.

Feminine hygiene products, just in case (This also relates to the dark coloured clothing)

Eye drops to help freshen your eyes. Bloodshot eyes in a meeting arent cute; its hard to take
someone seriously when it looks like youve been up partying with Mary Jane.
Ear plugs and eye masks arent always provided on flights so bring your own to catch a few
winks on the plane.
Electronics, gadgets and personal entertainment:
Make sure to pack all of your electronics, chargers and adapters and keep them in your carry-on.
Charge your devices before leaving so that you have a full battery. That way you can get some work
done even if you dont have access to a plug. Dont forget your headphones, the last thing you need
is to be stuck sitting next to someone who wants to be your new best friend.

221

Ladies this tip is crucial, be sure to remove the batteries from some of the items you pack. Security
will open your bag if there are items buzzing and vibrating in there. And careful with your jewelry,
try not to wear too many metallic pieces. You'll set off the metal detectors and all that noise can be
distracting to your fellow passengers.
On a different note, dont forget your business cards. This simple networking tool helps people
remember you. Just make sure they are up to date, there is no sense in handing out old cards with
the wrong job title and email address. There are also apps you can download that will allow you to
take a picture of someone's business card and download their contact information into your phone.
Make sure you bring a purse that can go from daytime to nighttime or at the very least bring a small
clutch. Pare down your wallet so that you only carry the cards you need. Leave your George
Costanza wallet at home. Remember the Acronym M.I.L.K Money, Id, lipstick and keys.
Once you arrive at your hotel there are a few things you can do to keep yourself safe.
Avoid using your full name when signing in. Use your initials or sign in as if two people are in
the room. This deters potentially assailants looking to prey on single women.
Advise the front desk not to mention your room number out loud, when other guests are
nearby. In the event that you think someone may have heard it dont be afraid to request a new
room.
Always leave the Do Not Disturb sign on the door. This gives the impression that your room is
always occupied.

Upon arriving at your hotel room, double check the locks on the windows and doors.

If you are unsure of your room locations, ask security to escort you to your room and avoid
wandering the halls aimlessly.
My last tip is to take a deep breath and relax. Try and see if you can take a few extra days and
explore your location. Oftentimes hotels in business districts have much lower rates heading into
the weekend. By following these simple tips your next business trip is sure to go smoothly.
So pack your bags and have fun!
http://career-advice.monster.ca/in-the-workplace/work-life-balance/business-traveling-tips-ca/article.aspx

Answer the questions with short answers:

1. Should we travel just to meet other business people when phones are so good today?
..
2. What is the first thing to do when planning to travel?
.
3. What documents do I need to travel?

222

.
4. What kinds of clothes are best to pack for travel?
.
5. What security measures can I take at a hotel? Can I think of others?
.

READING

9.1.3 SEVEN TIPS FOR BUSINESS TRAVEL (R)

http://infographiclist.com/2012/03/25/business-travel-market-trends-2012-infographic/

BY CAROLYN M. BROWN

Maximize your time spent overseas. Proper preparation before your departure will not only make
your business trip a safe one but more productive.
Preparing for international travel is unlike planning a business trip within one's own country. While
you're usually fussing over details such as your flight itinerary, what to pack and scheduling
meetings for a typical business trip, international travel may also require research for immersion
into a culture with proper etiquette and protocols associated with the host country. With the
recent political disorder in countries like Libya and natural disasters in Japan, travel overseas also
requires certain safeguards to protect yourself during a time of crisis, says Jason Kaufman, senior
manager, service innovation, MacNair Travel Management/American Express, in Alexandria,
Virginia.
There are some basic guidelines such as preparing proper documents two or three months before
your departure, especially if visas and updated passports are needed (for instance an old photo
may not cut it). Some countries may not require visas for tourists but may require them for
business travelers. Of course, depending on the country you are visiting, you will want to consult a

223

physician about necessary vaccinations.


For US Travelers, a great resource is the US Department of State, says Kaufman, especially if
something goes wrong in a foreign country and you need a quick evacuation. The State Department
provides country specific information and issues travel warnings for long-term conditions that make
a country dangerous or unstable as well as travel alerts that apply to temporary problems.
"In general, you want to make sure that you have the ability to get in touch with someone who can
assist you 24 hours a day, seven days a week, 365 days a year," says Kaufman. This may be your
travel management company. "In a crisis situation you want to have as much information as
possible to make an informed decision."
When the earthquake occurred in Japan, travelers couldn't get back into their rooms to access
pertinent documents, says Donna Thomas, owner of New Zealand Travel, in Langhorne,
Pennsylvania. "The big lesson learned: When you go to dinner or a meeting, take your passport,
don't leave it back in your hotel room. Carry contact information for your embassy with you at all
times. Keep a fully charged cell phone on you," she explains.
Besides personal safety, you also will want to prepare for your foreign business encounters. After
all, you want to get maximum value for the time that is spent abroad. This means you have to be
open to different values, behaviors and ways of doing business. Lack of familiarity with the business
practices and social customs of another country can weaken your position or prevent you from
accomplishing your goals.
Without a doubt there is nothing like a face-to-face meeting with a client or customer. But even the
most minor mistakes can cost you time, money and opportunity. Here are seven tips to help you
make the necessary adjustments for a business trip abroad.

1. Prepare a well-planned itinerary.


A well thought out itinerary should reflect what your company hopes to accomplish. Think about
your goals and relative priorities. For instance, you will want to have two or three appointments
confirmed well in advance and spaced comfortably throughout the day. This will be more
productive and enjoyable than a crowded agenda that forces you to rush from one meeting to the
next. Your schedule should be flexible enough to allow for unexpected problems such as
transportation delays and/or opportunities such as an unplanned luncheon invitation.
Kaufman suggests leaving a copy of your itinerary with trusted colleagues, family members or close
friends so that they know where you are supposed to be at all times. Also provide a family member
or spouse with copies of your passport, medical insurance card, and other pertinent information. In
addition, leave an emergency contact list with your travel planner.
2. Seek information on the culture.

224

Invest some time in learning about the history, culture and customs of the countries to be visited,
says Thomas. Attend cross-cultural seminars or training. Read books about that country. Brush up
on the differences in negotiating styles, attitudes towards punctuality, gift-giving customs, and the
proper use of names and titles (understand the importance of rank and know who the decision
makers are when conducting business).
Take the Japanese, for instance, who consider it rude to be late for a business meeting but
acceptable for a social occasion. In Latin countries, being late for a business meeting is more
tolerable. In the Middle East it is commonplace to engage in small talk before conducting business.
The French and the British have different views about discussing business during meals, Thomas
says. "Do you talk about business during dinner or do you wait until after you have eaten your
meal? The slightest things can really offend people," she says.
3. Learn protocol and etiquette practices.
Study the general protocol and etiquette of the country or countries you're visiting. Understanding
in advance how to greet your counterparts and manage appointments will be most helpful. Check
normal work days and business hours. In the Middle East, for example, the workweek is Saturday to
Thursday. It is not uncommon in many countries for lunch to last two to four hours. Also take into
account foreign holidays. Business manners, religious customs, dietary practices, humor and
acceptable dress vary widely from country to country.
Misunderstandings over gestures and body language can cause you more than embarrassment but
can lead to business complications, says Thomas. For instance, the okay sign (thumb and index
fingers forming a circle with the other fingers pointing upward) is commonly used in the US. But it
means zero in France and Thomas says it is a vulgar gesture in Brazil and the Philippines (like giving
the middle finger is here in the States). She recommends finding a local person from the host
country whom you can openly talk to and learn about customs. Or a good travel planner will know
the ins and outs of the country.
4. Learn the native tongue.
Business associates will appreciate any sincere attempt. Study the language or hire a translator,
especially if the persons you are meeting with do not speak English or are uncomfortable speaking
it. You can learn a foreign language on the go using Praxis Mobile Language Learning Networks,
which provides podcasts for Chinese, Spanish, French and Italian. You can listen to and interact with
language lessons with an MP3 player, iPod, mobile phone, computer for internet access, television,
and CD. Colleges or universities in your area may offer traditional classroom instruction or
immersion programs. Other options are audio language lessons and software programs such as
those available from Rosetta Stone. Seek out someone who knows the language that can help you
learn it by holding conversations.
There may even be subtle differences in the same language, cautions Thomas. "Certain words in
English that we use freely could have different meanings outside the US." She cites a situation

225

between American and British businessmen. "During the meeting the Americans said, 'lets table'
this, hoping to end the discussion, but the Brits kept on talking. The Americans took this as utter
disregard and stormed out, not knowing that in England the expression 'let's table it' means to put
it on the table for discussion."
5. Check travel advisories.
Governments issue advisories about safety concerns that may affect travel to a particular country
or region. Travel advisories are released for various reasons, including terrorism, natural disasters,
political unrest, wars, health emergencies, and outbreaks of violent crimes against tourists. Check
to see if the advisory applies to the entire country or certain areas. "Know your geography," says
Thomas. An incident in Okinawa may not impact someone traveling to Hiroshima. "Make your
decision to travel with informed knowledge," she adds.
Have a backup plan in case something does go wrong. Find out whether your home country has an
embassy or consulate in the place you are visiting. Make sure it is fully staffed and functioning. If
the worst happens, you don't want to be stranded in a foreign country without an embassy to help
with emergency evacuation or get in contact with your family and friends back home. Be aware of
what the embassy can or cannot do. For example, if you are injured the State Department can help
you get back home but the cost of medical care comes out of your pocket.
6. Protect yourself.
Kaufman recommends getting travel insurance. "With Road Warrior you can get a yearlong policy
as opposed to a trip-by-trip basis. Insurance companies are there to help you out in a crisis such as
medical evacuations," he says. Following the earthquake and Tsunami, one-way airfare out of Japan
cost $5,000. So, "travel insurance will help mitigate any financial loss you might incur."
Keep in mind that different destinations pose different risks; incorporate that into your strategy for
choosing business travel insurance. Do your research. Travel insurance may not cover you in all
countries and in all circumstances. Most policies do not cover acts of war, riots or civil disorder.
Find out what exclusions apply.
Check with your health plan carrier to see if you need to get another policy to cover medical costs
for an injury or sudden illness abroad, says Thomas. What if you need to be airlifted by helicopter
and taken to the hospital, are you still covered? Look into the large travel insurance companies
such as Travel Guard.

7. Plan to stay connected.


A plug or adapter may be needed to charge notebooks, cell phones, and PDAs while overseas. Also,
contact your cell phone provider before you leave to find out about international options for
business trips, says Kaufman. You may be able to get a temporary plan while you are visiting
another country. To make an international call from your cell phone, your carrier network must be

226

compatible with that country. Your phone also must be technically capable of making international
calls.
Other options are to use Skype on your laptop or a Skype iPhone app to make international calls.
You also can rent a cell phone in airport malls around the world from companies such as TripTel or
online from sites such as Cellularabroad.com.
If you are traveling to a foreign destination for more than a week or two, consider buying a local
phone, suggests Kaufman. You can use that phone for making calls within the host country and it
may prove to be less expensive. "Some business travelers also use local SIM cards because it makes
communications by mobile phones a lot easier."
Just make sure that you have texting capability. Kaufman says text communication is a lot more
reliable than voice communication because it requires less bandwidth. So, during the earthquake in
Japan, phone calls weren't going through but people were able to send text messages to their loved
ones.
http://www.inc.com/guides/201103/7-tips-for-foreign-business-travel.html

Multiple Choice Check all that apply:


1. Business travel involves more than just making travel plans. You also should consider
a. ___ finding the closest gyms to work out in
b. ___ learning about business practices and social customs of destination
c. ___ loading up all your favorite video games
2. When planning your travel itinerary, be sure to
a. ___ leave a copy with your family and colleagues
b. ___ make copies of all your important documents like passport for your family
c. ___ leave an emergency contact list with your travel planner
3. Some good preparation practices for a trip abroad might be to
a. ___ read books or articles about the country you are visiting
b. ___ plan your menu in advance so you can have your favorite foods
c. ___ research if it is acceptable to discuss business over meals
4. Examples of body language and gestures to be careful of include
a. ___ making the OK sign with you thumb and index finger
b. ___ pointing with your finger
c. ___ speaking slowly
5. Learning another language is not easy when in another country. You could
a. ___ make a sincere attempt to learn what you can

227

b. ___ hire a translator


c. ___ dont travel until you have mastered a language
6. You should check for any travel advisories in the country you are traveling to. Check for
a. ___ government issued travel advisories
b. ___ whether the advisory affects your area of travel
c. ___ what weapons you can take to defend yourself
7. Check for the kind of insurance you need to protect yourself a. ___ travel Insurance
b. ___ life Insurance
c. ___ medical Insurance
8. Select the best ways to stay connected while traveling a. ___ using Skype from your computer or cell phone
b. ___ plan on borrowing a phone to make calls
c. ___ texting is always a good option especially in emergencies

WRITING

9.1.4 Business Travel

Analyze the following charts.

A recent study brings to light the usage of business travel policies by corporations. A total of 2100
travel managers were surveyed in 24 countries including Australia, Brazil, China, Germany, India,
Russia, UK and the US.
You can see a bar chart of future business travel volumes on the next page.
Study the chart carefully and write at least 150 words reporting the main features that you find in
these charts and make comparisons where relevant.
The following words might help you:

Upward change : to rise; to increase; to grow; to boom; to show / see an upward trend; to
surge; to soar; to expand;

Downward change : to fall; to decrease; to decline; to dip; to drop; to slump; to deteriorate; to


go down; to show / see a downward trend; to weaken; to hit a low; to plunge; to plummet; to
slump;

228

Stability: to level out / off (at); do not change; to remain stable (at); to remain steady (at); to
stabilize;
Business Travel Volumes

SPEAKING

9.1.5 Discussing a Group Booking for a Hotel (S)

Discuss the following with your partner.

http://www.travelzoo.com/hotels/chicago/-99-Detroit-4-Star-Hotel-w-Free-Breakfast-and-Wi-Fi-1521452/

Student A: You work for a company which wants to send 10 of your employees on a business trip to
a foreign city.
Student B: You run a hotel in a foreign city and you receive a call from a potential customer.
You should negotiate a deal which satisfies both of you, if possible dont forget to be polite and
compromise!

229

A. Leader of travel group

B. Manager of hotel

10 single

Number of rooms
required / available

6 single and 2 double

Full board (breakfast, lunch


and evening meal)

Meals included

Half board (breakfast evening


meal)

Internet in every room, safe


parking, interpreter services

Facilities

Internet available in hotel


lounge, street parking

100 Euros ppp (per person


per night) with a 15 %
discount for a group booking

Price

150 Euros ppp (per person


per night) with a 5% discount
for a group booking

9.2. Travelling Abroad on Business 2 Organizing Travel

WRITING

9.2.1 Letter of Complaint (W)

Write a letter of complaint about the services of the hotel your boss stayed at on his business trip
last week.
He was not satisfied with the facilities of the conference room, the quality of the food and the Wi-Fi
connection in the business lounge, so he would like to have a partial refund.
For useful expressions, format, and sample letter you can consult the following site:
http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0002121.html

How to Write a Complaint Letter

230

Include your name, address, and home and work phone numbers.
Type your letter if possible. If it is handwritten, make sure it is neat and easy to read.
Make your letter brief and to the point. Include all important facts about your purchase,
including the date and place where you made the purchase and any information you can
give about the product or service such as serial or model numbers or specific type of
service.
State exactly what you want done about the problem and how long you are willing to wait
to get it resolved. Be reasonable.
Include all documents regarding your problem. Be sure to send COPIES, not originals.
Avoid writing an angry, sarcastic, or threatening letter. The person reading your letter
probably was not responsible for your problem but may be very helpful in resolving it.
Keep a copy of the letter for your records.

Sample Complaint Letter


Name of Contact Person, if available
Title, if available
Company Name
Consumer Complaint Division, if you have no contact person
Street Address
City, State, Zip Code
Dear (Contact Person):
Re: (account number, if applicable)
On (date), I (bought, leased, rented, or had repaired) a (name of the product, with serial or
model number or service performed) at (location and other important details of the
transaction).
Unfortunately, your product (or service) has not performed well (or the service was
inadequate) because (state the problem). I am disappointed because (explain the problem:
for example, the product does not work properly, the service was not performed correctly,
I was billed the wrong amount, something was not disclosed clearly or was misrepresented,
etc.).
To resolve the problem, I would appreciate it if you could (state the specific action you
wantmoney back, charge card credit, repair, exchange, etc.). Enclosed are copies of my
records (include copies of receipts, guarantees, warranties, canceled checks, contracts,
model and serial numbers, and any other documents).
I look forward to your reply and a resolution to my problem, and will wait until (set a time
limit) before seeking help from a consumer protection agency or the Better Business
Bureau. Please contact me at the above address or by phone at (home and/or office
numbers with area code).
Sincerely,
Your name
Enclosure(s) cc: (reference to whom you are sending a copy of this letter, if anyone

LISTENING

9.2.2 Business Travel Etiquette (L)

231

Listen to the following presentation and decide if the following statements are TRUE, FALSE or NOT
STATED.
YouTube link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NBGEknzJu_Q (MichaelCzinkota.com)

1. Anyone who travels on business has to be aware of cultural imperatives.


TRUE

FALSE

NOT STATED

2. During international meetings everybody is very upset if the meeting starts later than it
should.
TRUE

FALSE

NOT STATED

3. In some countries people are addressed in a different way depending on their social status.
TRUE

FALSE

NOT STATED

4. If you address somebody in a wrong way it may lead to trouble and you might lose a deal.
TRUE

FALSE

NOT STATED

5. The American executives biggest problem was how to address the presidents of his
subsidiaries.
TRUE

FALSE

NOT STATED

6. The Americans in the German restaurant were very cold and they put on their jackets.
TRUE

FALSE

NOT STATED

7. The German host gave a very polite reception for the Americans.
TRUE

FALSE

NOT STATED

232

8. National leaders do not like to be touched by anyone.


TRUE

FALSE

NOT STATED

9. When President Bush shook hands with the Arab leaders they found it appalling.
TRUE

FALSE

NOT STATED

FALSE

NOT STATED

10. Empathy is only about rules.


TRUE

11. As for the resources, it is a good idea to read guidebooks and visit the US Department of
State websites which tells you what to do and what to avoid.
TRUE

FALSE

NOT STATED

12. The Central Intelligence Agency website tells you where not to go or who not to talk to if
you travel abroad.
TRUE

FALSE

NOT STATED

LISTENING

9.2.3. Corporate Travel Management from FCM (L)

Listen to the text and choose the correct answer.


YouTube link: Link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eqnF-4V4j24

1. Getting better travel ideas is all about..


A

working with helpful people

working with people who are experienced

working with people you can ask the right questions

233

working with people you can turn to any time

2. People at FCM think..


A

expensively about the products and services they offer

expansively about the products and services they offer

intensively about the products and services they offer

interestingly about the products and services they offer

3.

FCM is..

a young financial management company

a young travel management company

a young environmental agency

a young investment company

4.

They are represented in

7 countries

17 countries

75 countries

79 countries

5.

Whether you are a small company or a large multinational, they give you the same..

quotation

software

attention

advice

6.

They are a..... business.

234

transaction base

trust base

relationship base

performance base

7.

They do not do one size fits all, they do a service you require ..

on a local and national level.

on a local level.

on a multinational level.

on a local, multinational or global level.

8.

They believe in ..

a face to face to contact with their customers

an everyday contact with their customers

a regular contact with the customers

a mutual contact.

9.

Their consultants are in the world.

the most famous

the most reliable

the best paid

the best trained

10.

The company is not just a . for corporate travel.

travel service

customer service

booking service

235

career service

11.

They give their customers .

the greatest prices

the best discounts

the greatest savings

the greatest safety

SPEAKING

9.2.4. Missed Flight Airport Ticket Counter Encounter (S)

This exercise will feature students practicing English in an encounter with an airport ticket agent
because of a missed flight and a need to rebook. After some preparation time, two students will
conduct the encounter in front of the class.
Preparation:
Break the class into two groups, one will be the ticket agents and one will be the passenger. The
groups will devise questions and strategies for negotiating a new ticket for the missed flight.
The airport ticket agents will represent ANYTIME Airways. They will figure out what kind of
difficulties or problems there will be with rebooking a flight.
The passengers will discuss the questions they need to ask to get a new flight, a new ticket, and
how to pay. They are in Paris and need to rebook a flight to Budapest.
The Encounters:
One agent and one passenger will in turns come to the front of the class and conduct the session.
The passenger starts with his/her problem in needing to rebook a flight back home to Budapest.

236

Unit 10 DEVELOPING YOUR CAREER


Aims of the Unit

The aim of this unit is to introduce you to the kind of English you will need to become familiar with:

training at work,

improving your managerial skills.

237

10.1 TRAINING FOR WORK

SPEAKING

10.1.1 The Labour Market of the Future 1 (S)

What do you know about the international labour market? Discuss these questions with your
partner
5. How many people are working now in Hungary?
6. And in Europe?
7. Is Hungarys population ageing?
8. Will Europes population get younger or older in the future?
9. And what about the rest of the world?
10. Why do you think these demographic trends are happening?

LISTENING

10.1.2 The Labour Market of the Future 2 (L)

A British businessman, Sir Martin Sorrell, is talking about what he feels is the biggest challenge for
the future in the international labour market. Listen to what he says and choose the best option for
each question.
1. What have they done in China?
1

Started a new advertising school in Shanghai

Started advertising in schools in Shanghai

Found students to work in advertising

Found the cleverest young people in Shanghai

2. In order to attract the best young people it is important to offer

a wide variety of subjects in different schools

238

the chance to work for incentives

both money and training courses

a guaranteed career

3. Martin Sorrell believes


1 we cant produce everything we need
2 we soon wont be able to produce everything we need
3 we will have to produce more and more in the future
4 we have no problem making things

4. In the future job market it will be


a) more difficult to find young people
b) easier to find young people
c) more difficult to find clever people
d) easier to employ older people

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-17477469

READING

10.1.3 Its Never Too Late to Learn (R)


What do you think?
Do you know any elderly people who still study or are planning to do so? Tell the class about them.
Now read the text below and fill it with the missing clauses.

Lifelong learning is the secret to happiness in old age

Not only can learning during the later stages of life bring happiness, wellbeing and a connection to
the wider community for those studying, it can also reduce dependency on welfare.

239

John Salinas says weekly ICT classes have given him a new lease of life, allowing him to benefit from
community opportunities.

Professor Stephen McNair has spent half a lifetime's research proving it's better to be happy than
rich a state some say is best achieved through lifelong learning. Now, at last, the government has
latched on to the idea and David Cameron is planning a happiness index _______ (1).
McNair, a semi-retired National Institute of Adult Continuing Education research fellow, says that in
all the guidance about wellbeing, education is central. "[It is] particularly important for those in the
latter stages of life when one is less mobile and having to cope with the death of partners and
friends: getting out of bed__________ (2)."
This is clearly not an issue for 84-year-old Jim Kelly, winner of an Adult Learners' Week award in
2010,_________________ (3) everything from gardening to the 1688 "glorious revolution". After
school days blighted by poverty and bullying teachers, the impetus to study came from his
granddaughter Becky who, as a two-year-old, grew frustrated with his inability to answer her
questions. "Don't you know anything, Grandad?" she would ask. Now, 14 years later, he tells the
teenager he's pleased she asked that question.
Evidence of the benefits of learning ________________ (4) is overwhelming, from research by the
Alzheimer's Society showing delayed onset of the disease, to reduced dependency on welfare
support.
Melissa March is executive director of Learning for the Fourth Age, a charity dedicated to bringing
trained volunteers into care settings where they work with residents. "Our volunteers help people
with everything ________________ (5) to wanting to tackle Welsh for the first time," she explains.
"There is lots of interest too in IT and the connections______________ (6). Our work helps break
down older people's fears about young people and opens our volunteers' eyes to the lives of older
people with very different experiences from their own."
Such improvements_______________ (7) , as 78-year-old Londoner Maria Tolly found. In 1989,
health problems spelled an end to her career as a professional guitarist, until specialist music
technology courses at Morley College and the City Lit restored her commitment to making music. "I
was concerned that I might be sidelined," she recalls, "but actually studying at both institutions has
proved that age is immaterial ___________________ (8) thanks to a combination of forgetting
myself and realising how much I still have to learn." Soon she had music commissions ranging from
after-school dance groups to composing a song for the 100th anniversary of her local park. "I am
now becoming interested in music videos and I am looking for collaborators."

240

The value of learning is no exaggeration, says Fiona Aldridge, Niace programme director and author
of a recent report into lifelong learning in care settings. "The benefits of ensuring that ongoing
learning is a part of a care package is hard to deny when one learns of some of the best practice in
this area. It has significant benefits in terms of improving people's mental health and reducing their
reliance on medication."
http://www.theguardian.com/adult-learning/lifelong-learning-key-to-happiness

a. and feeling one has a purpose can be particularly challenging


b. from recovering piano-playing after strokes
c. that email can bring
d. I feel so connected to life
e. as a measure of success
f. bring genuine happiness
g. who has in recent years dedicated himself to a wide range of study
h. during the latter stages of life
After reading the text: has your opinion changed? Why? Why not?
Discuss with your partner.

LISTENING
10.1.4. E-Learning (L)

It is becoming more and more important to continue your studies at the workplace. To understand
why listen to the presenter of a radio programme talking to Karie Willyerd of Sun Microsystems
about why we need to keep up to date with the changing world.
Change at Sun Microsystems
1

What kinds of companies adopt internet-based teaching and learning very early?

Where are Sun Microsystems and Oracle companies located?

What did the University of California's study show?

What takes 10 years?

What do we have to create?

241

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p003sl42

Buildings 21 and 22 at Sun Microsystems' headquarters campus on the former site of the Agnews
Developmental Center.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sun_Agnews_Campus_Bldgs_21_22.jpg

READING
10.1.5 Addressing Weaknesses (R)

Read the article below and then, on the basis of what you have read, finish the sentences in the
most appropriate way.

Most employees have some weaknesses in their workplace skills. A training program allows you to
strengthen those skills that each employee needs to improve. A development program brings all
employees to a higher level so they all have similar skills and knowledge. This helps reduce any
weak links within the company who rely heavily on others to complete basic work tasks. Providing
the necessary training creates an overall knowledgeable staff with employees who can take over for
one another as needed, work on teams or work independently without constant help and
supervision from others.

Improved Employee Performance


An employee who receives the necessary training is better able to perform her job. She becomes
more aware of safety practices and proper procedures for basic tasks. The training may also build
the employee's confidence because she has a stronger understanding of the industry and the
responsibilities of her job. This confidence may push her to perform even better and think of new
ideas that help her excel. Continuous training also keeps your employees on the cutting edge of
industry developments. Employees who are competent and on top of changing industry standards
help your company hold a position as a leader and strong competitor within the industry.

Consistency

242

A structured training and development program ensures that employees have a consistent
experience and background knowledge. The consistency is particularly relevant for the company's
basic policies and procedures. All employees need to be aware of the expectations and procedures
within the company. This includes safety, discrimination and administrative tasks. Putting all
employees through regular training in these areas ensures that all staff members at least have
exposure to the information.

Employee Satisfaction
Employees with access to training and development programs have the advantage over employees
in other companies who are left to seek out training opportunities on their own. The investment in
training that a company makes shows the employees they are valued. The training creates a
supportive workplace. Employees may gain access to training they wouldn't have otherwise known
about or sought out themselves. Employees who feel appreciated and challenged through training
opportunities may feel more satisfaction toward their jobs.
http://smallbusiness.chron.com/importance-training-development-workplace-10321.html

1. Addressing weaknesses
a. is useful for the staff members who are behind the others.
b. helps employees working on their own.
c. is necessary in businesses where the level of the employees is very different.

2. If you train your employees regularly


a. they will probably develop.
b. they will change the industry standards.
c. their performance at work may drop.

3. Consistent training influences employees in the following way:


a. They will know too much about the company.
b. They might be confused.
c. They will know what is happening at the company.

4. Employees who are trained

243

a. can look for training for themselves elsewhere.


b. are content and feel appreciated.
c. envy the other colleagues who are not.

LISTENING

10.1.6 What is E-Learning? (L)

As young people become more and more computer literate, people are investigating the idea of
learning through computers, as well as or sometimes instead of traditional methods of study.
Listen to Josh Bersin talking about e-learning and fill in the chart and answer the questions.

E-learning is a word that started around ........... (1), and it was originally the concept of
.................. (2) the internet to physical training, so the . (3) concept was We're gonna do
away with the classroom, we're gonna do away with bricks and mortar universities and we're gonna
put it all on the web, and in fact Cisco and other .................. (4) of the internet really tried to
make a lot of ............. (5) about this to try to ................ (6) demand for the internet, and
companies tried to do that and they tried to shut down their classroom training universities tried
to put all their professors on line and what they found was that it didn't work.
The Internet is good for

The Internet is not good for

7. .................. training

10. soft skills like .....................

8. ................. on a process

11+12 how to ..........., or how to .................

9. .............. training

13. some of the more people-..................... skills

14. What does the average employee do 70 times in a single day? Shift between their . and
their .
15. How many PC's are there in the world? ..
16. Who or what do we learn from?
What have become very important parts of corporate training?

244

17. tools of .......................


18. the concepts of .........................
http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p003sl42

SPEAKING

10.1.7 E-Learning (S)

http://www.palco-me.com/main/E-Learning.jpg

Questions for discussion


1

Do you prefer to study using traditional methods (books and note-taking) or do you enjoy
using computers?

Do you think your school or university is well-equipped with the latest technology for
students?

Do you think you will be able to work effectively without being computer literate?

What are computers not able to teach you?

Are you happy about the thought of having to relearn things later in your working life?

WRITING

10.1.8 Whats Your Opinion about E-Learning? (W)


Using the help given in section 3.1.9, write an essay of about 200 words on the pros and cons of Elearning. Include the following points:

Reasons for its development and spread

Types of courses ideal for e-learning

245

Advantages
- popularity of high-tech forms of learning
- flexibility
- your own pace and schedule
- objective evaluation
- cost-effective
Disadvantages
- no immediate feedback
- lack of oral communication
- needs self-discipline
Finish with a conclusion

WRITING

10.1.9 How to Write For and Against Type Essays (1) (W)

1. State the issue, explaining its relevance / topicality, and if necessary explaining why it
causes disagreement/controversy.
One of the most widely-debated issues facing us today is .
In recent years the issue of has been widely discussed

2. Present different opinions


Many (people) have argued / argue that
There is a widespread belief that...
There is general agreement that .
Most people believe that ,
According to some experts

3. Present your own opinion


In my opinion
I tend to think that
From my perspective, the situation is
I have always believed that
I have come to the conclusion that .
I am sceptical about this. / I doubt that this is true.

246

4. Conclude
All things considered,
Considering all the arguments, on balance I would say
In conclusion, I would argue that
All in all I tend to agree with people who

WRITING

10.1.10 Writing a Letter Inviting a Tender 1 (W)

Exercise 1 You work at the Conferi Kft. which organises training events in Hungary. You are going to
organise a training event for the medical sector and you need to translators and interpreters. Write
a letter to a translation agency asking them to bid for the work. Use the prompts given below.
Conferi Kft.
56 Rakoczi t.
Budapest

Smith Spa.
456 Sony St.
Belgium 45

21st February 2005

Dear Ms Smith

I / Gbor Pcsi, managing director / Conferi Kft., / company specialize / organise / training
events / Hungary.
I / write / announce / new training course / we organise / March 2015 / Budapest.
2000 trainees / attend / the event / all over / world.
The sessions / take place / Hotel Confi / last 3 days.
The participants / need translation services / Hungarian / English / vice versa.
We invite your company / bid / contract.
In your bid you / provide detailed information / services / costs.
All tenders must / receive / July 21st 2014 / the result / announce / August 30th.
Please / not hesitate / contact me personally if / need / details.

247

I enclose / brochure / details / conference.


Yours /
Gbor Pcsi

WRITING

10.1.11 Writing a Letter Inviting a Tender 2 (W)


Exercise 2 You work at the Centre for International Studies employing 20 officials at the University
of Budapest which receives more than 1,000 foreign students each year. You are responsible for
staff training and improvement and it is your job to organise a training course to help staff at the
Centre deal with students from different cultures and countries. Write letters to training
organisations asking for offers. In the letter you should describe what kind of training course you
need and also what you can pay for the course. Write a letter of 150-180 words, excluding names,
addresses, dates.
Requirements:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

training for 20 persons


language of training: English
one week, 7 hours per day
varied teaching material
involving theory and practice (case studies preferred)
subjects: procedures concerning studying abroad
- higher education systems in the EU
- welcoming visitors
- contacting people from other cultures (greetings, non-verbal communication)
- cultural differences (dress code, gifts, inviting people)

Venue: comfortable, spacious room, located in the centre of Budapest but in a quiet area
Budget: 2,000,000 HUF, including 5 lunches

10.2.MANAGEMENT

VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

10.2.1 What do Managers Do? (V)

248

http://www.lematin.ma/supplement/emploi/2012/Management_Quel-DRH--pour-demain/Management_Quel-DRH-pour-demain--/174876.html

Match the pairs below:

set

a. tasks to different employees

communicate

b. new working practices to the organisation

improve

c. the best person for each task

select

d. problems when they occur

train

e. the efficiency of the organisation

introduce

f. with all members of staff

allocate

g. newly recruited employees

deal with

h. goals and targets for the staff

Discuss these questions with a partner:


1. Have you got the right skills to manage people?
2. Could you organise people to work effectively?

READING

10.2.2 Useful People to Have in Teams (S)

Study the table below. Do you agree that people can be divided into different types of workers on
the basis of their personality and style of work? Which type would you be?

Type

Typical features

Strengths

Weaknesses

Worker

Reliable

Works hard

Is not very creative

Manager

Confident

Focuses on objectives

Is not very intellectual

249

Researcher

Self disciplined

Explores new ideas

Has narrow interests

SPEAKING

10.2.3 Selecting a Team (S)


You work for the HR Department. Choose one of the projects below and, using the information on
the previous page, decide which three types of worker would make the best team. Remember to
choose people with the right skills and working styles and also people who could work with each
other easily in a small team of three people.
Task

Type of team needed

Setting up an
banking service

Important aspects of task People chosen

Internet Financial
services - tight deadline, reliable 1.
development team
system, high financial risk 2.

3.
Applying for an EU grant
Planning and negotiating - must be well-prepared,1.
team
presentation important
2.
3.
Investigating fraud in a Investigative team
- long-term job, attention 1.
multinational company
to detail
2.
3.
Developing a new sales Sales team
- lots of travelling, 1.
territory for a food product
individual
initiative2.
important, social contacts3.
important

WRITING

10.2.4 Writing an E-Mail (W)


Now write an e-mail to your manager in which you describe the three people who you think are
most suitable for the task. Use some of the expressions below in your email.

We need a person who is .

It is important / crucial / vital / necessary to have ..

It would be advisable / preferable to have

X's would be helpful / useful / indispensable .

This task requires .

250

In order to .. we need someone who can .

VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

10.2.5. Motivating Staff Financially (V)

A manager needs to motivate staff. One typical way of motivating staff is to pay them well. See if
you can complete these sentences with the words at the bottom of the page:
1

There was very little to work because the pay was very low and the work was
quite boring.

Salespeople can increase their earnings significantly because they earn a . every
time they make a sale.

Most people nowadays are paid a monthly . which is paid into their bank account
automatically.

A talented young footballer often has a very high .. even though his career may
be quite short.

Many companies prefer to give their employees .... like a free mobile phone, or
meal vouchers, because this is less expensive than paying them more.

In London public sector workers get a ., which is usually 8.5% of their regular
pay, to compensate them for the high costs of the capital.

Everyone has tax, national insurance and pension contribution . from their pay.

Women dont always receive the same of pay as men for the same job.

At the end of the year many workers can get a .. if their company has been
successful

10 When company directors retire they are often given a which is usually a lot
of money.

deducted

incentive

commission

golden handshake

rate

salary

earning potential

bonus

cost-of-living allowance

fringe benefit

LISTENING

10.2.6 How to Manage Your Staff (L)

251

Many organisations try to make work enjoyable for their staff, but not all succeed. Listen to this
extract from a radio programme about how managers treat their staff and answer the questions.

1. How many people work for the Beaverbrooks chain of shops?


2. What percentage of them are satisfied with their manager and his/her approach to
management?
3. The women at Beaverbrooks explain why they are happy to work there. Which of these ideas do
they mention?
1

You can talk to the managers, unlike at other stores

You can choose which department to work in

The company pays you very well

You dont need to worry about the future

The managers visit the staff frequently

The atmosphere makes you want to work there

You are free to contact the management

4. What is Karen happy about? (fill in the spaces)


a. She has been able to earn _________________ in bonuses
b. She has been able to take her family to __________________
c. She works with colleagues who have the utmost ______________________
d. Her _____________________ are recognised

Fill in the spaces


Beaverbrooks started to take notice of the opinions of its staff in ______________________ (5).
Mark Addlestone found that the staff were not receiving any ______________________________
(6) and they were not __________________ (7), but above all they didnt feel
__________________________________

(8).

So

he

introduced

new

package

of

_______________________ (9) benefits, and he visits each store personally at least


_______________________________ (10). Mark Addlestone believes that sometimes people say
they are fine, even when something _______________ (11), but he believes that people
________________ (12) the company and him personally.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/news/nicework/nicework_20041130.shtml

252

READING

10.2.7. Motivating Staff (R)

http://activerain.com/image_store/uploads/8/4/0/3/7/ar131162792273048.jpg

Something that will make me stay, love and enjoy my work.


(Guest cheyser)
http://humanresources.about.com/u/ua/motivationrewardretention/work_motivation.htm

This quote comes from an internet chat site. Do you think it describes what motivation at work is?

Work in pairs and answer the following questions:


1
2
3

What motivates a 5-year-old child?


What motivates you?
What do you think people motivates at work?

Now you are going to read a text about motivation at work. After reading it decide on which points
you agree with the writer.

What People Want From Work: Motivation


Motivation Is Different For Each of Your Employees
By Susan M. Heathfield, About.com Guide

Every person has different motivations for working. The reasons for working are as individual as the
person. But, we all work because we obtain something that we need from work. The something we
obtain from work impacts our morale and motivation and the quality of our lives. Here is the most
recent thinking about motivation, what people want from work.

253

Work IS About the Money


Some people work for love; others work for personal fulfillment. Others like to accomplish goals
and feel as if they are contributing to something larger than themselves, something important.
Some people have personal missions they accomplish through meaningful work. Others truly love
what they do or the clients they serve. Some like the camaraderie and interaction with customers
and coworkers. Other people like to fill their time with activity. Some workers like change,
challenge, and diverse problems to solve. Motivation is individual and diverse.
Whatever your personal reasons for working, the bottom line, however, is that almost everyone
works for money. Whatever you call it: compensation, salary, bonuses, benefits or remuneration,
money pays the bills. Money provides housing, gives children clothing and food, sends teens to
college, and allows leisure activities, and eventually, retirement. To underplay the importance of
money and benefits as motivation for people who work is a mistake.
Fair benefits and pay are the cornerstone of a successful company that recruits and retains
committed workers. If you provide a living wage for your employees, you can then work on
additional motivation issues. Without the fair, living wage, however, you risk losing your best
people to a better-paying employer.
In fact, recent research from Watson Wyatt Worldwide in The Human Capital Edge: 21 People
Management Practices Your Company Must Implement (or Avoid) to Maximize Shareholder Value,
(Compare Prices) recommends, that to attract the best employees, you need to pay more than your
average-paying counterparts in the marketplace. Money provides basic motivation.
Got Money? What's Next for Motivation?
I've read the surveys and studies dating back to the early 1980s that demonstrate people want
more from work than money. An early study of thousands of workers and managers by the
American Psychological Association clearly demonstrated this. While managers predicted the most
important motivational aspect of work for people would be money, personal time and attention
from the supervisor was cited by workers as most rewarding and motivational for them at work.
In a recent Workforce article, "The Ten Ironies of Motivation", reward and recognition guru, Bob
Nelson, says, "More than anything else, employees want to be valued for a job well done by those
they hold in high esteem." He adds that people want to be treated as if they are adult human
beings.
While what people want from work is situational, depending on the person, his needs and the
rewards that are meaningful to him, giving people what they want from work is really quite
straightforward. People want:

Control of their work inspires motivation: including such components as the ability to
impact decisions; setting clear and measurable goals; clear responsibility for a complete, or
at least defined, task; job enrichment; tasks performed in the work itself; and recognition for
achievement.

To belong to the in-crowd creates motivation: including items such as receiving timely
information and communication; understanding management's formulas for decision
making; team and meeting participation opportunities; and visual documentation and
posting of work progress and accomplishments.

254

The opportunity for growth and development is motivational: and includes education and
training; career paths; team participation; succession planning; cross-training; and field trips
to successful workplaces.

Leadership is key in motivation. People want clear expectations that provide a picture of the
outcomes desired with goal setting and feedback and an appropriate structure or
framework.

What You Can Do for Motivation and Positive Morale


You have much information about what people want from work. Key to creating a work
environment that fosters motivation are the wants and needs of the individual. I recommend that
you ask your employees what they want from work and whether they are getting it. With this
information in hand, I predict you'll be surprised at how many simple and inexpensive opportunities
you have to create a motivational, desirable work environment. Pay attention to what is important
to the people you employ for high motivation and positive morale. You'll achieve awesome
business success.
http://humanresources.about.com/od/rewardrecognition/a/needs_work.htm

Now answer the questions below:


1. What is essential if you want to avoid losing your best people?
_____________________________________________
2. What do workers want from their employees?
_____________________________________________
3. Why is setting clear and measurable goals important?
_____________________________________________
4. What does belong to the in-crowd mean?
_____________________________________________
5. List three types of opportunities for development.
_____________________________________________
6. What does the author of this article recommend employers do?
_____________________________________________

255

KEY TO EXERCISES AND TRANSCRIPTS

UNIT 1 THE HUMAN BODY


1.1.1 Interesting Facts about the Human Body
Key:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

during the day.


water.
the small intestine.
razorblades.
a tennis court.
than mens.
make room for your heart.
stress.
reduced to 206.
in the evening.

1.1.2 Pair-Work

Key:
1. The brain is much more active at night than during the day. Logically, you would think that
all the moving around, complicated calculations and tasks and general interaction we do on
a daily basis during our working hours would take a lot more brain power than, say, lying in
bed. Turns out, the opposite is true. When you turn off your brain turns on. Scientists dont
yet know why this is but you can thank the hard work of your brain while you sleep for all
those pleasant dreams.
2. 80% of the brain is water. Your brain isnt the firm, gray mass youve seen on TV. Living
brain tissue is a squishy, pink and jelly-like organ thanks to the loads of blood and high
water content of the tissue. So the next time youre feeling dehydrated get a drink to keep
your brain hydrated.
3. The largest internal organ is the small intestine. Despite being called the smaller of the
two intestines, your small intestine is actually four times as long as the average adult is tall.
If it werent looped back and forth upon itself it wouldnt fit inside the abdominal cavity.
4. The acid in your stomach is strong enough to dissolve razorblades. While you certainly
shouldnt test the fortitude of your stomach by eating a razorblade or any other metal
object for that matter, the acids that digest the food you eat arent to be taken lightly.
Hydrochloric acid, the type found in your stomach, is not only good at dissolving the pizza
you had for dinner but can also eat through many types of metal.

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5. The surface area of a human lung is equal to a tennis court. In order to more efficiently
oxygenate the blood, the lungs are filled with thousands of branching bronchi and tiny,
grape-like alveoli. These are filled with microscopic capillaries which oxygen and carbon
dioxide. The large amount of surface area makes it easier for this exchange to take place,
and makes sure you stay properly oxygenated at all times.
6. Womens hearts beat faster than mens. The main reason for this is simply that on average
women tend to be smaller than men and have less mass to pump blood to. But womens
and mens hearts can actually act quite differently, especially when experiencing trauma
like a heart attack, and many treatments that work for men must be adjusted or changed
entirely to work for women.
7. Your left lung is smaller than your right lung to make room for your heart. For most
people, if they were asked to draw a picture of what the lungs look like they would draw
both looking roughly the same size. While the lungs are fairly similar in size, the human
heart, though located fairly centrally, is tilted slightly to the left making it take up more
room on that side of the body and crowding out that poor left lung.
8. Over 90% of diseases are caused or complicated by stress. That high stress job you have
could be doing more than just wearing you down each day. It could also be increasing your
chances of having a variety of serious medical conditions like depression, high blood
pressure and heart disease.
9. Babies are born with 300 bones, but by adulthood the number is reduced to 206. The
reason for this is that many of the bones of children are composed of smaller component
bones that are not yet fused like those in the skull. This makes it easier for the baby to pass
through the birth canal. The bones harden and fuse as the children grow.
10. We are about 1 cm taller in the morning than in the evening. The cartilage between our
bones gets compressed by standing, sitting and other daily activities as the day goes on,
making us just a little shorter at the end of the day than at the beginning.
http://icantseeyou.typepad.com/my_weblog/2008/02/100-very-cool-f.html

1.1.3 The Human Body in Numbers


Key:
1. 120
2. 400
3. 30
4. 70
5. 100,000
6. 3
7. 1
8. 166

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9. 1.5
10. 20
11. 60,000
12. 600,000

1.1.4 Interesting Activities of the Human Body


Key:
1. dream, 2. grows, 3. dissolve, 4. burn, 5. produce, 6. eating, 7. causes,
8. stop, 9. contain, 10. die, 11. see, 12. survive

1.2.1 The Body


Key:
4. neck
8. elbow
11. back
13. waist
18. thigh

1.2.2 The Hand


Key:
21. wrist
24. thumb
29. palm

1.2.3 The Head


Key:
32. forehead
34. ear
36. nose

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40. moustache

1.2.4 The Eye


Key:
44. eyebrow
46. eyelashes

1.2.5 The Foot


Key:
50. ankle
54. toe

1.2.6 The Internal Organs


Key:
57. brain
59. throat
62. muscle
64. heart
66. stomach
68. vein
70. kidney
72. bladder

1.2.7 Body Systems and Organs


Key:
throat, windpipe, lung: respiratory system
esophagus, liver, stomach, intestines, pancreas: digestive system
kidney, bladder: urinary system
heart, vein, artery: cardiovascular system

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muscle, bone: musculoskeletal system


brain, spinal cord: nervous system

1.2.8 Body Systems -Pictures


Key:
1. Lymphatic system
2. Respiratory system
3. Digestive system
4. Urinary system
5. Reproductive system
6. Integumentary system
7. Muscular system
8. Skeletal system
9. Nervous system
10. Endocrine system
11. Circulatory system

1.3.1 Medical Specialists and Activities


Key:
1. l, 2. j, 3. i, 4. a, 5. m, 6. n, 7. o, 8. d, 9. c, 10. k, 11. e, 12. g,
13. h, 14. b, 15. f

1.3.2 Definition of Specialists


Key:
a. Gastroenterologists are medical doctors who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of
diseases of the digestive system, such as hepatitis, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, and colon or
rectal cancer.
b. General practitioners are medical doctors who diagnose and treat most types of health
conditions or diseases and do not specialize in any particular area of medicine. They provide basic
medical service.

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c. An internist is a medical doctor who specializes in the care of adults. People might choose an
internist as their primary doctor for regular checkups and for treating illness.
Internists can further specialize in areas such as:

Endocrinology (diseases of the endocrine glands, which regulate hormones).


Gastroenterology (diseases of the digestive system).
Nephrology (diseases of the kidney and urinary system).

d. ENT doctors perform surgery for sinus and sleep problems, remove tonsils and tumors, help with
hearing and balance problems.
e. Pathologists are medical doctors who specialize in the examination of tissue and blood samples
to diagnose disease and who perform autopsies.
f. Plastic surgeons are medical doctors who specialize in surgery that improves a person's
appearance.
g. Rheumatologists are medical doctors who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases
of the joints.
h.Sports medicine specialists are medical doctors who specialize in the treatment of people who
have injuries to their bones, muscles, joints, tendons, or ligaments that result from physical activity.
i. Urologists are medical doctors who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the
urinary system in men and women and disorders of the male reproductive system.

1.4.1 Pair-Work
Key:
I saw my general practitioner 2 months ago. My nose was running, I had high fever, and I had a sore
throat. My GP listened to my heart and lungs, he took my pulse and checked my throat. He told me
to take vitamin C, antipyretic and some cough mixture. He advised me to have a rest and drink
plenty of hot liquid.

1.4.2 Doctor-Patient Dialogue - Examination


Key: 1. come in for, 2. roll up, 3. take, 4. exercise, 5. run up, 6. have, 7. listen, 8. hold,
9. open, 10. order

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1.4.3 Explaining Words


Key:
physical examination (exam): an examination, usually peformed by a physician, of a person's body
in order to determine his or her state of health.
ultra-sound: the use of ultrasonic waves for diagnostic purposes, specifically to image an internal
body structure or monitor a developing fetus.
overweight: weighing more than is normal, necessary, or allowed, especially having more body
weight than is considered normal or healthy for one's age or build.
balanced diet: a diet that contains adequate amounts of all the necessary nutrients required for
healthy growth and activity.
stethoscope: a medical instrument for listening to the sounds generated inside the body.
to look ship shape: to seem to be in a good condition.
slip: a small piece of paper, especially a small form, document, or receipt.
to arrange an appointment: to schedule a meeting with someone.

1.5.1 Diseases - Categories


Key:
Musculoskeletal: osteoporosis, gout, fractures
Hormonal: diabetes, menopause, thyroid dysfunction
Neurologic: dementia, Parkinson's disease, balance problem
Visual: macular degeneration, glaucoma, cataracts
Cardiovascular disease: heart attack, irregular heart rhythm, hypertension
Lungs: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia, asthma
Skin and Hair: hair loss, dry skin, itching
Gastrointestinal: stomach ulcer, heartburn, constipation

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Urinary: urinary incontinence, polyuria, dsyuria


Oral and dental: gum disease, dry mouth, poorly fitting dentures
Psychiatric: depression, anxiety, insomnia
General problems: fatigue, appetite loss, weight gain

1.5.2 Common Infectious Diseases Worldwide


Key:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

A mosquito that transmits malaria.


A virus causing influenza.
A tsetse fly spreading sleeping sickness.
A bacterial or viral infection of the brain leading to meningitis.
The yellowing of the white of the eye, typical of hepatitis.

1.5.3 Common Infectious Diseases


Key:
1. developing, 2. include, 3. fatal, 4. with, 5. dehydration, 6. infected, 7. mild,
8. severe, 9. develop, 10. of, 11. majority, 12. of, 13. victims, 14. prevalent,
15. lethargy, 16. immunity, 17. watery, 18. procedures, 19. sustained, 20. recover

1.5.4 Health Tips to Tourists Travelling to Hungary


Key:
Sample answer
In case of an emergency, don't worry about insurance issues and head directly to the nearest
hospital emergency room. Under Hungarian law, any health organization, public or private, is
required to treat patients in an emergency situation regardless of their insurance status. Emergency
telephone numbers (toll-free from any phone): Ambulance: dial 104, Police: dial 107, Fire Brigade:
dial 105.

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Food and water precautions


After washing fruits or vegetables carefully you can eat them at once. When visiting Hungary no
precautions concerning food or water have to be taken. You can freely drink tap water. (There are
only few places where water is forbidden to drink, for example on the trains, but here you can buy
bottled water in the dining car).
Vaccinations
In Hungary there are no special regulations concerning vaccinations, but Hepatitis A and influenza
vaccines are recommended for all travellers over one year of age.
http://www.justlanded.com/english/Hungary/Hungary-Guide/Health/Stay-safe-in-Hungary

1.6.1 Medical Abbreviations -Guessing


Key:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

BP: blood pressure


COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
CNS: central nervous system
ER: emergency room
ECG: electrocardiogram
IM: intramuscular
IV: intravenous
M.D.: medical doctor
OR: operating room
OTC: over the counter
STD: sexually transmitted disease
W: weight

1.6.2 Medical Abbreviations - Completion


Key:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

ABR: absolute bed rest


ABT: antibiotic therapy
ADH: antidiuretic hormone
CBC: complete blood count
CSF: cerebrospinal fluid
DOA: dead on arrival
GI: gastrointestinal
ICP: intracranial pressure
MI: myocardial infarction

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10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

SOB: shortness of breath


S/S: signs and symptoms
TPR: temperature, pulse, respiration
UTI: urinary tract infection
VS: vital signs
WBC: white blood count

1.7.1 Names of Instruments


Key:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Stethoscope
Reflex hammer
Mercury thermometers
Weighing scale
Kidney dish
Nebulizer
Defibrillator
Hemodialysis machine
Syringe and needle
Blood infusion set
Bandage
Endoscope

1.7.2 Usage of Instruments


Key:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Bandage: it is used for to cover and protect certain areas of the body after an injury.
Blood infusion set: it is used for routine venipunctures and infusion applications.
Defibrillator: it is used to start up a heart that is not beating.
Endoscope: it is used to look inside the oesophagus, stomach, intestines mainly in surgery.
Hemodialysis machine: it is used to remove toxic materials from the blood that are
generally removed by the kidneys; used in case of renal failure.
Kidney dish: it is used as a tray for instruments, gauze, tissue, etc.
Mercury thermometers: they are used to record body temperature.
Nebulizer: it is used to produce aerosols of drugs to be administered by respiratory route.
Reflex hammer: it is used to test motor reflexs of the body.
Stethoscope: it is used to hear sounds from movements within the body, like heart beats,
breath sounds, etc.
Syringe and needle: they are used for injections and aspiration of blood or fluid from the
body.
Weighing scale: it is used to record the patients weight.

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instruments_used_in_general_medicine

1.7.3 Matching Instrument and Definition


Key:
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

d.

h.

g.

j.

f.

k.

l.

e.

a.

i.

b.

c.

1.8.1 Body Planes in Different Fields of Medicine


Key: Anatomy, physiology, pathology.

1.8.2 Definitions
Key: Section: b., Plane: a.

1.8.3 Body Planes Listening


Key:
Task 1
The body is in upright status where your feet are parallel and flat on the floor, the upper limbs are
at the sides of the body the palms face anteriorly which is toward the front, towards your navel,
the head is level and the eyes are facing forward.
Task 2
1. sagittal
2. coronal
3. horizontal
Task 3
1. midsagittal
2. frontal
3. cross-sectional
Task 4
1. right, left
2. anterior, posterior (front, back)
3. superior, inferior (top, bottom)

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Task 5
Oblique plane: it is a plane that passes through the body at a unique angle. That is it is not directly
perpendicular or parallel to the body.

1.8.4 Transcript:
Body planes and Sections by Prof Knoppy
Welcome to lecture three. In lecture three we are going to look at some basic ideas in A and P
thats considered the language of anatomy and physiology. There is a very precise language, and it
needs to be, think of, someone doing surgery in that case any small mistake in terminology can be
diastrous in the long run. Secondly, the terms that we use in A and P are often very technical, some
of those you hear in everday language but most you do not. Anatomists use a very specific position
of the body, as a point of common reference, no matter where you go in the world, though they
may have different words is different languages the point of reference is the same, no matter
where you are at. In that point of reference is turned the anatomic position or the anatomical
position: it is in upright status where your feet are parallel and flat on the floor, the upper limbs are
at the sides of the body the palms face anteriorly which is toward the front, towards your navel the
head is level and the eyes are facing forward. Now we could break the body down into several
different parts based on either sections and by plane. Sections is a slice or cut to expose the
internal anatomy and we get those sections by looking at planes or imaginary flat surfaces passing
through the body. There are three major planes: we have the coronal, the transverse and the
sagittal or midsagittal. The coronal plane is a vertical plane dividing the body into anterior and
posterior parts, it is often called the frontal plane, as if someone took a giant knife and cut a person
so that the front and back of the body would be in pieces. The second is a transverse plane, it is a
horizontal plane dividing the body into top and bottom or superior or inferior pieces, you also see it
call a cross-sectional plane. The third is the sagittal or mid-sagittal plane, it is a vertical plane
dividing the body into left and right pieces. A sagittal plane gives you left and right pieces a midsagittal plane gives you equal left and right halves. Finally, we have the oblique plane, and it is a
plane that passes through the body at a unique angle. That is it is not directly perpendicular or
parallel to the body, it will pass at something like a thirty or forty-five or seventy degree angle
somewhere in between zero and a hundred and eighty degrees. When you are observing sections
learning about the body it is important to understand what plane you are looking at that section
from. It will help you to interpret what you are looking at within the section itself. Finally, we have
the last slide which will show you in the figure the different sections of the body. The very first one
that we are going to look at is the coronal, keep in mind this is the one dividing the body into front
and back pieces, we can see that there, that is the blue one, next we have the transverse, which is
this one here, this giving you, a section that this gives you top and bottom pieces, and finally, we
have the sagittal, which is this plane here, giving you left and right pieces, and more specifically, the
mid-sagittal section as giving you equal left and right pieces.

Source: http://youtu.be/oxJ4fARh9gE

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1.9.1 Matching Pain and Description


Key:
1.- i, 2.- g, 3.-a, 4.-f, 5.-b, 6.-h, 7-c, 8.-j, 9.-d, 10.-e

1.9.2 Experiencing Pain Last


Key:
I had a headache two weeks ago. I took some painkillers and relaxed in my bed.

1.9.3 What Is Chronic Pain?


Key:
1. True, 2. False, 3. False, 4. True, 5. False, 6. True, 7. False, 8. False

1.9.4 Pain That Comes and Goes


Key:
to get to the bottom of something: to get an understanding of the causes of something.
eating habits: the way a person eats, considered in terms of what types of food are eaten, in what
quantities, and when.
to come and go: to exist or happen for a short time and then go away.
on a scale of one to ten: A progressive classification between 1 and 10.
heavy food: food that takes a long time to digest.

1.9.5 Dialogue Completion


Key: 1. stomach, 2. earlier, 3. but, 4. strong, 5. say, 6. hardly, 7. cause, 8. travel

1.10.1 Guessing the Word


Key:
High body temperature: fever.

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Sign, indication; something caused by and indicative of a certain disease or disorder: symptom.
Abnormally frequent and loose bowel movements: diarrhoea.
Thick, sticky mucus secreted by the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract, as during a cold or
other respiratory infection: phlegm.
Having knowledge of something: be aware of something.
Having the respiratory passages blocked: stuffy.
An abnormally high sensitivity to certain substances, such as pollens or foods: allergy.

1.10.2 Doctor-Patient Dialogue - Pain


Key: 1. cough, 2. feeling, 3. headache, 4. produce, 5. packet, 6. allergies, 7. past, 8. mouth

1.11.1 Matching Pictures and Expressions


Key:
1. Don't sweat it/ Don't sweat the small stuff.
2. Hectic life
3. Fight or flight response

1.11.2 Adjective Forms of Verbs


Key:
a. circulatory
b. digestive
c. diaphragmatic
d. reproductive

1.11.3 Verbs and Nouns


Key:
Verb

Noun

digest

digestion

breathe

breathing

perspire

perspiration

sweat

sweating

exhaust

exhaustion

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grow

growth

accumulate

accumulation

1.11.4 Stress
Key:
1.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Your heart.
Your blood pressure.
Your blood.
Your digestion.
Your immune system.
Your breathing.
Your perspiration.
Your muscles.
Your blood sugar.
Your anti-aging growth hormones.
Your reproductive system and sex hormones.
Your stress hormones.

1. Key:
1. When you're stressed your body a. reacts instantly.
2. Your heart beats b. faster and you put excess strain on it.
3. Your blood pressure further rises because your body also narrows and constricts your blood
vessels to prevent you from bleeding to c. death from injury.
4. Here's the challenge: your d. blood will clot regardless of whether or not you really are
injured.
5. So, even if you're eating healthy foods your body won't be able to e. properly digest that
food.
6. Your body will suppress your f. immune system.
7. Anxiety and panic g. attacks can also accompany shallow breathing.
8. Under stress we can h. perspire excessively.
9. Some of our bodies are not equipped to adequately process that lot of blood sugar and that
can lead to i. serious health problems.

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10. Your body reduces the flow of anti-aging growth hormones, so as a j. result our bodies age
faster.
11. Your reproductive systems are suppressed and you produce k. less sex hormones, so this
can result in you feeling a drop in your libido, your sex drive.
12. Your body pumps out adrenaline and noradrenaline which alert our body that it's in l.
danger.
13. Your body also pumps out cortisol which is considered the m. primary stress hormone.

1.11 Transcript
The Effect of Stress on Your Body

Welcome to your tour of your body on stress.


When you're stressed your body reacts instantly.
Here are 12 of the most significant changes that happen in your body.
Your heart: each time you experience stress,
your heart beats faster and you put excess strain on it.
Your blood pressure: your blood pressure increases
because it's pumping extra blood, oxygen and sugars to your muscles to supply
more energy.
Remember under stress you trigger your fight or flight response
and your body responds as though you're under attack. Whether it's real,
just a perceived threat or you're just feeling the pressure and tension from
your modern-day, hectic life.
Your blood pressure further rises because your body
also narrows and constricts your blood vessels to prevent you from bleeding to
death from injury.
Your blood: your blood starts clotting which creates blockages
in your circulatory system preventing the free flow of blood through your body.
This is another way your body protects yo, so if you're injured you wont bleed
to death. Here's the challenge: your blood will clot regardless of whether or
not you really are injured.
Your digestion: stress severely affects your digestion.
Under stress your body shuts or slows down any systems that
are absolutely necessary to deal with the immediate threat.
At those times your body does not care about digesting food,
it only cares about staying alive, so the blood supply to your digestive organs
has slowed.

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This can lead to weight gain which many of us are trying to prevent through
good nutrition and exercise.
So, even if you're eating healthy foods
your body won't be able to properly digest that food
and extract the nourishment it needs because that system has slowed down.
This can also lead to increased stomach acidity.
It's no wonder that you turn on the television and hear countless
ads for medication that help with acid reflux
and stomach acidity problems. That's why it is essential
to manage your stress, so your digestion can be strong and process your nutrition
properly each day. Otherwise, the food will just sit there
and slowly make its way out while you continue to add more food
overloading your already slow digestive system.
Your immune system: like your digestive system,
your body will suppress your immune system. Under stress
your body is less concerned with fighting disease. Its main focus is fighting off
or fleeing from a perceived threat.
So, this means you're much more susceptible to getting sick and having less
physical resources to fight that sickness.
When people are upset and stressed about something, have you ever heard the phrase:
that makes me sick.
Well, yes, those situations can make you sick, really.
Your breathing: when you're stressed your breathing switches from relaxed
slow, deeper, diaphragmatic breathing to fast shallow chest breathing.
This can put a strain on your lungs and can lead to hyper-ventillation.
Anxiety and panic attacks can also accompany shallow breathing.
In challenging moments we often tell people to, please, take a deep breath.
Now you know that's because under stress we breathe much more shallow
preventing our bodies from receiving the much-needed oxygen to
operate at its best.
Your perspiration: have you heard the phrase: don't sweat it or don't sweat
the small stuff - referring to people who are upset about so many things?
Under stress we can perspire excessively. People who are nervous and anxious
often experience increased sweating. Even general nervousness can make us perspire.
Your body sweats more to keep your body cool. Under stress you put increased
demands and activity on your body and your body responds by sweating
to keep us from overheating which would really cause some serious
internal damage.
Your muscles: more blood flows to your muscles giving them a
burst of temporary strength.
When this happens we put pressure and strain on our muscles
since they haven't been trained to actually handle the excess workload.
This strain can lead to injury and overtime sheer exhaustion.
Most of us know that the best way to develop strength is consistent and
steady weight training over time not from pumping excess blood to our muscles

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and overuse from stress.


Your blood sugar: your blood sugar levels rise to provide more energy to your body.
Some of our bodies are not equipped to adequately process that
lot of blood sugar and that can lead to serious health problems.
Your anti-aging growth hormones: your body reduces the flow
anti-aging growth hormones, so as a result our bodies age faster.
Your reproductive system and sex hormones: your reproductive systems
are suppressed and you produce less sex hormones, so this can result in
you feeling a drop in your libido, your sex drive.
Stress interferes with the hormones needed to become sexually aroused.
Your stress hormones: under stress your body pumps out a lot of stress
hormones.
Here just a few: your body pumps out adrenaline and noradrenaline which
alert our body that it's in danger. It increases our anxiety and fear
making our thoughts race. These stress hormones also
raise our heart rate, increase our perspiration, slower digestion,
and activate various body systems to temporarily boost
energy supplies. Your body also pumps out cortisol
which is considered the primary stress hormone. Cortisol increases the sugar in
your blood stream can cause the accumulation of fat around your belly
and is responsible for slowing digestion, immunity
reproductive systems and growth and anti-aging processes.

Source: http://youtu.be/Ho_a5FlcsJ4

1.12.1 Medicine and Definition


Key:
1.- E., 2.- F., 3.- L., 4.- M., 5.- D. , 6.- J., 7.- H., 8.- I., 9.- O., 10.- B., 11.-N., 12.- C., 13.- K., 14.- G., 15.A.

1.12.2 Medicine Table Completion


Key:
Analgesics

pain pills

headaches, muscle aches and pains

Antacids

indigestion pills

heartburn

Antiarthritic

rheumatism pills

rheumatoid arthritis

Antibiotics

bug killers

microbial infections

Anticoagulants

blood thinners

prevent blood clots

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Anticonvulsants

epilepsy drugs

prevent seizures

Antidepressants

uppers

relieve depression

Antihypertensives

blood pressure pills

lower high blood pressure

Cardiac drugs

heart medicine

treat abnornal heart rhythms, heart


failure and angina pectoris

Diuretics

water pills

remove excess water from the body

Erectile disfunction

mans best friend

impotency

Hypnotics

sleeping pills

insomnia

Hypoglycemic agents

diabetic drugs

lower high blood sugar

Osteoporosis medicine

moms bone pills

strengthens bones

Tranquillizers

downers

anxiety

1.12.3 A Prescription
Key:
I took medicine three months ago. I had a sore throat. I got antibiotics and some cough mixture.

1.12.4 Completing Prepositions


Key: 1. for, 2. at, 3. to, 4. for, 5. back, 6. at, 7. at, 8. from

1.12.5 Expressions
Key:
I got a prescription for some anti-inflammatory for my joint pain.
I havent been able to get a good nights sleep for weeks.
The nearest pharmacy is in the main street opposite the bank.

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I took medicine for my flu all last week.


I have just taken my pill.
It is essential to stay calm in stressful situations.

1.13.1 Combining Forms


Key:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.
I. G. J. A. K. E. N. O. Q. B. P. R. S. C. H. F. L. T. M. D.

UNIT 2 The Skeletal System

2.1.1 Structure and Function of the Skeletal System


Key: 1. skeleton, cartilages, ligaments, connective tissue, muscles
2. axial skeleton

appendicular skeleton

2.1.2 Five Functions of the Skeletal System


Key: 1.-E., 2.-A., 3.-D., 4.-C., 5.-B.

2.1.3 Bone Structure


Key:
Type of bone

Features of bone

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compact bone

spongy bone

solid
found on the external suface of the bone
thickest where stresses arrive from a
limited range of directions
heavy

forms an open network of struts and


plates
located inside the bone
located where bones are not heavily
stressed or where stresses arrive from
many directions
much lighter

2.1.4 Bone Development and Growth


Key: 1. determines, 2. begin, 3. do not stop, 4. originate, 5. is gradually converted, 6. begins,
7.enlarge, 8. shifts, 9. called, 10. results, 11. is replaced, 12. are

2.1.5 Other Elements of Skeletal System


Key: 1. joints, 2. tendons, 3. ligaments, 4. skeletal muscles, 5. nerves, 6. cartilage
7.hyaline cartilage, 8.elastic cartilage, 9.fibrocartilage

2.2.1 What Keeps the Joints Healthy?


Key:
Watch your weight for healthy joints
Exercise for healthy joints
Build muscles to support joints
Know your limits

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Perfect your posture


Protecting your body protects joints
Add ice for healthy joints
Eating right nourishes joints: For your bones, make sure you get enough calcium every day. You can
do this by eating foods such as milk, yogurt, broccoli, kale, figs, and fortified foods like soy or
almond milk. You also need vitamin D to keep your bones and joints in good health. Dairy products.
many cereals, soy milk, and almond milk are fortified with vitamin D.
www.webmd.com

2.2.2 Doctor - Patient Dialogue - Joints


Key: 1. today, 2. knees, 3. worse, 4. fatigue, 5. felt, 6. activity, 7. once, 8. point

2.2.3 Summing up a Case


Key:
Mrs Brown went to see the doctor beacuse she had some pain in her knee joint.
The pain started three or four months ago.
It got worse recently.
She also felt unwell and weak.
As for exercise, she playes tennis and takes her dog for a walk.

2.3.1 Parts of the Spinal Column


Key: neck, back, lower, bone, tailbone

2.3.2 Noun Forms of Adjectives


Key: vertebra

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spine
cervix
thorax
lumbus
sacrum
coccyx

2.4.1 Definition of Hernia


Key:
The protrusion of an organ or tissue through an opening in its surrounding walls.

2.4.2 Herniated Disc


Key:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

common
caused
lower
between
leaks
contribute
can
already
from
weakness
confirm
through

2.5.2 Analyzing Words


Key:
osteitis: inflammation of the bone
osteocyte: bone cell
chondroma: tumour of the cartilage

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arthroplasty: surgical repair of the joint


myeloma: tumour of the muscle
tendonitis: inflammation of the tendon
bursitis: inflammation of the bursa
myoma: tumour of the muscle
osteomalacia: softening of the bone
osteoporosis: porous bone

2.6.1 Sports Injuries - Pictures


Key:
Picture 1: A football player has hurt his ankle badly. He has fallen to the ground, he is suffering from
excrutiating pain.
Pictue 2: A long distance runner has probably hurt his foot and knee because of overtraining. The
feet and the ankle are sore because of running too much without taking a break.
Picture 3: An athlete trying to jump the hurdle has stumbled and fallen. He has hit his forehead
really badly.
Picture 4: A diver trying to jump has miscalculated the size of the board and has hit her forehead
and eyes hard.
Picture 5: A basketball player has taken a short break, he probably has made a bad move and has
hurt his ankle again, already bandaged.

2.6.2 Sports Injuries


Key:
1. Sports injuries result from accidents, others are due to poor training practices,
improper equipment, lack of conditioning, or insufficient warm-up and stretching.
2. Typical symptoms of a strain include localized pain, stiffness, swelling, inflammation,
and bruising around the strained muscle.
3. Although any joint can experience a sprain, some of the more common include the
ankle, knee, and fingers.
4. Sprains can be prevented by proper use of safety equipment (wrist, ankle guards),
warm-ups and cool-downs (including stretching).
5. Achilles tendon injuries refer to a stretch, tear, or irritation to the tendon connecting
the calf muscle to the back of the heel.

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6. Stress fractures occur in the weight-bearing bones, such as the tibia or fibula (bones of
the lower leg) and metatarsals (bones of the foot).
7. The joint is held in place through a splint (for straight joints like fingers and toes) or a
bandage (for complex joints like shoulders).
8. Either or both may be cracked, or torn, when the knee is forcefully rotated and/or bent.
9. Overtraining can occur when the volume and intensity of an exercise exceeds the
organisms recovery capacity.
10. Overtraining can be accompanied by the following symptoms: persistent muscle
soreness, persistent fatigue, elevated resting heart rate, increased susceptibility to
infections, increased incidence of injuries, irritability, depression and loss of motivation.

2.6.3 Synonyms
Key:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

pulled muscles: strain


third degree sprain: rupture
tear of Achilles tendon: tendinitis
bones of the foot: metatarsals
a displaced joint: dislocation
reduce: return to its proper position

2.7.1 Osteoarthritis
Key: 1. Hand, hip, knee, neck and lower back.
2. The cartilage covers and cushions the bones allowing the joint to move smoothly and easily.
3. The fluid helps to reduce friction and wear in a joint.
4. The bone ends thicken. The bone at the edge of the joint may grow outward and form bony
spurs.
5. Bits of bone or cartilage may float loosely in the joint space.

2.7.1 Osteoarthritis
Transcript
Osteoarthritis

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Osteoarthritis is a disease that affects the joints in your body. Well, it can affect any joint.
Osteoartritis most commonly occurs in the hands, hips, knees, neck and lower back. To understand
how osteoartritis develops, you need to know how a normal joint works. Lets focus on the knee.
The place where the ends of two or more bones meet is called the joint. For example, the bone of
the lower leg, shin or tibia and the thigh bone, femur meet to form the knee joint. In a healthy joint
the ends of the bones are encased smooth cartilage. The cartilage covers and cushions the bones
allowing the joint to move smoothly and easily. The joint is surrounded by a fibrous envelope called
the joint capsule. The synovium lines the joint capsule and produces a fluid that helps to reduce
friction and wear in a joint. Muscles and tendons power the joint making it able to move.
Osteoarthritis is caused by a breakdown of cartilage resulting in joint pain. The smooth cartilage
surface wears down. When this happens the cartilage loses its elasticity and is more easily
damaged by excess use or by injury. With time sections of cartilage may wear away completely. As
a result the bones may rub together. As the cartilage wears down the joint may lose its normal
shape, the bone ends thicken. The bone at the edge of the joint may grow outward and form bony
spurs. Fluid filled cysts may form in the bone near the joint. Bits of bone or cartilage may float
loosely in the joint space. When osteoarthritic joints become swollen and damaged they can be
painful and difficult to move. this example illustrates how osteoarthritis can affect the knee. The
general process of cartilage breakdown is similar in other joints affected by osteoarthritis. For more
information visit: www.arthritis.com
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F8YLJxiNh9Y

2.8.1 Fractures
Key:
I broke my leg while I was playing football. I kicked the ball but I made a bad move and fell to the
ground. I fractured my ankle. I went to the doctor on duty at the Accident and Emergency
Department, he X-rayed my ankle and put it in plaster.

2.8.2 What Are Fractures?


Key:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.

A fracture.
A closed fracture.
An open fracture.
A non-displaced fracture.
A comminuted fracture.
A displaced fracture.

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2.8.3 Fracture Types


Key: A. transverse, B. oblique, C. spiral, D. comminuted, E. greenstick, F. impacted

2.9.2 Matching Words


Key:
A. 4.
B. 6.
C. 5.
D. - 8.
E. 7.
F. 3.
G. 9.
H. 10.
I. 2.
J. 1.

2.9.3 Flat Feet


Key:
1. a. congenital, structural
b.functional
2. a. it raises the arch
b.it stops the foot flattening
3. careful measurement of the foot and angles during motion
4. a. knee pain
b. hip pain
c. lower back pain
5. a. it can reduce your efficiency
b. it can slow you down

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2.9.3 Flat Feet


Transcript
How to correct flat feet
Hello I'm Charles Goldman a qualified chiropodist podiatrist
around The Foot Pad chiropody and physical therapy clinic in Holborn, central
London.
Today I'm going to talk to you about various foot problems and their treatment.
In this video we are going to discuss the treatment of flat feet or pes planus. There are two types of
flat feet: one is congenital, structural when you're born with undeveloped
arches; two is functional flat feet where you have an arch at rest but where soon as you put the
weight-bearing before flattens on the arch collapses. You cannot cure these problems but you
can aid them with the use of arch supports. This raises the arch and stops the foot flattening.
This treatment is the same for both types a flat feet. This is the initial treatment and involves either
chair side orthotics which are heat modable which can be done on the spot or
prescription orthotics where a cast is taken of your foot, sent to a lab and made out of particularly
hard materials like carbon fibre or plastics. These will stop your foot
turning in, prominating and flattening. This treatment involves careful measurement of the foot
and angles of the foot or during motion and what we call gait analysis and this cannot be done by
yourself or the pharmacist and over-the-counter products are only a temporary measure, you can
buy orthotics over-the-counter to try but I generally don't recommend because they wont be a
perfect fit. The fit of the orthotic has to match your foot and this is why you need to seek advice
from a podiatrist. Some of the side effects a flat feet are knee pain, hip pain, lower back pain
because this causes rotation of the tibia and turning in of the knees and hips.
If you don't correct your flat footed the problem it can affect your activity if you're involved in
running particulraly sprinting. It can reduce your efficiency and slow you down and this has been
proved by testing athletes with and without orthotics and find it can affect them significantly, so it
is worth seeking advice and trying to correct the problem.
And this is what I recommend for flat feet.

Source: http://youtu.be/G8ZDMyxe0R0

2.10.1 World Spine Day


Key:
1.-b.
2.-c.
3.-a.
4.-b.

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5.-d.
6.-a.
7.-c.
8.-d.
9.-c.
10.-a.

Unit 3 The Cardiovascular System


3.1.1 The Heart
Key:
1. vital
2. break
3. muscle
4. left
5. fist
6. middle

3.1.2 Chambers and Valves of the Heart


Key:
1.

1. right atrium
2. left atrium
3. right ventricle
4. left ventricle

2. tricuspid valve, pulmonary valve, mitral valve, aortic valve

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3.1.3 Heart Cycle


Key:
1. beats, 2. atria, 3. blood, 4. heartbeat, 5. fill, 6. separate, 7. lungs, 8. oxygen

3.2.1 Advice to Keep Heart Healthy


Key:
1.
2.
3.
4.

E.
B.
D.
A.
5. C.

3.2.2 Diet Tips for a Healthy Heart


Key:
1. - Eat
2. - Choose
3. - Maintain
4. - Eliminate
5. Cook; Stay
6. - Replace
7. - Try
8. Use

3.2.3 Physical Activity and Health


Key:
I prefer outdoor activities to indoor ones because I spend most of my time indoors sitting and
learning.
I run and ride the bicycle to keep fit. I summer I like hiking in the mountains.
I run twice a week and I ride my bike every day if the weather conditions are fine.

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Well, to my mind gardening and doing the housework can also keep you fit, if you do them
regularly.

3.2.4 Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Health


Key:
1. Cardiovascular
2. Lack
3. The
4. Less
5. Participation
6. Surveys
7. People
8. Of
9. Even
10. More

3.2.5 Changing Exercise Habits


Key:
I would like to do several vigourous activities like roller skating and rope jumping. Also, I would love
to do some exercise every day of the week.

3.3.1 Healthy Heart Quiz


Key:
1. True. High blood pressure, smoking, and high blood cholesterol are the three most
important risk factors for heart disease. On the average, each one doubles your chance of
developing heart disease. So, a person who has all three of the risk factors is eight times
more likely to develop heart disease than someone who has none. Obesity increases the
likelihood of developing high blood cholesterol and high blood pressure, which increase
your risk of heart disease. Physical inactivity increases your risk for heart attack. Regular
exercise and good nutrition are essential to reducing high blood pressure, high blood
cholesterol, and weight. People who exercise are also more likely to cut down on or stop
smoking.

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2. True. A person with high blood pressure or high blood cholesterol may feel fine and look
great; there are often no signs that anything is wrong until a stroke or heart attack occurs.
To find out if you have high blood pressure or high blood cholesterol, you should be tested
by a doctor, nurse, or other health professional.
3. True. A blood pressure of 140/90 mm Hg or greater is generally classified as high blood
pressure. However, blood pressures that fall below 140/90 mm Hg can sometimes be a
problem. If the diastolic pressure, the second or lower number, is between 8589, a person
is at an increased risk for heart disease or stroke and should have his/her blood pressure
checked at least once a year by a health professional. The higher your blood pressure, the
greater your risk of developing heart disease or stroke. Controlling high blood pressure
reduces your risk.
4. True. Recent studies show that lifestyle changes can help keep blood pressure levels
normal even into advanced age and are important in treating and preventing high blood
pressure. Limit high-salt foods, which include many snack foods, such as potato chips,
salted pretzels, and salted crackers; processed foods, such as canned soups; and
condiments, such as ketchup and soy sauce. Also, it is extremely important to take blood
pressure medication, if prescribed by your doctor, to make sure your blood pressure stays
under control.
5. False. A total blood cholesterol of under 200 mg/dL is desirable and usually puts you at a
lower risk for heart disease. A blood cholesterol level of 240 mg/dL or above is high and
increases your risk of heart disease. If your cholesterol level is high, your doctor will want to
check your levels of LDL-cholesterol (bad cholesterol) and HDL-cholesterol (good
cholesterol). A HIGH level of LDL-cholesterol increases your risk for heart disease, as does a
LOW level of HDL-cholesterol. A cholesterol level of 200239 mg/dL is considered
borderline-high and usually increases your risk for heart disease. If your cholesterol is
borderline-high, you should speak to your doctor to see if additional cholesterol tests are
needed. All adults 20 years of age or older should have their blood cholesterol level
checked at least once every five years.
6. False. Reducing the amount of cholesterol in your diet is important; however, eating foods
low in saturated fat is the most effective dietary way to lower blood cholesterol levels,
along with eating less total fat and cholesterol. Choose low-saturated fat foods, such as
grains, fruits, and vegetables; low-fat or skim milk and milk products; lean cuts of meat,
fish, and chicken. Trim fat from meat before cooking; bake or broil meat rather than fry;
use less fat and oil; and take the skin off chicken and turkey. Reducing weight will also help
lower your level of LDL-cholesterol as well as increase your level of HDL-cholesterol.
7. True. People who have had one heart attack are at much higher risk for a second attack.
Reducing blood cholesterol levels can greatly slow down (and, in some people, even
reverse) the buildup of cholesterol and fat in the walls of the arteries and significantly
reduce the chances of a second heart attack.
8. True. Children from high risk families, in which a parent has high blood cholesterol (240
mg/dL or above) or in which a parent or grandparent has had heart disease at an early age
(at 55 years of age or younger), should have their cholesterol levels tested. If a child from
such a family has a cholesterol level that is high, it should be lowered under medical
supervision, primarily with diet, to reduce the risk of developing heart disease as an adult.
For most children who are not from high-risk families, the best way to reduce the risk of

287

9.

10.

11.

12.

adult heart disease is to follow a low-saturated-fat, low-cholesterol eating pattern. All


children over the age of two years and all adults should adopt a heart-healthy eating
pattern as a principal way of reducing coronary heart disease.
True. Heavy smokers are 2 to 4 times more likely to have a heart attack than nonsmokers,
and the heart attack death rate among all smokers is 70% greater than that of nonsmokers.
Older male smokers are also nearly twice as likely to die from stroke than older men who
do not smoke, and these odds are nearly as high for older female smokers. Further, the risk
of dying from lung cancer is 22 times higher for male smokers than male nonsmokers and
12 times higher for female smokers than female nonsmokers. Finally, 80% of all deaths
from emphysema and bronchitis are directly due to smoking.
True. One year after quitting, ex-smokers cut their extra risk for heart attack by about half
or more, and eventually the risk will return to normal in healthy ex-smokers. Even if you
have already had a heart attack, you can reduce your chances of a second attack if you quit
smoking. Ex-smokers can also reduce their risk of stroke and cancer, improve blood flow
and lung function, and help stop diseases like emphysema and bronchitis from getting
worse.
False. Older smokers are more likely to succeed at quitting smoking than younger smokers.
Quitting helps relieve smoking-related symptoms like shortness of breath, coughing, and
chest pain. Many quit to avoid further health problems and take control of their lives.
True. Weight control is a question of balance. You get calories from the foods you eat. You
burn off calories by exercising. Cutting down on calories, especially calories from fat, is key
to losing weight. Combining this with a regular physical activity, like walking, cycling,
jogging, or swimming, not only can help in losing weight but also in maintaining weight loss.
A steady weight loss of a half to one pound a week is safe for most adults, and the weight is
more likely to stay off over the long run. Losing weight, if you are overweight, may also
reduce your blood pressure, lower your LDL-cholesterol, and raise your HDL-cholesterol.
Being physically active and eating fewer calories will also help you control your weight if
you quit smoking.

3.3.2 Exploding Exercise Myths


Key:
couch potato: A person who spends much time sitting or lying down, usually watching television.
sedentary: Characterized by or requiring much sitting: a sedentary job.
bulky: large and massive.
subcutaneous: located or placed under the skin.
expenditure: the act of spending money for goods or services.
briskly: marked by speed and liveliness; energetic.

288

flab: unsightly or unwanted fat on the body.


all for naught: for nothing.
overlook: to fail to notice or take into account.
subtle: delicate or faint.
vigorous: done with force and energy.

3.3.3 Article on Exploding Exercise Myths


Key:
1. Strength-training will make women too muscular
2. Light weights on your arms or legs can boost your exercise benefit
3. With the right exercise, you can get rid of trouble spots
4. Exercise burns lots of calories
5. If you don't lose weight, there's no point in exercising
6. Weight gain is inevitable as you age
7. You can't be fit and fat
8. No pain, no gain
9. If you can't exercise regularly, why bother?
10. If you didn't exercise when you were younger, it could be dangerous to start when you're
older

3.4.1 High Blood Pressure


Key:
1. 120/80 mmHg
2. 140/90 mmHg or above
3. diet high levels of salt intake; stress; smoking; obesity; drinking alcohol

3.4.2 High Blood Pressure - Listening


Key:
1.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

high blood pressure: hypertension


blood volume: the total amount of blood in your body
viscosity: thickness
sphygmomanometer: blood pressure cuff
pressure when heart beats: systolic pressure
pressure between beats: diastolic pressure
enlarged arterial wall: aneurysm

289

8. build up: plaque


9. high blood pressure with an unknown cause: primary/essential hypertension
10. diuretic: water pill
2.
1. What do arteries supply the tissues with?
oxygen and nutrients
2. What do we understand by cardiac output?
the amount of blood your ventricles push out of your heart each minute
3. Name two factors that can contribute to resistance besides viscosity.
the flexibility of your artery wall
the diameter of your arteries
4. What substances can form build ups?
cholesterol, fat, and calcium
5. Name three conditions artery damage and reduced blood flow can lead to.
stroke
heart attack
kidney disease
6. List five lifestyle changes you have to make if you want to have normal blood pressure.
limiting your intake of salt and highly processed foods
avoiding excessive alcohol intake
getting regular exercise
losing weight, if you are overweight
quitting smoking

290

7. How do ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, calcium channel blockers, and
direct-acting vasodilators take effect?
by relaxing your blood vessels, which increases their diameter

3.4.2 High Blood Pressure - Listening


Transcript
High BP
High blood pressure, or hypertension,
is a common condition in which the force of blood
on the walls of your arteries is often too high.
Arteries are the blood vessels that carry blood away from your heart
to supply your tissues with oxygen and nutrients.
In your heart, two chambers, called ventricles,
contract with each heartbeat to push blood to your lungs
and through your arteries to your body.
As blood flows through them, three main factors
affect the pressure on your artery walls.
The first is cardiac output,
or the amount of blood your ventricles push out of your heart each minute.
Your blood pressure goes up as cardiac output increases.
The second factor affecting your blood pressure is blood volume,
or the total amount of blood in your body.
Blood pressure also goes up as blood volume increases.

291

The third factor that affects your blood pressure is resistance,


which is anything working against the blood flow through your arteries.
Several factors contribute to resistance.
One resistance factor is the flexibility of your artery wall.
Healthy arteries expand with each heartbeat
to help reduce blood pressure on the wall.
Another resistance factor is the diameter of your arteries.
Your body is able to increase the diameter of your arteries
to lower your blood pressure,
or reduce the diameter to raise your blood pressure.
A third resistance factor is blood viscosity, or thickness.
In your blood, more particles, such as proteins and fat, increase viscosity.
If your blood is thicker, your blood pressure goes up
as your heart works harder to push it through your arteries.
Your blood pressure can be measured with a device
called a sphygmomanometer, or blood pressure cuff.
When your heart beats,
the pressure of blood on the walls of your arteries
is called systolic pressure.
When your heart relaxes between beats,
pressure on the artery wall is called diastolic pressure.
While your blood pressure may change throughout the day,
it should normally be less than 120 millimeters of mercury for systolic pressure,

292

and less than 80 millimeters of mercury for diastolic pressure.


If your systolic pressure frequently stays above 140,
or your diastolic pressure frequently stays above 90,
you have high blood pressure.
Over time, high blood pressure will damage the walls of your arteries.
Your artery wall may become weak
and form an enlargement called an aneurysm.
Or the wall may burst and bleed into the surrounding tissue.
Small tears in your artery wall may attract certain substances in your blood,
such as cholesterol, fat, and calcium, to form a build-up called a plaque.
Blood flow through your artery decreases as the plaque enlarges.
Blood cells can stick to the plaque and form solid clumps, called clots,
further reducing, or completely blocking, your blood flow.
Damage to your arteries raises your blood pressure even more
by making your heart beat more forcefully.
Artery damage and reduced blood flow lead to conditions such as:
a stroke,
heart attack,
or kidney disease.
In most cases, the cause of high blood pressure, or hypertension, is unknown.
This type of high blood pressure is called primary, or essential, hypertension.
Treatment for essential hypertension includes lifestyle changes,

293

such as eating a healthy diet.


If you are sensitive to the sodium in salt, your doctor may recommend limiting your intake
of salt and highly processed foods.
Sodium may cause your body to retain water,
which increases both your blood volume and your blood pressure.
Other lifestyle changes that can reduce blood pressure include
avoiding excessive alcohol intake;
getting regular exercise;
losing weight, if you are overweight;
and quitting smoking.
Your doctor may also recommend medications
that act on your kidneys, blood vessels, or heart to help reduce your blood pressure.
Diuretics, commonly called water pills,
cause your kidneys to move more salt and water
from your blood into your urine,
which reduces your blood volume and pressure.
Beta-blockers reduce the workload on your heart
by decreasing both the rate of your heartbeat
and the strength of your heart's contractions.
Several types of drugs act directly or indirectly to reduce your blood pressure
by relaxing your blood vessels, which increases their diameter.
These drugs include ACE inhibitors,
angiotensin II receptor blockers,

294

calcium channel blockers,


and direct-acting vasodilators.
Source: http://youtu.be/diG519dFVNs

3.5.1 Cardiovascular Problems


Key:
stroke
heart attack (myocardial infarction)
heart failure
coronary artery diesease
DVT (deep vein thrombosis)
varicose veins
angina
hypertension
palpitations

3.5.2 Common Heart Ailments


Key:
1. primary
2. stopped
3. except
4. cells
5. physical inactivity
6. higher
7. controlled
8. effects

3.5.2 Common Heart Ailments


Transcript
Circulatory system problems
Your vascular disease is not just one disease its
any disease that affects the heart. The two primary cardiovascular diseases
are heart disease and stroke. Coronary artery disease
is typically characterized by a narrowing of the arteries that feed the
heart.

295

The most serious symptom of heart disease is a heart attack.


A heart attack occurs when the blood supply to part of the heart
is severely reduced or stopped. The medical term for heart attack is
myocardial infarction. The reduction or stoppage of blood happens when one or
more of the coronary arteries supplying blood to the heart muscle
are blocked. A stroke is similar to a heart attack
except that it impacts the brain instead of your heart
Often called a brain attack. It occurs when a blood clot blocks a blood vessel
or artery or when a blood vessel breaks interrupting blood flow to an area of
the brain.
This kills brain cells in the immediate area.
Risk factors for heart disease and stroke are similar.
They include high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, drinking, drug use,
obesity, physical inactivity, diabetes and stress.
In addition, age, gender, race and heredity can play a part in your risk.
The older you get, the higher your risk. Your chances of heart disease also increase
if you are a male, African-American or if your parents are other close blood
relatives suffer from this disease. Many of these risk factors can be controlled
or even preventable altogether. For example, eating right and exercising regularly are great ways to
control many of these risk factors that can lead to common cardiovascular diseases. According to
the Centers for Disease Control or CDC about 61 million Americans,
almost one-fourth of the population live with the effects of stroke or heart disease.
Source: http://youtu.be/KPwZAvKRiWU

3.6.1 Body Language


Key:
The gestures, movements, and mannerisms by which a person or animal communicates with
others.

3.6.2 Stroke - Video


Key:
F: Face drooping.
A: Arm weakness.
S: Speech difficulty.
T: Time to call 911 immediately.

3.6.2 Stroke - Video


Transcript
Stroke warning sign and symptoms

296

Quiet please.
Wait a sec.
I'll take one.
Oh, yeah.
Alright.
All good.
Take care.
Way to go.
Nice.
Bring it on.
Gothca.
I'm here for you.
Oh, no.
Please, please.
Please.
I'm waiting.
Interesting.
Not buying it.
Not fair.
That's it.
This conversation is over.
Oh, brother.
Body language tells you all sorts of things.
I'm having a stroke. I'm having a stroke.
Know the sudden signs, learn FAST.
F for Face Drooping.
A for Arm Weakness.
S for Speech Difficulty.
T for Time. Time to call 911 immediately.
The sooner they get to the hospital, the sooner they'll get treatment and that could make a
remarkable difference in their recovery.
Learn the body language, sudden signs, and spot a stroke FAST.
Source: http://youtu.be/wH7k5CFp4hI

3.6.3 Article on Stroke


Key:
1. immediate
2. symptom
3. respond
4. vision

297

5. warning
6. breath
7. factors
8. change
9. words
10. flow
11. involved
12. disability

3.6.4 Stroke Survivors


Key:

Time of accident: 8:05 a.m. 6 February

Morning routine activities:

making coffee for his wife

taking a shower

shaving

getting ready to work

Pierres speech: none

Pierres condition before stroke:

a weekend warrior

not overweight

not drinking

not smoking

had no diabetes

in good shape

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Stroke affects:

anybody

the young

the old

celebrities

little people

3.6.4 Stroke Survivors


Transcript
Stroke survivors
It was february 6th it was at 8:05 in the morning just the typical routine
waking up in the morning, making coffee for my wife, something I've been doing
for thirteen years, taking a shower, shaving, getting ready to go to work,
sitting down watching the the morning news. And my wife
asked me a couple things she asked me three three times the same thing I just
thought I said I just couldn't really say much she looked at me she said: oh my god, I think you
have a stroke:
I just kind of looked at her thinking, trying to say something I really couldn't
and she called 911 right away. Pierres case perfectly exemplifies what can happen
if the symptoms of stroke are immediately recognized and the right thing is done which is calling
911 for an ambulance to come and take the patient to the local Stroke Center.
And what happens when someone with stroke is treated early.
So, when Pierre first arrived at the emergency room he
was very very debilitated and now has essentially no disability.
I consider myself to be one of the lucky ones and I
think if it hadn't been for the staff here at New York Presbyterian, the quick-thinking
which is the ability to really look at what what was coming through the door
and take care of it.
His wife should get all the credit because she's the one that recognized his symptoms, she knew
what to do I and she basically saved his life.
The idea here is is really if it does happen to you then to be as thoughtful as possible, to try to be as
proactive to try to get yourself help as quickly as possible.
Speed is absolutely of the essence, time is brain, every minute that goes on when someone's having
a stroke they are losing millions a brain cells, so it's incredibly important that people recognize
stroke symptoms and then call 911. And and to this point there's a mnemonic called F.A.S.T. F.
being face droopiness as a symptom of stroke, A. being arm weakness as a symptom a stroke, S.
being speech difficulties like slurring of speech, and then T. for time

299

time to call 911. If we can recognize a stroke symptom and then call 911 our patients are more
likely to do better, to receive acute treatment and to have less disability in the future.
I wasn't in the worst shape in the world, I was a weekend warrior but I was not overweight
I'm not a drinker I'm not a smoker you know I don't have diabetes and have a
lot of things I was in pretty good shape and it happened to me
if it could happen to me, it could happen to anyone: it affects anybody the young young, old, you
know, celebrities, little people like me.
If everyone is able to learn what the common symptoms of stroke are
and what the proper action is to do when such symptoms are observed,
we can make a huge difference in our community and we can potentially
reduce considerable disability and even save lives. I was one of the lucky guys who was able to
come out of it, the way I did. But I think that if your body tells you something
listen to it and take care of it even if it means going to the doctor, even if it means
an inconvenience in the sense that you need to make phone a call and go and take some time off
from work, listen to it. My wife really saved my life by calling 911. If she hadn't done
that, god only knows what would have happened.
Source: http://youtu.be/stnGfZGBDXI

3.7.1 World Heart Day


Key:
1.-c., 2.-d., 3.-a., 4.-c., 5.-b., 6.-a., 7.-d., 8.-b., 9.-c.,10.-b.

3.8.2 Specialist Words for Definitions


Key:
pericarditis
thrombocyte
bradycardia
tachycardia
venogram
phlebitis
angiogram
hypox(a)emia
vasodilator
arrhythmia
cardiomegaly
electrocardiogram
sphygmomanometer
stethoscope

300

Unit 4 The Urinary System


4.1.1 The Kidney
Key:
A.
B.
C.
D.

What do my kidneys do?


The kidneys remove wastes and extra water from the blood to form urine.
In addition to removing wastes, your kidneys release three important hormones:
What is renal function?

4.1.2 Parts of the Urinary Bladder


Key:
1. ureter, 2. peritoneum, 3. urethra

4.1.3 The Kidney Sentence Completion


Key:
1. empty, 2. travels, 3. allowing, 4. contract, 5. through, 6. causing, 7. down, 8. noticed,
9. chronic, 10. involuntarily, 11. by, 12. hold, 13. with, 14. least, 15. external

4.1.4 Matching Tests and Definitions


Key:
1. Urinalysis
2. Cystoscopy
3. Urodynamic testing

4.1.5 Matching Bladder Treatments


Key:
1. Suregry

301

2. Bladder catheterization
3. Anti-spasm medications
4. Kegel exercises

4.2.2 Bladder Inflammation


Key:
1. Yes, I have. I had it two years ago.
2. Pain, burning or stinging when I urinated.
I needed to urinate often and urgently but only passed small amounts of urine.
Urine was dark, cloudy or strong smelling.
There was blood in the urine.
I felt pain low in my belly (directly above the pubic bone), or in the lower back or abdomen.
I felt unwell, weak and feverish.
3. I bought over-the-counter (OTC) painkillers, such as paracetamol.
I drank plenty of water.
My GP prescribed antibiotics for me.
4. Don't use perfumed bubble bath, soap, or talcum powder around your genitals use plain,
unperfumed varieties.
Have a shower, rather than a bath this avoids exposing your genitals to the chemicals in your
cleaning products for too long.
Always empty your bladder fully when you go to the toilet.
Don't wait to go if you need to urinate delaying it can place extra stress on your bladder and
could make it more vulnerable to infection.
Wear underwear made from cotton rather than synthetic material such as nylon.
Avoid wearing tight jeans and trousers.

302

Always wipe from the front of your genital area to the back, not back to front, when you go to
the toilet.

http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Cystitis/Pages/Prevention.aspx

4.2.3 Interstitial Cystitis


Key:
1.

Painful bladder syndrome.

2. Pain with urination, severe frequency, urgency, pain with intercourse.


3. Bladder tumors, bladder stones.
4. Cystitis tends to occur from age thirty to forty.
5. Caffeine, artificial sweeteners, acid foods like citrus and tomato and spicy foods.
6. Doing exercise and meditation.

4.2.3 Interstitial Cystitis


Transcript
Interstitial cystitis

Interstitial cystitis is a chronic condition. It can also be called painful bladder syndrome.
It's due to inflammation of the bladder wall. We're not really sure why it
happens but symptoms of IC or interstitial cystitis include pain with urination, severe frequency,
urgency, pain with intercourse. It can be a pretty crippling condition and its often
misdiagnosed as a urinary tract infection. Interstitial cystitis is a diagnosis of exclusion which
means that we have to exclude other causes of your pain.And there's no test that we can do
to tell you whether or not you have IC er but we rule out things like bladder tumours,
bladder stones are other bladder conditions, urinary tract infections if those things don't exist
and we've excluded all other reasons for you to be having these symptoms then it's typically
IC or interstitial cystitis. Interstitial cystitis tends to occur from age thirty to forty though I have
diagnosed it in younger and older patients, women are 10 times more likely to get it than men.
IC is a really frustrating disease to treat because it can cause a lot of it can impact your quality
of life pretty significantly. Treatment is multimodal er but often requires a medication regimen

303

to kind of get things under control. IC and of itself is tends to wax and wane meaning that you'll
have episodes of severe symptoms followed by periods of time when things like be quieter
or quiescent. And there are a number of dietary irritants of the bladder, most commonly those
are caffeine, artificial sweeteners, acid foods like citrus and tomato and spicy foods.
It's really important if you have a diagnosis of IC or if you think that you have IC that you
establish a good relationship with the urologist who is aggressive about getting your
symptoms under control IC, interstitial cystitis and patients who tend to carry around a lot of
stress or who might be more typical type A personalities, so stress reduction whether it be
by things like exercise and meditation is a really important way to kind of keep interstitial cystitis
symptoms under control.

Source: http://youtu.be/7ub5X1hXW4M

4.2.4 Myths and Facts about the Bladder


Key: 1. for, 2. side, 3. on, 4. risk, 5. amount, 6. caffeine, 7. part, 8. life, 9. caused, 10. prostate,
11. stages, 12. cord, 13. treatments, 14. what, 15. stopping, 16. empty, 17. with, 18. longer,
19. role, 20. down

4.3.2 Specialist Words


Key:
inflammation of the kidney: nephritis
artery related to kidney: renal artery
abnormal condition involving back up of urine into the kidney: hydronephrosis
inflammation of the bladder: cysitis
removal of bladder: cystectomy
X-ray of the collecting ducts: pyelogram
frequent urination: polyuria
no urine formation: anuria
reduced urine formation: oliguria
surgically attach kidney in normal anatomical position: nephropexy

304

4.3.3 Urinary System Specialists and Procedures


Key:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

kidney
prostate
bladder
taken
procedure
dye
removes
surgery

4.4.1 Kidney Conditions and Definitions


Key:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Pyelonephritis
Kidney stones (nephrolithiasis)
Nephrotic syndrome
Polycystic kidney disease
Acute renal failure (kidney failure)
Chronic renal failure
End stage renal disease (ESRD)
Diabetic nephropathy
Hypertensive nephropathy
Kidney cancer
Interstitial nephritis
Renal cyst

4.4.2 Kidney Diseases - Pictures


Key:
1. kidney stone
2. polycystic kidney disease
3. pyelonephritis
4. kidney cancer
5. kidney failure

305

4.4.3 10 Tips to Prevent Kidney Diseases


Key:
1. Manage, 2. Reduce, 3. Drink, 4. Resist, 5. Eat, 6. Drink, 7. Avoid, 8. Exercise, 9. Avoid, 10. Think,
take

4.4.4 Advice to Patient Based on Pictures


Key:
1. Manage diabetes, high blood pressure and heart disease. Controlling sugar levels, cholesterol
and blood pressure is essential to keep kidney disease at bay.
2. Reduce the intake of salt. Salt increases the amount of sodium in diet. It not only increases blood
pressure but also triggers the formation of kidney stones.
3. Drink lots of water every day. Water keeps you hydrated and helps the kidneys to remove all the
toxins from your body.
4. Dont resist the urge to urinate. If you start ignoring the urge to go to the restroom, the urinary
bladder stretches more than its capacity. This affects the filtration process of the kidney.
5. Eat right. You should include right foods in your diet. Especially foods that can strengthen your
kidneys like fish, asparagus, cereals, garlic and parsley. Fruits like watermelon, oranges and lemons
are also good for kidney health.
6. Drink healthy beverages. Including fresh juices is another way of drinking more fluids and
keeping your kidneys healthy. Avoid drinking coffee and tea. They contain caffeine which reduces
the amount of fluids in the body.
7. Avoid alcohol and smoking. Excess intake of alcohol can disturb the electrolyte balance of the
body and hormonal control that influences the kidney function. Smoking is not directly related to
kidney problems but it reduces kidney function significantly.
8. Exercise daily. Being overweight doubles the chances of developing kidney problems. Exercising,
eating healthy and controlling portion size can surely help you to lose extra weight and enhance
kidney health.
9. Avoid self medication. All the medicines you take have to pass through the kidney for filtration.
Increased dosage or taking medicines that you are not aware of can increase the toxin load on your
kidneys.

306

10. Think before you take supplements and herbal medicine. Excessive amount of vitamins and
certain plant extracts are linked to kidney damage.

4.5.1 World Kidney Day Sentence Completion


Key:
1. a.
2. d.
3. c.
4. a.
5. b.
6. b.
7. c.
8. d.
9. b.
10. a.
11. c.
12. d.

Unit 5 The Reproductive System


5.1.1 Parts of the Female and Male Bodies
Key:

307

5.2.2 Analyzing Medical Words


Key:

1. hysterectomy: surgical removal of the uterus


2. salpingitis: inflammation of the fallopian tube
3. hematosalpinx: blood in the uterine tube
4. colpoplasty: surgical reconstruction of the vagina
5. colposcopy: viewing the interior of the vagina
6. oophorectomy: surgical removal of the ovary
7. mammogram: device to record the state of the breasts
8. mastectomy: surgical removal of the breast
9. orchiditis: inflammation of the testis
10. orchidectomy: surgical removal of the testis
11. balanitis: inflammation of the penis
12. hysteroscopy: visual examination of the womb
13. androgynous: showing characteristics of male and female appearance

308

14. prostatitis: inflammation of the prostate


15. prostatectomy: surgical removal of the prostate
16. vasectomy: cutting the duct carrying semen from testes
17. menopause: when a womans menstrual period stops permanently
18. gynecology: medical speciality dealing with the health of the female reproductive system
19. cervical cancer: malignant tumour of the neck of the womb
20. gravid uterus: the womb in pregnancy

5.3.1 Parts of the System


Key: 1. uterus, 2. urinary bladder, 3. rectum, 4. vagina

5.3.2 Female Reproductive Organs - Article


Key:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

superior
maturity
extend
carry
womb
push
exterior
delivery
tissue
skin
milk
breastfeeding

5.3.3 Opposite Words


Key:
superior inferior
exterior interior

309

anterior posterior
inner outer
external internal
medial lateral

5.3.4 Female Reproductive System Physiology - Processes


Key:
1.
2.
3.
4.

menstruation
fertilization
pregnancy
breastfeeding/lactation

5.3.5 Physiology of Female Reproductive System


Key:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.

The Reproductive Cycle


Oogenesis and Ovulation
Fertilization
Menstruation
Pregnancy
Lactation

5.4.2 Parts of the Male Reproductive System


Key:
1. produce, 2. pubic, 3. heat, 4. glandular, 5. cord, 6. tubule, 7. storage, 8. allows, 9. contain,
10. space, 11. survive, 12. During, 13. passes, 14. surrounds, 15. prior, 16. roughly, 17. with,
18. function, 19. composition, 20. remain

5.4.3. Physiology of the Male Reproductive System

Key:
1. c .producing, 2. d. begins, 3. b. maturation, 4. a. splits, 5. b. head, 6. d. into, 7. c. fertilized.

310

8. a. through, 9. b. interior, 10. d. division

5.5.1 Pregnancy and Childbirth


Key:
labour: the process or effort of childbirth or the time during which this takes place.
delivery: the act of giving birth to a child.
naval: belly button.
amniotic sac: the thin innermost membranous sac enclosing the developing embryo.
dilate: to become wider or larger; expand.
due date: the expected date of delivery.

5.5.2 Labelling a Picture


Key:

5.5.3 Pregnancy -Listening


Key:

311

1.uterus: womb, vagina: birth canal, amniotic sac: balloon like sac, placenta: afterbirth,
cervix: the lower part of the utreus
2.
stretch: During your pregnancy your uterus stretches and expands along with the growing baby.
amniotic fluid: The sac is filled with amniotic fluid which is mostly water.
umbilical cord: The nutrients travel from the placenta to the baby through a blood vessel in the
umbilical cord which enters the babys naval.
eliminate: The waste products are then eliminated from the mother's body.
mucous plug: During pregnancy a protective mucous plug forms inside this hole.

5.5.4 Pregnant Body


Transcript
Pregnant Body
First, let's review the parts of your body that are involved with pregnancy
and labour. Your uterus also called your womb
is a pear-shaped organ that rests above the vagina or birth canal.
During your pregnancy your uterus stretches and expands
along with the growing baby. Although your baby's position will vary
throughout your pregnancy
almost all babies are in a head-down position
as your due date gets closer. Your baby grows
inside your uterus in a balloon like sac called
the amniotic sac. This sac is filled with amniotic fluid
which is mostly water. The placenta
which is also known as the afterbirth is a sponge-like layer between the amniotic
sac and the inside of the uterus. It contains
two sets a blood vessels one set from the mother
and one from the growing baby. These vessels
are close enough that food and oxygen from the mother's blood can easily move
to the baby's blood
and provide essential nutrients for the baby to grow.
The nutrients travel from the placenta to the baby
through a blood vessel in the umbilical cord which enters the babys naval.
As the baby grows waste products that are naturally made
need to be cleared from the baby's blood. These waste products

312

travel through the baby's blood vessels to the placenta


and are transferred to the mother's blood. The waste products are then
eliminated from the mother's body.
The cervix is the lower part of your uterus,
it is round and shaped like a tube.
It has a small hole in the middle of it. During pregnancy
a protective mucous plug forms inside this hole.
Usually the cervix is almost completely closed until labour
when it dilates. This provides room for your baby to move
from the uterus into the birth canal and then
out into the world.
Source: http://youtu.be/jk0F-TnKFwU

5.5.5 Pregnancy Myths and Facts


Key:
1. False. Nausea and vomiting are normal characteristics of early pregnancy. In some cases,
nausea and vomiting can be controlled. Avoiding greasy, fried, or spicy food might help
pregnant women manage their nausea. Pregnant women may also try to eat smaller meals,
frequent meals, and foods like toast and crackers.
2. False. There is no safe amount of alcohol a woman can drink during her pregnancy. Drinking
anything that contains any amount of alcohol can cause problems for babies. When a fetus
is exposed to alcohol, fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) can result, potentially causing problems
in later life. Pregnant women are advised to abstain from alcohol completely.
3. True. The term fetal alcohol syndrome describes the sum total of the damage done to the
child before birth as a result of the mother drinking alcohol during pregnancy. Fetal alcohol
syndrome (FAS) always involves brain damage, impaired growth, and head and face
abnormalities. The brain damage can lead to problems with mental capacity, learning, and
other functions
4. False. Talking to a doctor at least three months before pregnancy can improve the chances
or getting pregnant, having a healthy pregnancy, and having a healthy baby. Women who
are trying to get pregnant may benefit from talking to a doctor about how her health
conditions and risk factors could affect a baby's health.
5. False. It is not dangerous to exercise or to be physically active during pregnancy. In fact,
doctors recommend it for most pregnant women. Women who exercised before pregnancy
should continue to do so.
6. True. Physical activity and regular exercise during pregnancy can improve common
discomforts such as backache and fatigue, and can increase the likelihood of early recovery

313

after delivery. In general, most kinds of aerobic, resistance, and flexibility exercises like
yoga are safe during pregnancy.
7. True. Pregnant women need 400 to 800 micrograms of folic acid every day. All women who
are sexually active and able to become pregnant need this amount of folic acid every day.
The best way to ensure that you are getting the necessary amount of folic acid is by taking
prenatal vitamins.

8. False. During pregnancy, the body needs more nutrients to provide for the baby to grow
properly and be healthy. A pregnant woman is eating for two, but this does not mean that
she must ingest excessive calories, or double her caloric intake. Most pregnant women only
need to consume 300 extra calories per day.

9. False. Pregnancy weight is added because of the baby, the placenta, amniotic fluid, uterus
growth, breast growth, blood and body fluids and, protein and fat. The typical gain in
weight can be broken down as follows: baby: 3 to 4 kg; placenta: 750 g; amniotic fluid: 1 kg;
uterus growth: 1 kg; breast growth: 1 kg; mom's blood and body fluids: 4 kg; mom's protein
and fat: 3.5 kg.
10. False. More than 90% of pregnant women will develop stretch marks in response to the
pulling and stretching of underlying skin during pregnancy. Exercise and use of lotions or
creams with alpha-hydroxy acids can be used to prevent stretch marks from occurring.

http://www.medicinenet.com/pregnancy_myths_and_facts_quiz/faq.htm

5.6.1 Uterine Fibroids


Key: It is a firm, compact tumour that is made of smooth muscle cells and fibrous connective tissue

that develop in the uterus. Location: within the muscular uterine wall, in the uterine cavity, on the
outside of the uterus.

5.6.2 Uterine Fibroid Facts


Key:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Uterine
exactly
depending
pelvic
bleeding
diagnosed
treatment

314

8. surgical

5.6.3 The Nature of Uterine Fibroids


Key:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

in
of
(up)on
within
beneath
on
on
to
inside
within

5.6.4 Background, Prevalence and Symptoms of Fibroids


Key:
1. Geneteic
2. response
3. likely
4. contrast
5. pregnancy
6. rarely
7. period
8. tends
9. fairly
10. presence
11. blood
12. develop
13. severe
14. urination
15. fertility
16. recurrent

5.6.5 Diagnosis and Treatment of Fibroids


Key:

315

1. observation
2. ultrasound
3. ovarian tumour
4. cervix
5. incision
6. catheter
7. (o)estrogen
8. osteoporosis

5.7.1 Opposite Words


Key:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

rare common
genaral specific
diarrhoea constipation
weight loss weight gain
mild severe
earlier recent
intermittent persistent
sinister unalarming

5.7.2 Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer

Key:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Age of women: over the age of 50.


Younger women: have a family history breast or ovarian cancer.
Symptoms related to eating: feeling bloated or feeling full quite quickly.
Location of pain: in the tummy, in the lower back.
Symptoms related to urination: you are passing urine more frequently or having to go to
the toilet more urgently.
6. You should see your GP if: if the symptoms are severe, recent onset or if they are
persistent.
7. Diary should contain: what symptom you have had and how severe it was.

316

5.7.3 Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer

Transcript
Ovarian cancer symptoms for Macmillan Cancer Support

I'm Sadaf Ghaem-Maghami. I'm a consultant gynaecological oncologist at Imperial College


NHS Trust in London. Ovarian cancer is more common in women over
the age of 50 so about 80% of ovarian cancers occur in women over the age of 50, usually
after the menopause. However, it can occur in younger women particularly if they have
a family history, of say, two or more close relatives who have had breast or ovarian cancer.
There are a range of symptoms that women present with when they are diagnosed with ovarian
cancer. They are not usually very specific. You may feel bloated or feel full quite quickly
when you eat. There may also be pain in the tummy, lower back or during sex. You may get
symptoms of bladder or bowel habit change. For example, you might find that you are passing
urine more frequently or having to go to the toilet more urgently. You might feel that
you have constipation or diarrhoea. There may be a change in weight, either weight gain
or weight loss which is unexplained and there may be unexplained tiredness.
Some women may get only one or two of these symptoms and some might find they get a
combination of them. Women usually know their own bodies very well so if there is anything that is
worrying you,
for example if the symptoms are severe, recent onset or particularly if they are persistent
then you should go and see your GP to check this out.
When you go to see your GP, he or she is likely to ask you more questions and examine you.
You might like to keep a diary either in your diary or on a sheet of paper with the date
and what symptom you have had and possibly even how severe it was. There may be a collection
of symptoms you are getting so it would be quite useful to log them all down. Then you
may need to have tests. They may decide to refer you to a specialist, say, somebody like
me, to do tests and make a diagnosis. It may be nothing sinister, but it is important you
get them checked out.

Source: http://youtu.be/NLKg-FDFGV0

5.7.3 World Ovarian Cancer Day Sentence Completion


Key:
1.-b.
2.-a.

317

3.-d.
4.-c.
5.-d.
6.-b.
7.-a.
8.-c.
9.-b.
10. a.

5.8.1 Prostate Facts


Key:
Walnut.
A group of cells that secrete a substance for use in the body and A group of cells that removes
materials from the circulation.
It makes fluid that nourishes sperm.
False. Prostate problems are common in men age 50 years and older.
Urinary tract infections, Obstruction of urine flow and Urinary retention.
False. An enlarged prostate is completely benign.
Rectal exam.

http://www.medicinenet.com/enlarged_prostate_bph_quiz/faq.htm

5.8.2 Prostatitis
Key:
1. Prostatitis facts
2. Prostatitis definition

318

3.
4.
5.
6.

Classification of prostatitis
What causes prostatitis?
What are the risk factors for prostatitis?
What are the signs and symptoms of prostatitis?

7. When should I see my doctor for prostatitis?


8. How is the diagnosis of prostatitis made?
9.
10.
11.
12.

What is the treatment for prostatitis?


What are the complications of prostatitis?
What is the prognosis for prostatitis?
Prostatitis conclusion

5.8.3 Testicular Cancer


1) Who treats testicular cancer?
2) Is testicular cancer very common?
3) Does testicular cancer follow a hereditary pattern?
4) Does diet play a role in developing the cancer?
5) How does a person self examine for testicular cancer?

5.8.4 Testicular Cancer - Listening


Key:
1. There may be things that draw the patient's attention to the a. mass, for example, pain or
b. discomfort in the groin area or trauma.
2. Sometimes people have trauma to the c. area and they examine themselves or someone
examines that area, and they feel a firm, d. solid mass within the testicle.
3. Until proven otherwise, any solid, firm mass within the testicle should be considered as a e.
potential cancer.
4. Testicular cancer can spread to other parts of the body including the f. abdominal area, the
g. chest, and various other areas.
5. When cancer spreads to the h. lungs, patients may have shortness of breath or difficulty i.
breathing.
6. Cancer can spread through the lymphatic channels to lymph j. nodes in the body, so
patients may feel lumps in the k. neck area or the groin area.

319

7. In general, most cases of testicular cancer will also have some l. form of a mass within the
testicle itself.

5.8.4 Testicular Cancer


Transcript
Testicular cancer

Most commonly testicular cancer usually presents with a mass that appears within the testicle.
There may be things that occur that draw the patient's attention to that mass, for example,
pain or discomfort in the groin area or trauma. Sometimes people have trauma to the area and
all of a sudden it draws attention to the area, and they examine themselves or someone
examines that area, and they feel a firm, solid mass within the testicle. That is the
classic appearance of testicular cancer.
Until proven otherwise, any solid, firm mass within the testicle should be considered as
a potential cancer although there are other things that can cause similar findings. That's
one of the more common presentations.
Testicular cancer can spread to other parts of the body including the abdominal area,
the chest, and various other areas. When it does do that, then patients may notice symptoms
due to the spread of cancer to those sites. For example, when cancer spreads to the lungs,
patients may have shortness of breath or difficulty breathing.
Cancer can spread through the lymphatic channels to lymph nodes in the body and so, sometimes if
there's extensive spread, patients may feel lumps in the neck area or the groin area, various other
parts of the body, that may signify the presence of cancer. But, in general, most of those cases,
most cases of testicular cancer will also have some form of a mass within
the testicle itself. It's not always a 100% guarantee but most commonly that's the way
it presents.

Source: http://youtu.be/_mZRsud4h2Q

Unit 6 Finding a Job and Creating your Profile


6.1.3. What Employees Are Looking for
Key:
2) a degree with a good result
4) motivation
6) knowledge about the firm

320

7) work experience
Transcript
Im Elise Hunt. I work for ICI as part of the graduate recruitment team. Were here at Imperial today
looking for all sorts of graduates, specifically chemistry and chemical engineering and mechanical
engineering. We look for a 2:1 degree and thats the sort of basics in terms of degree side of it. In
terms of the individuals were looking for, highly motivated people, people that actually show some
interest in our organisation, theyve looked on the website, or theyve read about us and they
actually want to know what its like working for us. We look for work experience. If its relevant
work experience, all the better. We offer summer internships ourselves as well and thats definitely
a benefit to anyone employing.

6.1.4. Starting Your Career


Key:
1. d

2. a

3. b

4. e

5. f

6. c

7. h

8. g

6.1.5. Steve Jobs


Key:
1-b; opinions or interests are different from each other

- visions began to diverge

2-e; have a quarrel with someone

- have a falling out

3-d; support a person or a group

- side with somebody

4-f; not do something that someone expects you to do

- let somebody down

5-g; fail to do something

- drop the baton

6-c; make a bad mistake or do something stupid

- screw up

7-a; you realise it for the first time

- dawn on somebody

6.2.1. How to Find a Graduate Job Using Social Media

Key:
a-T

b-T

c-F

d-T

e-F

2. Answer these questions!


Key:

321

1. Keywords
2. Use the company pages to research, be the first to share breaking news of new products
and services and let your network know about your passion and interest for a particular industry.
You can also see new jobs and which companies people have joined. As a student you can use
LinkedIn to research companies before an interview, analyse patterns of people who have joined
and move on and begin to generate your own career ideas.
3. Your image or how you appear on social media. How you market yourself using various
social media sites.
4. Universities
5. Enable you to advance your career

3. Put the words below in the proper place in the text:


Key:
1- aware

2- posts

3- chances

4- employees

5- suitability

6- with

7- current

8- up

9- embarrassing

10- policy

Key:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

to wise up
to scour
a backlash
a snippet
slack
a silver lining
spin
to get shot down
assymetry
staff morale
to go live
a puff piece
a rant piece
warts-and-all

e. to become aware of something you didnt know


i. to search very carefully for something
l. a sharp, usually delayed, negative reaction to something
h. a small piece of something
b. loose, not very strict
c. a positive aspect of something that is generally negative
m. very positive, often dishonest, publicity
j. to be heavily criticised
n. inequality
d. the (positive or negative) feeling among the workforce
k. to make information public
a. a text or report designed to promote something
g. a text or report expressing anger or complaint
f. totally honest

6.2.2 Should You Pay Someone to Write Your CV?

Key:
1.
Why did one of the panellists believe that you should always write your own CV?
a. so that the reader can see how you describe yourself

322

b. professionally-written CVs look generic and sterile and do not create a good impression with the
reader
2.
According to the author, what three main difficulties do people often encounter when they
try to write a CV?
a. incorrect English,
b. not knowing how to structure a CV
c. not knowing how to best highlight their most relevant strengths.
3.
What benefits can a professional CV writer bring?
a. identify the key achievements and skills necessary for a particular role or sector,
b. cut out unnecessary or irrelevant details,
c. pinpoint what makes the individual stand out.
d. provide objectivity
4.
Why is preparation of the CV important?
Spending time on preparation produces a better result; the CV will be used to create questions at
your interview
5.
Why is it more difficult to find a professional CV writer in the UK than in the USA?
Because in the UK CV writers are not regulated
6.
What should you check before you employ a CV writer?
Sample of the CVs writers work

Unit 7 Interviews and Starting Work


7.1.3 Creating Your LinkedIn Profile (1)
Key:
1. memorable 2. shy

3. to be on the radar

4. connectedness

5. engage in

7. diverse

8. unique

6. lingo

7.1.3 Key: 1. a

2. c

3. c

4. a

9. rich

5. b

7.1.5 Creating Your LinkedIn Profile (3)


Key: Conferences / Trade Shows / Educational Institutes / Alumni Associations / Social Events /
Sports Events / Clubs / Professional Organizations / Shared Interests

7.1.7 Interviews
Key:
1a. drink coffee
1b. he drank too much coffee

323

1c. get a job offer


2
a. research the company and the position carefully
b. you need to practice
c. prepare success stories that you can reference during the interview
d. prepare questions to ask the interviewer
e. tailor your entire interview to the company you are interviewing with
3
a. who their competitors are
b. toughest interview questions
c. personal life
d. knowledgeable and enthusiastic
e. companys perfect candidate

7.1.7. Transcript - Jeff and Mike - The Interview Guys.


JEFF
Hi everyone, I'm Jeff and this is my friend Mike, and together we're known as the Interview Guys.
Today we're enjoying one of our favorite pastimes...enjoying a cup of coffee and talking about Job
Interviews!
MIKE
Jeff, are you sure you didn't have one cup of coffee too many? You seem a little...excited.
JEFF
I am excited Mike. But not because of the coffee! Because A lot of people have been asking us to
share
our
best
interview tips, so today we've put together a list of our Top 5 favorites! If you can master these 5
tips,
you'll
be
well
on
your
way
to
getting
a
job
offer
from
your
next
interview.
MIKE
And pay special attention to tip #5, because it's the one tip that's really going to set you apart from
you competition and get you on offer from your next interview. So what's the first tip on the list
Jeff?
JEFF
Tip #1 is that you really need to research the company and the position carefully. It's important to
know exactly what they do, who their competitors are, and any current events related to the
company. Take some time to study their website, but make sure you also know the job description
inside
out.
MIKE
Our second tip is that you need to practice! In other words, it's important that you prepare perfect
answers
to
some

324

of the most commonly asked and toughest interview questions. How do you do that? Well hang on
to
the
end
of
this
video
and
we'll
show
you
exactly
how.
JEFF
Tip #3 is that you need to prepare a few success stories that you can reference during the
interview.
What
is
a
success
story?
A success story is a story from your past, work or personal life, that highlights an achievement and
reflects
one
of
your
strengths.
MIKE
Tip #4 is a very important one. You always need to prepare some questions to ask the interviewer.
Why? Because it shows that you are prepared, knowledgeable and enthusiastic about the job. Not
to mention the fact that it will allow you to learn as much as possible about the company and the
position
you
are
interviewing
for.
JEFF
As we said earlier, our final tip is the most important tip on the list. Tip #5 says that you need to
tailor your entire interview to the company you are interviewing with.
Most people walk into the interview room with nowhere near enough knowledge of exactly what
the company or organization is looking for. You need to find out before hand exactly what the
position calls for in an employee as well as exactly what makes up the company's 'perfect
candidate". Once you have this information you can position yourself as that "perfect candidate" by
giving "tailored" interview answers. As we always say: "it's not about you, it's about them"
MIKE
If that sounds like a lot to take in, don't worry! Because we've prepared a special report that
explains Tip #5 completely and outlines exactly how to prepare perfect answers to every interview
question.
JEFF
That's right. We walk you through our proven step-by-step process for giving perfect interview
answers in our hugely popular free special report.

7.1.8 Reported Interview Questions


Key:
He asked me He wanted to know
1. why I wanted the job.
2. what I was studying at university.
3. why I had chosen my degree subject / why I chose my degree subject.
4. what my usual role in a team was.
5. if/whether I had any questions.
6. if/whether I had led a team before.
7. what I expected to be doing in 5 years time.

325

8. what my strengths and weaknesses were.


9. what other jobs I had applied for.
10. how my worst enemy would describe me.
11 why I had chosen my university and what factors had influenced my choice / why I chose my
university and what factors influenced my choice.
12. what my greatest achievement had been/was.
13. who I thought were, or would be, their main competitors.
14. what I would be doing in 10 years time.
15. how long I would stay with the company.

7.1.9 Tricky Questions


Key:
1. Correct Answer: Open the refrigerator, put in the giraffe, and close the door. This question tests
whether you tend to do simple things in an overly complicated way.
2. Did you say, Open the refrigerator, put in the elephant, and close the refrigerator? Wrong
Answer. Correct Answer: Open the refrigerator, take out the giraffe, put in the elephant and close
the door. This tests your ability to think through the repercussions of your previous actions.
3. Correct Answer: The Elephant. The elephant is in the refrigerator. You just put him in there. This
tests your memory.
4. Correct Answer: You jump into the river and swim across. Have you not been listening? All the
crocodiles are attending the Animal Meeting. This tests whether you learn quickly from your
mistakes.

7.2.3 Making a Good Impression


Key:
Plan what you are going to wear (1)
Get there early (2)
Prepare how to introduce yourself (3)
Remember names (4)
Organize your workspace (5)
Take advantage of your new status to ask good questions (6)
Be a good listener (7)

326

Be positive (8)
Don't bolt at the end of the day (9)
Dont forget to take a snack with you (not needed)
Be the last to leave (not needed)

7.2.4 Benefits at Work 1


Key:
1-b)

2-a)

3-a)

4-b)

5-a)

6-a)

7-a)

8-b)

7.2.6 Codes of Practice What to Wear 1


Key:
Many workplaces have dress codes, particularly workplaces in industries in which image is highly
valued and workplaces in which employees have regular face-to-face contact (1) with customers. In
a formal business environment (2) the standard of dressing for men and women is a suit, a jacket
and pants or a skirt, or a dress with appropriate accessories (3).
Clothing that reveals too much cleavage, your back, your chest, your feet, your stomach or your
underwear is not appropriate for a place of business. In our work environment (4), clothing should
be pressed and never wrinkled. Torn, dirty, or frayed clothing is unacceptable. Any clothing that has
words, terms, or pictures that may be offensive to other employees is unacceptable.
Certain days can be declared dress down days (5), generally Fridays. On these days, business casual
clothing (6) is allowed. Clothing that has the company logo (7) is encouraged. Sports team,
university, and fashion brand names (8) on clothing are generally acceptable. You might want to
keep a jacket in your office for the days when a client unexpectedly appears on a dress down day,
especially if the client is wearing a suit.

7.2.7 Codes of Practice - What to Wear 2


Key:
1. allowing

2. unfortunately

3. guide

4. particular

5. fabric

6. message

7. without

8. disciplinary

7.2.8 Codes of Practice Privacy Issues


Key:
1-b)

2-a)

3-c)

4-a)

5-c)

6-a)

7-c)

327

8-b)

7.2.9 Encouraging Younger Staff


Key:
1.

16 to 18 year-olds

2.

no

3.

theory and a lot of case studies

4.

40%

5.

industrial experience, some also have teaching experience

6.

academic staff at the London College of Fashion and managers from Arcadia

7.

to ensure that it is both academically sound and also meeting the needs of the industry

8.

students will be able to fit in seamlessly at whichever level they go into the industry

7.2.9 Transcript - Encouraging Younger Staff


LAMB: Well one big employment sector which is determinedly focusing on business potential,
rather than purely academic qualifications, is the fashion industry. Its just founded the Fashion
Retail Academy in London to teach 16 to 18 year-olds the skills theyll need to be effective at work.
The brain child of Retail Phillip Green, a man
incidentally whos made billions without going to university, it opened in the autumn and Julia
Gaimster is the woman in charge. I asked her how the students are taught.
GAIMSTER : They spend about 60% of their time in the academy learning the theory and a lot of
case studies, a lot of role plays. Its very hands on, very focused on the students actively getting
involved and then 40% of the time out in the work place putting into practice what theyve learnt,
working with a mentor.
LAMB: Whos teaching them? Do you have a permanent staff or are you drawing on people from
the industry?
GAIMSTER : Were drawing on people who have industrial experience and some of them have
previous teaching experience as well and were also running master classes. We have people like
creative directors and human resource managers from Arcadia, Burton Group, Top Shop, Wallace,
coming in and working with the students on master classes and thats what has attracted the
majority of them. They would have that opportunity to go into the work place to engage with
senior managers in retail and to really put what theyre learning into practice. Its the practical.
LAMB: Ah, thats interesting. So its the real experience of seeing what the business is like, rather
than the academic end.
GAIMSTER : Yes, absolutely. This is a blue print for the future of vocational education where
industry and education are working really closely together, and the key thing about the curriculum

328

is that it was developed by academic staff at the London College of Fashion, who are experts in the
area, and managers from Arcadia. So they work very very closely on developing the curriculum to
ensure that its both academically sound and also meeting the needs of the industry.

Unit 8 Mobility and Cultural Diversity


8.1.1 Understanding Cultural Differences (R)
1 In order to avoid causing an offense to someone in another business, it is important to be aware
of cultural differences between your societies.
2 The extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organizations within a
country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally is called power distance.
3 Business markets in Asia and South America are identified as emerging markets.
4 Our world today seems smaller and is called a global village because of improved
communications and transport.
5 Some examples of non-verbal communications which may be different in other cultures are eye
contact, hand gestures, or work attire.
6 A hand shake in the Middle East is a sign that negotiations are just beginning.
7 Businesses today often operate in many countries by using cross-border teams.
8 Insensitivity can cause serious problems in business because of a violation of cultural norms in
that other culture.
9 Other factors can help us analyze cultural-based behavior, including whether a society is
generally more comfortable with uncertainty, ambiguity, and nuance.
10 Management styles can vary in other cultures based on how that culture perceives that
businesses should be run.
Answers to choose from:

global village
cross-border teams
cultural differences
Insensitivity
emerging markets
management styles
power distance
uncertainty, ambiguity and nuance
hand shake
eye contact, hand gestures or work attire

329

8.1.3 Should I Study Abroad? Advantages and Disadvantages


Key:
Select a phrase to finish the sentence:
9.

Studying abroad means you will learn the language .


very quickly
almost not at all
a
little
more

10.

Studying abroad can be


really easy
hard due to culture shock
an
experience

11.

Financing a study abroad experience


will be no problem
is easy because you can find scholarships
needs
to
be
something

12.

Living in a new country


will not be much different
can open your eyes to the world
helps
us
see
that
everyone

13.

When living in another country


a host family can take care of all your needs
you can pay someone to do your chores
you
will
have
to
learn

14.

An experience of living abroad


will make you a changed person
is not much different than living at home
will
make
you
less
mature

15.

A study experience abroad will give you


a lot of headaches and few memories
many low moments and depression
a
lifetime
of
memories
of

16.

To know if studying abroad is right for you


watch television for inspiration
go to google
talk to people who have done it before

that

quickly

requires

does

330

adjustment

you

pretty

to

as

little

you

special

can

much

the

become

same

thing

self-sufficient

depend

time

afford

on

in

your

others

life

8.1.4 My Study Abroad Experience (L)

Key:
Grenoble, France
That out of 30 students, there were 19 different nationalities
Open doors, employers impressed, shows maturity and responsibility
Research available universities
other students who have studied abroad
Doing a BA in Business Management
C
A
C
B

8.1.5 My Study Abroad Experience (L)- Transcript

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ywaV5NRkFik

Hi my name is Georgia Sanders. Im doing a BA in Business Management with European Study and I
studied in Grenoble, France. My best experience has to be that in a class of 30 there was actually 19
different nationalities which brought so many different cultures, different perspectives. It was really
interesting and Ive never had that before. So that was definitely a highlight.
I think how my year abroad has prepared me for my future career because Ive become more of an
employable person in general. I think not every student can say that theyve been abroad and I
think that really opens doors. And when Ive been on interviews and I said that Ive been on a year
abroad generally the employers has been very impressed and intrigued to know how it went. Uh, I
think when [a] young person can actually live abroad it does show something about how mature
they are and responsible. So I think, yeah, its very beneficial for employability, definitely.
One of my main challenges has to be the difference in work ethic out there and the system of
education which is very different. Uh it worked on the basis of continuous assessment um which
meant a lot of commitment throughout the year. Um and not a lot of outside classroom work so
you have to be very attentive and fully participate during class which actually I found really
benefitted me and I actually worked better with it so it actually worked out to be positive.
The advice Id give people um going on a study abroad year would be um be aware to actually
research the different universities available to you. I did that before and found that hugely
beneficial. Ah also do use the students who have been on a year abroad as a resource because
weve got loads of kind of tricks of the trade and advice that we can give people. Um you know how
to get cheap travel and stuff so I think thats yeah definitely some advice.

331

8.1.6 How to Study Aboard

Key: B, C, E, F, J
Step 1. Conquer your fears and .. (1). Plenty of programs do not require a foreign language.
Worried about (2)? Some overseas courses cost less than your home . (3) Many
schools employ full-time study abroad .. (4) who will help you arrange your trip.
Step 2. Consider your reasons for studying abroad and be honest .Your reason should .. (5)
where you go and what you study.
Step 3. Examine your .. (6) plan. Take your . (7) goals, total .. (8) units into
account.
Step 4. The .. (9) Study Abroad Office or International Program Office can provide information
about what is (10).
Step 5. Sort out financial .. (11).
Step 6. Get your . (12) and passports.
Step 7. Many programs have ..... (13) with nonprofit companies and local organisations that will
help you arrange the details.
Step 8. Do further research on your ( 14 )
Step 9. Pack your bags, get your shots and do not try to (15) fruits across the borders.

Key:
1. doubts, 2. costs, 3. tuition, 4. counselors, 5. determine , 6. academic, 7. career, 8. course, 9.
Campus, 10.available, 11. concerns, 12. visas, 13. partnerships, 14. destination, 15. Smuggle

8.1.7 Should You Study Abroad in Australia or New Zealand?

Key:
1. F

2. F

3. F

4. T

5. T

6. F

7. T

8.1.8 How to Study Aboard

332

8. T

9. F

10. T

Key: B, C, E, F, J
Step 1. Conquer your fears and .. (1). Plenty of programs do not require a foreign language.
Worried about (2)? Some overseas courses cost less than your home . (3) Many
schools employ full-time study abroad .. (4) who will help you arrange your trip.
Step 2. Consider your reasons for studying abroad and be honest .Your reason should .. (5)
where you go and what you study.
Step 3. Examine your .. (6) plan. Take your . (7) goals, total .. (8) units into
account.
Step 4. The .. (9) Study Abroad Office or International Program Office can provide information
about what is (10).
Step 5. Sort out financial .. (11).
Step 6. Get your . (12) and passports.
Step 7. Many programs have ..... (13) with nonprofit companies and local organisations that will
help you arrange the details.
Step 8. Do further research on your ( 14 )
Step 9. Pack your bags, get your shots and do not try to (15) fruits across the borders.

Key:
1. doubts, 2. costs, 3. tuition, 4. counselors, 5. determine , 6. academic, 7. career, 8. course, 9.
Campus, 10.available, 11. concerns, 12. visas, 13. partnerships, 14. destination, 15. Smuggle

8.2.3 Erasmus University in a Nutshell

Key:
A

Listen to the text again and answer the following questions.


11.

What do we know about the size of the university?

..........one of the biggest universities in the Netherlands


12.

On what is there a strong focus?

.strong focus on the city and international context


13.

What education is Erasmus is about?

333

analysing problems and finding solutions


14.

What do they organize for students?

recruitment days, presentations, workshops, dinners and interviews


15.

What IT facilities are mentioned?

.computers and printing facilities


16.

What feeling does Erasmus give you?

gives the feeling that you are prepared for a great career

8.2.3 Erasmus University in a Nutshell - Transcript


YouTube link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fy1cef5abCQ

The first thing that comes to my mind when I think of Erasmus University: rising to higher
standards and achieving new goals. I think its one of the biggest universities in the Netherlands. It
has strong international fields. Ive been abroad several times and I can honestly say that Erasmus is
one of the best in the world. We have produced a lot of big names, a strong focus on the city and
the international context. Erasmus has this policy which combines the more theoretical aspects and
offers opportunity to apply them on things in daily life. Memorizing books is not learning. Education
at Erasmus is all about analyzing problems and finding solutions. The ranking of the university is
kind of important. And before I chose this university I looked up the world rank and said well its
quite high. When I first came here I noticed straight away that everything is so well organized. We
organized the Erasmus recruitment days so that orientations, workshops, and interviews will get
students into international companies. We are the biggest in the Benelux countries and companies
enjoy coming here. This is really important for Shell. Its a great opportunity to get into contact with
really talented students; and we wouldnt want to miss that. There is a lot to do for students which
means that there are student associations; there are a lot of social things. This is my study, of
course but you can also do sports, make friends, drink coffee and have lunch. Theres a bar too so
you can even have a beer. When the weathers nice you see people sitting outside enjoying the sun;
chatting, studying. There are computers and printing facilities everywhere. Theres loads to do
here. I feel right at home at Erasmus. This is my university. Erasmus gives you the feeling that
youre being prepared for a great career. So, youre not just having education but youre working
on your future.

334

Unit 9 Business Travel


9.1.2 Key - A Guide to Business Travel
1. Should we travel just to meet other business people when phones are so good
YES. Meeting face to face with clients and colleagues, provides you with the
opportunity to broaden your professional network and forge relationships that go
than
phone
calls
and

today?
perfect
deeper
email

2. What
is
the
first
thing
to
do
when
planning
to
travel?
First, confirm the travel dates and make your reservations as soon as possible
3. What
documents
do
I
need
to
travel?
Passport and travel insurance, copies of electronic boarding passes and hotel reservations
4. What
kind
of
clothes
are
best
to
pack
for
travel?
Dark coloured clothing that doesnt wrinkle easily, Ladies, carry a large scarf, shawl or
Pashmina, choose stylish but comfortable shoes. Opt for wedges, flats or shoes with a lower
heel.
5. What security measures can I take at a hotel? Can I think of others?
Avoid using your full name when signing in. Use your initials or sign in as if two people are in
the room. This deters potentially assailants looking to prey on single women. Advise the
front desk not to mention your room number out loud, when other guests are nearby. In
the event that you think someone may have heard it dont be afraid to request a new room.
Always leave the Do Not Disturb sign on the door. This gives the impression that your room
is always occupied. Upon arriving at your hotel room, double check the locks on the
windows and doors. If you are unsure of your room locations, ask security to escort you to
your room and avoid wandering the halls aimlessly.

9.1.3 Seven Tips for Foreign Business Travel


Key:
Multiple Choice Check all that apply:
1

Business travel involves more than just making travel plans. You also should consider

1.4

___ Finding the closest gyms to work out in

1.5

1.6

___ Loading up all your favorite video games

When planning your travel itinerary, be sure to

2.4

Leave a copy with your family and colleagues

2.5

Make copies of all your important documents like passport for your family

2.6

X Leave an emergency contact list with your travel planner

Some good preparation practices for a trip abroad might be to

Learning about business practices and social customs of destination

335

3.4

Read books or articles about the country you are visiting

3.5

___ Plan your menu in advance so you can have your favorite foods

3.6

Examples of body language and gestures to be careful of include

4.4

Making the OK sign with you thumb and index finger

4.5

Pointing with your finger

4.6

___ Speaking slowly

Learning another language is not easy when in another country. You could

5.4

Make a sincere attempt to learn what you can

5.5

Hire a translator

5.6

___ Dont travel until you have mastered a language

You should check for any travel advisories in the country you are traveling to. Check for

6.4

Government issued travel advisories

6.5

Whether the advisory affects your area of travel

6.6

___ What weapons you can take to defend yourself

Check for the kind of insurance you need to protect yourself

7.4

X Travel Insurance

7.5

X Life Insurance

7.6

Select the best ways to stay connected while traveling

8.4

X Using Skype from your computer or cell phone

8.5

___ Plan on borrowing a phone to make calls

8.6

X Texting is always a good option especially in emergencies

Research if it is acceptable to discuss business over meals

Medical Insurance

9.2.2 Business Travel Etiquette


Key:
1. True; 2. False; 3. True; 4. Not Stated; 5. True; 6. False; 7. Not Stated;
8. True; 9. False; 10. False; 11. True; 12. Not Stated

9.1.2 Business Travel Etiquette- Transcript

YouTube link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NBGEknzJu_Q (MichaelCzinkota.com)

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Etiquette overseas is dramatically important because it really plays to the issue of culture. And
culture is a very determining factor in any negotiations, in any planning, in any execution of
business activities. And therefore, anyone who travels internationally for business and even for
pleasure needs to be aware of cultural imperatives.
In the United States, time for us is terribly important. We preserve it, we save it, we are on time.
Those are very important concepts. But you look at the same thing internationally and people see
time more as an incidental. That if you say youll meet in the afternoon you may say youll meet
around four but that becomes four-ish and may become six-ish quite quickly and nobody is upset at
all because thats just how it is. But getting ready for that and living with that expectation that not
everything will flow as smoothly and as precisely as one may be used to, thats something difficult.
Normality often matters.
In some countries people are addressed in different ways depending on their social status. And
there can be lets say in Spanish speaking areas there can be the tu verses usted. In French
speaking areas the tu verses the vous. In German areas the du versus the ze. And its very
sensitive to decide what form of address to use because if you use the wrong one you may
generate ill-will. And I remember talking to an executive in Europe who told me that for him the
biggest problem was and he was an American executive, when he came to Europe he had to
remember how he was going to address the presidents of his subsidiaries. One was call Wang the
other one was called Doctor Meyer and the next one was called John Miller and he really had to
stick with that. It couldnt be all first name only because it just didnt work that way. But you also
have other formality issues.
For example, I remember going with a group of Americans into a German restaurant and they
didnt have any air conditioning so we all took off our jackets. And our German hosts were
obviously appalled at that. And I tried to make for some easier feelings and I said to the German cohosts, Look at the gentlemen over there in the corner theyve all taken off their jackets.
Whereupon he turned to me and asked, What makes you think these are gentlemen? And that
sort of clarity adherence is not necessarily a question of sensitivity its a question of outcome, even
with good sensitivity.
Two examples come to mind. One was when president Bush was in Germany at a leader meeting
and chancellor Merkel of Germany obviously looked a little bit exhausted and he stepped up behind
and started giving her a back rub. And that somehow didnt go so well because German chancellors
dont often get back rubs in public. Or other situations where national leaders for example dont
like to be touched by anyone. And even if that touch is to convey empathy and closeness and
friendship theyre still not used to being touched and it shows in their faces.
But weve also had on the positive side again President Bush who in the White House Rose Garden
welcomed some Arab leaders and while they were walking in the Rose Garden they shook hands
and then they held hands for the next ten minutes of walking. Which is not necessarily is not the
most American of behaviors but it clearly demonstrated to the visitors that he had sort of read up
on the culture and tried to do things their way and that was very welcome and was appreciated
internationally.

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No really its not just the rules because they can be learned but its really the empathy, the
conveying that I come in friendship that I am here to know you as a person and work with you. Im
not just here to do the transaction and be out of here again.
It does make sense to look at some of these guidebooks. It makes sense to go for example to go to
the US Department of State website which tells you roughly what to do or at least what to avoid.
Theres also, lo and behold, by the Central Intelligence Agency theres a World Fact Book which
summarizes each country economically, politically. And its available to the public, it can even also
be seen on the internet. And it teaches you, sort of, the most important things not to do and the
most important things to keep in mind so that you dont go and provide a gift that you think is very
wonderful and your guest may think is a terrible thing to do because knives or clocks or certain
colors are just not welcome in that society. And so you can avoid some of those mistakes. But of
course, theres also a lot of slack being given to Americans, sort of, Yeah they probably dont
know so we still get the benefit of the doubt.

9.2.3 Corporate Travel Management from FCM

Key:
1.C;

2.B;

3.B;

4.C;

5.C;

6.C;

7.D;

8.A;

9.D;

10.C;

11.C;

9.2.3 Corporate Travel Management from FCM - Transcript

YouTube link: Link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eqnF-4V4j24


Ultimately, getting better corporate travel ideas is all about working with people who can ask the
right questions. At FCM our people are empowered to think expansively about the products and
services we offer our clients. These are experienced travel professionals who are encouraged to
challenge the status quo to help your business achieve outstanding results. People who are never
afraid to ask one simple question; FCM Travel Solutions.
FCM is a young and vibrant travel management company. Were represented in 75 countries
around the world. Being part of FCM means you to have [a] world of opportunities. Whether you
are a small company or a large multi-national we give you the same amount of attention and work
very, very hard to deliver the savings that are so important to you. Were not a transactional based
business; were very relationship based business and so thats the key to our business model.
We do not do one-size-fits-all. We do the service that you require on a local, multinational, or even
global level. We believe in face-to-face contact with our customers and we dont hide behind
emails, we do pick up the phone. Youre never ever in a call center environment. Youre always
talking to somebody who knows and understands your business and understands your needs from
a corporate travel point of view.

338

Our consultants are the best trained in the world. We are focused, we deliver outstanding services
and thats proven by our level of retention of our existing customers. Were not just a booking
service for corporate travel; actually people sitting side-by-side helping companies manage their
travel to get the outcomes they want. We offer more personable more flexible solutions that give
our customers the greatest savings. Why wouldnt they want to do business with FCM? See whats
possible when you blend fresh thinking with global negotiating strength and cutting edge travel
management. FCM Travel Solutions.

Unit 10 DEVELOPING YOUR CAREER


10.1.2 The Labour Market of the Future 2 (L)
Key:
1. a
2. c
3. d
4. a

10.1.2 The Labour Market of the Future 2 (L) Transcript

The answer to finding the best talent is really its like in China, weve set up an advertising school
in Shanghai in order to find the best young talent in the country to come into our industry but its
about trawling the good schoolsdesign schools as well as business schools, film schools,
entertainment schools, schools of all types, finding the best people. Incentivising them means, not
just financially incentivising them, but qualitatively, with training programmes, that sort of thing.
What most people prize most highly is the ability to develop their careers in the context of the jobs
they have, and providing an environment which challenges them geographically, or functionally,
and gives them an opportunity to develop their careers; so this is the biggest issue, because you
actually look at the supply of talent you know we can produce all the things in the world that we
need to produce in terms of manufacturing and distribution. What we cant do is produce more
people, because if you look at the demographics its against us. Theres a war for talent now in
five, ten or fifteen years time its gonna be even more significant because the supply of people,
birthrates, are basically declining in all countries of the world, so age there will be an ageing of the
population in even the most youthful countries that at the moment we think have the best
demographics.

339

10.1.3 Its Never Too Late to Learn


Key: 1. e

2. a

3. g

4. h

5. b

6. c

7. f

8. d

10.1.4 E-Learning (L)


Key:
1. telecommunications companies
2. Silicon Valley California
3. knowledge is doubling every two years
4. to become an expert
5. a way to learn from one another

10.1.4 E-Learning (L) Transcript


I. It's no coincidence that some of the early adopters of internet-based teaching and learning are
telecommunications companies such as British Telecomm. Another example comes from the
American computer giant Sun Microsystems, now undergoing big change at the same time as it's
merging with the database giant Oracle, a near neighbour in Silicon Valley, California. Sun is taking
this new system of learning very seriously, says Cary Williard, the company's chief learning office.
CW. There are some special challenges that are present now that haven't been present before. The
University of California, Berkley did a study and found that knowledge is doubling every two years.
There are numerous studies that have shown that it takes ten years to become an expert, but you
can't possibly keep on top of everything. So somehow we have to create a way to learn from one
another what's the most important. I can hardly make my way to my bed because of all of these
stacks of books I really do need to read and I('m) just fall further and further behind. I think we all
have that experience, so the need to be able to learn from one another is so much more intense
now because of how much knowledge there is out there to sort through.
I.We have to create a way to learn from one another, says Cary Williard at Sun Microsystems.

10.1.5 Addressing Weaknesses (R)


Key: 1. b

2. a

3. c

4. b

10.1.6 What is E-Learning? (L)


1.
2.

1998
applying

340

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.

original
promoters
noise
drive
compliance
certification
technology
leadership development
sell
communicate
oriented
email and their regular work
2 billion
from other people
social networking
online communities

10.1.6 What is E-Learning? (L) Transcript


I. And that's the disruptive part of this new electronic learning process of teaching and training.
Listen to the training and talent management consultant, Josh Bercin.
JB. E-learning is a word that started around 1998, and it was originally the concept of applying the
internet to physical training, so the original concept was We're gonna do away with the classroom,
we're gonna do away with bricks and mortar universities and we're gonna put it all on the web,
and in fact Cisco and other promoters of the internet really tried to make a lot of noise about this to
try to drive demand for the internet, and companies tried to do that and they tried to shut down
their classroom training universities tried to put all their professors on line and what they
found was that it didn't work. Some content worked really well on the internet and some didn't.
The internet turned out to be very good for compliance training, certification on a process, or
perhaps a technology training; it didn't turn out to be very good for soft skills like leadership
development, how to sell, how to communicate, some of the more people-oriented skills in
companies.
I. Of course one of the main advantages of transferring training to the employee's computer, to be
used as and when he or she has the time and inclination to learn something, is that this reflects the
new attention span of the internet generation. Josh Bercin again.
JB: The average employee shifts back and forth between their email and their regular work 70 times
in a single day, so we're already committed to the computer! There's 2 billion cell phones in the
world, something like that, probably the equivalent number of PCs. Everybody has access to
information everywhere all the time, and we're trying to make sense of it all. And so in a corporate
setting what's really the next set of challenges is not putting more information online, but trying to
find some context for it all, and also recognising the fact that people don't learn from content, they
learn from other people, so when you have a training problem or a transformation problem inside
of a business and you're trying to get people to move in a new direction, or take on a new role, you
can't always teach them how to do that, they have to learn it from the other people in that
organisation. And so the tools like social networking and the concepts of online communities have
become very, very important parts of corporate training now, and that's really what's new.

341

I. Josh Bercin of Bercin Associates, based in Oakland, the other side of San Francisco Bay from San
Francisco.

10.1.10 Writing a Letter Inviting a Tender 1 (W)


Dear Ms Smith
1. I am Gbor Pcsi, managing director of Conferi Kft., a company specializing in organising
training events in Hungary.
2. I am writing to announce a new training course which we will organise in March 2015 in
Budapest.
3.

2000 delegates will attend the event from all over the world.

4.

The sessions will take place at the Hotel Confi and will last 3 days.

5.

The participants will need translation services from Hungarian to English and vice versa.

6.

We invite your company to bid for the contract.

7.

In your bid you should provide detailed information about services and costs.

8. All tenders must be received by July 21st 2014 and the result will be announced on August
30th.
9.

Please do not hesitate to contact me personally if you need more details.

10. I enclose a brochure with details of the conference.

10.2.1 What do Managers Do?


Key: 1. h,

2. f,

3. e,

4. c,

5. g,

6. b,

10.2.5 Motivating Staff Financially (V)


Key:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

incentive
commission
salary
earning potential
fringe benefits
cost-of-living allowance
deducted
rate
bonus
golden handshake

342

7. a,

8. d

10.2.6 How to Manage Your Staff (L)


Key:
1.

700

2.

85%

3.

a. yes, b. no, c. no,

4.

a. 900,

5.

the mid 1990s

6.

development

7.

valued (properly)

8.

involved (in the business)

9.

maternity

10.

twice a year

11.

not right / wrong / missing

12.

trust

d. no, e. yes, f. yes, g. yes

b. Florida,

c. respect,

10.2.6 How to Manage Your Staff (L)

d. abilities

Transcript

LAMB: Many staff satisfaction surveys may make dismal reading for bosses but there are
exceptions. Workers at a jewelry store chain called Beaverbrooks have helped vote the company
the best retailer to work for in Britain in the annual Sunday Times Best Companies List.
Beaverbrooks employs around 700 people in 55 shops and an impressive 85% of the staff said they
believe their manager not only cares how satisfied they are in the job, but also regularly expresses
appreciation for the good work they do. So what is Beaverbrooks doing right? Mike Johnson has
been investigating and his report starts with answers to that question from staff behind the counter
at the companys Blackpool store.
LADY: Theres no hierarchy here at all. You can go to anybody and still feel valued and have your
point listened to.
LADY: I used to work for a supermarket and theres no way that I could have gone up to the store
manager of that place and given him like an idea about something or felt like I could have a
conversation with him or anything.
JOHNSON: Why was that, were they too intimidating?
LADY: Yea, they used to put the fear of God into you for some reason. Theyd walk past and youd
feel like you were being watched by some evil evil bloke. But Mark has been here a few times.
JOHNSON: Thats the managing director?
LADY: Yea. He puts you at ease.
JOHNSON: Do they pay shed-loads of money?

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LADY: No not at all. Its the atmosphere thats definitely kept me here anyway.
LADY: I wouldnt have any problems with phoning up anybody that I needed to speak to regarding
any issues that I had or any suggestions that I had. I would feel happy that it wouldnt be just
something that was pushed aside.
JOHNSON: Would you really feel okay about sending an email say, or a letter to the managing
director of the company?
LADY: I wouldnt think twice about it.
JOHNSON: You wouldnt think twice about it?
LADY: No. No not at all, Id feel very comfortable.
ADDLESTONE: This letter just came to me today, funnily enough. This is from Karen and shes a
sales assistant in our store in Bluewater.
JOHNSON: Rare indeed is the company where the managing director starts his day by opening fan
mail from the staff. Welcome to the weird and wonderful world of Beaverbrooks boss, Mark
Addleston.
ADDLESTONE: Dear Mark. Just wanted to say a huge, huge thank you to you and the company for
giving me the most amazing feeling this morning. I shall explain, and she goes on to talk about how
over the year shes actually accumulated 900 in bonuses and shes going to take her children and
her husband to Florida for a holiday. But then she just finishes off by saying, how lucky am I? A job
I enjoy, colleagues throughout the company who have the utmost respect for each other and a
recognition of my abilities which gives me the chance to feel this good. Thank you. I mean, Its just
lovely.
JOHNSON: In many an organisation Karen from Bluewater might also be seen as lobbying for an
award of her own. Company Creep of the Year. Here though her letter does seem to be a genuine
expression of gratitude, not just for the bonuses shes earned, also for the spirit in which her
company is run. But it wasnt always like this. Though Beaverbrooks was established back in 1920 it
wasnt until the mid-1990s that it seriously began to seek the opinion of its staff.
ADDLESTONE: I started a series of focus groups when I went round the branches round the country
asking the question, whats good, whats not good? And some of the staff, I have to say when I got
back, made me very, very uncomfortable.
JOHNSON: Like what?
ADDLESTONE: Well like the lack of development that they were receiving, like the fact that they felt
not valued properly, all sorts of stuff. But all came back down to one thing, it came back down to
the fact that they didnt feel involved in the business and that was a real wake-up call and it did
hurt at the time.
JOHNSON: Stung into action, he launched a flurry of new initiatives. Everyone was encouraged to
contact him direct with views and ideas. One recent example from the shop floor was an improved
package of maternity benefits, important for a company where almost 85% of staff are women.

344

These days Mark Addleston visits every store personally at least twice a year, trying to foster an
atmosphere where people feel comfortable talking to him. One visit revealed a serious case of
bullying by the shop manager.
ADDLESTONE: Fortunately, I had a sufficiently good relationship with the team where one or two of
them felt comfortable enough with me to be able to tell me what was actually happening. You
know when you ask somebody a question and you say, how are things and they say, fine and
you look into their face and you know that theres something not right, theres something missing.
Its at that point that you have to delve more deeply. I believe our people trust us, I believe our
people trust me.

10.2.7 Motivating Staff (R)


Key:
1.

a fair, living wage

2.

more than money (money, personal time and attention)

3.

it inspires motivation

4.

you feel you are part of a chosen/popular group of people

5.
education and training; career paths; team participation; succession planning; crosstraining; field trips to successful workplaces
6.

ask your employees what they want from work

345

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