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Computer Networking



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Write about ISO OSI model.

The ISO (International Standards Organization) has created a

layered model called the OSI (Open Systems Interconnect) model to

describe defined layers in a network operating system. The purpose
of the layers is to provide clearly defined functions to improve
internetwork connectivity between computer manufacturing

companies. Each layer has a standard defined input and a standard

defined output. Understanding the function of each layer is
instrumental in understanding data

whether Local, Metropolitan or Wide.

communication within networks

There are 7 Layers of the OSI model:

7. Application Layer (Top Layer)

6. Presentation Layer

5. Session Layer

4. Transport Layer

3. Network Layer

2. Data Link Layer

1. Physical Layer (Bottom Layer


1 Application layer:

This layer provides a means for the user to access information on the
network through an application. Many user applications that need to
communicate over the network interact with the Application layer
protocol directly. The user applications are not part of OSI

Application layer, use the networking services offered by the

networking protocol suite. Application layer functions typically include

identifying communication partners, and determining availability of

required resources. Some examples of application layer implementations

include Telnet, File Transfer Protocol (FTP), and Simple Mail
Transfer Protocol (SMTP).
2 Presentation layer:
Presentation layer converts local host computer data representations

into a standard network format for transmission on the network. On

the receiving side, it changes the network format into the appropriate
host computers format so that data can be utilized independent of
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the host computer. ASCII and EBCDIC conversions, cryptography, and

the like are handled here.

Examples of Presentation layer coding and conversion schemes include

common data representation formats, conversion of character

representation formats, common data compression schemes, and

common data encryption schemes.

Presentation layer implementations are not typically associated with a

particular protocol stack. Some well-known standards for video
include QuickTime and Motion Picture Experts Group (MPEG).

QuickTime is an Apple Computer specification for video and audio, and

MPEG is a standard for video compression and coding.
3. Session layer:
The session layer establishes, manages, and terminates communication
sessions. Communication sessions consist of service requests and

service responses that occur between applications located in different

network devices. These requests and responses are coordinated by
protocols implemented at the session layer. Some examples of

session-layer implementations include AppleTalks Zone Information

Protocol (ZIP), and Decent Phase Session Control Protocol (SCP).

4.Transport layer:
Transport layer is responsible for providing reliable service between
the hosts. Upper layer datagrams are broken down into manageable

datagrams and then appropriate header information (such as sequence

number, port number, etc.) is added to the datagram before passing

it on to the Network layer. Two frequently used transport protocols
are the TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and the UDP (User
Datagram Protocol).

Important features of Transport layer:

Transport layer ensures reliable service.

Breaks the message (from sessions layer) into smaller

datagrams, and appends appropriate unit header information.

Responsible for communicating with the Session layer

Important features of TCP/UDP:

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TCP/IP widely used protocol for Transport/Network layers

TCP: (Transport Control Protocol) TCP ensures that a packet

has reached its intended destination by using an

acknowledgement. If not, it retransmits the lost messages.

Hence, TCP is called a connection oriented protocol.

UDP (Universal Data gram Protocol): UDP simply transmits

packets over the internet. It does not wait for an

acknowledgement. It is the responsibility of upper layer

protocols to ensure that the information had reached the

intended partner(s). Hence, UDP is often called connectionless


Application programs that do not need connection-oriented

protocol generally use UDP.

5. Network layer:
Network layer is responsible for the routing of packets through the
entire network. The layer uses logical addressing for this purpose.
Note that the physical address (like MAC address) keeps changing

from hop to hop when a packet travels from source to destination.

As a result, an address that doesnt change is required to ensure

continuity between hops. This is nothing but logical address. For IP

networks, IP address is the logical address; and for Novell network,

IPX address is the logical address, and so on. This layer also

provides for congestion control, and accounting information for the

network. IP (Internet Protocol) is an example of a network layer

6. Data link layer:

Data link layer provides delivery of information frames between

communicating partners. This layer is responsible for flow regulation,

error detection and correction, and framing of bits for transmission.

The network data frame is made up of checksum, source address,

destination address, and the data itself. The largest frame size that
can be sent is known as the maximum transmission Unit (MTU).
Important features of Data link layer:

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Assembles bits into frames, making them ready for transmission

over the network.

Provides error detection, and correction to transmitted

frames. If the checksum is not correct, it asks for
retransmission. (Send a control message).

Consists of two sub layers:

Logical Link Control (LLC): Defines how data is transferred over

the cable and provides data link service to the higher layers.

Medium Access Control (MAC): Controls media access by regulating

the communicating nodes using pre-defined set of rules. (i.e.

Token passing, Ethernet [CSMA/CD] all have MAC sub-layer

Different Data link layer protocols define different network and

protocol characteristics, including physical addressing, network

topology, error notification, sequencing of frames, and flow control.

Physical addressing (as opposed to logical addressing) defines how

devices are addressed at the data link layer. The protocols used in
Data link layer are SLIP, PPP, and CSLP.
7. Physical layer:
This is the bottom-most layer of the OSI model. The Physical layer

handles the bit-level communications across the physical medium. The

physical medium could be made up of wired electrical signals, or light,

or radio (wireless) signals. Physical layer specifications define

characteristics such as media, data rates, maximum transmission

distances, and physical connectors.

Some of the important standards that deal with physical layer

specifications are:

RS-232(for serial communication lines), X.21, EIA 232, and G730.

Physical layer and Data link layer implementations can be categorized
as either LAN or WAN specifications.

2.Describe the architecture and usage of ISDN.

Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is a set of
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communications standards for simultaneous digital transmission of

voice, video, data, and other network services over the traditional
circuits of the public switched telephone network.

ISDN is a circuit-switched telephone network system, which also

provides access to packet switched networks, designed to allow

digital transmission of voice and data over ordinary telephone

copper wires, resulting in potentially better voice quality than an

analog phone can provide. It offers circuit-switched connections

(for either voice or data), and packet-switched connections (for

data), in increments of 64 kilobit/s. A major market application for

ISDN in some countries is Internet access, where ISDN typically

provides a maximum of 128 kbit/s in both upstream and downstream

directions. ISDN B-channels can be bonded to achieve a greater
data rate, typically 3 or 4 BRIs (6 to 8 64 kbit/s channels) are

ISDN should not be mistaken for its use with a specific protocol,

such as Q.931 whereby

ISDN is employed as the network, data-link

and physical layers in the context of the OSI

model. In a broad

sense ISDN can be considered a suite of digital services existing on


1, 2, and 3 of the OSI model. ISDN is designed to

provide access to voice and data services


Integrated services refers to ISDNs ability to deliver at

minimum two simultaneous connections, in any combination of data,

voice, video, and fax, over a single line. Multiple

devices can be

attached to the line, and used as needed. That means an ISDN line
can take

care of most peoples complete communications needs at a

much higher transmission rate, without forcing the purchase of

multiple analog phone line.

The entry level interface to ISDN is the Basic(s) Rate Interface

(BRI), a 128 kbit/s service delivered over a pair of standard

telephone copper wires. The 144 kbit/s rate is broken down into two
64 kbit/s bearer channels (B channels) and one 16 kbit/s signaling

channel (D channel or delta channel)The other ISDN service available

is the Primary Rate Interface (PRI), which is carried over an E1 (2048

kbit/s) in most parts of the world. An E1 is 30 B channels of 64

kbit/s, one D channel of 64 kbit/s and a timing and alarm channel

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of 64 kbit/s. In North America PRI service is delivered on one or

more T1s (sometimes referred to as 23B+D) of 1544 kbit/s (24

channels). A T1 has 23 B channels and 1 D channel for signalling

(Japan uses a circuit called a J1, which is similar to a T1).The bearer

channel (B) is a standard 64 kbit/s voice channel of 8 bits sampled at

8 kHz with G.711 encoding. B-Channels can also be used to carry data,
since they are nothing more than digital channels.Bharat Sanchar Nigam
Limited, the State owned and largest communication service provider,
offers both ISDN BRI and PRI services across the country. With the

introduction of broadband technology, the load on bandwidth is being

absorbed by ADSL. ISDN continues to be an important backup

network for point-to-point leased line customers such as banks,

Eseva Centers [1], Life Insurance Corporation of India, and SBI

3. Discuss various LAN protocols.

Local Area Network (LAN) is a data communications network

connecting terminals, computers and printers within a building or other

geographically limited areas. These devices could be connected

through wired cables or wireless links. Ethernet, Token Ring and

Wireless LAN using IEEE 802.11 are examples of standard LAN

1.Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Detection, a set of rules

determining how network devices respond when two devices attempt to

use a data channel simultaneously (called a collision). Standard

Ethernet networks use CSMA/CD to physically monitor the traffic on

the line at participating stations. If no transmission is taking place at

the time, the particular station can transmit. If two stations attempt

to transmit simultaneously, this causes a collision, which is detected by

all participating stations. After a random time interval, the stations
that collided attempt to transmit again. If another collision occurs,

the time intervals from which the random waiting time is selected are
increased step by step. This is known as exponential back off.
CSMA/CD is a type of contention protocol.

Networks using the

CSMA/CD procedure are simple to implement but do not have

deterministic transmission characteristics. The CSMA/CD method is

internationally standardized in IEEE 802.3 and ISO 8802.3.
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1-Persistent CSMA
Sense the channel.If busy, keep listening to the channel and

transmit immediately when the channel becomes idle.If idle, transmit

a packet immediately.If collision occurs,Wait a random amount of
time and start over again. The protocol is called 1-persistent

because the host transmits with a probability of 1 whenever it finds

the channel idle.

Non-Persistent CSMA
Sense the channel .If busy, wait a random amount of time and

sense the channel again If idle, transmit a packet immediately if

collision occurs wait a random amount of time and start all over

Trade of

B and C become ready in the middle of As

transmission, 1-Persistent:
C probably do not collide
of As transmission,

B and C collide

Non-Persistent: B and

If only B becomes ready in the middle

1-Persistent: B succeeds as soon as A ends

Non-Persistent: B may have to wait

Non-Persistent CSMA

off between 1- and

P-Persistent CSMA
Optimal strategy: use P-Persistent CSMA Assume channels are
slotted One slot = contention period (i.e., one round trip
propagation delay)

1. Sense the channel

If channel is idle,

transmit a packet with probability p if a packet was transmitted, go

to step 2

if a packet was not transmitted, wait one slot and go

to step 1 If channel is busy, wait one slot and go to step 1. 2.

Detect collisions If a collision occurs, wait a random amount of

time and go to step 1 Consider p-persistent CSMA with p=0.5 When

a host senses an idle channel, it will only send a packet with 50%
probability If it does not send, it tries again in the next slot.
4. Explain the concept of framing in Data Link Layer and its
importance in data

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The Data Link Layer is concerned with local delivery of frames

between devices on the same LAN. Data Link frames, as these

protocol data units are called, do not cross the boundaries of a local

network. Inter-network routing and global addressing are higher layer

functions, allowing Data Link protocols to focus on local delivery,

addressing, and media arbitration. In this way, the Data Link layer is
analogous to a neighborhood traffic cop; it endeavors to arbitrate
between parties contending for access to a medium.

When devices attempt to use a medium simultaneously, frame collisions

occur. Data Link protocols specify how devices detect and recover

from such collisions, but it does not prevent them from happening.
Delivery of frames by layer 2 devices is affected through the use of
unambiguous hardware addresses. A frames header contains source
and destination addresses that indicate which device originated the
frame and which device is expected to receive and process it. In

contrast to the hierarchical and routable addresses of the network

layer, layer 2 addresses are flat, meaning that no part of the

address can be used to identify the logical or physical group to which

the address belongs.

When a frame needed to be sent, the bridge could look up the

destination MAC address in the bridge table, and know which port

should be sent out. The capability to send data to only the correct
host was a huge advance in switching because collisions became much

less likely. If the destination MAC address wasnt found in the bridge
table, the switch would simply flood it out all ports. Thats the only
way to find where a host actually lives for the first time, so as you

can see, flooding is an important concept in switching. It turns out

to be quite necessary in routing, too.

5. Discuss the IEEE 802.11 Standard.

In 1997 the IEEE adopted IEEE Std. 802.11-1997, the first wireless LAN
(WLAN) standard. This standard defines the media access control

(MAC) and physical (PHY) layers for a LAN with wireless connectivity.
It addresses local area networking where the connected devices
communicate over the air to other devices that are within close

proximity to each other. This paper provides an overview of the

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802.11 architecture and the different topologies incorporated to

accomodate the unique characteristics of the IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN


The standard is similar in most respects to the IEEE 802.3 Ethernet

standard. Specifically, the 802.11 standard addresses:

Functions required for an 802.11 compliant device to operate

either in a peer-to-peer fashion or integrated with an existing

wired LAN

Operation of the 802.11 device within possibly overlapping 802.11

wireless LANs and the mobility of this device between multiple
wireless LANs

MAC level access control and data delivery services to allow

upper layers of the 802.11 network

Several physical layer signaling techniques and interfaces

Privacy and security of user data being transferred over the

wireless media

The difference between a portable and mobile station is that a

portable station moves from point to point but is only used at a

fixed point. Mobile stations access the LAN during movement.

When two or more stations come together to communicate with each

other, they form a Basic Service Set (BSS). The minimum BSS consists
of two stations. 802.11 LANs use the BSS as the standard building
block. A BSS that stands alone and is not connected to a base is

called an Independent Basic Service Set (IBSS) or is referred to as

an Ad-Hoc Network. An ad-hoc network is a network where stations

communicate only peer to peer. There is no base and no one gives

permission to talk. Mostly these networks are spontaneous and can be

set up rapidly. Ad-Hoc or IBSS networks are characteristically limited

both temporally and spatially.
Extended Service Set (ESS)
Station Services the 802.11 standard defines services for providing

functions among stations. Station services are implemented within all

stations on an 802.11 WLAN (including access points). The main thrust

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behind station services is to provide security and data delivery

services for the WLAN.

Authentication -Because wireless LANs have limited physical security to

prevent unauthorized access, 802.11 defines authentication services to

control access to the WLAN. The goal of authentication service is to

provide access control equal to a wired LAN.

The authentication service provides a mechanism for one station to

identify another station. Without this proof of identity, the station is

not allowed to use the WLAN for data delivery. All 802.11 stations,
whether they are part of an independent BSS or ESS network, must
use the authentication service prior to communicating with another

IEEE 802.11 defines two types of authentication services.

6. Write about TCP/IP Protocol suite.
The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is one of the core

protocols of the Internet Protocol Suite. TCP is one of the two

original components of the suite (the other being Internet Protocol,

or IP), so the entire suite is commonly referred to as TCP/IP.
Whereas IP handles lower-level transmissions from computer to

computer as a message makes its way across the Internet, TCP

operates at a higher level, concerned only with the two end systems,
for example a Web browser and a Web server. In particular, TCP
provides reliable, ordered delivery of a stream of bytes from a

program on one computer to another program on another computer.

Besides the Web, other common applications of TCP include e-mail
and file transfer. Among other management tasks, TCP controls
segment size, flow control, and data exchange rate

The TCP/IP model consists of four layers (RFC 1122). From lowest
to highest, these are the Link Layer, the Internet Layer, the
Transport Layer, and the Application Layer

TCP provides a communication service at an intermediate level

between an application program and the Internet Protocol (IP). That

is, when an application program desires to send a large chunk of data

across the Internet using IP, instead of breaking the data into

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IP-sized pieces and issuing a series of IP requests, the software can

issue a single request to TCP and let TCP handle the IP details.

IP works by exchanging pieces of information called packets. A packet

is a sequence of bytes and consists of a header followed by a body.
The header describes the packets destination and, optionally, the

routers to use for forwarding until it arrives at its final destination.

The body contains the data IP is transmitting.

TCP is used extensively by many of the Internets most popular

applications, including the World Wide Web (WWW), E-mail, File

Transfer Protocol, Secure Shell, peer-to-peer file sharing, and some

streaming media applications.

TCP consists of a set of rules: for the protocol, that are used with
the Internet Protocol, and for the IP, to send data in a form of
message units between computers over the Internet. At the same

time that IP takes care of handling the actual delivery of the data,
TCP takes care of keeping track of the individual units of data

transmission, called segments, that a message is divided into for

efficient routing through the network. For example, when an HTML file
is sent from a Web server, the TCP software layer of that server

divides the sequence of bytes of the file into segments and forwards
them individually to the IP software layer (Internet Layer). The

Internet Layer encapsulates each TCP segment into an IP packet by

adding a header that includes (among other data) the destination IP

address. Even though every packet has the same destination address,

they can be routed on different paths through the network. When the
client program on the destination computer receives them, the TCP
layer (Transport Layer) reassembles the individual segments and

ensures they are correctly ordered and error free as it streams them
to an application.
7. Discuss various transmission and switching techniques.
Different types of switching techniques are employed to provide

communication between two computers. These are : circuit switching,

message switching and packet switching.
Circuit Switching

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In this technique, first the complete physical connection between two

computers is established and then data are transmitted from the
source computer to the destination computer. That is, when a

computer places a telephone call, the switching equipment within the

telephone system seeks out a physical copper path all the way from

sender telephone to the receivers telephone. The important property

of this switching technique is to setup an end-to-end path

(connection) between computer before any data can be sent.

Message Switching

In this technique, the source computer sends data or the message to

the switching office first, which stores the data in its buffer. It then
looks for a free link to another switching office and then sends the
data to this office. This process is continued until the data are

delivered to the destination computers. Owing to its working principle,

it is also known as store and forward. That is, store first (in
switching office), forward later, one jump at a time.
Packet Switching

With message switching, there is no limit on block size, in contrast,

packet switching places a tight upper limit on block size. A fixed size
of packet which can be transmitted across the network is specified.

Another point of its difference from message switching is that data

packets are stored on the disk in message switching whereas in packet

switching, all the packets of fixed size are stored in main memory.
This improves the performance as the access time (time taken to

access a data packet) is reduced, thus, the throughput (measure of

performance) of the network is improved.

Data transmission, digital transmission or digital communications is

the physical transfer of data (a digital bit stream) over a

point-to-point or point-to-multipoint communication channels.

Examples of such channels are copper wires, optical fibres, wireless

communication channels, and storage media. The data is often

represented as an electro-magnetic signal, such as an electrical

voltage, radiowave, microwave or infra-red signal.

While analog communications is the transfer of continuously varying

information signal, digital communications is the transfer of discrete

messages. The messages are either represented by a sequence of
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pulses by means of a line code (baseband transmission), or by a

limited set of continuously varying wave forms (passband

transmission), using a digital modulation method. According to the

most common definition of digital signal, both baseband and passband

signals representing bit-streams are considered as digital transmission,

while an alternative definition only considers the baseband signal as

digital, and the passband transmission as a form of digital-to-analog


Data transmitted may be digital messages originating from a data

source, for example a computer or a keyboard. It may also be an

analog signal such as a phone call or a video signal, digitized into a

bit-stream for example using pulse-code modulation (PCM) or more

advanced source coding (data compression) schemes. This source
coding and decoding is carried out by codec equipment.

Asynchronous transmission uses start and stop bits to signify the

beginning bit[] ASCII character would actually be transmitted using 10

bits e.g.: A 0100 0001 would become 1 0100 0001 0. The extra one
(or zero depending on parity bit) at the start and end of the

transmission tells the receiver first that a character is coming and

secondly that the character has ended. This method of transmission is

used when data is sent intermittently as opposed to in a solid stream.

In the previous example the start and stop bits are in bold. The
start and stop bits must be of opposite polarity. This allows the

receiver to recognize when the second packet of information is being


Synchronous transmission uses no start and stop bits but instead

synchronizes transmission speeds at both the receiving and sending end

of the transmission using clock signal(s) built into each

component[vague]. A continual stream of data is then sent between the

two nodes. Due to there being no start and stop bits the data

transfer rate is quicker although more errors will occur, as the clocks
will eventually get out of sync, and the receiving device would have
the wrong time that had been agreed in protocol (computing) for

sending/receiving data, so some bytes could become corrupted (by

losing bits)[ Ways to get around this problem include

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re-synchronization of the clocks and use of check digits to ensure

the byte is correctly interpreted and received.
8. Discuss IEEE 802 standards for LANs.
IEEE 802 refers to a family of IEEE standards dealing with local

area networks and metropolitan area networks. More specifically, the

IEEE 802 standards are restricted to networks carrying variable-size

packets. (By contrast, in cell-based networks data is transmitted in

short, uniformly sized units called cells. Isochronous networks, where

data is transmitted as a steady stream of octets, or groups of

octets, at regular time intervals, are also out of the scope of this
standard.) The number 802 was simply the next free number IEEE

could assign, though 802 is sometimes associated with the date the
first meeting was held February 1980. The services and protocols
specified in IEEE 802 map to the lower two layers (Data Link and
Physical) of the seven-layer OSI networking reference model. In

fact, IEEE 802 splits the OSI Data Link Layer into two sub-layers

named Logical Link Control (LLC) and Media Access Control (MAC) ,
so that the layers can be listed like this: Data link layer

MAC Sublayer

Physical layer


The IEEE 802 family of standards is maintained by the IEEE 802

LAN/MAN Standards Committee (LMSC). The most widely used

standards are for the Ethernet family, Token Ring, Wireless LAN,
Bridging and Virtual Bridged LANs. An individual Working Group
provides the focus for each area.

9. Discuss the concept of Error Detection and Correction

In information theory and coding theory with applications in
computer science and telecommunication, error detection and
correction or error control are techniques that enable reliable

delivery of digital data over unreliable communication channels. Many

communication channels are subject to channel noise, and thus errors

may be introduced during transmission from the source to a receiver.

Error detection techniques allow detecting such errors, while error
correction enables reconstruction of the original data.

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The general definitions of the terms are as follows:

Error detection is the detection of errors caused by noise or

other impairments during transmission from the transmitter to
the receiver.[1]

Error correction is the detection of errors and reconstruction

of the original, error-free data.

Error correction may generally be realized in two different ways:

Automatic repeat request (ARQ) (sometimes also referred to as

backward error correction): This is an error control technique

whereby an error detection scheme is combined with requests for

retransmission of erroneous data. Every block of data received

is checked using the error detection code used, and if the check
fails, retransmission of the data is requested this may be done
repeatedly, until the data can be verified.

Forward error correction (FEC): The sender encodes the data

using an error-correcting code (ECC) prior to transmission. The

additional information (redundancy) added by the code is used
by the receiver to recover the original data. In general, the

reconstructed data is what is deemed the "most likely" original


ARQ and FEC may be combined, such that minor errors are corrected
without retransmission, and major errors are corrected via a request
for retransmission: this is called hybrid automatic repeat-request

A repetition code is a coding scheme that repeats the bits across a

channel to achieve error-free communication. Given a stream of data

to be transmitted, the data is divided into blocks of bits. Each block

is transmitted some predetermined number of times. For example, to

send the bit pattern "1011", the four-bit block can be repeated three
times, thus producing "1011 1011 1011". However, if this twelve-bit

pattern was received as "1010 1011 1011" where the first block is unlike
the other two it can be determined that an error has occurred.
A parity bit is a bit that is added to a group of source bits to

ensure that the number of set bits (i.e., bits with value 1) in the
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outcome is even or odd. It is a very simple scheme that can be used

to detect single or any other odd number (i.e., three, five, etc.)
of errors in the output. An even number of flipped bits will make
the parity bit appear correct even though the data is erroneous

A checksum of a message is a modular arithmetic sum of message

code words of a fixed word length (e.g., byte values). The sum may

be negated by means of a one's-complement prior to transmission to

detect errors resulting in all-zero messages.

A cyclic redundancy check (CRC) is a single-burst-error-detecting

cyclic code and non-secure hash function designed to detect

accidental changes to digital data in computer networks. It is

characterized by specification of a so-called generator polynomial,

which is used as the divisor in a polynomial long division over a finite

field, taking the input data as the dividend, and where the remainder
becomes the result.
The Internet
In a typical TCP/IP stack, error control is performed at multiple

Deep-space telecommunications
Satellite broadcasting (DVB)
The demand for satellite transponder bandwidth continues to grow,

fueled by the desire to deliver television (including new channels and

High Definition TV) and IP data. Transponder availability and

bandwidth constraints have limited this growth, because transponder

capacity is determined by the selected modulation scheme and Forward

error correction (FEC) rate.
Data storage
Error detection and correction codes are often used to improve the
reliability of data storage media.

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A "parity track" was present on the first magnetic tape data storage

in 1951. The "Optimal Rectangular Code" used in group code recording

tapes not only detects but also corrects single-bit errors.

10. Write about the Point to Point Protocol.

In networking, the Point-to-Point Protocol, or PPP, is a data link

protocol commonly used to establish a direct connection between two

networking nodes. It can provide connection authentication,

transmission encryption privacy, and compression.PPP is used over

many types of physical networks including serial cable, phone line,

trunk line, cellular telephone, specialized radio links, and fiber optic

links such as SONET. Most Internet service providers (ISPs) use PPP

for customer dial-up access to the Internet. Two encapsulated forms

of PPP, Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE) and

Point-to-Point Protocol over ATM (PPPoA), are used by Internet

Service Providers (ISPs) to connect Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)

Internet service.PPP is commonly used as a data link layer protocol

for connection over synchronous and asynchronous circuits, where it

has largely superseded the older, non-standard Serial Line Internet

Protocol (SLIP) and telephone company mandated standards (such as

Link Access Protocol, Balanced (LAPB) in the X.25 protocol suite).
PPP was designed to work with numerous network layer protocols,
including Internet Protocol (IP), Novell's Internetwork Packet

Exchange (IPX), NBF and AppleTalk.PPP is also used over broadband

connections. RFC 2516 describes Point-to-Point Protocol over

Ethernet (PPPoE), a method for transmitting PPP over Ethernet that

is sometimes used with DSL. RFC 2364 describes Point-to-Point

Protocol over ATM (PPPoA), a method for transmitting PPP over

ATM Adaptation Layer 5 (AAL5), which is also sometimes used with

DSL.The previous section introduced the use of LCP options to meet

specific WAN connection requirements. PPP may include the following
LCP options:

Authentication - Peer routers exchange authentication messages. Two

authentication choices are Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) and
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Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP). Authentication is

explained in the next section.

Compression - Increases the effective throughput on PPP connections

by reducing the amount of data in the frame that must travel across

the link. The protocol decompresses the frame at its destination. Two
compression protocols available in Cisco routers are Stacker and

Error detection - Identifies fault conditions. The Quality and Magic

Number options help ensure a reliable, loop-free data link. The Magic
Number field helps in detecting links that are in a looped-back

condition. Until the Magic-Number Configuration Option has been

successfully negotiated, the Magic-Number must be transmitted as

zero. Magic numbers are generated randomly at each end of the

Multilink - Cisco IOS Release 11.1 and later supports multilink PPP.
This alternative provides load balancing over the router interfaces

that PPP uses. Multilink PPP (also referred to as MLPPP, MP, MPPP,
MLP, or Multilink) provides a method for spreading traffic across
multiple distinct PPP connections.

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