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# HSC Physics Module 9.

## HSC Physics Module 9.3 Motors and Generators

Induced EMF of an AC Generator:
The graph below shows how the induced e.m.f. changes against time for an a.c. generator.

The induced e.m.f. is maximum (o) when the coil, viewed from side DA, is at horizontal position.
This is because AB and CD cut the magnetic field lines at the greatest rate.
The induced e.m.f. is zero when the coil, viewed from side DA, is at vertical position. This is because AB
and CD are parallel to the magnetic field lines and hence do not cut the magnetic field lines.
The frequency of the rotation, f, is given as:

f = 1/T

## Induced e.m.f. can be increased by:

(i) increasing the number of turns of the coil,
(ii) increasing the frequency of rotation of the coil,
(iii) using stronger magnets,
(iv) placing a soft iron core into the coil to increase the magnetic field strength.
The direction of the induced current is given by Flemings Right Hand Rule.

## HSC Physics Module 9.3 Motors and Generators

Practice Questions:
1. The diagram below shows a simple illustration of an alternating-current (AC) generator.

## a) Label the parts (i) to (v) indicated above.

b) Complete the sentences below by filling each gap with an appropriate term.
When the coil rotates in the magnetic field and the coil cuts the magnetic field lines, there is a change in
magnetic _______________________ ______________. This induces an _______________________
_____________ in the coil, resulting in current flowing in the coil.
The slip-ring serves to allow the coil to __________________________ continuously resulting in an
_____________ emf in the external circuit.
The carbon brushes ensure that _______________________ connection is maintained when the coil rotates.
As the coil rotates, the electromotive force induced in the coil varies depending on the rate
of change of magnetic _________________________ ______________________.
The greatest rate of change of magnetic flux linkage occurs when the orientation of the coil is
_______________ to the direction of the magnetic field lines. At this position the magnitude of the
electromotive force induced is __________________________.
At the instance when the orientation of the coil is _____________________________ to the direction of the
magnetic field lines, there is no change in the magnetic flux linkage and thus ______________________
electromotive force is induced.
The direction of the current in the coil is in accordance with _____________________ ___________
____________ ____________.

## HSC Physics Module 9.3 Motors and Generators

2. a) The graph below indicates the change in the induced emf in an a.c. generator. In the boxes provided,
Write a V (vertical) or H (horizontal) to illustrate the orientation of the coil corresponding to the induced
emf.

b) Using Fleming's Right-Hand Rule, establish the direction of the current induced in side AB (of the coil) and
CD (the external circuit); then draw arrows at these two locations to represent the current direction.

c) The graph below shows the induced e.m.f. against time for a given AC generator.

Sketch on the same axis above, a graph that represents the induced e.m.f., when the coil in the AC generator
is rotated at twice the original speed.

## HSC Physics Module 9.3 Motors and Generators

3. State the function of each of the various parts of an AC generator.
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## 4. Describe the process of electromagnetic induction in an AC generator.

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5. Compare and contrast electrical generators and electrical motors.
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