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Determination of Ethanol Content from Ginebra Gin by Fractional Distillation

Ginebra Gin was prepared to be use for fractional distillation as it contains 40% alcohol
content (80 proof) and water. In the experiment, 30 mL of the gin was prepared and
heated. In every 0.5 mL of the distillate, temperature was recorded until the temperature
reached 100o C. Flammability test was used for the first distillate and the last distillate.By
the end of the experiment, 10 mL was collected with 33.33% computed alcohol content.

Introduction
Distillation is the recovery of
valuable components from a liquid
mixture
by
vaporization
and
condensation (1). A mixture of liquids
with sufficiently different boiling points
can often be separated into components
by distillation (2). There are two
frequently used methods for distillation:
Simple Distillation is frequently used in
the organic chemistry labs and is use
when the liquid is contaminated by a
liquid with a boiling point that differs by
at least 70C and when an essentially
pure material is separated from a nonvolatile or from a solid contaminant.
Fractional Distillation is based on the
establishment of a large number of
theoretical
vaporization-condensation
cycles and is commonly used if the
combined liquids to be distilled have a
close boiling point range (3). Distillation
separates the basic components of
fractions of a mixture by their individual
boiling points. During the distillation
process, a mixture is heated until it
vaporizes
and
condensed.
The
condensed liquid is referred to as the
distillate; the liquid that does not
vaporize in a column is called the
residue (4).

The experiment aims to: (a).


differentiate simple form fractional
distillation, (b). separate the alcohol and
water component of the Ginebra gin,
(c).Calculate the percentage of alcohol
content in Ginebra gin.
Methodology
Assemble
the
fractional
distillation set-up and observe the
proper set-up. A quick-fit fractional
distillation was use in the experiment.
The components of quick-fit apparatus
are 1. Pear-shaped flask, where the
residue is placed; 2. Still head (distilling
head), it holds the thermometer to allow
the temperature of vapors to be
monitored during the distillation; 3.
Liebig condenser, a tube surrounded by
a water jacket to cool and condense
vapors; 4. Thermometer, measures the
temperature; 5. Receiver adapter,
connects the condenser and receiver; 6.
Test tubes, which was calibrated down
to 0.5 mL mark; 7. Tap funnel, allow the
controlled release of a liquid and direct
the flow of it.

Formulas were used to solve


and to get the % alcohol, %loss and
%error:
Alcohol=

Loss=

Volume of alcohol
100
Volume of sample

Vol. of Sample(Vol. of Distillate + Remaining Vol.


Volume of Sample

Error=

|True valueExperimental value|


True value

100

Results
Figure 1: A Fractional Distillation Set-Up

Ginebra Gin is placed inside the


pear shaped flask and heated until it
boiled. The temperature of the first drop
of distillate was recorded together with
the temperature of the presiding drop.
The brand was recorded and the gin
was obtained. The 30 mL gin was
poured in the distilling flask together
with 3 pieces of boiling chips that were
inserted. The temperature was recorded
on the first drop and in every 0.5 mL of
the distillate collected, temperature was
also recorded. The temperature and the
volume were recorded in the whole
experiment. The first drop is also
correspondent to the zero volume most
especially in the making of the graph.
The distillate from the test tubes
underwent flame test. The first 0.5 mL
distillate and the last 0.5 mL of the
istillate were taken as the sample for the
test. To check if the distillate would react
and ignite, lighting of the match was
used.

The temperature of the every 0.5


mL was recorded and shown in Table 1.
Table 1: Temp. (

reading per 0.5 mL

of distillate.

Test Tube

Volume
(mL)

Temperatur
e oC

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

0.50
1.00
1.50
2.00
2.50
3.00
3.50
4.00
4.50
5.00
5.50

78
79
79
80
80
81
82
88
94
95
95

Table 1 show that as the volume


of distillate increase, the temperature
also increases until it comes to a point

12
13
14
15
16

6.00
6.50
7.00
7.50
8.00

95
96
96
97
97

17
18
19
20

8.50
9.00
9.50
10.00

98
98
99
99

temperature

closes

wherein
100oC.

the

A
T
U
to

120

Volume

Graph 1 shows the relationship of


temperature and volume of distillate.
Graph 1: Plot of Temperature
volume (mL) of distillate.

(oC) against

Graph 1 shows that as the


volume of distillate collected increases,
the temperature also increases.
Table 2 shows the result of the
flammability test of the first distillate test
tube and the last distillate test tube.
Table 2: Flammability Test

100
80
60
40
20

Distillate
Flame test
First Distillate
Positive
Last Distillate
Negative
The result shows that the first
distillate produced flame while the last
distillate did not produced flame.
After performing the flammability
test, the percent alcohol and percent
loss can then be computed using these

formulas.

T
E
M
P
E
R

Discussion
In Table 1 and Graph 1, a portion
of the result has temperature that
stopped from rising and is constant as
showcased by the straight lines in the
chart. The straight line is called
azeotrope. An azeotrope is a liquid
mixture with an equilibrium vapor of the
same composition as the liquid. The

azeotrope are called constant boiling


mixtures as the liquid and vapor
compositions are the same, the boiling
point of the liquid mixture remains
constant as vapor is generated (5).
The flammability test shows that
the first distillate was primarily
composed of the alcohol content as it
produced a flame while the last distillate
is composed primarily of water as it did
not produced flame.

As shown in the computation, the


percent alcohol of the sample is
33.33%. The percent loss of 21.66%, on
the other hand, is quite near compared
to the original alcohol content of gin.
Based of the date gathered, A
simple distillation apparatus is less
efficient than a fractional distillation
apparatus, but is used to purify materials
containing only small amounts of
impurities with much higher or lower
boiling points (3).

Simple distillation

Advantages

Disadvantages

Best used for:

simpler setup than fractional

faster distillation times

consumes less energy than


fractional distillation

requires the liquids to have


large boiling point differences
(>70oC)

gives poorer separation than


fractional distillation

only works well with relatively


pure liquids

much better separation


between liquids than simple
distillation

can more readily purify


complex mixtures than simple
distillation

more complicated setup than


simple distillation

takes longer for liquids to


distill

consumes more energy than


simple distillation

separating relatively pure liquids with


separating complex mixtures of liquids
large boiling differences or liquids with
with smaller boiling point separations.
solid impurities

Conclusion
The fractional distillation is more effective than simple distillation because it yield
a closer percentage of alcohol than that of simple distillation. The azeotrope of the
experiment also shows the boiling point of the ethano
ADDITIONAL
Boiling chips do not make water boil faster. The rate of evaporation
(boiling) is determined mainly by the energy input per unit time. What
boiling chips do is to provide an active surface and/or small bubbles of air
which provide sites for the liquid to form vapor (steam), thus preventing
super heating and "bumping" of the liquid.
So, simple or fractional? The choice of whether to use fractional distillation or simple
distillation depends on the two liquids being separated. Typically, using simple distillation
is preferrable because the apparatus is, well, simpler, and a simple distillation typically
goes faster than a fractional distillation (and requires less energy). On the other hand,
fractional distillation gives better separation between the liquids. The choice of whether to
use simple or fractional distillation, then, depends usually on the difference in boiling
temperatures between the two liquids. If there is a large difference in the boiling points
(>70oC)between the two liquids then simple distillation is probably the best option. On the
other hand, if there is only a small temperature difference between the two liquids a
fractional distillation is the preferrable option.