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('ook

.l(X)7

Allri.qltls rcscrvcrl. No ritrl ol'tlris lultlieirlion rrriry bc 'cprotlucctl. slorcrl ilr l rctricvllsystctn
ortrtttsltlillctl itt arty lirrtn orby arty nculs. clcctronic. rrrcclrnicirl. rlrolocoryirrg. rccorcling
or olltcrwisc without lhc prior perrnission of'tlrc publishcr.
Nicholns Cook has asserted his moral right under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act,
l98ll. to be identified as the author of this work.
l'rrblishcd by
Ashgatc Publishing Limited
( irlwcr llouse

l, I l,

ltlcrshot

llirrnpshireGUll3HR

'

llr , llrovt'rr's IJnlinished Piano Concerto: a Case of Double Vision? (1989)

t9

',r lr'rrLt'r's Ihcury of Music as Ethics (1989)

57

SllN 978-0-7 546-21 18-0

'rxrk.

N icholas, 1950Music, performance, meaning : selected essays / by Nicholas Cook.


p. cm.- (Ashgate contemporary thinkers on critical musicology
)

Includes index.

lSllN 978-0-7546-2718 0 (alk. paper)

lr

ll,lttcrl
Ml,3800.c74 2007
2007013633

l0l

lrollt'(2(X):i)

I 19

139
157

213
241
261

283

(2004)

ltr l'rrr,,t'ol'Synrbolic l\rvcrty

lr'

[\lrrl irr,Mrrsic'lirLlctlrcr', or lrnrrovisrtiolr and its Others

U'r rtrr,1 on Mrsic or Axcs tr

ltt,l, t

l,ltl. l,rtlslorv. ('onrrvirll

St

I
Ii
I

dc22

'l'.1 lrrlerrrrrliorrirl

(1995)

lrerlirnluncc Writ Large: Desultory Remarks on Furnishing the Abode of the

and aesthetics. I. Title.

llrilirill lly

Polemicist: a Reading of the Ninth

(1995-96)
I
l'lts l)olncstic Cesamtkunstwerk, or Record Sleeves and Reception (1998)
rl
Al llc llorders of Musical Identity: Schenker, Corelli and the Graces (1999)
lll
lltoorlzing Musical Meaning (2001)
il
lirl'tr urrtl Syntax: a Tale of Two Terms (2002)
t' l'ltc ( )lhrr llcethoven: Heroism, the Canon, and the Works of 1813-14 (2003)

llS Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

l'r'irrtcrl irrrtl horrnrl irr ( il'cirl

83

Murlc Minus One: Rock, Theory and Performance

t.'t'irle

'7tll.l'7

lr, l rlitol rnrl thc Virtuoso, or Schenker vs. Blow (1991)

yrtrrhony Monograph

780',7',2

l. Music-Philosophy

lr, l't'rlt'rl iorr ol'Large-Scale Tonal Closure (1987)

r, llr'lu rr lr Sclrcnkcr.

Music, performance, meaning : selected essays. - (Ashgate


contemporary thinkers on critical musicology)
L Musicology

scrics

xix

l\lu',rr,rl l'olnr irnd thc l,istener (1987)

r**ahg"t".".

llrilish Library Cataloguing in Publication Data


('rxrk. Nicholas, 1950-

ix

USA

*"bii' http/

vii

l,',11,'ttt,'ttl.

I ttl,ltlt,,l ll t'ttttt!:.\

l'.rrgland

nrnsot.

,rr

lntt,"lnt llttl
Ashgate Publ ishing Company
Suire 420
l0l Cherry Street
Burlington, VT 0540 1 -4405

('rofl l{oad
A

Contents

301

(lrind: Road Rage and Musical Community

(2004)

(2003)

301
321
:i43

('llAlr'l'lil{

()Nn: RocK,'I'nnoRy, AND


PnnronuANcEt

M rNus

. lit's so nluch in dexterity and habit that I scarce think it a


for discourse. Upon the whole, performers in great
rlr,rll lc lunces in ltheoreticall skill.
Roger North2

rrtc always retrospective; it was nearly the middle of the


('ntry lcfbre the classical repertory as we know it solidified. (If
ir to hc given, it might be 1841, exactly fifty years after Mozart's
.r r'vicw of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony described it as 'the
tr rrly rernarkable artistic period, exalted byJ. Haydn, Mozart, and
So it s'cmed like the end of an era when, in the late 1980s, the
started reissuing a selection of the previous quarter of a
in boxed sets of CDs, thereby confirming the emergence
And it was atjust this time that music theorists first began to
rtrk. Of course the academic study of popular music was a
field by then; but the initiative had been taken by
.rrrrl culture theorists, and later by sociologically-inclined
The result was a climate of opinion in which close musical
the type familiar in the study of the western art tradition were
with suspicion, if not downright hostility, on the Brounds that they
at best an illegitimate transference of approaches derived from
, and at worst a deliberate attempt at academic mystification.
however, had an equally compelling argument: why, they
he musi of rock not be accorded the same detailed scrutiny as
wirk'ly valued repertory?
.oly might be said to have come of age in November 1990, when a
rock was included at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Music
( );rkland, California; papers were given by Graeme Boone, Matthew
(lovach, Walter Everett, and Dave Headlam. And recent
hy thc last two of these authors highlight in a particularly tangible
of the issues involved in, and difficulties attendant on, the
f rrxk. My intention in this article is to focus these difficulties
I see as two related issues: the concept of authority that is built
<liscourse, and the theorising of musical performance. I
tlrrl, in lxtlt th<:sc respects, approaches developed for the analysis
muric repertory have been transferred too directly and uncritically to
ol rrx k; rny :rinr is to idcntify some of the unhelpful conceptual
r

l.

MythankstoJos

Bowen, Dai Griffiths,


and Robynn Stilwell
for their suggestions
broed on a

draft

version of this article,

2. MaryChanand
Jamie Kmsler (eds),
Rogu North\ Cursory
Norzs of

Muicb,Sehool

ofEnglish, University
of New South Wales,
Kensington, NSW
1986, p157.

3. Froman 1841
review of Beethoven's
Ninth Symphony in
the

Allgruine

mwihalishe Zeitung,
quoted in David Levy,
'Early Performances of
Beethoven's Ninth
Symphony: a
Dumentary Study of
Five Cities', Ph.D.
diss., Eastman School
of Music, University of
Rchester, 1979, p391.

bt'ing wi(lr tlr.rrr, llctlrirrltirrg rucll al)l)rr)a(:lt(.s is a


plecondition fir a more adequate therry of rrx:k, llut tlis artide is not so muclr
about theorising rock as about what rock can tell us about theorising music ir)
general. In short, I shall suggest that until we know how to theorise musical
perfbrmance we cannot reasonably claim to have an adequate theoretical
approach to rock, or to the art tradition either.
lra1yc tlrt.sc irrrro;rt:hcs

4.

Dave Headlam,
'Does the Song
Remain the Same?

Questions

of

Authority and
Identification in the
Music of Led
Zeppelin', in Etizabeth
West Marvin and
Richard Hermann
(eds), Concut Muic,
Rock, andJazz since

1945, Unverstty of
Rochester Press,
Rochester, NY 1995,
(herealter Concftt
Mruic) pp313-63, from
which all the
references in this piece
to Headlam's work
Gme. The first part of
the present article is a
much expanded
vemion ofan
argument sketched in
the concluding
chapter which I
conributed to this
collection (see footnote
7 below).

0ilrr'l)lroilrl lltr'.ttlllrl:t\;ilr urlllrt('llv(tllll\lllltllttlltttttgsxrrllr:rll1 t0


l,orrrrrrlt, lrc rvtrlt'r llrirt'irr (lris vicw, tlrt ";tttlltot" tottslilttlts ir lrtitrrirlc ol
rrrlv iulr()nl{ ;r t lltss ol wrt ks, stlllewltat ;rkirl to r theol'y, ulltlel which
rlrrr;rr';rtc wolks (an bc glouped together by their shared characteristics
rt|rrurirrg lrril tlral authclrship'. By demonstrating coherence, then, by
rlrowirrg lror.v cvcr al)l)arcntly diversified musical configurations embody an
rrrr,['r'lyirr3 unity - in short, by operating in its most familiar manner - musical
,rr;rlysis pr'ovides an essential criterion of both authorship and the identity of
rlrc rrrrsical work that authorship underwrites.

l lris approach has the obvious advantage of making theory matter. In other

Dave Headlam's'Does the Song Remain the Same? Questions of Authority and
Identification in the Music of Led Zeppelin'a is about the relationship berween

r!.rys, lr())vever, it might seem a perverse approach to the rock repertory. Given

Led Zeppelin's songs and the blues or other sources on which they were

rlrrrt the adaptation and re-adaptation

frequently based. Headlam's central question is 'in what, if any, context may
Led Zeppelin be considered the originator of its own most disrinctive sorgs?'
and he seeks to answer this in what he provocatively refers to as purely musical'
terms. His argument turns on the distinction between the mere fact of deriving
one piece of music from another, arld its incorporation within a significantly
new aesthetic whole. Headlam maintains that songs like'You Shook Me'and'I

Can't Quit You Baby', both of which were derived from originals by the
Chicago bluesman Willie Dixon, fall into the first category; both, he says, are
'virtual transcriptions of the originals transplanted to a rock ensemble'. (Of
course, this already means that they inhabit a quire differenr sound world from
the original.) But 'Whole Lotta Love', which is based on Dixon's 'You Need
Love', evidences a much more thoroughgoing transformation; for example,
Headlam points out, the anacrusis motive of Dixon's song is stripped down into
a repeated rifi while the song as a whole is expanded into a large-scale
sectional form through the addition of what he describes as an improvisatory,
psychedelic middle section. And he adds: 'The power and effect of "Whole
Lotta Love" .. . derives in large part from the forma.l contrast and cornbination
of the two seemingly disparate elements - driving, rhythmic blues-riffs and
free-form psychedelic effects - inco a coherent whole'.
The last two words represent the heart of the matter. 'Whole Lotta Love',
Headlam is saying, is an arristic entity in its own right because it has its own
characteristics and because these cohere to form an aesthetic unity. Moreover,
he claims, these characteristics are representative of Led Zeppelin in general;
songs like 'Whole Lotta Love' 'share musical elemenrs with the original
versions, but are .transformed formally, timbrally, rhythmically, motivically,
and harmonically into the defining features of the Led Zeppelin sound'. The
songs, then, are not mere.ly unified in themselves. They cohere within the
oeuure af Led Zeppelin as a whole, by virtue of what Headlam calls 'the unifying
force of the band as "aurhors"' - in much the same way as each of (say)
Beethoven's compositions acquires an added resonance through being relatecl
to the others. But of course, Headlam is much too sophisticated to identify
'authors' in this sense with the flesh-and-blood individuals who make up the
band. Rather, he is availing himself of the structuralist and post-srructuralisr

24

Nr

l.i )l{MA r t( )Ns

of existing material is a commonplace of


ilr('sr popular music traditions, why should it nxatter whettter or not Led
/.crpclin are regarded as authors? Wouldn't it be more ensible to recognise
tlr;rt the practices of popular music undermine the idea of authorship as
rorstrrt:ted within the western art music tradition? As Headlarn explains,
Ir,rwr:ver, there is a historical context to these issues, and specifically to the
rlurtirction (which he adopts from Arnold Shaw) between the genuinely
r rr,;rrive 'reworking', such as 'Whole Lotta Love', and the merely derivative
'r ovcr' (fbr instance, 'You Shook Me'). 'Genuinely' creative, 'merely'derivative:
tlrrrc is nothing fortuitous about the ethical overtones of these terms. The
re!(ilrive connotations of the'cover'date back to the mid-1950s, when North
r\rrrerican record producers habitually took songs by black artists and
rr l.t'<orded them (in a suitably toned-down form) for white audiences, using
nlrrtt'nusicians; it was notorious that the original artists generally made no

rnn('y out olthe songs'subsequen[ success, though the record and pubiishing
did. And Led Zeppelin became tarred with the same brush as a
rr'rlt of their own failure to credit the artists from whom they adapted their
r,,ngs. Several court cases resulted, among them Willie Dixon's successful

rorrr>;mies

rr( I ir

)n

i11

rlrr. song

respect of 'Whole Lotta Love'. (Despite this, the current CD release of


- Lett ZeppeLin 11, on Atlantic 19127-2 - still credits it solely to the four

rrrr,lrlrurs of the band.)


I lrcle have recently been signs of a convergence of interest between music
rlr.olists and copyright lawyers;5 had Dixon's action been taken in the 1990s, it

:rlnr()st possible to imagine the kind of analytical demonstration which


llr';rrll;rnr cffers in relation to'Whole Lotta Love'being invoked as evidence for
tlrr rk'lence. Forensic musical analysis, if it may be called that, concatenates
rrrrrlr('ri( valueandintellectualpropertyrights;theoneisseenasendorsingthe
,tlrcr. l\l( rvhat is revealing is that, at the same time as he argues in favour of
I Irl Zt'rx'lirr's stat.us as authors, Headlam also relates their derivative practices
rrr lnnnrv [);rgt"s ad.John Paul.]ones' previous experience as studio musicians.
,\r lrr' rrrls it, in sudr a context'originality was not valued as much as the
rrrlr;rliorr rr'rcctt':tti<r of the appropriate style', and accordingly'stylistic and

ri

rrolrtirlrirl rorttriLtliott wlts a nat.ural out.growth of the band mernbers'


r. \'rous slrtrlio cxx ticnrls'. I lrclt' :ttc srtggt'slirltts llt'tr^rl atloll.cr rrlssiblr:
Mf r\rr l\4rNls ()Nt

R(xtK.'l tt,()l{Y ANI) I'llRl()RM^Nr:l

2!,

5. Aconspicuous
example is the special
session or musical
plagiasm at the 1994
Annual Meeting ofthe
College Music Society
in Minneapolis.

l.,vrlrlt.\tlt.lt.ttrt.tll;llsrltrtkr.l:tIt:ttt;tlyrisltltslx.r.ttlrrritlrrllyitlrlir.rll(llltllly
ttt
t:rrrgirrg lirrl tlttxlit:val lxrlylltorty
ti,('tlt)ti('r lot wltir ll ll wt lt(f illctrrk'rt'
likt'
things
igtt<-rt'cs
analysis
rlut sr:hr:nkcliun
fulo rrrsi(.. Arrtt if it is olli<rtetl
music (and c]asslcaf
which arc tr'terr essential in p.pular

litc lrl lltc rlt'li'r t'('rrr'lrrrl, rny (licnt3 tlirlrr't korv wlrlrt tlrry w(.r'(.(l()ing'). llur

tlt:tt isr't wlurt lll'arll:rrn is llrirlralily:ritrrirrg irt. Wlurt ltt.is rt'ally rkrirri r.
drawing a line [etween the two roles f hat tr:rl /,erpelin ard ()thct t(x l,

rr,rrrrc arrrl rext,r.c in a host' ol


then the viability of the Beatres'songs
rrrrir. rrxr, fbr that rnar.tcr) that pitch
demonstrates the central role
vootl ttul ilstl'tllnctttal transcripdons
of
of
tott of analyzing the whole Side 2
rr rr( rr(: lays in ,1"''' Fi;;Iry:ti 'it
abstract
or
structure seems excessively ambitious
Ahhm ltoalas a single musical
up to the
hear a prolongadon of 3 right
lr l'lverett realll claiming that liste"ets
to
attempts
of
said
be
the same can
lrirrrring of 'The End'? - then exactly
if
problem'
The
terms of tonal structure'
sets

nlusicians play in relation to their music: the role of 'genuine'composer.s (;r\ rr

'Wholc Lotta Love'), and the role of 'mere' performers (as in 'You Shook l\ lr
and'I Can't Quit You Baby'). And his whole argument is constructed ()n tll
assumption that it is the first of these that is crucial in establishing acsllr(.tr
legitimacy.

In this way, Headlam recognises but does not theorise the deriv;rrr,
practices of rock music; his distinction between the rock musician as comlx rv

rrly$c clrtire

and the rock musician as author renders some of these practices amenalr[.r,,
interpretation along established music-theoretical lines, while elimir-r;rrrrr1
others as able objects of study. Again, he recognises the collectivity ol rlr,
production and dissemination of popular music, bur the whole rhrust ol lrrr
argument is to enable traditional style-analytical approaches to be applirrl r,,

collectively-produced music without giving any further artention t(, rr1


collectivity. The very title of Headlam's chapter betrays its underll,irr
motivation; after all, 'authority' and 'identification' only emerge as 'quesri()r.,
in the music of Led Zeppelin by virtue of their anomalous relationship r r lr,,
art musical tradition, and in particular to the ideology of the autonomous rvor l.
of art on which music theory, as we know it, is predicated.

II

tltrt

(l

On the last page of his chapter, Headlam writes that, in the genuinely crc:rrrr r
reworking, the transformation must. be so complere rhar the reworking and tlr,.
original can stand side by side and both be accepted completely on their rrvrr
terms, with an appreciation of the elements that bind and separate the tno' I
would like to draw attention to two aspects of Headlam's language hert.: lr,,

prescriptive use

of the word 'must', and the always revealing

tt.r

Ahbt'y

Rwd

retponds to tracks
7- I 7 of thc CD rclcase

to hear this uplifting

have

tltlleatlesalongwithBachandB-eetho"eninthebasiccurriculumofaliberal

ll l e(lucation"T

from the
tradition characteristically passes
Wriring in the music appreciation
ofcxpressive and ethical value
rnllyrin of structural;;ir to the assertion
between these
exactly what the connecdon
wlll(,rt it ever being O""l t*^t
to demonstrate
to Everett's essay' as I shall try
tltlrrgr tnight be. And this applies
tn'
from.'Here^:,::::
a
on
Passage
commentary
llttrrrrglr a close reading of his
is'the
question
in
The passage
Itttr' (wlrir:h *o, tt"ait"a to C'eorge Harrison)'
by
here it comes" which is followed
t"tt'
''""'
tJ"'
l lilnca repeated '"*
Schenkerian
a
provides
1V'1 utptggio' Everett
Inttr bs that build of u'
"' basis of this he says as follows:
on the

The Genesis of Abbey Road. Side Two'.6

Everett relies principally

message as a very
Beatles to
to his mates' as weII as from the
ronal f inal gift from McCartney
because

'r"'"lt'"r

is "rewarding"
written elsewhere"such a reading
In this'way
improvement'
moral
for
ll rlrnws out from the music its potential
ethical
the
tuafies
music of the Beatres displays
!,vrr crt,s cssay shows t o* tt.
of great art' It is
hallmark
the
as
seen
been
tltnl havc since the Romantic period
inclusion of
legitimation' an argument for the
Itt rllect an exercise in aesthetic

rrr

on Schenkerian analysis to demonsrratr. rlr,

compositional properties (unity, coherence, and so forth) of e Beatles' nrrsr,


and not only at the level of individual songs; he reads the whole of Sidt'2,,1

"t ";t;;t '"

seems rewarding

[Ilt

tla w<rld" As

'bind and separate' them?), while neatly combining the connotatiorrs ,,1
education and evaluation. And the link between analysis, education, :rrrrl
evaluation - in short, the impulse toward.s canonisation - becomes even notr
evident in Walter Everett's significantly-named 'The Beatles as Compost.r'

| 0

A major,

trtrrior...

rt

'appreciation', which sets up the idea of a critical observer (who else is like lv r,,
set the two versions of e music 'side by side' so as to assess the elements rl.rr

li, ltl Conct Mui4


pp I 72-228. Side 2 of

song

,'1,",'",*,r,,",doesnotrelatespecificallytopopularmusic'
of Everett's
is not the technical aspects
Wltat I want to emphasise' however'
inclusivelyless
A
motivation'
but its
rlntotrstradon of structural coherence'
2 and leave it at
Side
of
reading
a Schenkerian
rrltt(lcd analyst might Otttt"t
for an
further; in his own words, he'searches
go
to
wants
Everett
rrrnr. rlrrt
a very
in
of songs that were chosen andjoined
uvrt nlching theme in this group
is
t;at the secondary tonar centre.. A,
r.rr:irus manner,. u. foin,, out
whereas
with serfishness and self-gratification'
l,rx.i;rted with lyrics rat dear
tonal
cluster round C' The interlocking
tlrr lyrics that emphasise ,t"t'"'n'
And
significance'
weII as a purely musical
rrrllcrt' then, have " ty*lit"l as
as a
well
as
moral
a
of
the attributes
tt ir this light, 'Tt'e End' takes on
earth-shaking
the
to
Everett'.'comes
.ttital resolution; 'tlltcu't""y" writes
love ("the t"*- y::
self-gratifying
,;'*".h
t,
;;;
':T']'
rf{liilarion rhat rhere
love you make")' that of
("ihe
tr" gt"tto'-t kind
as
()l

as a single 3-2-l structure in C major, with a strong setorxl;rrr


emphasis on A major. Many critics, of course, are opposed irr rritrtirk.ro tlrr
application to popular music of an analyti<:al rnetlrrd rlcsigrrt:rl lirl rlrr
elucidation of the Austro-(ierman masterworks. llut it nright he poirrtcrl orrt rrr
Abbey Roa"tl

rtulyrin ol thc
r,lrc

v.i.c

son1,

ani

r:irrrirrg

consists of a series of
,[.t.his micrdle sectiofi (mm. 3l-32)
'.1'lltoRY AND PERtoRM^NCtl 27
Musr; MtNrrs ()NI':r R(x:K'

26 Nlw I,I)RMA l t()Ns

'Music TheorY and


the Postmodem Muse:

7.

An Afterword', in
Concerl Mwic, PP422'
39. To be fair, it is also
a plea

for the academic

musical esGblishment
ro interest itselfin the
kind of music most

inhabitants of the
world actually listen to'
a plea which
recognises the linkage

bemeen canonic
values and academic
viabilitY.

,,,,,,, ( i r, (, r, r) rr ,\, ,vrrr


rr,,,( r,,,i,r
*..,,,,,],..'-,",l.,,, .],1;'].:,1,'::, ;,i:.".',"'',
lilfirir'\rl',rr
rr.r ilrrrrir;rrivr.sr.rr,
"'(
fr:rr.isorr's rrt.tri(:rior ,,-..,:,,,,:..',.',

rur,rr.,y ,,, ,,,"rjl,l'j'#:::';]rt',:,'L


i2, hearcr six times.,

mcasurc

ll:rrrs'(

"'l( "ri,t wt,.rr rlrt'

tr<,i,,,r

" o;,;;;;;:;:.:;li::.li;:lr:,,:i::l

upper neighbour ro
the third
enlightenmlnt is seemingly

tcr
r

'.ilrrlr;ilrB('rlrr';rrr:rl1'srs,lrllr.lrvt:tlrt.r.xrrr.ssiv<'inr(.rl)r(:lilli()il;rssil()il1{(rr;s;r
rrr',rl ;rs il w:rs i, tlr. flrst rl:r.r'. '1. this extert the argumcnt li-om tet:hnical
.rrr.rl'sis r, r'xrr.ssivt irrlt'r'r.clatiorr r,ight be seen as sleight of hand;indeed I
r,,rrkl siry it isr'r rtally ar ilgurnerrr at all, but a coupling ol two quite distinct
,\',r'rri(,rs. 'l hc other point arises lrom the multiplicity of viable analytical
rrr.l l)l ('t:rtions lvailable even within the schenkerian approach (for of course it
r*r)r rrf y intcrrtir-rr to suggest that Everett's reduction iswrong).If there is more
rlr,ur rrc way t.o read the passage, then there is something decidedly
rr,rlrlcrD:rtic about his repeated use of the word 'truly'; it amounts to no more
tl,rr :rlr cxhortation in disguise. And this is by no means the only occasion on
n lir lr live rett avails himself of such vocabulary, which embodies
a rhetoric of
,rrrrlr.r'iry that is deeply embedded in the music appreciation tradition and in
,rrrsir l hcory i, general.s what I am drawing attention to is not the judgmental
rrr;rlity of Everert's language, for example when he speaks of McCartney,s
rlrgirrrt. polyphony'or the'inspired composition, of Abbey Road, as a whole;
rrrrlivirital readers wi,ll have their own views regarding the assimilation of the

;,:

of

V harmony"" The
coml,r,,
celebrated ln measures
33-36 by rl,,

retransition's rad'
unfolding
exuberanrsever,nlT
We can pick out the

passase:

of V7 harmony, culminating

orr

rlr,

gentreness,'Tffi:ni

J*jlHil:r:jffi:j";H::"il:l,l:

These richly suggestive


terms tell a spiritual stc
Everett

o, themselves, a sror)
links plllsibly enough
with Harrison,.'?

rr,,,r

transcendenul medit
they are to be

p...,;;J:i ,T*frr::.3,,;fi:,xi1i,Til:'fi.[i,;:,
- the music s expressive trajectorv.

Anrl this is what ;;;

,',

.-::':::::

;::,il.:::H:;;;,;iil,t:::,::t::.J;;;;":.i1.#;l*";

u.i.i,f ;;;.
,,".";;;;.-,ll:.r#::f::1i:,:.ss,is
a soollrear _o..,,..ijr*;;;:.j::
Il,]:ll1**"l!b
IJ"*r*,rr*1;ll, :,
a
serres of parallel tenths
(B_A-G# ou.. a?ru-rr.*
.sun,
at the first
(b,. tl) aplel:ins r.-,;;;;.'":ii:I]l1J:l,.:::;,Ji,,iil
seen u.

rrom rheir

il."#::fiffi;:.Ti,:I
remains ;

i -o,,ia

;il::

neighboJrs

aisapffi

,l1 j"",f;ff

.'ff

* -n"n i.-r,,,

^;;il';;:;",..

il

i:i;::r*i##
,,\

,,,,

,':.:,

..

::

"o;";;;;,;;,'

i;

ii

rxr;,,sr."r,n.,r"ffi,ii,liili;.11ifi,"::T,?Jl:T;::1:i:il,l,;

'l ,,,rr.s lr.ighten during the last three

reDer.

or the phrasc rrr,


rir,r.rr,r.s,v(.cp ora
arrui ru. me al anv ralr"
il l.sistrl,l'
tlt. lrrrrlrl-rrr ,f liu.rrt :-:-^"''
wi],n".,;.,;:r,;',,,'i,,-l',1'*"t as.the sur emerges from behi,rr
:1,^11 lsu8gests

;;;;;,;.:;::l**

;r rl,r,r

more

rhan,,;_;i. ;,.,;,;;,,,.-ili:.TjJ}:*j:.il:::,].,|lis

'.rtl Ncw
Fonu.r"loNs

9. This ssimilation
goes back at least as

far

Wilfrid Mellers's

Mwic of the Beatbs :


Tuilight of thc Gods,
The

ilt
I *rrkl like to

, ,0"
,, .,:'",i:::T,[:i:?;::Tund'; seen ,n" *,f, ,.,,:
',
neishbour to th-e third
of v nu.*o,y, t"* _i""
;f;l.}i;.H:'firlJr,:f
i;,
l*.:.n. A moving to G#t. But again the "r..;i;;
i:T T;:":.T::' jT:'-.,,,;"
"* ; ;"1 ;i:;::::i;T:ii: :: :;: :,
structural harmonv'
siving rise . *
lx'rwee;;dia;;;,i,ir..ltt

*,

Forinstance, on

particular chord in
'Because', when again
the salienr point would
appear to be its
ambiguity.

as

i.

or,he parare,-,, r r,
which the A chord at'comes'dr.
;;;l; ,r;,.;,

fl *HT]; :1T'.?.::* :L,,ffi

8.

pl96 he refers to 'the


true nature'o.fa

Faber, London 1973.

far r ,,r

ne:essarv ro ars.ue,

wh,e the series or rou,rr

.".i,ir."*;;i:i::T."H;iTi::Ji:

schenker wourd call

llr';rtlt's into the masterwork tradition that is conveyed by such terms.e It is


,rt lr.l t he way in which Everett deemphasises his own role as interpreter;
he
rvcs lhe impression that he is simply explaining the music as it is. His writing
rt , jr.ts what Ellie Hisama has called the 'disembodied

voice of authorirv'- r0

l1ntreness
multiple repetition, as
the very
weil as to the measur.,
.noo'utto'and
music from c to E;
the effect;.

.:::il';. TT::,1,,1'lo^':'-:
t"'in

I .ilil rrl'Ir[' ro r[.rkl r\\'o lxrrrs. I ll lrrsr is rlr:rr llr.(]rr.rrlo lr.rwr.r. rlrr.
lilrrr,rl;rrrl rlrc lxl)r(.\\r\,(.slrricr rlr.rr l,,vr.rr.il tr.lls rr.;rlly isrr't rlrirl srrr)nl.l; yrlrl

,<,in, ,,,,,.,,,,,,, ,,,

rhetoric of authority into its historical conrext. And as


lrrxl :r wav to approach it as any is via the idea of the.authoritave edition,or
f /rn'rl. which has been the focus of so much musicological endeavour
since the
set this

.r., ,rrrl hrlf of the

nineteenth century.
l lr' :rim of the uext is to remove the accretions of a work's reception (which
m,rl, r'ange from misprints that have acquired the force of law ro the
r.r,rrr hirrgs or bowdlerisings of later editors), and so to arrive back at the score
rr rlr. r:rrnposer intended it. As is the case with historically,authentic,
fx'r l()r rnirnces, then, the authority of the Llrtext is a reflected one; its sou.ce is
r'r', :r( lying in the composer's intentions, and both musicologists and
r'r l.r rrrirrg musicians use the language of intentionality with what must strike
rrt lir('r:,y thurrist as gay abandon. Music theory, however, replaces this
l,,rgrrrg. lvirh one that curiously combines nineteenth-century metaphysics
rvrrlr lx)sr-sr.(;tu'alism. writing near the beginning of the present century,

ll.irrirlr s<hcnker (from whom so much of present-day music theory


ilr,rrr:rr|s) sxlifically lttacked the notion of composers' intentions, not so
lnl lr ,l tlr. g*rrlrrls that thcy (an never be established, but rather that they
r

,rr.ilr.k'v;rrrr,'l'lrt'rilrt.xrollrisrcrD:rksiswhatheseesa.sthe.flsetheory,of'

llr' ,lrur lr nror!t.s;

r'vr.n llt'r.lllrvrrr, he says, in thc quartet Op. lil2, t.rie<l

Musr Mtlrrs ( )N

R(x:N, 'l'Ht,()Ry ANt) l,t:R1,.()RMAN(:t,.

t.o

211

10. 'The Question


Climax in Ruth
Crawford's String

of

Quartet, Mrr. 3', in


Concet't Muic , pp285312, p285, f@tnore 2.

t, f,.,,u", ,i,r',,.,,
/lrarry. I )rrvrll
l0r,rr (.il), tr

ronrlnr( ,r((orrlur,.l lo llrir llrlorl llrtl ir Hr('irl :ulirl lrlr lk'r'llrov'tr'rotlrl r'rr
Bcl lnnrr('ll lr) ult('t :ur ;nlisli( rnltulll, ('v('n llt()uHlt ltts rrrtsr iorts cllotlr rr, r,
Hri(lc([ in ll;rt lilcr;tirrr'.ll Stllr:nkcr'(r)niur'(:s rrl) r rr(.r()r'illrlt'inr:rgc ol tlr,

r,,

l.lr.rlrcl M.rrr

lirrcrc, I lliverrrtv
(

ol

ilrr rgo l lll'r4,


rli{) li L

ll. Rrlrd Barthes,


rr. Srcpl(r Ilcath,
lragr, lvluic,

Tert,

l.i)nta)a, London,
11177,

rl4tt:'the birth

ol thc rcader must be


rt tlla ( ost of the death
ol t.hc Author.'

lll.

Ileiurich

Schenker, tr. and ed.


.lohn Rotlrgeb,
lluthoun's Ninth
s'Nilrhon!: A Pofiralal
ol lk Mwtcal ContenL

uith Running
i,mmanl4ry on

ltttlomate

and,

Itu'rture As Well,Yale
I Jnvcrsity Press, New
I laverr 1992, p20.

l,l.

Heirich

Schenker. tr. and ed.


ll rst Oster, F
(

in post tton,

Longan,

Ncw York 1979, p128.

l,'), See Maynard


Stkrnorr,'On
llcclhoven's creative

lrl({c}li

two-part

rvrtilion',

Bthoun
Ir-sa1r, Harvard
I Irivcrsity Press,
( irrrrlrr irlge Mass 1988,
rr

2(i.3tl.

lli.

Scc Sylvan Kalib,


' I lir recl lissays from

lhc'l lrrcc Ycarbooks


"l )lr Meistcrwerk in
rlrr Mtrrik" by
I lirr ilh Schcnker:
,\r Arrtatcd
I r.rrltior', Ph.f).

rlirr

. Nrt tlweslcrn

llrrivcrsity,1975,
rrlli{)

lil, lll0.

Itt or<ler to banish F

ma-jor once and fbr'rll

filr ()ur

there stood that higher force of Nature and led his pen, lortirrg l,r.
composition into F major while he himself was sure he was composirrg irr rlr,
Lydian mode, merely because that was his conscious will and intention.

In the {inal rsort it is not, then, Beethoven who wields the pen; like I}rrrrlr,'.
Schenker proclaims the death of the author.12 However it is not the rt-arllr l,rrr
the'ultimate necessities of the masterworks'to which birth is therebl, givcrr r'
Schenker's analytical method is devoted to explicating the intrinsically nrrrsr,

,,1

laws according to which the masterworks are shaped, and for hirrr tlr,
possibility of explication in such terms represented the one demorslrrlrlr
authoritative criterion of musical value. In his definitive theoretical w()k. ,),,
freie Satz, Schenker enthusiastically cited Mozart's account of how hc 's;ru" lrr
compositions in the form of a beautiful picture, with every detail of thc rrrrrr,
imagined'not all in succession ... but somehov/ all at once'.I4 As is nowrrrl,rr
well known, this accountis a nineteenth-century fabrication from tht'rcrr ,,1
Friedrich Rochlitz.ls But that in no way lessens its significance for what rrrrilrt
be called the ideological underpinning of music theory. The synoptic visiorr ,,1
a musical work that Rochlitz described, however fictitiously, embodies rrll rlr,
qualities that analysts have traditionally looked for in music: unity, irL'rrrrrr
and authorial value. For Schenker, such a synoptic vision was the proviu( ( ,,l
the creative genius alone; through analysis, however, it was possible to H;rur .rr

In this

way, rrrrlrl

the Urtetct of historical musicology, t}re U rlini.e of Schenkerian analysis

poss(' \ \ r

it recaptures what might be called the moment ol r urlr


in which a masterwork is revealed, o providing what Schenke (who rlirl rr,,r
favour the term Urtext) saw as the only adequate basis for a truly au(li()r it:rtru
edidou.lT And in speaking of revelation, I mean to imply that, for Sch'rrk, r
there is ultimately but one source of authority, one Author: true cohercrrr r', lr,
wrote, is found only in 'God and ... the geniuses through whom he works.'r"
Seen in this perhaps incongruous light, the agenda of Headlam's css;r\ ,,1
Led Zeppelin may become more intelligible, and with it the rernrk,rl,l,
accommodations he has had to make in order to assimilate rock irto tlr,
interpretive paradigm of established music theory. Faced with the plrrr':rlitr ,,1
complementary versions that is normal in popular music, Hca(lllrn's lrrrr
imperative is to establish an authoritative text for analysis, a lock eruiv:rh nt ,rl
an intrinsic authority:

ihe Urtext. He becomes a little defensive as he explains his procedurc:

30 Nlw l,ilrr'

fixed studir-
ht.wcvcr' ertch sotrg has a

fir
and fbrmed at lcast the basis
vctrirt tltrtl l,o* l'"tt""L' <lelinitivc'
my
for
studic version'iustification
rl

l(-r-(('lrtr,'l

flBeethoven] carefully avoided any B-flat, which would hirvc lcrl tlr,
composition into the sphere of f major. He had no idea that behirtl his lr.r, I

least an intellectual apprehension of the genius's intuition.16

/,crrchlr t 'rtttlltttitlly tt""*ttt


rlrHr . lk'spitc tlrcs<'i"'llt''i"tti'"*'
t

the
tnrrovisilti()lls ()ll slall(:' I <oltsitlcr

ilrir,rgrr llt.ss,

l{rnius-(ornl)oscr wl() sl)caks with a v()ice that is rct his orvu:

lltc soltgs trrtglrt lx'tllit t'(11


()trr olr'rllott lo trty 'rrr;tlylirlll tlt'illlll('lll ol
l vr:rsiotts rl ihcst'
tlcir'(:('tt((:
ttrl cvtlvcrl ir

Blow',.loun*l oJ tltt
Roal Musrol
,4ocmrion, Volume
I 16, pp78-95; and

'Heinrich Schenker
and the AuthoritY of

lysts'

Headlam's ue of the term


o':.
9"tconcert performances Prejudges
It rrriglrt, of course' be pointed

,lilrrrrrvisati.rrs, to describe Led Zeppelin's


that the concert
of cornparison with a frxed text
llrn irttr; it is only by 'ittue
way the aural/oral
this
in
iptouitu'o
bt at"tii"
'y'1o to a text-based theory'
^i*pfltt'y subordinated
lrr lr)r'trances.u"
rpc( t$ of rock pertormancJi"
a stable
is' as we have seen' to construct
llrtllan's second imPerative
like
comPoition;
grouP
of
to"tinge"ties
Iullr'ial Persona i" pfttt "i tfte
the
with
does' and not
concerned with what the music
l{r ltctrkcr, Headlam is
'Led
Zeppelin
of
'
band members' When he speaks
lrrtrtlitrs of individual
to a group ol
not
and
construct
an authorial
lltrt, lleadlam is rtferrinf to
take a
* to whether'Led Zeppelin' should
ttt""ry
fto
altho'gf'
Inttrl('ialrs strategem'
this
with
t"tt'it' ]ac\ of ease
rltrrrlar or a piural verb betrays "
he
about this' At one moment
;ncomfortable
(l'vrrcrt aPPears t" b" "q;ly
good
a
being
of
question
that'it was more a
t|triltc$ (;eorge Mardn's recollection
or songwriter'i
being Producer' arranger'
as
ln lhari ofisolating inaiiu'ts
becomes ruly
meditation
that 'Iiarrison's
tltc tt<'xt moment ht it^t;;;;
And this
'tht to-poser's enlightenmenc')
lrrrr(:errdertal', or refetrinf
adoption of
that takes place in Headlam's
lrt lrrgs to light the
Barthes' the death of the

the l-ltext', in
Tokumaru Yoshiko
al (eds),Trad'itim and
its

Futtne in

Mui'Mita

Press, Osaka 1991,

pp27-n3.

18. Schenker,
p160.

oP

cif,

""ttgt 't"ionthe author' For


lltr xrst-structut"ftt toit"pt of
it represents
of authority' But for Headlam
trtllr)t rePrese"tt u a""t"'ng
(or rather
the flesh-and-blood author
rrrrr the oPPoite' By d;;;;t;lacing
to a new
extension

construct' he achieves the


attltors) with a theoretical
rooted in
authority that is unambiguously
rlrttritr of ^ to"ttp' of
voice
'disembodied
the
Here is the source of
ltlttrtr('lrth-century value 'y"t-''
refers'
ul [llh(rl'ity'to which Hisama

lv

ll ir

equally
and authority - a conflation
thc conflation of authorship
remarkable
the
urra *o"t'litm - that explains

no*tt"tiJ*

of
from'
rather than swerving away
seem t" n; ;";eorising'
we
rltlllculty
to say 19.
is
(which
Johncovach
s.rr.nker's"ultimately theological
ilrrrltil,lc uurhorship i. *rr.-i.;
broachesthisissuein
quite
a
of
Seneral
instance
one
only
is
||r,rrtlrcis(ic) cofiception .i
Whut 'lffif;'yt:*

lnt nt:teristic

"r,n.*nto
of art being t t"rn*'"J ptod"t'io"'
is such a common Musicologv" in
is that multiple authofshiP
lrkcr this dilhculty ..*u.oror"
to th" gto'ftt-**n'"" "t':1L:1 it:lffi':i':t1li
rr is by no means restrict.d
muslc RethinkingMu,.'
lrlrrr(l*rK)r.
examples from the art
notorious
rnusit:;19
forthcoming'
trllc lir'rrts ol xrrulat
Mu"orgsky/Rimskyand
Requiem
Irnlitiorr iltt:ludc tlrc Mozart/Siissnrayr

.tttil)thy lowards the idea

'l
Must(: MlNtls ()Nl:' R()cK'
l oNs

ih. "1 lc l',tlttot r'l


tltc VI tull,1
Srhcnkc vcsus

H!:()RY

^ND

Pt:RroRM^Noi 3l

2ll Ar0IteItpr)t.lty
ltrltlr a tt wlt,tt Iliglrt
l, r,rllcrl rlrc
iorrtpositiorrr hy

rlrtrtIta'

l1)rn thc

I'corlc'r Rcrrrblir of
tlc lest krowr
ol whiclr is thc lltllal
(.)otut'lo
(l\
I t,t'
( ihcn (;ang and
r Iher s).
( ilirrr,

I(ots:tkov's llott,t (iutloutt.2r)'l lrr, rolorir.tt, i r.,r l ol llrr.st.(its(.s is;r rll:rtrr. l\


l(1r'ltl l)l('ttoIt('l()n, an(l rl<'livt's lrlrr lltr.tr.;tltsttt()l rltat;r higlrlv vitlll(.rl r' .,
(l()es 1()l ()present tle rrnadulterale(l visi()lt ()f its n;tne(l c()mlx)scl . Arrl rr
,

nol so long since another form of'multiple authorship wils tlt(.n',r,,


Beethoven's symphonies were performed as reorchestrated l)y W:rgrrr.r i,,,
Btilow, or Weingartner, or Mahler), while period keyboard nnr\ir r,
r

perfbrmed in Liszt's or Blow's or Busoni's editions. The idea of the I /rlrrr, lrt
that ofhistorical performance practice, goes back to the days ofBrahns, l,rrr rr
accePtance as the

than the 1960s.

norm of informed performance dates back hardly lirrrlr,,

It is as if the

tenets of modernism became establislrr.,l r,


performance only at the dawn of postmodernism.
In referring to reorchestrations and editions as instances of'rrrrrlrr,1,
authorship' I am, of course, broadening the term, and I propose to bnr;rrlr.r rr
still furer. Once again rock shows the way. Like most popular nrr\ri l
involves collaboration and negodation between songwriters, compost'r.s, lr.rr,,r
members or solo stars, producers, engineers, and record company persorrrr
the result is, to use Lisa Lewis's term, a highly segmented process of cre:rrr,,r '
And a glance at the credits on recent CDs will show rhat this segmenl:rrr,,rr
increasingly recognised by the music industry; lyrics, music, productiorr. r.rr r,
bass lines or samples may be individually credited. But as Lewis says,
I

2
(

l.

Lisa A. Lewis,

;.il.I?r I'olitic! and

l\4

fV:

Voicing the

l)lterence,Temple
I lrrivcr

sity Press,

l'hiladelphia 1990.
1i3. Ofcourse au
individual musician
trly, oD occasion,

ur(lcrtake two or
ore of these roles.

'll.

l.cwis, op.cit.,

This system of assigning credit represents only a small modificatiorr rr rlr,


model of individual authorship in that it maintains the focus rr rl,,
individual rather than the collective. Because no consensus for <rrlk.,rr,,
authorship has emerged to counter the historical focus on the inrlivrrlrr,,l
author (despite the collectivity of modern production), authorship disr,,rr r.,
has become increasingly conflicted and contradictory under inrlrrrtr,,t
capitalism.22

rfi,l-ir. A few bards


r r r.tlit their songs
r

ollcctively ro the band

(lirr cxanrple, U2
icrrcral Public), or
re(lir them toall
rlivi<lral band
ttrerrhcr s (for
cx;rrnplc, carly (ienesis
(

,rllrrrnrs). I owe this

olcvrtirr to Robynn
Stlrvll.

Such segmentation is equally a feature of the art music

as we know

tradition. The rcx.r r, ,,


'

it today is the result of collaboration and negotiation br.rs,r', r,

composers, performers, patrons and other sponsors, impresarios, editors.rrr,l

publishers. To be sure, the production process in classical musir is lr


collective than that of popular music; it is easier to distinguish rhe clillcr, r,r
roles, if only because they are largely sequential (whereas in popular rrrrlr,
Producion they are largely simultaneous). And whereas authorship in r,rrrrl.rr
,

music is bewilderingly fragmented, with almost as many patr('r'rs ,


't
collaboration as there are songs, classical music is dominated by onc rrxrssrr r lr
important variety of segmentation: the division of labour between c()ntln,\,
and performer. Nevertheless, if authorship discourse has become r.orrllr, r,,,1
and contradictory in relation to popular music, the sarne appli('s to llr..lr
r

rntsic

tradition.

Lcwis observes of popular music thaf 'l.lnaware of how segr)lcnl(,(l nrr1r.


product.iorr really is, the public will often assume rhat the pcrfi.mr:t is ;rls. rl,
composer of the music.'And she itdds tht evelt when p('t'fi)r'ilt(.ts'l,nr. rr,,

52 Nrw l,ir<lr,r Irovs

rtrll
rrr,, rlr r.rr.rrt ilr I oilrlx)rlllolr ... rt rs

s(rrl{ (}ll("s ()wtt tltrortglt


xrssillk.to ttt:tk(';r

(lirl'rcmains Madol x.rlolrn;rrrrr.'.:ll li()l illstllll((, I\l:ttlrttttI's'Matcrial


Peter llrown arld Robert Rarls
,,rrr,r'.'Nl:tlcli:rl (iirl'rcgaltllcss of lhe firct that
thc virlco; in factone of the aims of
.. r,rrl llr'sttttg,;ltttt Maly l'arrtlx'rt tlirtt:lci

rlr

!ll'

/iralrplrfr'lili

.rr I

rlr' \rl(()s(:('lllsl()havt:[x:ctltocorttributetothecon'structionofMadonnaasa
terms
(to borrow
(r*..r(.:.rrror rather than an industry puppet

Lewis's

,.rn''r).Ntwthisargumentwillnottransfetdi'"ttlytotheartmusictradition;24'Ibid'p63;on
Concerto'

tr rr lrr.nr..s, srrrcly,

Violin
think that Nigel Kennedy wrote Brahms's

X?j|H;}t|?]"

llttlt.vt.ttRuhinsteindi<lnotupp*p.iut.Chopin,snocturnestotheextentthatregardingthevideois
cae of Kteister points to the
:1T:1[:[ffi"*"

.lllrrru t's thought he wrote them- (Indeed the

Madonnas(thesingercompositions' you have to


pltenomenon: to gain credibility fo'I:"-t
people
time'
same
the
At
dead')
XLtl'ffij,:l;
,.r r rltr. rrr('r^ ro someone else, preferably
not constructs'by
Concerto because it is Kennedy's and
h, rrrrcrly's vicleo of Brahms'iiolin
music-lovers 'Ij]i:?T:;r:Hl:i;
historic recordings are bought by
l,r , ,*$r it is Brahms,; reissues of
chopin autholMadonna (see
ofthe
recording
another
yet
acquire
to
* lrr r u,,rt to hear Rubinstein, not
NicholroCook'
audiences
that
consumPtion - the fact
il'x lttl ll('s. The segmentation of rnusical
in
primarily)
not
just (in some contexts'
#::irY'!'I'*"":
., r, rr rrcr <rsrecl in performances and not

l rltrr

buy

'llll|x)$il'ions_issuchanobvioufactof]ifethatitalmostseemsredundanttoforthcoming).This
the adu..tisit'g pages of any news-stancl
m,,rrt ir)n it, and this is

amplyborne outby

of scores, or even with


I ll rrrugitzine. To identify uthorship with the production
in 'whole Lotta
discusses
Headlam
rlrr lirrrl of composidonal manipulations
reflect the
adequately
not
it
does
Point that
I ,r,r', ir to narrow the co,a"pt

ry;fi:;i,i1"",!::
Foucaldian lincs that
lleadlamadv<rates'

'oit"
either produced or consumed'
the contradiction in authorship discourse
Itr llr't:ase of classical music' then'
and how it is written about'
is
experienced
tr ilrrtrlially between how music
the Nzr Oxford' Companiovt''to -Mus-it
Arrrrtrlirrg to the publisher's blurb'
to a wide and diverse readership in
tlttr'rlier NOCIA is 'iJispensable "
on anything to do with music"
,rrrrlr rl information and enlightenment
The. NOCM finds a place in its two
Itrrrt, that is, for its performnce!
(Certon'
to*pottt' known only to the musically erudite
r tltrr iots volumes fot
Toscanini'
Furtwngler'
like
But names
llnrrlirrg, atcl Horovitz, io"*u-ptt'
one'
nor there; there is the'music minus
simply
are
Michelangeli
lftrr.witz, ancl
affairs
of
state
extraordinary
this
for
lrl rrry t il le. And as I see ii, the explanation
not. mention any sportsmen or
(lttuirte an encyclopedia of sport that did
do not talk
Iut'gt-rugt in relation to music' We
wllllrrll) lics in the *';;t

wrtr ill which music

is

""
itconsistedof
irrrrrr rrrsicasif irwere.o.irle*pie.rc;we.urkaboutitasif of zorfts' which
terms
in
tlt
o1
music
rtlrlll tsscts' We categorise the
l'*
least
coupled wi an established (or at
,r.rrriillly

rneans

auth;;iutive texts

is as irremediably platonist as
t, .,,lt'rl) l)11)v(:lla.ce' C)"t ""'ut"lur for music
as performance of
ilil trr lilri(.irl vrrabulary for it; we talk about performanceideal' timeless entity'
an
from
rrt!, rlctivit'r8 a situated experience of music

25' Aparticularlv

[:?::f#iy

t'

MatthewBrou'n's

t;hth'I]!;:"i

llttrtirgr,iltsltrlr('ledst<the*a.gin"lisationofperformance.PerhapstheCognition,,inJohn
as I said, we establish the aesthetic ;::1tj,3,ffffi,,
lrrr rrrrlir;rrirrr.f this is rhe way in which,
just performers
that they aren't
hltltrr,r, 1 of rt't[orrnett by dmonstrating

Itttl,ltxrlttt's('llst.,(()Il)lx)sers2I)
Mlrst(, MNlrs

()t'lt Rtx;x, l'tt:o*Y

rNlr Pl:RIr()RMAN(:l': 33

RochMuic'
forthcoming'

26. I do, howcvcr,


know whcre to start:
l,ydia Goehr's Ia
lmagtnory

Muical

Muam of

Wohs :

An

in the Philosophl

of

Essay

Muir, Clarendo
Press, Oxford 1992.

llow shorrkl !v('llrink rl tlrc rcllrtiorrslrir lx'lrvccrr wrr'k rr<l l)('rli)tnr:ur"


Obviously this is nruch too big a qucsti()n l() ar)sw(:r'('()nrl)r'clcnsiv('lf irr.,,,
article like this (and anyhow I am not sure I know rvhat a compl'clr'trrrr,
answer would look like26). But all I am aiming for here is to suggest how isru, .
of musical performance and multiple authorship intersect with one un()tlrr
r

and for this purpose it will suffice to set out three models ol urrrvr.rl
performance: two impossible ones, and one possible one.
The first model arises from taking seriously the platonist language wc rs( r',

talk about music; I shall call this the NOCM model. According to it, rrrrr.r,
consists of sonatas and symphonies in the same sense that literature collsisl\ ,,1
novels and poems, and thejob of making these works perceptible is sirrr,lr
technical one; performers, in other words, serve the same kind of functi,n .,
printers - they have to be there, but we don't have to talk about them. Ar rr,,l,l
Schoenberg spelt out the implications of this model quite explicitly whcn l,

told Dika Newlin that

27. Dika Newlin,

Music need not be performed any more than books need to be read al,,r,1
for its logic is perfectly represented on the printed page; and the perfot nr.r
for all his intolerable arrogance, is totally unnecessary except as lr',
interpretations make t}te music understandable to an audience unforlur.rr'
enough not to be able to read it in prin.z2

'l lrlrt is wlry llrc lt'ttt'lttt'llll)lovls:Illoll


rrrtrtgt'll(l'ol stylistit (r)llv('llliollr{
lrllltllrllx.lrliltrrl,itrllrlt.l.ltltlt.tlrllr.itlr.l.ltlt.tttaltt.t.ilrwlrit.lrtrtltrltrlylixcrl
problent'
stylistit <;oltvettl'iolts lrlc abiured"Ihe
rr l lrtll t'vclt rtt'tk'lt'ttrrirrt'rl
To take a

it i, i,rrfurri" to abjure stylistic conventions'


si'ehen
of Ka'rlheinz Stockhausen's Au d'en
rrrrllir' cxirtrtl'rl"' tl'" '"t'tl'dittgs
that of the Darmstadt
musical
.style'
,',Iar (lr':w ort atr casily lffii'"uf"
of the individual
idiosyncracies
stylistic
{r{rt-Brlr'(l('i irttlt:t:tl thcy t"flt'tt tht

rr r,rru., is tlrrt

of Stockhausen
and above all the personal style
lrrrk iittts who played in them'
accommodation of the
- also interesti"g
Aus den sieben \-agen is

lrlttrell.

Irrrrrrrrilrle Project

brief poetic
of the '*otk' tradition' Stockhausen's
rrttttttiottirl structures
evoke a desired
retreat'
period of meditative
pltlt l wcrt: ;omposed d;;;
'
they are so
direction;
inscrutable
llrtl rlrd occasionally 'a I *ot" or less
how you
obvious
not
is
it
outcome that
lrrrr pet:ific with resPect to acoustic
'of ' one of
performance
a
was
r.rt'r rretermine whether a given performance
plagiarism in
have no idea how a case of
lltr lcxis or not. (In *ftt' 'io'at"f
unless of
could be advanced or defended'
m,hllorr l(r AlLs d'en sieben Tagen
are
sounds
The rexts and the
rlrre ir had to do *irrr.oplirrg the words.)
performance
between the work and the
Itrrtttrttersurablel the reladsip
the

And under these conditions


,rrtiiltr of nothing b;;;ifft""te'
term
'work' seem as questionable as the
tltlil l)lt iateness of the term
of tn" NOCM model' The texts O*"'nt1-::.f'r
'rt lttlttrattce' did in the t"t

document'atton
probabry most sensibry seen as
trr titre Aus d,n sieben 7.agen are
recorded and
musicians
his
Stockhausen and
rrl tltc Iree improvisation-s which
a 'work' in
sense
useful
any
in
rather than as
tttrl hele(l under the 'u-t "'*t'
catalogue'
Edition
Univesal
in the
lltll owrr right - even if they do appear
'free
and the equally impossible
model
locM
impossible
rrrrr rhc
composer and
the division of authorship between
Itttrtovisation' model resist
work and performance one possible relationship between
ltlt lorlner. The
denial.ofet*1t:::::-*
the
towards
tend
tn"tlt Oot' not
rrrllrle ir the sense
works (or composrhons'
Musical
collaboration'
ll ntlr'r'- builds on the idea of
very differently in different cultures'
ttt riercs, ()r events) ut" ttrttt""*d
a tablature' or
species sound qualities' or
whthcl by means of u "otuti'o" that
case the
every
in
But
combnation of these'
att lttirl/oral o'itiorr' * "
notadon
staff
western
incomplete' Fo insance'
rrrr llication i,
about
vague
'ig"ifitu"t
intrinsically
is
but
rrtrilics ritt:lr and th;;; to*ptth""ti'ely
since
markings
composers'
of
increasing density
rlrrrlrre rrcl ar.ticulation; the
of.the
limitations
orrty .ir". ,o highright the
rrr rrrirlc,e or tn. nrtl..y
hand' specifies
other
the
on
ch'intatlature'
tr)l'rllr) in (hese respects' Chiese
indeterminate as regards
a"d attir:t'lation in detail but is almost
tltr lr, tirrrlrrc
level of specificity in
*er.e gt"*f principle that a high
t ltyl lrrrrl il's as if there
i"
'
ol
lack
by a corresponding
1f'lricltf
trtt thrtrrain has to bc compensated
difference
irreducible
is in each case an
tltt)tllrl .'l'lrt: r'oltsettte"tt i"n"t there
thc rerformance
ancl
tt
fnd tlt-11'"'
llw*tt llrt' ttrtsit "*
'* '"nt"*"trtetl (r)nstitules an arena fbr meaningful

Schoenbetg Remembued:
Dia,rbs ad,

Rcollctim

1936-7 6), Pendragon,


New York 1980, pI64.

Presumably Schoenberg said this on the rebound from some negirrir,


performing experience, or maybe he was being mischievous; at any ato. it r',
very hard to take the NOCM model seriously, because it is so massively orrt ,,1
kilter with how music is used in everyday life (though not, to be sure, with lr,,',
it is used in the theory classroom, where one recording tends to be as grxxl ,r.
another, and no recording is better still). And what is revealing is that wht'rr r',
are faced with an instance of performance that can be accommodated by rlr,
NOCM model, we tend to be unhappy about calling it a 'performance' rt .rll
Suppose that you compile the score of Schoenberg s Klauirstck Op. 33a irrt,, ,,
MIDI file, and output it through a Yamaha Disklavier grand piano: is tlrir ,r
performance, rather than a realisation? Is it a performance when a t.r,,
composition is played back in public (and do you clap, unless the composct is rrr
the auditorium)? I don't think the issue is simply whether or not you can h:rlr' .r

performancewithoutperformers. Itiswhetherornotthereisanyscopefirr tlr,


performance to be other than what it is a performance of. In other worrls, I .rrrr
suggesting that the idea of performance embodies a principle of difftrmrt, ;t,l
this is something I shall come back to later.
The second, and equally impossible, model of performance is irrst tlrr
opposite; I shall call it the'free improvisation'model. As I said with rcli r.rr,,
to Led Zeppelin, improvisation is generally understood as a lelatiotr:rl lcrrl
one improvises against an existing text, or at any rate in rclati<rr t() :l slx ( rlr'

34

1.""
institutional and
of f?* i*pto'itation within the
texts'

ll

tll

l{ll.' is thal tlrrs

rlif li'l

t:lrt:r'

ANll IlRt()RMAN(:r llfi


Mlrst( ['lNlrs ( )NI ll(x:K l ll]r)RY

Nt.,w lorr,r t toNs

arditsirlcr.l)r(:lcr..
'l'he nr.st. obvious way in which a musical
ill{. lirr

lrrtcrrretation', in
Mirlracl Krausz (ed),
'l'fu lnlrftlatton of
Irl t sir : l' hilosophiml
/.i*a.1s,

(.a, i.\rr,

gccr:l

rlisr rssior sct Mir hacl


K r.rrrsr, Rightness and
l{casrs it Musical

Olarendon

llcss. Oxford 1993.


pp7Llt7. Krausz
r crarks Ihat 'This
irrrrrmpleteness is a
fi.tur e of the
l)rcscnily cntrenched

typicalenoughexample.wehaveamoreorlessxedtext;atpresentthtrt.r., ,
surprisingly large number of doubtful readings,zs but their extent shoulrl r r, ,r
be exaggerated and will in any case diminish as editions based on a rr,,,,
careful and comprehensive examination of the sources become availablt.. I l,
text and a relatively continuous performance tradition, then, constrairr rlr,
bounds of viable interpretation. All the same, from Mengelberg to Hogh'(x,,t
from Toscanini to Harnoncourt, there is an astonishing range of differt.rr,
between performances, which is also to say between text and perfbrnr;rrr,
And then there is Furtwngler, who created great waves of tempo charrgr. rr,

No. 9, Cambridge
lliversity Press,
(lambridge 1993,

the prolongational spans of the music, inserting his ,,,,,,


interpretationintotheintersticesof Beethoven'sscore.soFurtwnglersp()kr.,,l
the performer's need to 'laboriously reconstruct' the composer's 'ove.rirlrrr1
vision'of the work, but the result of his prolonged engagement wirlr rlr,
symphony was a highly personal way ol'perlbrming it;31 Furvngler's Nrrrrl,
sounds (and was no doubt intended to sound) nothing like Mengelberg. ,,,
Toscanini's.Andyet,ofcourse,whenwespeakof Furtwngler'sNinthwr.,l,,
not mean to deny that it is also Beethoven's Ninth, or to suggcsl rlr,rr
Furtwngler's Ninth is something other than Beethoven's. 'rhe r,.,.,

rpl l0'17.

'Beethoven's Ninth' has the idea of collaborarion already built into it.

:10. Nicholas Cook,


"l lrt: (irrducto and
tlrc l heorist:

In this way Beethoven's Ninth Symphony is, in a significant sr.rr.,


indeterminate; if we don't easily recognise its indeterminacy - if we think <l rlr,
Ninth Symphony as something fixed - then that may be largely the rcstrlt ,,t

Lcilrc ofmuical
irrtcrprctation' (p75)2!). SeeJonathan Del
Mar , 'Appendix 2:
fhe 'fext of the Ninth
Syrrrphoy', in
Ni<

holx Cook

(ed),

Ihrlhoun : Symphonl

l;r twiingler,
Sr

lrckcr, and the

l,i st Movement of
llcctlroveu's Ninth
Syrrrrlrorry', inJohn
llrrk (.d), l he Pructice
ol I \' | | ot nai : Studi$

i.rrrirrirlgc

lrrivesity Press,

( i:rrrrlrr

rlgc,

1995.

l Willrlr
l,rilwilrglcr (cd

'J

llorr.rkl l .rykrr ),
l'uttrllNl oil ML\a(,

oh l)css.
Ailcr sltrr l1){.)1, r12.

rrriRrrilit;rrtlyrlillt'n'ntl'lrrrttwh;rlissllccifiedinthesc<re'

rlr,rr

repr.eserltatioll

tandem wirh

our platonic language for music. And if the Ninth Symphony is in a signilir .rrrr
sense indeterminate, then this is all the more true of earlier music in rtl, lr
performers were expected to realise continuo parts, clothe slow movemt:lrtr rrr
elaborate ornamentation, and so forth; as I said, composers of the last crrrtrrr
and a half have moved towards ever more detailed specication ol rlr,
intended performance. But this movement is not what it might sr., rrr
Paradoxically, it results in a second way in which musical representation (,ur
invite collaboration. At first sight Stockhausen's Klattierstikhe, for instanr:t.. |r,,,1,

like the last word in compositional specication, especially as regar<ls rrrrr,


complex rhythmic patterns are subsumed under irrational tempo pl'op()rtr.rl
like 7:3, which are sometimes themselves subsumed under further in';rli,,rr.rl
proportions. And the physical demands of performance - fbr irrsl:rr,,

\rrl I w(|lrl(l ,ritiltlllill that tlris is not simply

arr idiosyncratic lbible

r-rt

Berio's Gsfi for alto


take .iust one more example' Luciano
different means'
quite
though by
,, , .r r k,r :r( hieves very much the same result'
two principal
the
separates
lhrrr'\ n()lali()rr, invented specially for this piece'
Each of
fingers'
the
and
.rr *I ;r( tivity in playing the recorder: the mouth
the
aduet'Atthebeginningof
rh, lr;rsir..ornrtur.,almostinthemannerof
(any one
bars
ortwo
one
finger
to
repeatedly
t,r,, r,, lk,r'io asks the Performer

, r,lrr.r. lir

themouthPart'by
rr\rllr!s) tionr aspecifiedTelemannsonatamovement;

,r

,,rrr,r\1,(r)nsistsof arlenseseriesof highlyspec;ficnotationslbrdegreesoflip


the instrument' and inhaling' 'Because
r, ,rr,.. lluttertongue, singing through

thelipsandthefinger

,,t rlrr. lic(luent"contradicdons"betweenthetensionof


patterns' the
because of the speed of changing
1,,rrrrrr,'writes Berio,'and
produce no
will
,,.*lrrr s.ttnd is unpredictable"' Sometimes the instrunrent

32. Luciano Berio,

of intended
ln rhi, *ry, Berio withclraws the specification
recorder
of
elemenE
.,,rril, lhc core aspect around which the other
normally
are
rest
the
and
fir'rg.. movement, breath control'
1,. r lrnnurrce performancei he
,,,,'rrlr*rl('d arrd integrated. I{e deconstructs the act of
resulting again in a
,,,.x.ls llrt: p..fnr^.i to reilrvent his or her technique'
any
.,*r(l :rl

r,,

all.'32

for A[to
Recorder, Universal
Editiol, Vienna, UE

Gesi

t5627,P5.

different from
r.,rr;rl i,-,tJ.pr.tutior-, that cannot but be significantly

,rlrlt rcrfbrmer's.
specification' then'
llr rrtcrtlts of an apparently high level of comPositional

to assunre what can only be


l,,,rlr Strx khausen and Berio force the Perforrer
the auclible outcomei the relationship
rll, rl ;t rotnpositional role irr relation to

text and its interpreter'


l{ r\\. ('n )rnposer and performer' between the
the case of Furtwngrer and the Ninth
r.r ,rrr(.s ()*e of conaboration, just as in
that these instances are
,\rrlu)ny. In saying this I do not mean to suggest

role only in the paradoxical


' r'lrtr()ila1, that performers fulfil a compositional
Furtwngier's stature' On
of
artists
,.,rrLr rl the avant-garde or lrhen they are

rl, r.ullirt'y, Iamarguingthatallperformanceisinsomesensecompositional'


divided'
is always

,, r,r put it rnore straightforwardli' that musical authorship


which musiciansdefend
\rrrl rvlt:tl is tt:lling in this regard is the passion with
t-hat underlies it
incleterminacy
compositional
,,,rrllrh' :rtltlrol'ship ,,' tf'J
is the crusade
not Pu; it this way)' A good examPle
r r lrr rr rglr, t() l) sure, they do
editors who
i.itiated againsi nineteenth-century interpretive

enormous leaps without enough time to make them - srrnctint:s ;rrrro;rr lr ,,r
cven exceed the bounds of possibility. But then that is.irrst the roirrr. tkrtlr rr
physical and conceptual terms Stockhausen's Klauit:tsliicfu Iir.strhst;rrrtr.rllr

. rrrr rr sr lrt.rrkcr
of perfbrmance directions;
r,rrrrIrr rrrI rrr:.rslcrw()l.ks of thc past under a mass
eclitors'directions were wrong' but
,, lr|ilht''s olrt'tl was ,t't ti'."'ly t'hat the
way representated a miscomprehension
rl rr ti, (ottsltirilt lcrlormatt<;c in this
tne of the basic principles of the
,,1 rrr .srcttli:tl lttllllr'.'r:r l'llis [ras lrt:come

Ircyond the limits of literal performan<:c, ad so dr.lnrrl ir ur:urr(.r ,,l


rerlortn:rnce that is othc than the litcllrl. l'lre,v irrslig:rtt.:l l)t(x(.ss ol x.rsorr.rl

lil,lrrl lr.ll x'l l0t tlt:tttl ('Ill(tv('lIl( lll'


llrrt rctlr,tts tlrt lrl()sl \llikirlg

:lli

Nt,w l,orr,r I lors

Nlr',rr \llrl

t'x;rltrlt'is:t
.(), I lirrI

tt'g:ltivt'ottr"
llll('ll\

Rothstein Points out,


this is whY Scheuker'
did not, and would
not, publish
'performing' editions
of his own. William

Rothstcin,'Hcirrriclt
Schenker as an
l

utcrPrctelrf'

I\r'clhrr'tr's I'iltrrr
S(,triltll\', lr)l' I i''iilt I
,\lrr

likt'Slt'rltxk

\Nlr l'ltrl"lllrtt

33. AsWilliam

ll'l

Vlrrrc l{, ['''

lolrcs' rLrg llurl rlitl rrot llrlk ill tlrr rrrgltt l lrrtrl tlrr. ntl(.t v(.ntion ol trrorlr.r r
It'r'lttrology, rttsi(:tl s()ull(l wrs (.!:lr(srr,rt: rt w;rs xrssilrlr. lr ltr.lrr lrrrr
(1)tttlxls('r-lx'tlirrtttcts rlaycrl tlrcil rwrr nrrrsir ()nly slx)ta(li(::rlly tlulirr1 tlr,.r,
l

lili'tirnt:s, an(l nol at all after their death. Nowa<lays, ol coursc, evervthin{ lr.r..
changed. We hnow how such composers as Bartok, Rachmaninov, anrl llrirrr'
played their music; realising the composer's intentions, as perfolmel's s;r\. r,,
something that we can now d,o. And yet, in practice, we don't. A pi;rrrrrr
preparing a piece by one of these composers may well listen to the composr.r '
recording, just as she or he may well listen to other pianists'recordings. Arr,l
obviously she or he will hear the composer's recording as possessing a r'(.r't.r,
kind of authority that the others don't, just because it is the composer's. Brrl f r.r,
pianists will feel constrained to earnestly reproduce the wayward rhythrrrs,,t
Debussy's playing, any more than conductors are likely to lovingly replir.rrr
Elgar's portamenti; that just isn't what performance is about. Perlbrrrr.r.
sometimes justify this by arguing that composers rarely play their own nlu\r,
well, and that we shouldn't too readily identify their recordings wirh rheir. r,rl

Rorcnwald, 'Theory,
'ltxt-setting, and
Performance' , Joumal
tuf Musicologl,Yolume

ll,p6I-2.

ll tlrt'olrly rlillt'lctrc lx'lwct'tt lttl

ltrsir :ttttl trxk wctt'llttl ottc

rrllrrlrerrvily()ll(()l('s:ttrtlllt:()th(:l(l(x:sll'l'lllt:ltllcstratcgyatlortt:<lby
acoust'ic

enough: as I sai(l' they treat


llr,rrlltr ttt<l livclc(t llight w()rk wcll
of score' indeed as if they
l rn (tltitl is to say lctrrrclings) as if'they were a kind
f'unctions llke an Urtext'
*r'tl kirtrl ttl ltrlxl. I'trc troublc is that no rock text
a hierarchy with a dominant
Itlr,tl wr: ruight call lhc lJrlext model consists of
and-l.variety of subordinate and
tr,rr (ry a lleethoven symphony) at i apex'
(bowdlerised editions' adaptadons for school
rh,r lvrtive texts at the lower levels
grouPs or keyboard' and so forth)' But

rr lrmltil, arrangenlents for chamber


l l lr xls tlrlt, ot.{er this; instead, it offers a multiplicity

of texts, the sum total of


to say that no versron
not
is
This
entity.
nrr' rr dr:f.i'es a rock song as a cultural
like Rush' who explicitty aim for
is ever privileged over others; groups
'rl ,r i()trg
in live performance' are in effect
{rr rr l,tlt'ate reProduction of their t"toit'gt
and the same might be said of the
rrr'{lurl{ these recordings as a kind of [Jrtxt'

tr

is the

audiences) as authors, and not

rnrtr,
I rrrctvativepoliticians"y-f'o-theauthoritativetexttosuccessivelylower'
(such as Led Zeppelint
,,,,1 less authoritative, lyets of the hierarchy

puppets.

Lawrence Rosenwald has praised Richard Taruskin's seminal study

ol

Ninth Symphony in performance on the grounds that Taruskin

'rrror,

rlr,

precisely from a consideration ofvarious actual performances back to a llr.rlr


analysis of the piece - not rhe piece itself, whatever [hat phrase mighr rrrr..rrr
but the piece considered as something existing in the relation betwt.r.n rr,
notation and the field of its performances'.3a Insofar as music theory is rlclrrr, ,l
as the study of music in terms of 'the piece itself, rather than the contexts ()l rt.,
production and reception,'that phrase'has generally been assumed [o nrr.rr
the score. This isn't to say that theorists don't care about anything ('x' r'l,r
scores; of course they clre about how music is created, how it is pt'rlorrrr,,l
how it is experienced. But theory is focused around scores, and tlrr' r.

justiable not only on methodological grounds (because you havc t() \r.rr
somewhre

when studying any complex phenomenon) but also because Wr.str.rr

art music has always signified as writing and not just as sound. By rhis I rrr, ,rl
that composers'choices and historical influences are tied up with how rlrrrr1
look, or make sense, on the page; they can't be understood purely in r(.r rr\ ,,1
how the music sounds. Indeed the sometimes incommensurable rclrrtiorrrlrr,
between what is seen and what is heard is an integral part of thc < oll:rlx rr.rrr,,,,
between composer and performer, the negotiatiolr lctw<:r'n tr.rt .rr,t
interpreter, that I have already described.
But obviously t.he score-based approach rvill not work with rock ol rlrtl ,,,rr
other primarily aurally/orally-transmitted music, af leust willrorrt rrr.r,,,

38

Nr:w

I,i)RMA lt()Ns

force seeJ.L. Austin,


How to Do Things with

Wu,H.awa,

refers'
multiplicity of concert versions to which Ieadlam

,u,,.r.u,o,iu.

as

35. OnillocutionarY

of the past' But such


[il]-[likc'bands modelled on the canonic grouPs
more
is by no means the norm in rock; much
lrrlvtlrgitlg of a single text

musical intentions. But the truth is much simpler than this convrlrrrr.,l
argument would suggest. Classical performers are just the same as pop srar.s: ri,
borrow Lisa Lewis's terms again, they see themselves (and are seen l)\ rlr,

VI

34. Lawrence

{rlrrl)l,tllr)ll.

UniversitY Press,
Cambridge, Mass

lrriefly, in his analysis of Led Zeppelin's music'


Everett seeks to assimilate rock
llt'l.lrtextmodel, to which Headlarn and
of 'trickle'down' effect - as
kind
a
w()rks from the top down; there is

1962; see also mY

,rll trxr

chapter'AnalYsing
Performance, and
Performing AnalYsis'
i Nicholas Cook and

But an approach
rnlrr)vi$ations on stage', to rePeat Headlam's Phrase)'
model I want to
the
authorship
multiple
and
texts
,,,r1i,',,t..1 on multiple
round' at is
way
,llvrr;tte lor theorising rock - equally has to -ork the other
it
means'trng
uP' What does this mean? For one thing'
r, lrv l t om the bottom

than immeiately
t, utt(lerstand Performances in their own terms' rather
performances of a pcrhaps
rlr.r rirrg them to whatever they are suPposed to be
the illocutionary force of
to
lr,,lrrl way to express this is that *" "t"d to attend
represent'35 (Examples
they
rx I tcxls, to what rrrey d'o rather than what

Walser has discussed in reladon to


lrr ltrlc the embodied manings that Robert
of production; but the eld
Il,vv rttctal, and Allan Mootti 'sound-box' model

of stylistic and
,rl ret'lormance also includes the extensive networks
independent\ of
on which rock performers PIay, quite

lrtr.t tr.xtral rclerences


Fot another thing' it means taking
thr, rrtt lit:ulirr songs they are performing'36)
by which I mean not only
,,lvrrtlitge of the full range ;f available rock texts'
and remakes' but-also
rrrltttitl releases, single rlmixes' concert recordings'
word' it is the field of these
rh'ttttt, stttlio tapes, and covers; to ue Rosenwald's
them' that mut be the primary
r. rr, lll(' rrclwork ol diff'erences between
One Problem
if rock is to be understood as a Performing art'

'rlrlrrt ol st.trdy
much of the necessary
Irltr, tr,John Covach has pointed out' is that
to forget how far their
theorists
for
rprrlr wr)l k has still to l'e done'S? It is easy
so-called 'positivistic'
of
kind
the
on
,rIIrrlttly t'llirllcss rt:arlittgs dcpend
r rtrrlil's llttt ltvc lralt:ly lx:gtrn irl poptrlar music'
pie:s,an<l I am n()t
llrrt l rrirl lll;ll nlllsi(] tlrtrlty rrteirtls t'hc study of.musical

.,',r'rrr

N,ll

\r

l\'llNl'\

)Nl larx l

l llon\'

^ND

lrlRll)lN!^N(:l'

:t1)

Mark Everist (eds),


Rethi,nking Mwic'
Volume 1, op.d.'
Oxford'

36. Onembodied
meanings in heavY
metal, see Robert
Walser,'The BodY

in

the Music:
EpistemologY and

Musical Semiotio'
Collcge

Muic

SlmPosim,Yofume 31,
ppl l7-26; on the
'sound-bod, re Allan
Moote, Rock: The
Primary Text:

DrudnPinga MuicoLogl
o/Rocl, Oxford
UniversitY Press,
Buckingham, 1992,
pp t06'1 I0i on tylistic
and intenextual
references, see PhiliP
Tagg,'AnalYsing
PoPular Music:
Theory, Method, and
Pracce' , PoPulnr
Mu, Volume 2,
pP37-67

3?..loltl(iovrrh,
of

.0t.

ttt !rl1l('l l0 llltttttr| llltltl( ,lr lx'lll)llllitll((', w('sll(}tll(l


lot1r't:tlxrttl lltcotisirr ll.t\ (ollll)o\lll()ll. Wl:'l l;tttt stlggt'slitrg rr

rilHl{('slllrl{ llt;rl,

3ti. Mattlrew Brown's


' "l.ittle Wing": A
Study iu Musical
(logniron' a/r..ir., is a
rare cxarnple of the
rrrrlication

ofa

oblern-solving
aPProach to
pr

rrformance.

s(lt('lt()w
tlrat tlcrc is ro clcar line between conllx)sili()lr iul(l l)erfi)rnlatlcc, tld tllitl \\r
tlercfbrc have an opportunity to traltsfr tnu(:h ol whrt we havc leartrt ltlxrtrt
tnusic as conlposition to music as Perfbrmarlce. For instancc, insiglrts irrt,'
compositional choice and strategy, the extent to which a given choicc ('lrlirrl\
others, the dening and solving of problems, the contribution of conventi()rr,rl
schemata towards such definition - all these apProaches are as aPPlicablc li'
performance as they are to composition (and between them they account li)r .r
great deal of what is done under the name of musical analysis).38 And I arr :rl'"
suggesting that, just as we traditionally understand performances in tcll)rs ol
the works they are performances of, so we need to understand works in t('l rrr\
of the performances they emerge from. In other words, we need an analyti(.rl
approach that doesn't presuppose the identity of a song as a meaningful wlrrtlt'
but lets it emerge in answer to the question 'by virtue of tvhat are thesc l( \ll
received as representations of the same abstract entity, such that t'hat is llt ;r t ' l
derives meaning from being heard in this context?' As I see it, Headllttr'r
article on Led Zeppelin is important to the extent that it problematises the issrrr
of identity in rock music. But I also see it as importantly misguided in th:rl rt

tllell w(:
lrr rrrr.r'xx:nsr: of lt:tlottttt:ls'
rrilrr.\.ilr(r its,rrlrrl;rtiorr or r0rrlxrrr.rs
rrr4ltl ttsl;tlxrtttlrt'"1'lt'tt"t'tutl""tlrirlkingthetop-dowlrapproa<:hthatisbuilt
texts and
l'opular rnusic' where multiple
nrrtsi( lltcoty as wt'kn<w it torlay
Inlo

rethinking alnos' inevitable Ilorln' t'ok"'


rrrrrltirlt'ltttll()lsllil) al(: tlte
"th
being
f'"tett'' articles show' At the risk of
lrrrt ttol tttilc' o' H"oaU-t u"tl
popular
forcing
somehow
of
J-rgg*t that instead
I rl)tivc, t would fif" Ir

rr

rrrrrir

ittttthefiamework"it'il'ttheory'wewoulddobettertousepopular
to the benefit of

*rrrrir

rs

catalyst

for.pening theory up to nerv perspectives,

standing of all music'


'rilr tll(l('l

offers a premature solution, a quick fix whose source lies in nineteenth-ccttlrrr I


of authorship and authority, and not in detailed scrutiny ()l llrl

conceptions

available texts.

Why have theorists concentrated on rock, and Particularly progressive rrr

l'

while virtually ignoring other genres of popular music? The answer is p('r lr.rl'\
obvious: because of the coincidence of the Romantic values underlying tttttrr'
theory and the Romantic values underlying rock. Borrowing Lisa Lewis's tt'r trrr
for the last time, we could say that rock musicians, and in particular Proglcs\r'

rock musicians, see pop musicians as industry PuPpets but themselvcs .,.
genuine authors. And for this reason the top-down, masterpiece-oli('rrllrl
rhetoric f traditional music theory fits rock all too well; it builds u1:ott tlr,
existing ideology of rock instead of subjecting it to critical examination l .rrrr
suggesting, then, that a bottom-up approach (pursued in conjunction willr tlr,
top-down one) is a precondition for a more critical engagement of theot v u rtlr
rock, and for any engagement with pop. But I don't want to stop tht'I'. \{'r
have become used to theorising western art music in almost exr:lttsrrllt
top-down terms, subordinating the music of all periods to a Romantic idt'olrgr
and

so

ending up with a picture that is not so much incorrect as incomplt'tt' ,rrr,l


of this is the lack ol atty st'tr,,,,u

unbalanced. The most obvious manifestation

theoretical engagement with performance, and by this

I mealt tl()t rrtlt'll,

finished performance but the process of negotiation with a tt'xt, , 'l


collaboration with its composer, that takes place in rehearsal.'l't ltt'rtt .rrt
interpretation evolving as musicians rehearse is to hcar rnrrltirlc arrlltorslrtr rtr
action. Rehearsal is onc of the principal sites for the makitrg ol tltttsit;tl rtr', , '
and yet it seems to be unknown to theory.
II wc were to stick to western art rntsic, with its turlitir ol itttlltotil,rlr,

40

Nr:w I.I)RMA

r()NS

llt()rY ANI) Pr:Rr()RMAN(::


MUstr, MlNtls ()Nl'l R(x:K.'I

4l