Anda di halaman 1dari 6

Proceedings of 2013 National Symposium on Systems Science and Engineering

Oriental Institute of Technology, Ban-Chiao, New Taipei City, 8~9 June, 2013

Design of a Novel Chaotic Synchronization System


Yung-Nien Wang and He-Sheng Wang
Department of Communications, Navigation, and Control Engineering
National Taiwan Ocean University

Abstract In this paper, we propose a new chaotic


synchronization technique that is capable of processing
signals with very low SNR level. Presently,
synchronization of chaotic communications utilizes a
technique mainly based on the master-slave subsystems.
In our proposed method, by imposing chaotic-based
pseudo-random bits on the master-slave systems, the
performance (such as BER and SNR) of the
synchronized signals can be greatly improved.
Furthermore, by exploiting the properties of chaotic
systems, a novel multiple accesses method is also
introduced in this paper. This method takes advantage
of the near-orthogonal property of the chaotic signals
and may be termed as Chaotic-Division Multiple
Access.

X n 1 aX n Yn2
Yn 1 bYn X nYn

(1)
With the parameters a = 0.22 and b = 1.75. Fig. 1 shows
the time series. Changing the value of parameter, the
trajectory will also change. It will become another different
trajectory. This is an important characteristic for chaotic
system.

Keyword: Chaotic Synchronization; Burgers Map; ChaoticShift Keying;

I. INTRODUCTION
Chaos is aperiodic long-term behavior in a deterministic
system that exhibits extremely sensitive dependence on
initial conditions and parameter. Chaos communications is
an application of chaos theory which is aimed to provide
security in the transmission of information performed
through communications technologies. However most of
chaotic communication systems that cant tolerate channel
noise have the powerless performance with noise. In this
paper, we offer the novel method that has the excellent
performance that could resistance to the noise. The rest of
the paper is organized as follows: In the Section II, we
discuss the basic theory and the structure of system. In
Section III, we analysis the property in detail and in section
IV, the simulation result is revealed. Finally, in section V,
we conclude the paper.

II. SYSTEM
We proposed a general approach in the design of the
chaotic communication system that is applied the Burgers
chaotic map. In this system, transmitter uses chaotic signal
to be carrier. Then, the message is not only added to the
chaotic signal but also modulated to the carrier, and
transmitted to the receiver, which is synchronized to the
chaotic component of the signal, thus allowing to extract
the information.
A. A. The Burgers map
The Burgers map is given as follows:

Fig. 1 The Burgers map chaotic time series

B. Design Procedure for the Synchronization of Chaotic


Maps
Theorem 1
Suppose : en

Then : en

Ben , n
0, as n

0, eig B

1.

Rn .

, e0

The theorem states that the equilibrium 0, of the error system


en

, is globally asymptotically stable if and only if all

eigenvalues of B have magnitude less than one.

Theorem 2
Suppose : en
Then : en

An en U n en , n

0, as n

, e0

0, eig An U n

eig B

1.

R .

The theorem states that the equilibrium 0, of the error system en 1 ,


is globally asymptotically stable if and only if all eigenvalues of
B = An +U n have magnitude less than one.

C. The Burgers map chaotic communication system


First of all, the chaotic times series that is the carrier
multiplies the message signal m. The transmitted signals,
can be represented as
S X , n mX n ,
SY , n

(2)

mYn ;

Proceedings of 2013 National Symposium on Systems Science and Engineering


Oriental Institute of Technology, Ban-Chiao, New Taipei City, 8~9 June, 2013

and then after rearrangement, (2) will become:


S X , n 1 aS X , n SY2, n
SY , n

bSY ,n

S X , n SY , n

(3)

Received signal:
S ,n S X ,n noise
SY , n

SY , n

Following theorem 2, the control laws can be chosen in the


following manner:
u11n
a,
u12n SY , n SY , n
(11)
u21n
SY ,n , u22 n
b S X ,n
Finally, we can get the message from square of e1n , e2 n . The
important feature of the system of Fig. 2 is that we obtain
the data from the error between the master and slave system.

noise

(4)
Let the error be defined by:
e
S
S
1n

X ,n

X ,n

e2n

SY , n

SY , n

(5)
The difference error, (the error system), can then be
represented by:
e1n 1 SX , n 1 S X ,n 1

e2n

aSX , n

aS X , n

SY , n

SY , n

bSY ,n

SY2,n

SY2, n

u1n

(6)

S X , n SY , n

bSY , n

S X ,n SY ,n

u2 n

Using the following identities:


S 2
S2
S e
S e
Y ,n

Y ,n

SX , n SY ,n

Y ,n 2n

S X , n SY , n

Xn

S X , n e2 n

Equation (5) can be put in the following form:


e
S
S

e2n

X ,n 1

X ,n 1

ae1n

( SY , n

SY , n

SY , n

SY ,n e1n

D. Chaotic PRN code Generator


Pseudorandom-noise (PRN) codes are binary-valued, noiselike sequences. Most of PRN code Generators use feedback
shift registers to create the random sequences.
We use another chaotic map to rule a PRN code Generator.
Logistic map:

Y ,n 2n

SY , n e1n

(7)

1n 1

Fig. 2 The Burgers map chaotic communication system

SY ,n )e2 n

u1n

(8)

(b S X ,n )e2 n

u2n

With theorem 2 in mind, the following equation can be


formed:
en 1 An en U n en

(12)

rX n (1 X n )

where X is the state variable, which may range from 0 to 1;


r is the control parameter, which could be any value
between 1 and 4.
In the Chaotic PRN code Generator, we set two logistic
maps which are running parallel and starting from
independent initial conditions, as shown in the Fig 3. The
bit sequence is generated by comparing the outputs of both
the logistic maps, as written below:
g ( X n 1 , Yn 1 )

1, if X n
0, if X n

Yn

Yn

(13)

(9)
Where
An

a11n

a12n

a21n

a22 n

,U n

u11n

u12 n

u21n

u22n

, en

e1n
e2 n

Modifying (7) to fit the matrix form of (8), the following


equation is obtained:
a
SY , n SY ,n
u11n u12 n
en 1
en
e
(10)

u
u22 n n
SY ,n
b S X ,n
21n
where : u1n

u11n e1n

u12 n e2 n and u2 n

u21n e1n u22 n e2 n

Fig. 3 The chaotic PRN code Generator

One of the most important properties of PRN code is their


correlation effects. High auto-correlation peak and low
cross-correlation values can provide a great condition for
signal processing. Fig. 4 (a) display the same code proceeds
to the Auto-correlation and Fig. 4 (b) shows the two
different codes compute the cross-correlation.

Proceedings of 2013 National Symposium on Systems Science and Engineering


Oriental Institute of Technology, Ban-Chiao, New Taipei City, 8~9 June, 2013

Fig.5 shows a numerical calculation of

versus N for
the Burgers map with X 0
0.1, Y0 Y0 0.1 . About 104
iterations are required to get a result accurate to 1%. In fact,
the error in 1 is of order 1 ~ 1/ N , which is typical for a
chaotic map, although there are exceptions. A much longer
calculation (N = 107) indicates 1 0.178884 0.000316
It is easy to find the sum of LEs that
is 1 2 ln a(b X ) 2Y 2
0.328420 . From the

Fig. 4 (a) Auto-correlation (b) Cross-correlation

III. ANALYSIS
A. Lyapunov exponent for Burgers map
Lyapunov exponent (LE) is the most powerful diagnostic
in determining whether the system is chaotic or not. A
positive value signifies chaos, and a negative value implies
a fixed point or periodic cycle.
The LE for two-dimensional case can be defined as follows:

lim

where Yn

1
2N

ln
n 0

( A BYn )2 (C
1 Y n2

DYn )2

previous numerical calculation, we can obtain


0.507305. A positive LE is usually taken as an
2
indication that the system is chaotic.
Fig. 6 demonstrates the variation of the LE at each value of
parameter a and b =1.75.

(14)

C DYn
and Jacobian matrix
A BYn

F1
X
F2
X

N 1

F1
Y
F2
Y

A B
C D

(15)

Fig. 5 Convergence of Lyapunov exponent for Burgers map

A system with n dimensions has n LEs. The second LE as


required for a two-dimensional map. The sum of LEs is
defined by:
1

ln det( J )

ln AD BC

(16)

Now consider the two-dimensional Burgers map, all


parameters are same with (1).
The Jacobian matrix for the Burgers map is
2Yn
a
A B
J
(17)
Yn b X n
C D
And the LE is

lim

1
2N

Where Yn

N-1

ln
n 0

(a 2YnYn ) 2 (Yn (b X n )Yn ) 2


(18)
1 Y n2

Yn (b X n )Yn
a ( 2Yn )Yn

Note A, B, C and D generally depend on X n and Yn .


Hence 1 is computed by iterating Yn along with the map
while computing the cumulative average in (18). Typically
the average will fluctuate and converge as N increases.

Fig. 6 Lyapunov exponent for Burgers map

Beside LE, Kaplan-Yorke dimension (or Lyapunov


dimension) is another technique used to determine whether
a system under consideration is chaotic or not, and the
Unlike the LE, which measures the attractors average
predictability, the dimension of an attractor measures its
complexity.
The Kaplan-Yorke dimension for two-dimension map has:
DKY

(19)

1
2

For our case, its DKY

1.352616...

B. Lyapunov exponent for Logistic map


The LE for one-dimensional case can be defined as follows:

Proceedings of 2013 National Symposium on Systems Science and Engineering


Oriental Institute of Technology, Ban-Chiao, New Taipei City, 8~9 June, 2013

lim

1N 1
ln f ( X n )
Nn0

lim

1
N

N 1
n 0

ln r (1 2 Xn ) (20)

Fig. 7 demonstrates the variation of the LE at each value of


parameter r. For our case, the optimal value of control
parameter is 4, because the LE is the largest, the chaotic
property is obvious.

D. FFT
Fig. 9 shows the power spectrum of transmitted
signals S X , SY . The absolute-valued signals have some
unobvious peaks that varied with parameters a.

Fig. 9 Power spectrum of S X , SY


Fig. 7 Lyapunov exponent for Logistics map

C. Parameter of system
Chaotic systems have sensitive dependence on initial
conditions and parameter of system. For any chaotic
synchronization system, setting the threshold that is
important can distinguish the power of the signal
representing bits 0 and 1 respectively. In this section, we
measure the parameter of system on bit powers effect. Fig.
4 and 5 shows the representing the power of bits
transmitted in X and Y carrier respectively. The parameter b
is always kept constant at 1.75. The parameter a varied in
steps of 0.005 from a = 0.05 to a = 0.75.

IV. RESULT
A. Single User systems
The received and reconstruction signal are shown in Fig. 10
when the series of 10 bits is transmitted, that is, when m =
[0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0]. Fig 11 shows the corresponding
squared synchronization error e1n e X , e2 n eY under SNR = 3
dB conditions and Message m. The received bits are
detected by squaring and integrating the error. The output
of the integrator is then compared to the predetermined
threshold and the decision is made whether a bit 0 or a bit 1
was sent.

Fig. 8 The bit power in carrier

From Fig. 8 above, some rifts appear between a = 0.05 to a


= 0.5 and the lines disappear when a > 0.5, because carrier
values are too much high. It is observed that the optimal
choice for the parameter a is close to 0.22. Hence we set a =
0.22 for our chaotic synchronization system. Furthermore,

Fig. 10 Received and Reconstruction signal in SNR = 3dB

Proceedings of 2013 National Symposium on Systems Science and Engineering


Oriental Institute of Technology, Ban-Chiao, New Taipei City, 8~9 June, 2013

Fig. 13 Block diagram of receiver

In the receiver, firstly, correlator processes the received


signals. If the output has the obvious peak > the threshold,
it succeed to detect the signal. There is a success example
in Fig. 14. The simulation is based on 3 users and SNR = 5
dB.

Fig. 11 Square of error and Message

In our system, bit error rate (BER) shows the great


performance. The noise tolerance capability is higher than
traditional modulation. In each simulation, 1 105 bits were
transmitted, run 10 times simulations to average. The BER
Fig. 14 Detected signal by correlator
of Binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) in AWGN can be
Finally, we do the same simulation that is testing BER and
calculated as:
comparing with BPSK. Fig 15 displays the result that still
Eb : Energy per bit
E
1
Pb
erfc ( b ), where
has the great performance.
N 0 : Noise power spectral density
2
N0
Fig. 12 plots the simulations above.

Fig. 15 BER performance of 3 user Multiple Access Systems


Fig. 12 BER under AWGN in the transmission channel

B. Multiple Access Systems


In Multiple Access Systems, the method is similar to code
division multiple access (CDMA). In the transmitter, the
message that should be spectrum spreading is multiplying
the chaotic PRN code. In this case, both are assumed to be
binary sequences taking on the value +1 and -1. In
simulation, there are 250 chips per bit. However, receiver
that Fig. 13 illustrates joins the correlator to detect the
different PRN code.

V. CONCLUSION
In this paper, we propose the novel design of chaotic
synchronization system that has the excellent noise
resistance. The multiple access system combines many
positive features of conventional spread spectrum
techniques. Since all of our results are based on rough
theoretical analysis and simulations, the results in this
paper provide a framework and foundation for future works.
REFERENCES
[1] Branislav Jovic, Synchronization Techniques for Chaotic
Communication Systems, Springer, 2011.
[2] J. Y. Chen, K. W. Wong, L. M. Cheng, and J. W. Shuai, A
secure communication scheme based on the phase

Proceedings of 2013 National Symposium on Systems Science and Engineering


Oriental Institute of Technology, Ban-Chiao, New Taipei City, 8~9 June, 2013

synchronization of chaotic systems, Chaos, vol. 13, issue. 2,


pp. 508-514, June. 2003.
[3] E. M. ELabbasy, H. N. Agiza, H. EL-Metwally, A. A.
Elsadany, Bifurcation Analysis, Chaos and Control in the
Burgers Mapping, International Journal of Nonlinear
Science, vol.4, no.3,pp.171-185, June 2007
[4] Christopher P. Silva and Albert M. Young, Introduction to
chaos-based communications and signal processing, in Aerospace
Conference Proceedings, 2000 IEEE, vol. 1, pp. 279-299, Big Sky,
Montana, USA, Mar. 2000.

[5] Shujun Li, Gonzalo Alvarez, Guanrong Chen, Breaking a


chaos-based secure communication scheme designed by an
improved modulation method, Chaos, Solitons & Fractals,
vol.25, issue.1 ,pp.109-120, July 2005
[6] Julien Clinton Sprott, Chaos and Time-Series Analysis, Oxford
[7]
[8]

[9]

University Press, 2003.


Rodger E. Ziemer, William H. Tranter, Principles of Communications:
Systems, Modulation, and Noise, Wiley, 2010
Samuel Bowong, Stability analysis for the synchronization of chaotic
systems with different order: application to secure communications,
Physics Letters A, vol. 326, issues 12, pp. 102-113, May 2004.
Christophe Letellier, Eduardo M. A. M. Mendes, Robust discretizations
versus increase of the time step for the Lorenz system, Chaos, vol. 15,

issue 1, pp. 013110, Mar. 2005


[10] J. Doyne Farmer, John J. Sidorowich, Predicting chaotic time series,
Physical Review Letters, vol. 59, no. 8, pp. 845848, Aug 1987.
[11] Louis M. Pecora, Thomas L. Carroll, Synchronization in Chaotic
Systems, Physical Review Letters, vol. 64, no. 8, pp. 821825, Feb
1990.
[12] Castillo, E., Gutirrez, J. M., Nonlinear time series modeling and
prediction using functional networks. Extracting information masked by
chaos, Physics Letters A, vol. 244, issue 1-3, pp. 71-84, Jul 1998.
[13] Lev S. Tsimring, Mikhail M. Sushchik, Multiplexing chaotic signals
using synchronization, Physics Letters A, vol. 213, issue. 3-4, pp. 155166, Apr 1996.
[14] Masahiro WADA, Junji KAWATA, Yoshifumi NISHIO, Akio
USHIDA, BER performance of a chaos communication system
including modulation-demodulation circuits, Circuits and Systems,
1998. ISCAS '98. Proceedings of the 1998 IEEE International
Symposium on, vol.3, pp. 267-270, Monterey, CA, USA, June 1998.
[15] Tao Yang, Leon O. Chua, Impulsive Stabilization for Control and
Synchronization of Chaotic Systems: Theory and Application to Secure
Communication.
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND
SYSTEMSI: FUNDAMENTAL THEORY AND APPLICATIONS, vol.
44, no. 10, pp. 976-988, Oct. 1997.
[16] Schweizer, J., Hasler, Martin, Multiple access communications
using chaotic signals, Circuits and Systems, 1996. ISCAS '96.,
Connecting the World., 1996 IEEE International Symposium on, vol.3,
pp. 108-111, Atlanta, GA, USA, May. 1996.
[17] Edward N. Lorenz, Deterministic Nonperiodic Flow, Journal of the
Atmospheric Sciences, vol. 20,issue. 2, pp. 130-141. Mar. 1963.
[18] Vinod Patidar and K. K. Sud, A Pseudo Random Bit Generator Based
on Chaotic Logistic Map and its Statistical Testing, Informatica, vol.
33, no. 4, pp. 441452, Nov. 2009.