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MSTP/RSTP SETTING

NEC Confidential

197

STP (IEEE 802.1D)/ RSTP (IEEE 802.1w)/ MSTP (IEEE802.1s)

Layer2 based loop-free protection mechanism

Each device using STP/RSTP send BPDU frames, and root bridge, root port, designated port,
backup port and alternate port are decided by BPDU frame.
Widely used in the enterprise network
Protection Switching Time; STP < 60sec / RSTP < 2~3 sec
Topology is no limitation (Ring, Tree, etc)
Blocking

Failure
Forwarding

Forwarding

Blocking
Forwarding

Forwarding

Forwarding

Forwarding

Forwarding

Root Bridge

Root Bridge
Forwarding

Some topology (instance) can be treated with


same STP network
The VLANs are divided into some groups
(instances), and blocking port is decided in the
each group (instance).
MSTP is based on RSTP (IEEE 802.1w), and can
used RSTP independently in each VLAN
Enables load balancing, over a large
number of VLANs
The restructuring of each VLAN becomes
possible. As a result, the time required to
restructure can be shortened.
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Forwarding
Blocking

Forwarding

MSTI 2
VLAN: 201 - 300

Forwarding

Blocking
For MSTI1

Double
capacity
Blocking
For MSTI2
Root Bridge

MSTI 1
VLAN: 101 - 200

198

STP Parameter - Bridge ID & Path Cost


Bridge ID (STP, RSTP)
Bridge ID (8 Bytes)
Bridge ID is main Parameter for
Spanning Tree Algorithm,
The Bridge with lowest Bridge ID
is selected as Root Bridge

Bridge Priority

Bridge MAC Address

2bytes

6bytes

Default Bridge Priority = 32768 (IEEE 802.1d)

Path Cost is accumulated Cost between a Bridge to Root Bridge.


Path Cost defined in IEEE802.1d
Link Speed

Cost

10Gbps

1Gbps

100Mbps

19

10MBps

100

*Port Cost is manually configurable


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Root Bridge
100Base-Tx

1000Base-T

0+4=4

4+19 =23

0+19 =19

100Base-Tx
10Base-T
19+100 =119

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STP IEEE 802.1D - Theory background (6)


Root Bridge

Non Root Bridge

Bridge: A

Bridge: B

Bridge ID 32768

Bridge ID 32768

MAC Address 00-00-00-00-00-01

MAC Address 00-00-00-00-00-03

Forwarding
Port 1

Spanning Tree Failure


The blocked port has gone into
Port 2
Forwarding

Forwarding RP

DP

Port 2

Port 1 as

DP

DP

Root port

Was Blocked
Now forwarding

Forwarding
Port 1 as

Summary of STP Port States


1. Blocking
2. Listening

BPDU

Root port
Forwarding
RP

Port 2

3. Learning
4. Forwarding

Non Root Bridge

5. Disabled

Bridge: C
Bridge ID 32768
MAC Address 00-00-00-00-00-02

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200

Difference between STP and RSTP


STP

RSTP

STABLE
TOPOLOGY

ONLY THE ROOT SEND BPDU AND OTHERS


RELAY THEM.

ALL BRIDGES SEND BPDU EVERY HELLO (2SEC) AS A


KEEP ALIVE MECHANISM.

PORT ROLES

ROOT (FORWARDING)
DESIGNATED (FORWARDING)
NON-DESIGNATED (BLOCKING)

ROOT (FORWARDING)
DESIGNATED (FORWARDING)
ALTERNATE (DISCARDING)
BACKUP ( DISCARDING)

PORT STATES

DISABLED , BLOCKING, LISTENING,


LEARNING ,FORWARDING

DISCARDING (DISABLED, BLOCKING, LISTENING)


LEARNING, FORWARDING

TOPOLOGY
CHANGES

USE TIMERS FOR CONVERGENCE


INFORMED FROM THE ROOT.
HELLO (2SEC)
MAX AGE (20SEC)
FORWARDING DELAY TIME (15SEC)

PROPOSAL AND AGREEMENT PROCESS FOR


SYNCHRONIZATION (LESS THAN 1 SEC)
HELLO, MAX AGE AND FORWARDING DELAY TIMERS USED
ONLY FOR BACKWARD COMPATIBILITY WITH STP. ONLY
RSTP PORT RECEIVING STP

TRANSITION

SLOW: (50SEC), BLOCKING (20SEC)=>


LISTENING (15 SEC) => LEARNING (15SEC)
=> FORWARDING.

FASTER: NO LEARNING STATES. DOESNT WAIT TO BE


INFORMED BY OTHERS, INSTEAD, ACTIVELY LOOKS FOR
POSSIBLE FAILURE BY A FEED BACK MECHANISM.

TOPOLOGY
CHANGE

WHEN A BRIDGE DISCOVER A CHANGE IN


THE NETWORK IT INFORM THE ROOT. THEN
EVERY BRIDGE CAN GENERATE TOPOLOGY CHANGE AND
ROOT INFORMS THE OTHER BRIDGES BY
INFORM ITS NEIGHBORS WHEN IT IS AWARE OF
SENDING BPDU AND INSTRUCT THE
TOPOLOGY CHANGE AND IMMEDIATELY DELETE OLD DB
OTHERS TO CLEAR THE DB ENTRIES
AFTER THE FORWARDING DELAY

CHANGE ROOT

IF A BRIDGE (NON-ROOT) DOESN'T


RECEIVE HELLO FOR 10X HELLO TIME,
FROM THE ROOT, IT START CLAIMING THE
ROOT ROLE BY GENERATING ITS OWN
HELLO.

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IF A BRIDGE DOESNT RECEIVE 3X HELLOS FROM THE


ROOT, IT START CLAIMING THE ROOT ROLE BY
GENERATING ITS OWN HELLO

201

MSTP Setting
M1
iPaso200-D
M1
P1

MSTP Region: ABC


iPaso200-E

Revision:0
M2
M2

M1

M2

iPaso400-F
P1
iPaso400-B
P2

P1

MSTP Region: NEC

IDU No.
Bridge Priority (MSTI1)
Bridge Priority (MSTI2)
Instance No. (MSTI1)
Instance No. (MSTI2)

1
4096
20480
1
2

2
8192
12288
1
2

3
8192
20480
1
2

In Normal condition mark the status of each modem Forwarding or Discarding


MSTI1
MODEM1
MODEM 2

MSTI2
MODEM 1

MODEM 2

IDU 1
IDU 2
IDU 3
After Failure condition mark the status of each modem Forwarding or Discarding
MSTI1
MODEM1
MODEM 2

MSTI2
MODEM 1

MODEM 2

IDU 1
IDU 2
IDU 3

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202

MSTP Setting

Select RSTP/MSTP Setting from the ETH


Function Setting Menu.
Click the Modify STP Mode icon on the
ETH Function Setting RSTP/MSTP
Setting display.
In the STP Mode Setting window click the
STP Mode dropdown list and select
MSTP and click Ok. Click OK again on
the Complete information window.
RSTP/MSTP Setting display shows the
current setting.

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203

MSTP Setting
Click the Modify STP Port icon on the RSTP/MSTP Setting display. And set
the parameters for MSTP. Select each tab IST, MSTPI1 to MSTI4 as
required and set the parameters.

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204

MSTP Setting
Enter the Region Name (32 Characters). This should be same on all
members of the MSTP Region.
Enter the Revision Number (0 - 65535). Of the configuration. All
members of the MSTP region must have the same Revision No.
The MSTP revision level is the revision number of the configuration. All
switches in an MSTP region must have the same revision level configured
BPDU Guard Timer Usage: to use this function, select the Used radio
Button. This function prevent external BPDUs from changing the
topology.
If BPDU Guard Timer usage is selected as Use, then enter the Timer
value in seconds ( 10 1000000). When unwanted BPDU is detected
in the port, it will block the port for the timer period preventing the
BPDU to pass.

M1
iPaso200-D
M1

If BPDU Guard Timer usage is selected as Use, then enter the Timer
value in seconds ( 10 1000000). When unwanted BPDU is detected
in the port, it will block the port for the timer period preventing the
BPDU to pass.

MSTP Region: ABC


iPaso200-E

Revision:0
M2
M2

M1

M2

iPaso400-F
P1
iPaso400-B
P2

P1

MSTP Region: NEC

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205

CIST Setting
Every Region has a Common Internal Spanning Tree (CIST) that forms a single
spanning tree instance including all the members in the region. CIST operates
across the MSTP region and create a loop free topology across regions. In
each region several MSTP Instances (up to 4) can be created with each
instance catering for a group of VLANs. MSTP instance operates within the
Region.

Select the tab IST to configure the CIST. Enable the ports that is makes the STP. If
any port is an Edge port select Enable from the drop down list.
For each of the ports selected:
STP Port Path Cost: select Auto for automatically detect the path Cost or select
Manual and enter the Path cost value
STP Port Priority: select port priority value from the drop down list (default is 128)
BPDU Guard: select from the drop down list enable to enable BPDU Guard function
for the Port.
Root Guard: select from the drop down list enable to enable Root Guard function for
the Port.
Click the Member VLAN and select the VLANs for each instance (IST, MSTI# ).
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206

MSTI Setting
Configure the MSTP instances in the selected region
by clicking on the MSTI# tabs.
Select Enable radio button on the selected MSTI#.
MSTI Regional Root Bridge Priority /ID will be
automatically selected on the MAC address, Bridge
Priority
Enter the Instance number for the selected MSTP
Instance.
Select the Bridge Priority (MSTI) from the drop down
list. This selection can force the Bridge ID to be
higher or lower to select as root Bridge for the
selected instance.
Click on the Member VLAN and select the VLANs for
the selected MSTI from the VLAN List and the radio
buttons.
Select the port associated with MSTP in the region
from the check boxes.
Select the STP Port Path Cost and STP Port Priority
from the respective drop down lists.

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207

MSTP Setting

Selected Root Bridge Priority/ ID for


CIST, CIST Regional, and each MSTI are
shown.
Forwarding and disable status
of ports for each Instance is
shown under status column.

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208

Detail STP Parameter Setting

Item

Parameter

Description

STP Bridge Priority


STP Bridge MAX Age

0 to 61440
6 to 40 s

Change default STP priority of the bridge


Set the expiration of the Configuration BPDU stored,
Bridge will. notice that a topology change has occurred
after the Max Age time elapses and the BPDU is aged
out

STP Bridge Hello Time


STP Bridge Forward
Delay

1s
2s
4 to 30 s

Set the period of sending Configuration BPDUs from


Root Bridge.
Set the delay when the port is going to change the state
from Listening to Learning.

STP TX Hold Count

1 to 10

Set the number of BPDU which can be sent per second.

STP MAX Hop Count

1 to 40

See below

The MSTP maximum hop count value is the maximum number of hops in the region. The MSTI root bridge sends BPDUs with the hop
count set to the maximum value. When a bridge receives this BPDU, it decrements the remaining hop count by one and propagates this
hop count in the BPDUs it sends. When a bridge receives a BPDU with a hop count of zero, the bridge discards the BPDU
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209

Ether Ring Protection

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G.8032 Ethernet Ring Protection Switching


Utilizing widely-deployed Ethernet (802.1,3) with OAM
(802.1ag/Y.1731)
Loop-free protection mechanism
Protection Switching Time <50ms
Scalable topologies
Single ring, interconnected rings, and logical rings
No. of nodes per ring: no limitation in theory
Administrative operation
Forced switching
Manual switching
Revertive/ Non-revertive

Client #1
Signal

Traffic
separation
with VLAN
Tag

ETH-CC

RPL
(Ring Protection Link)

Client #2
Signal
RPL
(Ring Protection Link)
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G.8032 Ethernet Ring Protection


u
u
u
u
u
u
u

G.8032 is an ITU Recommendation


Defines the APS (Automatic Protection Switching ) protocol and protection switching
mechanisms for ETH layer ring topologies.
Use of standard 802 MAC and OAM frames around the ring
Uses standard 802.1Q , but with xSTP disabled.
Prevents loops within the ring by blocking one of the links
Monitoring of the ETH layer for discovery and identification of Signal Failure (SF)
conditions.
Protection and recovery switching within 50 ms for typical rings.

Unblock
blocking Port

Blocking
Port

Client Traffic
1) Normal Condition

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Submission of
FDB Flush,
Unblock blocking Port
2) Failure Event
3) Switchover Condition

212

Failure monitoring
G.8032 utilizes the following monitoring functions to detect link / node failures certainly.
Physical layer: Link down detected by Ethernet PHY (Optical/Electrical), etc.
Link layer: ETH-CC defined on Y.1731/802.1ag between adjacent ring nodes.
Messaging interval: 3.33msec at minimum

Failure Detection time = 3.33 msec * 3.5 = 11.7msec


cc

MEP-2

MEP-1

MEP-3

cc

Unblock blocking Port


cc
cc
MEP-2

MEP-4

MEP-1

MEP-8

cc

MEP-7

MEP-3

MEP-5
MEP-6

1) Normal Condition

cc

Client Traffic

MEP-4

Submission of
FDB Flush,
Unblock blocking Port

LOC

MEP-8

cc

MEP-5

MEP-7

LOC

MEP-6

cc

cc

2) Failure Event

ETH-CC (Continuity Check) enables to detect failures on several


conditions which physical layer monitoring cant do.
n Unidirectional link failure
n Partial failure in equipment
n Decline of signal level (less than Loss of Signal)
n In case if no ability to detect a failure is on physical layer
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cc

LOC

cc

cc
3) Switchover Condition
LOC

213

Multiple instance
Several logical rings can be configured in the physical ring
(G.8032V2)
Each logical ring can have a group of user VLANs (instances)
and can place a block port at a different point respectively
Load balancing can be achieved in normal condition, and the
higher priority traffic can be protected even in case of failure
Instance#2
(Middle & Low priority)
block port for
instance#2
High priority
Middle priority
Low priority

block port for


instance#1

Double
capacity

Instance#1
(High priority)

Instance#2
(Middle & Low priority)

Failure

block port for


instance#2
High priority
Middle priority
Low priority

Instance#1
Unblocked for (High priority)
instance#1

Drop

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Low priority
traffic is
dropped based
on QoS

214

Multiple instances (2/3)


Multiple instances per physical ring
Logical rings can be configured on a physical ring.
Each logical ring has a group of user VLANs (instances)
and a dedicated APS channel.
APS protocol runs independently.
RPL can be placed at a different point respectively
FDB flush operation is performed per logical ring
All logical rings shares the monitoring information of
ETH-CC (link layer) and Link Failure (physical layer).
User VLAN group #1
APS channel #1
(Link Monitoring) ETH-CC-1

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Physical
Instance #1

User VLAN group #2


APS channel #2
(Link Monitoring) ETH-CC-2

Instance #2

User VLAN group #3


APS channel #3
(Link Monitoring) ETH-CC-3

Instance #3

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Scenario A - Normal to Protection


RPL

Node-A

Node-B

Node-C

Node-D

Node-E

Node-G

RPL Owner

Node-F

1
NORMAL
STATE

failure

2
3
4

PROTECTION
STATE

Flush

5
6
7

SF
SF

SF

Flush

Flush

SF

1 . Normal State Node-G is the RPL Owner


2 . Failure Occurs
3 . Node D and Node C detect local signal fail
condition and block the failed ports
4 . While the SF condition continues Node C and
Node D periodically send SF (signal Fail) Messages
on both ring ports
5 . Each node performs a FDB flush operation after
receiving the SF message
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SF

SF
Flush

Flush

SF
Flush

Flush

50 ms

SF

SF
SF

SF

6 . When the RPL owner receives the SF message it


unblock the RPL link
7 . Stable State SF messages on the ring . Further
SF messages does not trigger further action

Message source
Client ch block
R-APS ch block

216

Scenario B recovery
Node-A

Node-B

Node-C

Node-D

Node-E

Node-F

Node-G
RPL Owner

failure

SF
SF

SF

11

SF
SF

NR

NR
NR

recovery

NR

NR

Confirmation time

PROTECTION
STATE

9
10 NR

SF

12
13

NORMAL
STATE

NR,
RPL Blocked
Flush

Flush
NR,
RPL Blocked

9 . In Stable SF condition Node C and D continue to send SF


messages every 5sec.
10 . Recovery of failure
11 . Node C and D detects clearing of SF condition and start the
guard timer and initiate periodical transmission of NR messages on
both ring ports (guard timer prevents reception of R-APS messages
12. When RPL owner receives the NR message, it starts the Wait to
Restore Timer (WTR)
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Flush

Flush

Flush

15

NR,
RPL Blocked

Flush

Flush
NR,
RPL Blocked

50 ms

14

NR,
RPL Blocked

NR,
NR Blocked
RPL

14. When the Guard timer at Node C and D expire they may start receiving
new R-APS messages
15. At the expiration of WTR timer, RPL owner blocks its end of of the
RPL link, sends NR RB message
16. Each node after re3ceivng the NR RB message flushes its FDB.
17. When Node c and D receive the NR RB message, they remove the
block on their blocked ports
18 . Stable normal condition all nodes go to Idle state

217

Protection Switching Trigger Condition


Protection switching trigger conditions:
Fault Conditions
Signal Failure (SF): local signal failure (local SF) will be submitted to protection trigger
module once a failure is detected at endpoint.

Signal Degrade (SD): local signal degrade (local SD) will be submitted to protection trigger
module once a signal degrade is detected

External commands
Manual switch (MS): Maintenance command for temporarily switching normal traffic to
working transport entity or protection transport entity, unless a higher priority switch request
(i.e., FS, or SF) is in effect.

Forced switch (FS): Maintenance command for temporarily switching normal traffic from
working transport entity to protection transport entity, unless a higher priority switch request is
in effect.

Clear: This maintenance command clears all of the externally initiated switch
commands listed above clearing the Maintenance command.

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Revertive / Non-Revertive operation


Non-revertive vs. Revertive Protection Operation Types:
Non-revertive operation
The normal traffic will not be switched back to the working transport entity even
after a protection switching cause has cleared.
Revertive Operation
The normal traffic is restored to the working transport entity after the condition (s)
causing the protection switching has cleared.
In the case of clearing a command (e.g., Forced Switch), this happens
immediately.
In the case of clearing of a defect, this generally happens after the expiry of a
"Wait- to-Restore (WTR)" timer, which is used to avoid chattering of selectors in
the case of intermittent defects.
WTR (Wait to Restore) Timer In the revertive mode of operation, to prevent frequent operation of the
protection switch due to an intermittent defect, a failed working transport entity must become stable in a faultfree state. After the failed working transport entity meets this criterion, a fixed period of time shall elapse
before traffic channel uses it again. This period is called the wait-to-restore (WTR) period, (1 to 12 Min)
In the revertive mode, when the protection is no longer requested, i.e., the failure condition has been cleared,
a wait-to-restore state will be activated on the RPL owner node. This state shall normally time out and become
a no-request state. The wait-to-restore timer is deactivated when any request of higher priority pre-empts this
state. In short, This is the number of seconds the RPL owner waits from receiving indication that topology has
returned to its pre-failure state untill it actually operates according to that indication, i.e. blocks the RPL-port.
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Protection Operation timers


Guard Timer R-APS messages are transmitted continuously. This, combined with the R-APS messages
forwarding method, in which messages are copied and forwarded at every ring node around the ring, can
result in a message corresponding to an old request, which is no longer relevant, being received by ring
nodes. The reception of messages with outdated information could result in erroneous interpretation of the
existing requests in the ring and lead to erroneous protection switching decisions
The guard timer is used to prevent ring nodes from receiving outdated R-APS messages. During the
duration of the guard timer, all received R-APS messages are ignored by the ring protection control
process. This allows that old messages still circulating on the ring may be ignored. This, however, has the
side effect that, during the period of the guard timer, a node will be unaware of new or existing ring
requests transmitted from other nodes.
The period of the guard timer may be configured by the operator in 10 ms steps between 10 ms and 2
seconds, with a default value of 500 ms. This time should be greater than the maximum expected
forwarding delay for which one R-APS message circles around the ring.

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Sub Ring
Flexible placement of RPL
The shortest path per user traffic can be selected in normal
condition.

Sub-Ring and Sub-Ring (inter connected node) is available only in iPasolink 1000

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ETHER RING PROTECTION SETTING

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ERP
iPASO 200D

iPASO 400F

iPASO 200E

Item

PORT1

M1

M1

M2

M1

ETH Port1

MEG / (MEG LEV)/ CC Period

NEC /(7)/3.3ms

NEC /(7)/3.3ms

NEC /(7)/3.3ms

NEC /(7)/3.3ms

NEC /(7)/3.3ms

NEC /(7)/3.3ms

MEP (VLAN 100)

MEP (VLAN 200)

12

10

11

Peer MEP (VLAN100)

Peer MEP (VLAN 200)

11

10

12

Ring ID/Ring Name

1 / Ring-1

2 / Ring-2

1 / Ring-1

2 / Ring-2

1 / Ring-1

2 / Ring-2

ERP Ver

8032v2

8032v2

8032v2

8032v2

8032v2

8032v2

Ring Port-0

P1

P1

M1

M1

P1

P1

Ring Port-1

M1

M1

M2

M2

M1

M1

RPL Owner /RPL Port

Enable / 0

Enable / 1

Revertive/WTR

Revertive/1

Revertive/1

Guard Time

500msec

500msec

500msec

500msec

500msec

500msec

Control VLAN

1001

1002

1001

1002

1001

1002

R-APS MSG Period

MEG Lev

Traffic VLAN

100/300

200/400

100/300

200/400

100/300

200/400

CTRL MAC Address

:01

:02

:01

:02

:01

:02

LOC Det

enable

enable

enable

enable

enable

enable

Ring Port-0
Ring Port-1
M1

M2

100/200/300/400

400-F

100/200/300/400

P1
200-D
RING2 RPL

100/200/300/400

200-E
M1

M1

Tester
100/200/300/400

P1
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P1

P2

RING1 RPL

223

ERP
iPASO 200A

iPASO 1000C

iPASO 400B

Item

PORT1

M1

M1

M2

M1

ETH Port1

MEG / (MEG LEV)/ CC Period

NEC /(7)/3.3ms

NEC /(7)/3.3ms

NEC /(7)/3.3ms

NEC /(7)/3.3ms

NEC /(7)/3.3ms

NEC /(7)/3.3ms

MEP (VLAN 100)

MEP (VLAN 200)

12

10

11

Peer MEP (VLAN100)

Peer MEP (VLAN 200)

11

10

12

Ring ID/Ring Name

1 / Ring-1

2 / Ring-2

1 / Ring-1

2 / Ring-2

1 / Ring-1

2 / Ring-2

ERP Ver

8032v2

8032v2

8032v2

8032v2

8032v2

8032v2

Ring Port-0

P1

P1

M1

M1

P1

P1

Ring Port-1

M1

M1

M2

M2

M1

M1

RPL Owner /RPL Port

Enable / 0

Enable / 1

Revertive /WTR

Revertive/1

Revertive/1

Guard Time

500msec

500msec

500msec

500msec

500msec

500msec

Control VLAN

1001

1002

1001

1002

1001

1002

R-APS MSG Period

MEG Lev

Traffic VLAN

100/300

200/400

100/300

200/400

100/300

200/400

CTRL MAC Address

:01

:02

:01

:02

:01

:02

LOC Det

enable

enable

enable

enable

enable

enable

Ring Port-0
Ring Port-1
1000-C

M1
100/200/300/400

M2

100/200/300/400

P1
200-A
RING2 RPL

400-B
100/200/300/400

M1

Tester

M1
100/200/300/400

P1

P2

100/200/300/400
P1
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RING1 RPL

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ETHER RING PROTECTION - OAM Setting


Create an OAM MEG for the ring.
For each Ring create a set of MEPs as shown in the
diagram below.
Confirm that no LOC alarm appear in the current
status screen

MEP6

NE3
MEP5

MEP12

NE3
MEP11

MEP1
NE1

Blocking
Port

MEP4
NE2

MEP7
NE1

MEP10
NE2

MEP2
MEP3

MEP8
MEP9

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OAM(Ring1)VLAN 15

OAM (Ring2) VLAN 14

Traffic(Ring1)

Traffic(Ring2)

225

ETHER RING PROTECTION Setting (1 of 5)

Select the ERP Setting from the ETH Function


Setting MENU
Click the Modify ERP mode icon on the ERP
setting screen and select the ERP Mode Enable
radio button
Click the OK button. ERP setting progress bar
indicate under execution
Click the OK button on the Complete dialog
window
Confirm that the ERP mode is Enabled is
indicated in the ERP Setting screen

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ETHER RING PROTECTION Setting (2 of 5)


Click the Add ERP icon on the ERP Setting screen. Step-1 of the ERP Setting wizard

opens.
Select the Ring ID from the drop down list (01 to 16)
Enter the Ring Name (up to 32 characters)
Select the ERP Version radio button G.8032v1 or G.8032v2 as appropriate
Select the Ring Port 0 item (Interface /Modem) and the port from the drop down List
Select the Ring Port 1 item (Interface /Modem) and the port from the drop down List
Port name of the assigned port will appear if a name is given to the port.
In RPL Owner Setting select Enable radio button if one of the selected Rings port is

going to be a RPL port. If not select the Disabled radio button


If selected Enable in the previous selection, select which port is going to be the RPL port

for the ring. Port0 or Port 1 by selecting the appropriate radio button
Select protection switching is to be Revertive or Non-Revertive. Click the appropriate

radio button
If Revertive is selected in the previous item, select the Wait-To-Restore (WTR) timer

value from the drop down list (1 to 12 min)


Enter the Guard Timer value (10ms to 2000 ms)
Click the Next button to go to Step2 ERP VLAN Setting window

NEC Confidential

227

ETHER RING PROTECTION Setting (3 of 5)


In the Control VLAN ID enter a VLAN ID that is not part of the traffic (not in the VLAN

List) for the selected ring.


Select the Control MAC Address for the selected ring. Same MAC address can be

used for different instances of the same physical ring. MAC address should be
different fro multiple physical rings. Change the last two digits of the MAC address
for each ring
Select the R-APS Message Priority (0 tom7 0 from the drop down List
Select the R-APS Message MEG Level from the drop down List

Enable the Traffic VLAN IDs from the VLAN list by selecting the appropriate Check
boxes. If the required VLAN ID is not in the list click on the Add VLAN ID button and
enter the VLAN ID and the VLAN Service Name, VLAN ID will appear in the list, enable
the check box to select it. The VLANs grayed out in the list are already assigned to a
different ring and cannot be selected

Click the Next button to go to Step3 ERP LOC Detection MEP Index Setting window.

NEC Confidential

228

ETHER RING PROTECTION Setting (4 of 5)

In the Step 3 ERP LOC Detection MEP Index Setting

window, Click the Enable Radio button. Ring0 and Ring 1


selection area become active
Select the LOC Detection MEP Index for Ring Port0 and

Ring Port1 by clicking on the appropriate radio button


Click the Next button to go to Step-4 Setting

Confirmation Screen

NEC Confidential

229

ETHER RING PROTECTION Setting (5 of 5)


Click the Delete ERP icon to
delete any created Ether Rings.
Select the Ring ID to be deleted
from the drop down list and click
the OK button

Click the OK button on the Step-4


Setting Confirmation Screen. Apply
the setting and close the Add ERP
Setting wizard

Confirm the added Ether Ring is listed


in the ERP Setting screen.

NEC Confidential

230

ERP Status information


Select the Current Status menu and click on the IDU tab to
see the ETH Ring Status information
ETH Ring Cause
Local NR: Status change caused by NR( No Request)
Manual control Locally
Local SF: Status change caused by SF( Signal Fail)
detection on local node
Remote NR: Status change caused by NR( No Request)
Manual Control from Remote
ETH Ring Status
Idle: State where only an RPL port has been blocked and
no fault has occurred at every link in the ring
Pending: State where one or more failures occurred at links
in the ring, or switchback has been performed after a fault
recovery
ETH Ring Port status
RPL blocking: State where an RPL port has been blocked.
This state can be caused at a port that has been set as an
RPL port.
Forwarding: State where user frames and R-APS control
frames can be transmitted.
WTR: State where a switchback to the steady state has
been performed after a link fault recovery. This sate can be
caused at a port that has been set as an RPL port.

Protection: State where only an RPL port has been


blocked and no fault has occurred at every link in the ring

Recovery: State where a link fault has been recovered


signal fail: State where a link fault was detected and the port
with the fault has been blocked.

NEC Confidential

231

ERP Control-1
Select Maintenance Mode First

Select the ERP Control screen by


Selecting the ERP Control from the
Maintenance Protection Control Menu

Select the ERP Control screen by clicking


the ERP CTRL from the ERP Setting
screen. You can switch between the two
screens

Select the Loop Detection Restart


icon on the Protection Control ERP Control screen.

iPASOLINK monitor the loop detection when it receives its


own R-APS control frame.
When the node receives own R-APS control frame at
160frames/100msec, the node detects the loop.
Select the Ring to be Loop detection restart,
by the appropriate check box(s) and clicking
the OK button
NEC Confidential

Loop Detection Restart reset the receive counter of own RAPS control frame.
No traffic loss occurs when Loop Detection Restart.

232

ERP Control-2
Maintenance Control-Protection Control ERP Control screen
provides manual switching of the Ethernet Rings.
Click the Ring ID number of the ring to be manually switched. ERP
Control (RING ID#) window opens for the selected ring.
Select the Manual control to applied from the drop down List..
Available Options are:
Forced SW:
Manual SW:
Clear: Clear the Maintenance Control
Select the Blocked Port to be switched to forwarding, Ring Port 0 or
Ring Port 1,
Click the OK button to apply the maintenance control
Maintenance control is applied is indicated by the yellow highlighting
of the controlled Ring ID number.
Ring Port status# indicate switching status.

NEC Confidential

233

Radio Aggregation

NEC Confidential

234

Whats Radio Aggregation?


Whats Radio Aggregation?
Radio Aggregation Group bundle several radio links to the same destination
providing increased Ethernet bandwidth and high reliability by combining them into
one logical link, and to provide redundancy in case, one of the links fail.
Why Radio Aggregation?
Increased link capacity: the capacity of multiple Radio Links are combined into one logical link.
Higher link availability: If a link within a Radio Aggregation Group fails the traffic is not disrupted
and communication is maintained
Load sharing: Traffic is distributed across multiple Radio links, minimizing the probability that a
single link be overwhelmed.
Radio Aggregation uses Static Link Aggregation
Treat multiple switch ports as one switch port for high-bandwidth connections
A static LAG balances the traffic load across the links in the channel. If a physical link within the
static LAG fails, traffic over the failed link is moved to the remaining links.
The following parameters are considered for distribution of traffic among the bundled
radio links on iPASOLINK
l L2 based

l L3 based

Source MAC Address

Source IP Address

Destination MAC Address

Destination IP Address

VLAN ID

Source TCP Port Number

Ether Type

Destination TCP Port Number

Port ID of input Ethernet Port

NEC Confidential

l MPLS based

MPLS label

235

Radio Aggregation (iPASOLINK-400)


MODEM#1

Aggregation
Group1

Aggregation
Group1

GRP1

MODEM#2

Port-1
L2SW

MODEM#3

Port-n

MODEM#4

Aggregation
Group1

MODEM#1
MODEM#2

Aggregation
Group1

GRP1

MODEM#3

Port-1
L2SW

MODEM#4

Port-n

Radio Aggregation supports up to 8 links in one group ( in iPASOLINK1000)


NEC Confidential

236

Radio Aggregation (iPASOLINK-400)


MODEM#1

Aggregation
Group1

Aggregation
Group1

GRP1

MODEM#3
GRP2

Aggregation
Group2

NEC Confidential

MODEM#2

MODEM#4

Port-1
L2SW
Port-n

Aggregation
Group2

237

Distribution algorithm L2 Base


Byte6
Source MAC Address

Byte5
Byte5

VLAN ID

Ether Type

Byte4

Byte3

Byte2

Byte1

15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Byte1

15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

The distribution algorithm is calculated by using the


first 3 bits of each Byte and XOR them.

Byte1
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Bits

LAG

Distribution Results iPASO 400

Byte1

10

Byte2

16

17

18

Byte3

25

Byte1

Byte1

Byte2

24

Byte2

47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Byte2

Port ID

Byte3

47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Byte6
Destination MAC Address

Byte4

26

Byte4

Exclusive OR
Results
Source
MAC
Address

Two
modems

Three
modems

Four
modems

Output Modem #
0

(000)

(001)

32

33

34

Byte5

40

41

42

Byte6

(010)

(011)

(100)

(101)

(110)

(111)

Byte1

10

Byte2

16

17

18

Byte3

24

25

26

Byte4

32

33

34

Byte5

40

41

42

Byte6

Byte1

10

Byte2

Byte1

10

Byte2

NEC Confidential

Byte1

Destination
MAC
Address

VLAN ID
Ether Type
Port No.

Exclusive OR results

MODEM#1

MODEM#2

Port1

MODEM#3

MODEM#4

The distribution algorithm is calculated by using certain bits of each


parameters. (first 3 bits of each byte) The source address, destination
address, VLAN ID, etc are different values between several streams, the
XOR result decide the link to be transmitted.
238

Distribution algorithm L3 Base


Byte6
Source IP Address

IPv4

Byte5

Byte4

Byte3

Byte2

Byte1

47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Byte12

Byte11

Byte10

Byte9

Byte8

Byte7

95 94 93 92 91 90 89 88 87 86 85 84 83 82 81 80 79 78 76 75 74 73 72 71 70 69 68 67 66 65 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47

Byte16

Byte15

Byte14

Byte13

127 126 125 124 123 122 121 120 119 118 117 116 115 114 113 112 111 110 109 108 107 106 105 104 103 102 101 100 99

Byte6

Byte5

Byte4

Byte3

IPv4

Byte2

98

97

96

Byte1

47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Destination IP Address

Byte12

Byte11

Byte10

Byte9

Byte8

Byte7

95 94 93 92 91 90 89 88 87 86 85 84 83 82 81 80 79 78 76 75 74 73 72 71 70 69 68 67 66 65 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47

Byte16

Byte15

Byte14

Byte13

127 126 125 124 123 122 121 120 119 118 117 116 115 114 113 112 111 110 109 108 107 106 105 104 103 102 101 100 99

Byte2
Source TCP Port No.

Byte1

Byte2

15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Destination TCP Port No.

Byte1

10

Byte2

16

17

18

Byte3

24

25

26

Byte4

Byte1

10

Byte2

16

17

18

Byte3

24

97

Byte1

15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Bits
0

98

LAG
Source IP
Address

MODEM#1

Distribution Results iPASO 400


Exclusive OR
Results

Two
modems

Three
modems

Four
modems

MODEM#2

Output Modem #
Destination IP
Address

(000)

(001)

25

26

Byte4

(010)

Byte1

(011)

10

Byte2

(100)

Byte1

(101)

10

Byte2

(110)

(111)

TCP Source Port


TCP Destination
port

Exclusive OR Results

Port1

MODEM#3

MODEM#4

239

96

Distribution algorithm L2 Base


00

00000000

000

Byte1

01

00000001

001

Byte2

02

00000010

010

Byte3

03

00000011

011

Byte4

04

00000100

100

Byte5

05

00000101

101

Byte6

00

00000000

000

Byte1

05

00000101

101

Byte2

06

00000110

110

Byte3

07

00000111

111

Byte4

08

00001000

000

Byte5

09

00001001

001

Byte6

64H

01100100

100

Byte1

Source MAC
Address

Destination
MAC Address

MAC SA= 00:01:02:03:04:05(hex)

00000000

000

Byte1

00001000

000

Byte2

00000001

001

Byte1

001

MAC DA= 00:05:06:07:08:09(hex)

VLAN ID

Byte2
0800H

LAG
MODEM#1

MODEM#2

VLAN ID= 64(hex)

Ether Type

ethertype= 800(hex)
Port1

Port No.

MODEM#3

Exclusive OR results
MODEM#4

Distribution Results iPASO 400


Exclusive OR
Results

Two
modems

Three
modems

Four
modems

Output Modem #
0

(000)

(001)

(010)

(011)

(100)

(101)

(110)

(111)

NEC Confidential

(1)

Source MAC Address XOR Result = (000) XOR (001) XOR (010) XOR (011) XOR
(100) XOR (101) = 001(bin)

(2)

Destination MAC Address XOR Result = (000) XOR (101) XOR (110) XOR (111)
XOR (000) XOR (001) = 101(bin)

(3)

VLAN ID XOR Result = (100) = 100(bin)

(4)

ethertype XOR Result = (000) XOR (000) = 000(bin)

(5)

Source Port Number = 001(bin)

240

Distribution algorithm L3 Base


192

11000000

000

Byte1

168

10101000

000

Byte2

00000000

000

Byte3

100

01100100

100

Byte4

192

11000000

000

Byte1

168

10101000

000

Byte2

00000001

001

Byte3

200

11001000

000

Byte4

80

00000000

000

Byte1

00001000

000

Byte2

00000000

000

Byte1

00001000

000

Byte2

80

101

Source IP
Address

Destinati
on IP
Address
TCP
Source
Port

LAG

TCP
Destinati
on port

MODEM#1

Exclusive OR Results

MODEM#2

Distribution Results iPASO 400


Exclusive OR
Results

Two
modems

Three
modems

Four
modems

Port1

MODEM#3

Output Modem #
0

(000)

IP SA= 192.168.0.100

(001)

(010)

IP DA= 192.168.1.200

(011)

TCP SRC= 80

(100)

(101)

TCP DST= 80

(110)

(111)

NEC Confidential

MODEM#4

(1)

Source IP Address XOR Result = (000) XOR (000) XOR (000) XOR (100) = 100(bin)

(2)

Destination IP Address XOR Result = (000) XOR (000) XOR (001) XOR (000) = 001(bin)

(3)

SRC TCP Port XOR Result = (000) XOR (000)= 000(bin)

(4)

DST TCP Port XOR Result = (000) XOR (000) = 000(bin)

241

Distribution algorithm MPLS Base


Initial hash, hash_key[127:0] is defined below
Bits

Corresponding Label

127:112

MPLS Top Label [15:0]

111:96

MPLS second Label [15:0]

95:0

All 0

If top label BOS field=1, all 0

Apply CRC16 to the hash_key [127:0] and obtain 16 bit result


Extract bits [7:0] of the CRC16 results and convert hexadecimal to
decimal and divide by the number of LAG ports and note the
remainder
Remainder

The remainder corresponds to


the Port ID of the LAG group

LAG

Port ID

0
1
2
3

MODEM#1

0
1
2
3

Port ID 0
MODEM#2
Port ID 1
Port1

MODEM#3
Port ID 2

Label

Example CRC output Low 8 bits

Decimal

Remainder
2 Modems

3Modems

F59c

9c

156

B6db

Db

219

Ca3b

3b

59

897c

7c

124

3520

20

32

d667

67

103

NEC Confidential

242

Example of demonstration configuration (L2 based)


LAG (L2 based)
MODEM#1

MODEM#1

Port1

Port1
MODEM#2

MODEM#2

56MHz, 258QAM

Stream-1
Ethernet

Stream-2

Tester

Stream
No.

Dst MAC Address

Src MAC Address

VLAN ID

ethertype

Stream-1

00:00:00:01:00:02

00:00:00:02:00:01

10 (hex:0A)

0800

Stream-2

00:00:00:01:00:02

00:00:00:01:00:01

10 (hex:0A)

0800

Stream-1:
Distribution Result = (011) XOR (011) XOR (010) XOR (000) XOR (001) = 011(bin) 3(dec)
Stream-2:
Distribution Result = (011) XOR (000) XOR (010) XOR (000) XOR (001) = 000(bin) 0(dec)

NEC Confidential

Distribution
Result

Output
port

0 (000)

MODEM#1

1 (001)

MODEM#2

2 (010)

MODEM#1

3 (011)

MODEM#2

4 (100)

MODEM#1

5 (101)

MODEM#2

6 (110)

MODEM#1

7 (111)

MODEM#2

243

Example of demonstration configuration (L3 based)


LAG (L3 based)
MODEM#1

MODEM#1

Port1

Port1
MODEM#2

MODEM#2

56MHz, 256QAM

Stream-1
Ethernet

Stream-2

Tester

Stream
No.

Dst
MAC

Src MAC

VLAN ID

Dst IP
Address

Src IP
Address

Dst TCP port

Src TCP
port

Stream-1

Any

Any

Any

192.168.1.1

192.168.1.11

80

80

Stream-2

Any

Any

Any

192.168.1.1

192.168.1.12

80

80

Stream-1:
Distribution Result = (010) XOR (000) XOR (000) XOR (000) = 010(bin) 2(dec)
Stream-2:
Distribution Result = (101) XOR (000) XOR (000) XOR (000) = 101(bin) 5(dec)

NEC Confidential

Distribution
Result

Output
port

0 (000)

MODEM#1

1 (001)

MODEM#2

2 (010)

MODEM#1

3 (011)

MODEM#2

4 (100)

MODEM#1

5 (101)

MODEM#2

6 (110)

MODEM#1

7 (111)

MODEM#2

244

Example of demonstration configuration (MPLS based)


LAG (MPLS based)
MODEM#1

MODEM#1

Port1

Port1
MODEM#2

MODEM#2

28MHz, 256QAM

Stream-1
Ethernet

Stream-2

Stream No.

Tester

Dst MAC

Src MAC

EXP

MPLS 1st Label

Stream-1

Any

Any

Any

Distribute

Stream-2

Any

Any

Any

Distribute

NEC Confidential

245

Notes (1/2)

The distribution algorithm is calculated by using certain bits of


each parameters. Therefore, even if the source address,
destination address, VLAN ID, etc are different values between
several streams, the XOR result can becomes the same

(example)

Stream
No.

Dst MAC Address

Src MAC Address

VLAN ID

ethertype

XOR result

Stream-1

00:00:00:01:00:02

00:00:00:02:00:01

10
(hex:0A)

0800

3(dec)

Stream-2

00:00:00:01:00:02

00:00:00:02:00:11

10
(hex:0A)

0800

3(dec)

The distribution algorithm uses the XOR result. Therefore, even


if the different values are used between several streams, the
XOR result might become the same.
These bits are tot used bits

(example)

NEC Confidential

Stream
No.

Dst MAC Address

Src MAC Address

VLAN ID

ethertype

XOR result

Stream-1

00:00:00:01:00:02

00:00:00:02:00:01

10
(hex:0A)

0800

3(dec)

Stream-2

00:00:00:01:00:02

00:00:00:01:00:02

10
(hex:0A)

0800

3(dec)

246

Radio Traffic aggregation (PRTA) Physical Layer aggregation


Radio Traffic Aggregation Physical
Layer (PRTA)
Fragments the packet with
variable length, and distributes
the fragmented packets to two
radio links fairly with roundrobin algorithm
Provides redundancy to the
radio link
the traffic can be transmitted
by the remaining links though
the bandwidth decreases when
the failure occurs.
Enables single antenna high
capacity transport with using
PRTA and XPIC simultaneously

14MHz/128QAM

RTA
300Mbps

NEC Confidential

Distribute rate
1:2

200Mbps
Link#2

28MHz/128QAM

56MHz/512QAM

515Mbps

PRTA can use different rate links as


radio link group
And also, PRTA can be used with
hitless AMR

100Mbps

Link#1

RTA

XPIC

Link#1

V
H

1Gbps

515Mbps

247

Radio Traffic Aggregation Physical Layer (PRTA)


RTA
MAC: d

MAC: c MAC: b

VLAN: d VLAN: c VLAN: b

Link#1

MAC: a
VLAN: a

Flexible efficient
Fragmentation

Link#2
7

Distributed fairly and sequentially with


round-robin algorithm

Ethernet packets are fragmented to variable lengths without adding


the padding data for less than 64 bytes length packets.

In the case of fixed length fragmentation, the last fragmentation packet


might be less than 64 bytes due to input packet length. When the
fragmentation packet is less than 64 bytes length, its packet is added the
padding data to become 64 bytes length. The addition of padding data
would cause jitter.

The fragmented packets are distributed fairly and sequentially to two


radio links with round-robin algorithm.
Special Modem card is required.
248

PRTA operation
Capacity

Capacity

MODEM

A B
RTA

Modem

Modem

MODEM
Modem

Capacity B

A+B
RTA

MCA4

MCA4

MODEM
RTA

Capacity A

MODEM
Modem

RTA

PRTA needs special modem card. MODEM-A cannot be used at PRTA


Maximum number of radio link supporting PRTA is two.

Modem-A -NWA-055300-001 (non PRTA modem)


Modem-A -NWA-055300-102 (PRTA compatible modem)
NEC Confidential

249

PRTA in aggregation link


Capacity
AB

MODEM

PRTA

Modem

MODEM

PRTA

Modem

Capacity B

Modem

MODEM

MODEM

Modem

Modem

PRTA

Modem

Capacity D

PRTA

MODEM

Capacity
C+D

MODEM

PRTA

MODEM
Modem

Capacity C

Capacity
A+B

PRTA

MCA4(L2 SW)

MCA4L2 SW)

PRTA

Capacity A

Capacity
C+D

MODEM
Modem

PRTA

1.6Gbs input require 2xGbE interfaces


NEC Confidential

250

RADIO AGGREGATION SETTING

iPASOLINK 400
Modem Slot1

Modem Slot2

Modem slot3

Modem slot4

Not used

Not used

Group1
Group1

Not used
Group1

Group1

NEC Confidential

Group2

251

Radio Aggregation Setting


iPaso200-D
Mod1
Mod2
P1
P1

Ethernet Tester
P1
iPaso200-E
Mod1
Mod2
P1

iPaso400-F
Mod1

Mod2
P1

STM-1

iPaso400-B

MSE

Mod1

16E1

Mod2
P1

STM-1

MSE

16E1
E1

Ethernet Tester

NEC Confidential

252

RADIO CONFIGURATION (1 of 4)
1

Click the Equipment Setup Menu and select


Radio Configuration to open the Equipment
Setup Radio configuration screen

Click the Setup Icon to open the Setup 1 Detailed MODEM


Setting of SW/XPIC GRP or Slot Unit window.

Radio configuration window shows the existing radio configuration


including the ODU frequency, parameters of radio channels.
Configuration depend on the Equipment Configuration
NEC Confidential

253

RADIO CONFIGURATION (2 of 4)
3

Enter the radio parameters and TDM mapping for the Modem (Slot 01).

Specification and information of the ODU


connected to the selected Modem

Green border on the Set


Position section modem
configuration show the
selected modem

Current setup of the


selected modem s
radio configuration

Select the channel spacing of


the radio signal
Select the reference Modulation
of the radio signal

Select the Radio Mode, High


Capacity or High System Gain
3

Show the assignment of TDM and


Ether capacities. TDM Channels
are assigned from the AMR /Radio
Mapping configuration Menu(Rel3)
Show the available Ether bandwidth
after E1 and STM-1 traffic mapping.
Enter TX/RX point frequency within the
Start and Stop frequency of the ODU
shown above.

When all four modems are


mounted in (1+0)
configuration

Enter the radio signal Frame ID (1 ~ 32)


Select the TX Power Control Mode.
ATPC or MTPC. Parameter setting for
each mode is from provisioning menu
Select whether the aggregation distribution Mode
is based on Packet layer or Physical Layer.
(Physical Layer require PRTA Modem)

NEC Confidential

Select Radio Aggregation used or not


used (up to 3 modems are mounted)

254

RADIO CONFIGURATION (3 of 4)
4

Confirmation screen shows the changes in blue


background. Confirm the setting and click OK

Enter the radio parameters and


TDM mapping for each of the
configured Modem slots, and
click Next

Repeat for Modems in Slot 3 and 4


if configured
Select the Channel spacing to be used from the drop down list

Select the Reference or fixed modulation to be used from the


drop down list
Select the maximum number of E1 to be used
Select whether STM-1 is to be used in the through mode
Confirm the available Ether band width
Set the TX & RX Frequency
Select the Frame ID to be used (1 ~ 32)
TX Power control mode ATPC or MTPC
After changing the setting for Modem 1 and click the Next button

NEC Confidential

255

RADIO CONFIGURATION (4 of 4 )
Modem radio configuration

NEC Confidential

Item

Parameter

Description

Channel Spacing
Reference
Modulation

7/14/28/56 [MHz]
QPSK
16/32/64/128/256[QAM]

Specify the radio channel spacing


Specify the reference modulation from
the list

Radio Mode

High Capacity
High System Gain

E1 Mapping

For High Capacity:


to 152 [CH] 56MHz

Indicate the Mapped E1 channels


E1 and STM-1 through mode channel

0 to 86 [CH] 28MHz
For High System Gain : 0

mapping is carried out from


AMR/Radio Mapping Configuration

to 152 [CH] 56MHz


0 to 77 [CH] 28MHz

Menu

STM-1 Mapping

0 to 2 [CH]

Indicate the number of STM-1 CH


mapped to the radio

ETH Bandwidth

[Mbps]

Display the bandwidth of the ether


traffic after TDM mapping if any

TX RF Frequency

xxxxx.xxx [MHz]

Enter transmit frequency

RX RF Frequency

xxxxx.xxx [MHz]

receive frequency (automatically)

Frame ID

1 - 32

Set frame ID

TX Power Control
Radio Traffic
Aggregation

MTPC/ATPC
Not used/ Radio GRP 1~6

Set transmit power control mode


Radio aggregation usage

Support Version

Ver.1 Packet Layer


Ver. 2 Packet layer & Physical Layer

Distribution Mode

Packet Layer (L2 & L3)


Physical layer (L1)

256

Radio aggregation VLAN setting


Packet Layer Radio aggregation can be modified using the

Select VLAN setting from the Provisioning ETH Function Setting Menu

Select the LAG Radio group1 and assign the VLANs to the
aggregation group as well as the ETH Ports to be used.

Click the OK button to go back to VLAN Setting screen.

Confirm that the VLANs are assigned to the Radio Aggregation Group and
the ETH port(s)

4
2

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257

Radio Aggregation LAG Setting


2
1

Select Link Aggregation Setting from the Provisioning


ETH Function Setting Menu
Link Aggregation Setting screen shows the Radio
GRP1 in the Link aggregation Group section. Default
Distribution rule is L2 Base

3
2

To assign a name to the LAG (optional) or change the


distribution rule, click the Modify Link Aggregation icon.

Enter the Link aggregation Group name in the LAG Name


field. (32 Characters).
Click the Distribution Rule drop down list and select L2
Base or L3 Base or MPLS Base as the distribution rule.
L2 Base uses the MAC address as the distribution criteria,
L3 Base uses the IP address as the distribution criteria
MPLS Base uses the MPLS label as the distribution criteria

Click the OK button to apply the changes


Note: Radio LAG cannot be added or deleted from this window
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258

Radio Aggregation Alarm/Status


Radio Aggregation status is shown in Current Status under the Modem/ODU and IDU tabs.

When the Links in the aggregation loop are normal Radio Traffic aggregation Port Status indicate as Active,
It shows as Standby the links that are down.

When at least one link in the Radio aggregation group is normal Radio Traffic Aggregation Link status is
shown as Normal. If all the links in the radio aggregation Group are down then the Radio Traffic Aggregation
Link Status is shown as Alarm

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259

LINK AGGREGATION SETTING - port

NEC Confidential

260

Link Aggregation Setting


P3

iPaso200-D
Mod1
Mod2

P2
P1

P2

Ethernet Tester
P1

iPaso200-E

P3

Mod1
Mod2
P1

P2

iPaso400-F
Mod1

Mod2

STM-1

iPaso400-B

MSE

Mod1

Mod2

STM-1

16E1
P1

P2

MSE

16E1
P1

P3

P2

P3

Ethernet Tester
NEC Confidential

261

Whats & Why LAG?


Whats LAG?
Link Aggregation Groups (LAGs), provide increased bandwidth and high reliability by
combining several interfaces into one logical link, and to provide redundancy in case one of
the links fails.
Why LAG?
Higher link availability: If a link within a LAG fails or is replaced, the traffic is not disrupted
and communication is maintained
Increased link capacity: the capacity of multiple interfaces is combined into one logical link.
Load sharing: Traffic is distributed across multiple links, minimizing the probability that a
single link be overwhelmed.

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262

How does LAG Work?


How does LAG work?

The standard states, Link Aggregation allows one or more links to


be aggregated together to form a Link Aggregation Group, such that
a MAC client can treat the Link Aggregation Group as if it were a
single link. This layer 2 transparency is achieved by the LAG using
a single MAC address for all the devices ports in the LAG group.

LAG implement ways:


LAG N is the load sharing mode of LAG.
The LAG N protocol automatically distributes and load balances the
traffic across the working links within a LAG
LAG M:N provides the working/protection mode
M: active links
N: standby links.
Total member: M+N=8

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263

Static vs. Dynamic LAG (1)

Static Link Aggregation Groups (LAGs)


Treat multiple switch ports as one switch port for high-bandwidth connections
A static LAG balances the traffic load across the links in the channel. If a physical link within
the static LAG fails, traffic over the failed link is moved to the remaining links.

Dynamic Link Aggregation Groups (LAGs)


Dynamic LAG uses a peer-to-peer protocol for control, called the Link Aggregate Control
Protocol (LACP), specified in the IEEE standard 802.3ad
LACP Ensures smooth and steady traffic flow by automating the configuration,
reconfiguration and maintenance of aggregated links.

Dynamically exchanging information between two switches in


order to configure and maintain link aggregation groups
automatically.
Load sharing is maintained and automatically readjusted
LACP interface supports two modes of operation
Passive: The interface does not initiate the LACP exchange,
but replies to the received LACP packet.
Active: The interface issues LACP PDUs due to its own
reasons and may initiate LACP exchange with either a
passive or another active connected interface.

NEC Confidential

Link Aggregation

264

LINK AGGREGATION Setting


2

1 Select Link Aggregation Setting From the ETH

Function Setting menu.

Link Aggregation Setting screen shows the current


Link aggregation groups and Link aggregation Ports
2 Click the Add LAG icon to open the ADD LAG window

NEC Confidential

265

LINK AGGREGATION Setting

LINK AGGREGATION GROUP SETTING


3 LAG Name: Enter a name for the LAG Group
4 Mode: Select the LAG mode, LACP-Active,

3
4

5
6
Two sides of the aggregation link should be set to : 7

LACP-Passive or Static from the drop down list


Static / Static
LACP-Active / LACP Active
LACP-Passive / LACP Active

5 TX Interval: The interval for LACP PDU

transmission select Short (1Sec)or Long (30Sec)


radio button
6 Revertive: If static mode is selected select

Revertive or non Revertive . For LACP Active or


Passive mode always Revertive is selected

Click the Distribution Rule drop down list and select L2


Base or L3 Base or MPLS Base as the distribution rule.
L2 Base uses the MAC address as the distribution criteria,
L3 Base uses the IP address as the distribution criteria
MPLS Base uses the MPLS label as the distribution criteria

LINK AGGREGATION PORT SETTING


Before setting the LAG Ports enable the ports to be used from the Ether Port Setting
Select the ETH GRP# from the LAG drop down list for the ports to be used in the aggregation
group
Select the Port Role Active or Standby from the radio buttons. Select all ports Active for all
links to be used for aggregation. Select any port as Standby for that port to be used in case of
failure of an Active link.
9 Click the OK button on the Complete dialog window

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266

LINK AGGREGATION Setting

Click the Modify Link Aggregation icon on the Link Aggregation


Setting screen..
Select the LAG group to be modified from the LAG drop down list .
Modify the Link Aggregation parameters for the selected LAG and click OK
Click the Delete LAG icon to open the
Delete LAG window.
Select the top most check box to delete all
created link aggregation groups

Select the individual check boxes to delete


the selected link aggregation groups

Click the OK button to delete the selected


LAG groups.

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267

Link Aggregation Alarm/Status


Link Aggregation status is shown in Current Status under the IDU and GbE tabs.

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268

iPASOLINK
MAC Header Compression

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269

MAC Header Compression


Click
the OK
button.MAC DA
IFG
PRE
12

MAC SA
6

VLAN
4

L
2

IP
V4/V6

Packet
46 -1500

FCS
4

Ethernet Frame

20bytes

First
compression

MAC DA
6

MAC SA
6

VLAN
4

L
2

IP
V4/V6

Packet
46 -1500

FCS
4

Ethernet Frame with


Preamble compression

12bytes
VLAN
4

Second
compression

L
2

IP
V4/V6

Packet
46 -1500

FCS
4

Ethernet Frame with Preamble


& MAC compression

IPV4 Header 24 Byte


IPV6 Header 40 Bytes

Third
compression

Packet
46 -1500

Packet
46 -1500

FCS
4

Ethernet Frame with Preamble & MAC


compression and IPV4 or V6 (including
VLAN compression

Above including FCS in


Enhanced Mode

L1 Wire speed (Tagged frame 64bytes packet size)


7MHz 14MHz 28MHz 40MHz 56MHz
Compressed Headers

QPSK
16QAM

17
34

34
69

69
139

86
172

139
280

32QAM
64QAM

43
51

86
104

174
209

216
259

350
420

256QAM

60
69

121
138

244
279

303
346

490
560

512QAM
1024QAM

313
349

388
432

628
700

2048QAM

384

476

770

L2
compression 128QAM

Store Headers up to 2048

NEC Confidential

Mbps
Mbps
Mbps
Mbps
Mbps
Mbps
Mbps
Mbps
Mbps

270

MODEM PORT & Header Compression Setting

Select Modem Function Setting on the provisioning menu and click on the
Modem Port setting.
Click MODEM (Slot#), to open the Modem port name setting window
Enter the Modem Port Name ( 32 Characters)
Click the Header Compression Mode drop down list and select the
type of compression to be used
Click the Enhanced Mode Check Box to use this mode (see table below)
Click the OK button to close the window

LCT setting item


Disable
MAC (basic version)
MAC+IPv4
MAC+IPv6

If Remote NE Compression setting is already set it will be


indicated in the Remote Header Compression section
NEC Confidential

MAC+MPLSHigh
Enhanced MAC+IPv4
Enhanced MAC+IPv6
Enhanced MAC+MPLS

L2 header
MAC
VLAN

L3&L4 header
IPv4
IPv6

MPLS
Label

FCS
remove

271

Header Compression Status

If there is a mismatch in the Header


compression setting in Local and
Remote sides. It will be shown in
the Modem Port setting window as
shown above and giving an alarm
Compression setting Mismatch.
Compression setting Mismatch
alarm can be seen in current status
screen, Active alarm tab and
Modem/ODU tab.

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272

Compression Effectiveness (IPv4)

L1 Throughput (Mbps)

BW=28MHz
256QAM

IPv6 also available and more effective

Packet size (Bytes)


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273

Pseudo Wire Emulation

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274

About ACR (Adaptive Clock Recovery)

Inserts clock information to packet header (Control Word


or RTP)
Recover clock information at clock slave node
Central
Office
Master Node

TDM
Equipment

Carrier PSN

TDM to
Packet

Time
Stamp

Primary
Reference
Source

TDM
Equipment

Queue

Packet
to TDM

T1/E1

Time
Stamp

Service

Clock
Encode

E1 Line sync or NE clock is used at master node

NEC Confidential

Slave Node

In-Band
E1

fReference

Customer
Premises

Filter

Service

ACR is used at slave node

275

iPASOLINK PWE configuratgion

Modem-1

Modem-2

E1
Ethernet BUS
Modem

XC
MB
16E1

PWE CH1

MSE

L2SW

PWE CH64

STM-1 -Chanellized

E1 Line sync or NE clock is used at master node

NEC Confidential

FE / GbE Ports

ACR is used at slave node

276

PWE-Setting
Expand the provisioning menu and
click on the PWE Setting. PWE setting
window for the MSE card appears
showing the current PWE setting.

Click the Add PWE icon to open the PWE Setting wizard

NEC Confidential

Click on the Detail for any


PWE No. to see the detail
information for the selected
PWE No.

Click on the PWE No. to open the PWE Modifying wizard

277

PWE Setting Wizard Step1(PWE Setting)


1

Click Add PWE icon on the PWE Setting screen. Step 1


of the PWE setting wizard opens

Enter the PWE No. value between (1 ~ 256)

Enter the PWE Service Name

Click the MSE E1 CH drop down list and select


the MSE E1 channel number for this connection

7
2
3

Click the Jitter Buffer drop down arrow and


select the size of the jitter buffer in mili seconds

Click the Clock Mode drop down arrow and select


the clock mode. For master side select NE clock
of Sync E1. for the slave side select ACR

For CH 17 - 64

For Ch17 to Ch64, ACR Slave setting select one


of the already configured E1 CH (1-16) to be
used for ACR
7

Click the Detail Option icon to open the detail


option setting screen. Select the E1 frame size for
the PWE Capsule. (1 ~ 8 frames)

To use the Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP)


select the ON radio button. Default is off. Click
OK button to close the Detail Option window.

Click next to go to PWE wizard Step2

7
8

9
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278

PWE Setting
Item
PWE No.
PWE Service Name
MSE E1 CH
Jitter Buffer
Clock Mode

Assign CH
Capsule E1 frame Size
RTP Header
CoS
ECID
Destination MAC Address

NEC Confidential

Parameter
1 to 256
0 to 32
1 to 64
2ms, 4ms, 8ms,16ms, 32ms, 64ms, 128ms
MSE E1 CH No. 1 to 16
NE Clock , ACR, SYNC E1
MSE E1 CH No. 17 to 64
NE Clock, ACR Slave, Sync E1
1 to 16
1 to 8
On / Off
0 to 7
1 to 1048575
Opposite MSE or broadcast MAC address

Description
Service number of PWE
Service name of PWE
E1 cross connect CH
Jitter Buffer (8MS means +/_ 4ms jitter buffer
Transmit TDM synchronization source clock select.
Refer to the figures below

When ACR Slave mode is selected


Select RTP header option
Class of Service Value of PWE
Emulated Circuit ID, specify ID for the PWE
If broadcast MAC address (ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff)

279

PWE Setting Wizard Step2 (select VLAN ID)


10

Enter the Class of Service (CoS) Priority levels for the PWE
packets

11

Enter the Unique Emulated Circuit Identifier (ECID)


number for the PWE circuit

12

Enter the Destination MSE Card MAC Address

13

Select the radio button of the VLAN ID for the Packets sent
out for this PWE circuit.

14

If the required VLAN ID is not in the list, click the Add VLAN
ID icon. From the add VLAN ID window enter the VLAN ID
and VLAN Service name Click ok to add the VLAN to the
VLAN list.

15

Click the Next button to get the PWE Wizard Step3 Setting
Confirmation window

14
10
11
12

13

14

15

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280

PWE Setting Wizard Step3 (Confirmation)

16

Confirm the setting for this PWE circuit and click OK. If not
click Back and change the setting.

16

Confirm that the PWE circuit is listed.

16
17

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281

PWE Setting Cross-connect

To assign E1 from Main board or other


16E1 card to the MSE-A card. Select
the cross connect setting menu.

Click Add , from the cross connect (Add)


window. Assign the E1 channels to the
MSE-A card created PWE channels.

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282

PWE Setting
iPaso200-E
Mod1
Mod2

23GHz

P1
P1

ODU-Back

iPaso200-A
Mod1
Mod2
M2

P1
P1

22484 / 21252

M1 H

ODU-2
7GHz
7310/7156

iPaso400-F
Mod1

Mod2
P1

STM-1

H
M1
Mod1

MSE

iPaso400-B
Mod2
P1

16E1

STM-1

MSE

16E1
E1

E1

TDM Tester
Ethernet Tester

NEC Confidential

283

Filter Setting & Port Isolate


L2 filter setting
Port1: MAC=A
Deny
MAC address=A
user cannot
access port1.

MAC address:A MAC address:B

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284

Provisioning Filter Setting

Select Filter setting from the ETH Function Setting menu


Filter setting is configured in several steps:
Click the Filter List tab and create a list of filters
to be used
Click the Profile list tab and create profiles with
one or more filters created in the filter list
Click the port filter setting list tab and assign a
profile to each port

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285

Filter Setting Filter List


Select the Filter list tab and click Add
In the Add Filter Entry (Entry Index#)
window select the following
Filter rule is always Deny
Source MAC Address Any (select Check Box)
or enter the MAC address
Destination MAC Address Any (select Check
Box) or enter the MAC address
CoS select Any (select check Box) or select
(0~7) from the drop down list
VLAN ID select Any (select check Box) or Enter
the VLAN ID number (1~4094)
Ethernet Type select Any (select check Box)
or Enter Ethernet Type (0000~FFFF)

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286

Filter Setting Profile List


Select the Profile list tab and click Add
In the Add Filter Profile window Enter a Name for
the profile
From the list of Filters shown, select the required
filters for the selected profile by selecting the check
boxes.
Up to 10 filters can be selected per profile
Click the Ok button

Click on a profile Index number to modify the


profile

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287

Filter Setting Port Filter Setting List

Select the Port Filter Setting List tab


Click on the Port number.
In the Ingress Filter Setting window click the
Profile index drop down arrow and from the list
select the profile to be used with the selected port.
Click the OK button to apply the filter.

NEC Confidential

To See applied Filter details for the port click the


profile index number corresponding to the port.
Profile List detail window opens showing the filter
list for the profile index selected.

288

Ether Function Setting Port Isolate


assigning ports to different VLANs is a typical way to
isolate Layer 2 traffic for data privacy and security, but this
way is VLAN resource demanding. To save VLAN
resources, you can use the port isolation feature, which
can isolate ports without using VLANs and allows for great
flexibility and security.
To use this feature, you can assign ports to a port isolation
group. Ports in an isolation group are called isolated ports.
Within the same VLAN, the ports in the same isolation group
are isolated from each other, and can communicate with
ports outside of the isolation group

Select Port Isolate Setting from the ETH Function Setting Menu
Click on the Port# to be Isolated. Select the Enable radio button on
the Port Isolate Setting window and click the OK button
Click on the next Port# to be Isolated. Select the Enable radio
button on the Port Isolate Setting window and click the OK button

Supported Ports: Ether Ports & Modem Ports

Traffic between the selected ports are isolated


When port isolation is enabled in port 1 & 2

VLAN 100

VLAN 100

Traffic between the ports are not isolated


NEC Confidential

VLAN 100

Traffic form the isolated ports pass to the


ports outside the isolated group

Traffic form the isolated ports do not pass


between the ports.

289

Provisioning L2CP Transparent / Mirroring Setting

Select L2CP Transparent / Mirroring


Setting from the ETH Function Setting
Menu
Click a Port# from the L2CP Transparent
/ Mirroring Setting Screen.
The L2CP Transparent / Mirroring
Setting Configuration window for the
selected port shows the current selection..
The Tunnel Enable Protocols are listed in the
L2CP Transparency section. Check the
boxes of the protocols to enable the PDU of
the protocol transparent without processing
STP / RSTP tunnel enabling function is not
supported for the RSTP enabled port.
Click the OK button to apply the changes

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290

Ether Function L2CP Transparent/Mirror Setting


Port Mirroring function outputs a
copy of the packets on a certain
Ethernet port to another Ethernet
port.
This function is used to monitor the
traffic on an Ethernet port form
another Ethernet port.

First select the port for Mirror ( Traffic of the wanted


port will be monitored using this port)
Click on the port# and from the L2CP Transparent /
Mirror Setting window click on the Monitoring drop
down list and select Mirror
Click the OK button to close the window
Next select the port for Monitoring (Port on which the
traffic is to be monitored by the first port)
Click on the port# and from the L2CP Transparent /
Mirror Setting window click on the Monitoring drop
down list and select Monitor
click on the Monitoring Direction drop down list and
select Ingress or Egress or Both as required
Click the OK button to close the window

Supported Ports: FE/GbE ports


(Monitored/Mirrored/Disabled per-port)
Monitoring direction: Ingress/Egress/Both
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291

Provisioning - Broadcast Storm Control Setting


Broadcast Storm Control function
protects user traffic from facing
congestion due to broadcast storms
due to network loop. iPASOLINK
supports this function by discarding
non-unicast traffic when they
exceeds provisioned maximum rate.
Supported ports: Ether & modem
(enabled/disabled per-port)
Rate:1-1000mbps (per-equipment)
Types of frames: broadcast,
multicast, unknown unicast

Select Broadcast Storm Control Setting from the ETH


Function setting Menu. Broadcast Storm Control Setting
screen shows the current setting and the ports enabled for
control
Click the Broadcast Storm Control Rate (Mbps) from
underlined text to set the threshold for Broadcast Storm
Control. (Default rate is 1000 Mbps)
Enter the threshold value (Rate) between 1 to 1000 Mbps,
and click the OK button
NEC Confidential

Select port # in Main Board or Modem or FE/GbE INTFC to


open the control window for Broadcast Storm Control.
Default setting is Disabled. Click the Enable radio button to
enable broadcast storm control function for the selected Port
Click the OK button to apply and close the control window.

292

NETWORK MANAGEMENT

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293

GENERAL SETTING
Select the General Setting from the
Network Management Configuration
menu..
General setting current setting screen
appears.
Click the Edit icon to open the General
setting edit window.
This window allows the setting of bridge1
IP address, Subnet Mask and Default
Gateway..
Select the radio Button Yes or No for the
Connect NMS port to NMS setting
Click the OK button to apply the setting

Item

Parameter

Description

IP Address Setting (Bridge 1) (Primary IP address Setting)


IP Address
x.x.x.x
Input IP Address of NMS port
Subnet Mask
Default Gateway

x.x.x.x
x.x.x.x

Input Subnet Mask of NMS port


Input Default Gateway IP
address

Yes
No

Use NMS Port


Not use NMS Port

NMS Port Setting


Connect NMS Port to
NMS

Bridge 1 IP address is the Primary IP address of the NE


NEC Confidential

294

GENERAL SETTING (Detail) (1 of 4)

Select the General Setting (Detail) from the Network Management


Configuration menu..
General Setting (Detail) Screen show the current settings of the detail
network parameters.
NE2 Port Setting (Async Port)
Screen shows the
current setting of:

Inband Management VLAN Setting


Ethernet Port setting of NMS and NE1 ports
NE Branch Setting
NMS and LCT Port Setting

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295

GENERAL SETTING (DETAIL) 2 of 4


Item

Parameter

Description

NE2 Port Setting


NE2 Port IP Address

x.x.x.x

Input IP Address of NE2 port

NE2 Port Usage

Used

Use NE2 port

Not Used

Not use NE2 port

NE2 Port Speed

9600

specify the line speed of NE2 port2

19200
Inband Management VLAN Setting
Inband Management 1 to 16
Inband Management

Used / Not Used

VLAN usage
VLAN ID

Select Used or not used for each Inband


management stream (1 to 16)

1 ~ 4094

VLAN ID for Inband Management VLAN


(default values are set for each stream,
overwrite default values)

CoS

0 to 7

Class of service priority setting for inband


VLAN tag sent from the IDU

Ethernet Port Setting NMS and NE1 ports


Usage
Auto Negotiation

Used

Use Ethernet port

Not Used

Not use Ethernet port

Enable

enable the Auto Negotiation of Ethernet port

Disable

Disable the Auto Negotiation of Ethernet port

Auto Discovery Setting


Discovery Usage

Used or Not Used

Enable / disable auto search of the NEs


through he selected ports

LLDP Mode

Standard

Enable working with NEC proprietary LLDP

Proprietary MAC

MAC. This setting is useful when external


layer2 switch (that discard standard LLDP
frames,) are used to connect two iPasolink
management ports

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296

GENERAL SETTING (DETAIL) 3 of 4

Item

Parameter

Description

NE Branch Setting
Default Gateway

x.x.x.x

Input the Default Gateway

NMS /NE1 ports


item

Bridge No.

Modem Ports
Inband

Appear when inband management #

Management #

is selected as used

bridge number for each of the above ports (1-20)

Bridge IP Address IP Address for each Bridge


Bridge Subnet

Subnet mask for each Bridge

Mask
M-Plane Bandwidth Limitation
Bandwidth

Enable or Disable

Limitation

Limits the BW used for SV signal over


the Radio Frame

Bandwidth (Kbps) 500 to 10000 Kbps Set the BW for the SV signal over the
radio
M-Plane Priority
CoS

0-7

CoS priority value for the SV signal


over the radio
NMS Port Setting

Connect NMS

YES or No

Select yes or no for NMS connection to

Port to NMS

the port
LCT Port Setting

Restrict LCT

Any

Connection

Only to Local NE

Allow Local & Remote NE LCT access


Only Local NE access, Prevent
Remote NE LCT access

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297

GENERAL SETTING (detail) 4 of 4

For each branch a bridge number is assigned. Input


an IP address and subnet mask for each bridge.

For each port, modem


and inband management
# (used) listed select a
Bridge to be associated

Select to which branch NMS port belongs to

Enter the Bridge 2, IP address and Subnet Mask

Select to which branch Inband Namagement02 belongs to


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298

Inband DCN Configuration Example


Inband Management VLAN 100

PNMSj

NE-A
10.8.0.5

NE-B
10.8.0.6

NE-C
10.8.0.7

Port01

Port01

Port01

iPASO

VID 100

NE-D
10.8.0.8

iPASO

VID 4095

Inband VID

NE-A (10.8.0.5)
Inband Management VLAN: 100
Port01: Trunk Link
MODEM1: Trunk Link

NE-A (10.8.0.5) Port01/MODEM1 Inband DCN


Inband Management VLAN: 100
Port01: Trunk Link

VID 4095 is automatically


configured by software.

MODEM1: Trunk Link


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299

Inband DCN Setting

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300

IN-BAND DCN

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301

Out Of Band DCN


Out of Band

NMS

Radio

Radio

Radio

Out of Band

Bridge1: 192.168.1.2
PNMS:172.10.0.2.

Bridge1: 192.168.1.4

Bridge2 : 172.10.0.1

GW:172.10.0.1

GW:192.168.1.2.

Bridge1: 192.168.1.6

Bridge1: 192.168.1.7
GW:192.168.1.2.

GW:192.168.1.2.

GW:172.10.0.2.

Out of Band

NMS

NMS

Bridge1: 192.168.1.2
PNMS:172.10.0.2.
GW:172.10.0.1

NEC Confidential

Back-to-Back

Radio

Bridge2 : 172.10.0.1

Bridge1: 192.168.1.4
GW:192.168.1.2.

Out of Band

Radio
NMS

Bridge1: 192.168.1.6
GW:192.168.1.2.

Bridge1: 192.168.1.7
GW:192.168.1.2.

GW:172.10.0.2.

302

Inband DCN
Port1
Access
VLAN10

Out of Band

Radio
NMS

Radio

NMS

In Band
Bridge1: 192.168.1.2
Bridge2 : 172.10.0.1
PNMS:172.10.0.2.

GW:172.10.0.2.

GW:172.10.0.1

IB-MNG1 : Bridge2-VLAN10

Bridge1: 192.168.1.4

Bridge1: 192.168.1.6

GW:192.168.1.2.

GW:192.168.1.2.

Bridge1: 192.168.1.7
GW:192.168.1.2.

Port1 : Access-VLAN10

Port1
Access
VLAN10

Radio

Port-1

Port-1

Radio

Out
In of
Band
Band
In Band

PNMS:172.10.0.2.
GW:172.10.0.1

Bridge1: 192.168.1.2

IB-MNG1 : Bridge1-VLAN10

IB-MNG1 : Bridge1-VLAN10

Bridge2 : 172.10.0.1

IB-MNG1-auto discover

IB-MNG1-auto discover

GW:172.10.0.2.

Port1 : Trunk-VLAN10

Port1 : Trunk-VLAN10

IB-MNG1 : Bridge2-VLAN10
Port1 : Access-VLAN10

Inband Management-1 :IB-MNG1

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303

DHCP Server / Relay Setting

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304

DHCP SERVER / RELAY


NMS

CLIENT:172.10.0.2.
GW:172.10.0.1

Radio

Bridge1: 192.168.1.2
Bridge2 : 172.10.0.1

Radio

Radio

Bridge1: 192.168.1.4

Bridge1: 192.168.1.6

GW:192.168.1.2.

GW:192.168.1.2.

Port1: Access (VLAN10)

Bridge1: 192.168.1.7
GW:192.168.1.2.

GW:172.10.0.2.

DHCP Sever
DHCP No.1
Bridge No.1 (192.168.1.2/24)
IP Range (192.168.1.10 -192.168.1.15)
Exceptions: none
Security : any

iPASOLINK support DHCP server function.


Up to 3 subnet
DHCP frames can be transmitted to
Ethernet port via inband VLAN
Client-1

The DHCP server assigns a client an IP address taken from a


predefined range for a given amount of time (lease time). When the
lease time is over, the IP address will be considered free and can be
assigned to another client. Fixed IP addresses can be defined on the
DHCP server to allow certain clients to have their own IP address.
Addresses. Can be reserved for a MAC address or a host name so
these clients will have a fixed IP address that is configured
automatically.

Client-2

Reservations You can setup certain IPs to be handed out for certain MAC
addresses (a MAC address is the unique number for a network adapter). This
is generally used for clients or devices that must always have the same IP but
you still want to manage through DHCP Server for other options (DNS or
Gateway for example
Exceptions An exception is either a single IP or range that you do not want
managed by the DHCP server. You would do this for the IPs that you would
assign statically to devices like Servers that should always have the same.

When DHCP clients and associated servers do not reside on the


same IP network or subnet, a DHCP relay agent can transfer DHCP
messages between them.

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305

DHCP Server Setting


16384/00:25:5C:28:02:47(Mod
em1)

DHCP: Dynamic Host Configuration


Protocol

From the Network Management


Configuration Menu and select
DHCP Server / Relay setting

DHCP Server / Relay setting display window


showing the current setting for DHCP No 1 -16
DHCP No 1 - 3 are for DHCP Sever Setting
DHCP No 4 -16 are for DHCP Relay Setting
When clicked on the DHCP No. 1 3 tabs, display the DHCP
clients detected in the DHCP Client Table.
Registered MAC address Table list the MAC Addresses
registered in the Server.

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306

DHCP Server Setting

Click the DHCP No. 1-3 for Server Setting and DHCP No.4-16 for Relay Setting
Click the DHCP No. 1-3 for Server Setting
Click on the Detail to set the DHCP Server Detail
Setting

Click on the Detail to see the DHCP


Server Detail Setting

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307

DHCP Server Setting

Click the Detail for


DHCP Server Detail
Setting
Select DHCP Server from the Server / Relay Drop down list
Bridge No. (IP Address) drop down list, shows the already
configured bridges in the Network Management configuration
-> General Setting (detail) menu.
Select the Bridge No. for the DHCP Server.
Enter the IP Address range for the DHCP Server by entering
the Start and End IP addresses. (Entered values should be
within the selected Bridge No, network address range
Enter the IP Address range for the Exception by entering the
Start and End IP addresses
Select for Security , Any radio button or Only Reserved radio
button.

NEC Confidential

Enter the lease Time for the connection


Select default Gateway, options are :
Same as the Bridge Interface (selected bridge)
Specify: specify the Gateway address below.
Disabled: Disable the GW address
To use DNS Sever Address:
Select Used radio button and enter the Primary and Secondary DNS
server Addresses
To use Other Options select Used radio Button
Enter the ID (range 0 255)
Type: select from the drop down list
Value:

308

DHCP server setting Other Option


lWhen use Other Option, other control information
such as NTP Server Address, WINS Server
Address, DCHP Server Address etc. can be stored
in the 'options' field of the DHCP message.
lDHCP Option is defined by RFC2132.
lThe kind of control information is specified with
option ID.
lOption ID information also is defined by RFC2132.

For example
l DHCP Option 54 can specify DHCP Server Address. Therefore, in the above case,
DHCP Client can recognize DHCP Server Address.
l You can confirm DHCP Server Address by using ipconfig /all at command prompt.

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309

DHCP Server Setting

When a client receives an IP address, the client appears in the DHCP Client Table. If the client
is not preregistered, Add is indicated at the end of the row for that client in the table.
Click on the Add MAC Address icon to
register the Client MAC addresses.

Enter the MAC Address to be registered and select the


Distribution rule from the drop down list
Select Auto : for the Server to Assign automatically from the IP
Address range.
Select Rejected : DHCP rejects request for IP address from
this MACX address
Select Fixed : Enter the IP Address to be assigned to the
entered MAC address.
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310

DHCP SERVER / RELAY


NMS

CLIENT:172.10.0.2.
GW:172.10.0.1

Radio

Bridge1: 192.168.1.2
Bridge2 : 172.10.0.1

Radio

Bridge1: 192.168.1.4

Radio

Bridge1: 192.168.1.7

Bridge1: 192.168.1.6

GW:192.168.1.2.

Port1: Access (VLAN10)

GW:192.168.1.2.

GW:192.168.1.2.

GW:172.10.0.2.

DHCP Sever
DHCP No.1
Bridge No.1 (192.168.1.2/24)
IP Range (192.168.1.10 -192.168.1.15)
Exceptions: none
Security : any

Client-1

Client-2

Client-3

Client-4

Client-1
Client-2
Client-3

Client-1: unable to contact DHCP Server and will get request has timed out
Client-2: will get the IP address 192.168.1.10
Client-3: will get the IP address 192.168.1.12 Fixed address
Client-4: will get the IP address if the security setting is Any. If only
Registered it will not be assigned an IP Address.

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311

DHCP Server Setting

To Delete a registered MAC Address.


Click the Delete MAC Address icon and
select the check box of the MAC address
to be deleted from the list and click OK

To release a client from the DHCP


Client Table list, click the Forced
Release IP Address icon and select
the check box of the IP Address from
the list. Released IP Address is free
to be assigned to a different client.

Click on the Add indication in any of the listed MAC addresses that are not pre-registered to
register them. Select the distribution method . If it is fixed then enter the IP address to be
assigned. Click OK to register the selected MAC address.

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312

Equipment Utility

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313

Partial Equipment Config Download


Use this function to download Program File, FPGA Data and Config
Data from storage (Local PC or USB Memory) to update the NE.

From the Equipment Utility menu select Update


(Storage-> NE ) Utility

Put the Equipment to Maintenance mode and


select Config Data radio button.
Click the Execute button

3
4

In the Update (storage-> NE) utility Config Data window click


the select Config data type drop down list arrow. Select
Partial Equipment Config

Browse to the location where the Equipment config file is


located and select the config file. Click the Next button

Select the configuration items to upload by selecting from


the check boxes. Click OK.

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314

LOG CLEAR FUNCTION


MAINTENACE MODE

Select Log Clear Function from the Equipment Utility Menu..

Select the Radio button of the Log Type to be cleared, Alarm


Log, Status Log, Command Log or All Logs and click the
Execute button

Click OK on the confirmation screen. When complete


information window opens click OK.
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315

USB Memory Utility


iPASOLINK System Configuration File Backup Procedure
Configuration File Upload Procedure (IDU to USB)
Insert USB to Main Card
Wait until USB is detected (observe USB LED) flash
Protect SW ON (Up)
USB LED Blinks
Wait until USB LED Blinking stop
Protect SW OFF (Down)
Remove USB from IDU

Configuration Upload Procedure (USB to IDU) IDU Power OFF


IDU Power OFF
Insert USB to Main card
Protect SW/ON (Up)
IDU Power ON
Maint LEDs on the Main Card starts to blink
About 2m 40sec after IDU Power ON USB LED Blinks (iPaso1000)
Main Card Maint LED Steady
After few seconds put Protect SW Down
IDU reboot start
Main card Maint LED stop
The above process will take about 7minutes (Depends on configuration)
Active card Maint LEDs starts to blink

USB Memory utility allows to see the


contents of the USB memory stick
plugged in to the USB slot. It show the
files inside folders named Config,
IDU,FPGA and Inventory created in
the USB stick

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316

SOFTWARE KEY ALLOCATOR

NEC Confidential

317

Introduction

What is Software Key Allocator (SKA) ?


With SKA, You can reap the benefits of simplified software key
upgrade and exchange software key for NEs.
Customer Network (NMS)
Key Features

Upgrade
PNMSj
SKA Client

Extraction & Storage


Software Key

Relocation
Allocator(SKA)
PNMSj Client
HUB

HUB
Proxy,
Firewall

Router

NEC

SKSS
NEC Confidential

318

System configuration and specification for SKA


1. SKA Server
OS : Windows 2008 Server R2
Machine Spec
CPU : Quad core 2.40GHz or higher
Memory : 8GB or above (More than 16GB recommended)
Disk Capacity : 160GB or more
Customer Network(NMS)
1
PNMSj
2. SKA Client
Software Key

Allocator(SKA)
OS : Windows 7
PNMSj Client
Internet Explorer 8
HUB

3. Port for Internet


->SKA server and client access to
SKSS server in NEC office
through Internet.

2
SKA Client

HUB
Proxy,
Firewall

3
NEC

SKSS
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319

Software Key Upgrade

Issue Upgrade Key and download Upgrade Key to


NEs.
Also after setup NEs in customer network, You can
apply software key to NEs Flexibly.

Without SKA
GLN / Local staff

SKSS

Issue Upgrade Key

NE

Customer
Download Upgrade Key

NEC

Customer Network

With SKA
Customer

SKSS
Issue Upgrade Key

NEC

NEC Confidential

SKA

NE

Download Upgrade Key

Customer Network
320

Extraction & StorageRelocation

You can extract current keys from NEs within DCN and
store the key information.
You can relocate a current key stored in the SKA to
another NE within DCN.

Extraction

Relocation

User

User

SKA

NE

SKA
NE
Software Key Extraction

Pool Software
Key

NEC Confidential

Software Key Relocation

Relocate
Software Key

321

Support NMS & NE Type


1. Support NMS
All NMS Supported
->PNMSj, MS5000, and so on...
NMS is needed following conditions
Create the NE list file with defined format.
Store the inventory file which is created
by NE, to specified directory,
We recommend that SKA can access above
2files with FTP.

1
Customer Network (NMS)
PNMSj

PNMSj Client
HUB

2. Supported NE type
iPASOLINK Series
->iPASOLINK 100/100E/200/400/1000
5000iP Series (*Only Upgrade Function)

2
Customer Network (NE)
Router

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322

Environment for Demonstration

PNMSj

HUB

iPASO400 IDU
[No.002]

iPASO400 IDU
[No.001]

SKA

SKSS

SKA Client
Screen shows the
control of SKA client.

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323

Demonstration
There are NEs which have no upgrade SW Key.

Register the NMS

Register the NMS information to SKA.


You can confirm the NE List is updated.

Upgrade Software Key

Select a NE and Upgrade the Software Key


You can confirm when Upgrade is finished in journal log.

Extract Software Key from NE.

Select the NE whose Software Key is upgraded and Extract it from


SKA.
You can confirm when Extract is finished in journal log.

Relocate Software Key

Select the another NE, and relocate the Software Key which is
extracted. (It takes 20 seconds around.)
You can confirm when Relocate is finished in journal log.

Manage the user account

NEC Confidential

Register the arbitrary user name


Login with new account and check that it allows to see the screens
without authority of executable .

324

Future Support (1/2)

Function Based Software Key Relocation (Dec/2012)

Select 100Mbps!

NEC Confidential

325

Future Support(2/2)

User Level Management (Dec/2012)


This function enables users to Extract & Allocate and
Upgrade software keys.
Current

Extract
Upgrade
& Allocate *Note *Note

Reference

Setting

Administrator
User

New

N/A

N/A

Extract
Upgrade
& Allocate *Note *Note

N/A

Reference

Setting

Administrator
User
NEC Confidential

Selectable

Selectable

N/A
326

Procedure to introduce the SKA

Get License for SKA.


Tell IP Address of SKA server machine
Get the License from SKSS system.
Register the information of your SKA machine and Get
the configuration files for SKA.
Tell IP Address and MAC address of SKA server
machine.
Get the configuration files for SKA from SKSS.
Install the configuration files to SKA.
Install the SkssClientId.dat and SkssUri.dat files to
SKA Server.

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327

ABBREVIATIONS-1
Adjacent Channel Alternate

CIR

Committed Information Rate

DMM

Delay Measurement Message

Polarization

CKT

Circuit

DMR

Delay Measurement Reply

ACCP

Adjacent Channel Co-Polarization

CLK

Clock

DO

Data-out

ACK

Acknowledgement

CMF

Channel Mismatch Failure

DSCP

Differentiated Services Code Point

AGC

Automatic Gain Control

CMI

Coded Mark Inversion

DUP

Duplexer

AIS

Alarm Indication Signal

CONV

Converter

DXC

Digital Cross Connect

ALM

Alarm

CORBA

Common Object Request Broker

E1

E-carrier level 1

ALS

Auto Laser Shutdown

Architecture

EBS

Express Burst Size

AMR

Adaptive Modulation Radio

CoS

Class of Service

EIR

Excess Information Rate

ANT, Ant.

Antenna

CPU

Central Processing Unit

EMC

Electro Magnetic Compatibility

Critical

ACAP

APS

Automatic Protection Switch

CR

EML

Element Management Layer

ATT

Attenuator

CRC

Cyclic Redundancy Check

EMS

Element Management System

ATPC

Automatic Transmitter Power Control

CS

Channel Separation

EOW

C Order Wire

AU

Administrative Unit

CTRL

Control

EPS

ETH-Protection Switch

near end Code Violation

AUX

Auxiliary

CV

EQL

Equalizer

Ave

Average

CW

Carrier Wave

ERP

ETH-Ring Protection Switch

BBE

Background Block Error

DA

Destination Address

ES

Errored Seconds

BER

Bit Error Rate

DADE

Differential Absolute Delay Equalizer

ETH-CC

ETH-Continuity Check function

BPF

Band Pass Filter

DB

Database

ETH-LB

ETH-Loopback function

BS

Base Station

DC

Direct Current

ETH-LBM

ETH-Loopback Message

BSC

Base Station Controller

DCN

Data Communication Network

ETH-LBR

ETH-Loopback Reply

BTS

Base Transceiver Station

DEG

Degraded

ETH-LB

ETH-Loopback function

Drop Eligible Indicator

CAPEX

Capital Expenditure

DEI

ETH-LT

ETH- Link Trace function

CBS

Committed Burst Size

DEM

Demodulator

ETH-LTM

ETH-Link Trace Message

CCDP

Co-Channel Dual Polarization

Des(Dest)

Destination

ETH-LTR

ETH-Link Trace Reply

CCM

Continuity Check Message

DI

Data-in

ETH-OAM

Ethernet Operations, Administration

Conference of European Postal &

DL

Download

Telecommunication Administration

DM

Delay Measurement

CEPT

NEC Confidential

and Maintenance

328

ABBREVIATIONS-2
ETH-OAM LB

ETH-OAM Loopback

ETH-OAM LT

ETH-OAM Link Trace

ETH-RDI

ETH-Remote Defect Indication function

ETSI

European Telecommunications
Standards Institute

EXC

Electrical Cross Connect

E-to-E.

End-to-End

Fail

Failure

F/B

Front Back Ratio

FCS

Frame Check Sequence

FDB

Forwarding Database

FE

Fast Ethernet

FEC

Forward Error Correction

FEBBE

Far End Background Block Error

FEES

Far End Errored Seconds

FESES

Far End Severely Errored Seconds

FEUAS

Far End Unavailable Seconds

FPGA

Field Programmable Gate Array

F/W

Firmware

GbE, GBE

Gigabit Ethernet

3GPP

Third Generation Partnership Project

GUI

Graphical User Interface

Horizontal

HDB

High Density Bipolar

HK

House Keeping

HP

Higher order Path

HYB

Hybrid

H/W

Hardware

NEC Confidential

ID

Identification

IDU

Indoor Unit

IE

Internet Explorer

IEC

International Electro technical


Commission

IEEE

Institute of Electrical and Electronics


Engineers

I/F

Interface

IF

Intermediate Frequency

IHG

iPASOLINK High Grade

IN

Input

INTFC

Interface

I/O

Input/Output

IP

Internet Protocol

ITU

International Telecommunication Union

ITU-R

Radio Communication Sector of ITU

ITU-T

Telecommunication Sector of ITU

L2SW

Layer2-Switch

LAN

Local Area Network

LB

Loopback

LBM

Loopback Message

LCD

Loss of Cell Delineation

LCT

Local Craft Terminal

LDPC

Low Density Parity Check

LED

Light Emitting Diode

Lev.

Level

LLF

Link Loss Forwarding

LM

Loss Measurement

LMM

Loss Measurement Message

LNA

Low Noise Amplifier

LO

Local Oscillator

LOC

Loss of Continuity

LOF

Loss of Frame

LOM

Loss of Multiframe

LOP

Loss of Pointer

LO REF

Local Reference Signal Loss

LOS

Loss of Signal

LP

Lower order Path

LPM

Link Performance Monitor

LT

Link Trace

LTI

Loss of incoming Timing Input

LTM

Link Trace Message

MAC

Media Access Control

MAIN

Main

MAINT

Maintenance

MAX

Maximum

Mdev

Mean Deviation

MDCPU

MODEM CPU

MDI

Medium Dependent Interface

MDIX

Medium Dependent Interface


Crossover

MD4

Message Digest Algorithm 4

MD5

Message Digest Algorithm 5

MEG

Maintenance Entity Group

MEM

Memory

MEP

MEG End Point

329

ABBREVIATIONS-3
MIN

Minimum

Octs

Octets

PMC

PASOLINK Management Card

MIP

Maintenance Intermediate Point

ODU

Out-Door Unit

PMON

Performance Monitor

MIX

Mixer

OFS

Out of Frame Second

PNMSj

MJ

Major

OMT

Ortho-Mode Transducer

MMC

Multi Media Card

OPEX

Operational expenditure

PPI

PDH PHY Interface

MME

Mobility Management Entity

OPP

Opposite

ppm

parts per million

PASOLINK Network Management


System Java Version

MMG

Mismerge

OPR

Operation

PPP

Point-to-Point Protocol

MN

Minor

OPT

Optical

PPS

Path Protection Switch

MOD

Modulator

OSPF

Open Shortest Path First

PQ

Priority Queuing

MODEM

Modulator Demodulator

OSS

Operation Support System

PRM

Parameter

MON

Monitor

OUT

Output

PROT

Protection

MPX

Multiplexer

OW

Oder Wire

PS

Power Supply

MS

Multiplex Section

PA

Power Amplifier

PSC

Protection Switching Counts

MSC

Mobile Switching Center

PBR

Pressurizable Type B, flange profile

PSD

Protection Switching Duration

MSDU

MAC Service Data Unit

square Rectangular

PWR

Power

MSP

Multiplex Section Protection

PCP

Priority Code Point

QAM

Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

MTBF

Mean Time Between Failure

PDH

Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy

QoS

Quality of Service

MTPC

Manual Transmitter Power Control

PDU

Protocol Data Unit

QPSK

Quadrature Phase Shift Keying

MUX

Multiplexing Equipment

PGM

Program

RCVR

Recover

N/A

Not Applicable

PHY

Physical

REF

Reference

NBI

Northbound Interface

PIR

Peak Information Rate

REM

Remote

NE

Network Element

PJE

Pointer Justification Event

RDI

Remote Defect Indication

NML

Network Management Layer

PJE-N

Pointer Justification Event Negative Stuff

RF

Radio Frequency

NMS

Network Management System

PJE-P

Pointer Justification Event Positive Stuff

RFS

Radio Frequency Systems

OAM

Operation Administration and

PKG

Package

RL

Relay

Maintenance

Pkts

Packets

RMON

Remote Network Monitoring

Occur

PLM

Payload Label Mismatch

RNC

Radio Network Controller

OCR

NEC Confidential

330

ABBREVIATIONS-4
RPL

Ring Protection Link

SUB

Substitute

UNEXP

Unexpected

RS

Regenerator Section

SW

Switch

Unicast DMR

Unicast Delay Measurement Reply

RS-232

Recommended Standard 232

S/W

Software

UNM

Unexpected MEP

RSL

Received Signal Level

SWG

Switch Group

UNP

Unexpected Period

RST

Regenerator Section Termination

SYNC

Synchronous

USB

Universal Serial Bus

RSTP

Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol

TCI

Tag Control Information

Vertical

RX

Receiver

TCN

Threshold Crossing Notification

Volt

SC

Service Channel

TDM

Time Division Multiplex

VC

Virtual Channel

SD

Space Diversity

TDMoP

TDM over Packet

VLAN

Virtual LAN

SDH

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy

TEMP

Temperature

VP

Virtual Path

SEG

Segment

TERM

Terminal

VPN

Virtual Private Network

SEP

Severely Errored Period

TF

Transmit Fail

VSWR

Voltage Standing Wave Ratio

SES

Severely Errored Seconds

TIM

Trace Identifier Mismatch

WDM

Wavelength Division Multiplexing

SFP

Small Form factor Pluggable

TLV

Type Length Value

Web

World Wide Web

SGMI

Security Gateway Management

TM

Through Mode

WG

Waveguide

Interface

TNC

Threaded Neil Councilman

WR

Warning

SMS

Synchronous Multiplexing System

ToS

Type of Service

WRR

Weighted Round Robin

SMU

Source Measure Unit

TPID

Tag Protocol Identifier

WS

Wayside

SNCP

Sub-network Connection Protection

TQC

Total Quality Control

XCTRL

XPIC Control

SNMP

Simple Network Management Protocol

TTL

Time To Live

X-DEM

XPIC Demodulator

XFP

SP

Strict Priority

TU

Tributary Unit

SPD

Speed

TX

Transmitter

SRC

Source MAC Address

UAE

UAS Event

XIF

XPIC IF

STAT

Status

UAS

Unavailable Seconds

XPD

Cross Polarization Discrimination Ratio

XPIC

STD

Standard

UL

Upload

STM

Synchronous Transport Module

UNEQ

Unequipped

STP

Spanning Tree Protocol

NEC Confidential

10(X) Gigabit Small Form Factor


Pluggable

Cross Polarization Interference


Canceller

XREF

XPIC Reference

331