Anda di halaman 1dari 32

CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE


The use of technology in education has become an increasingly important area of
research during the past several decades. During this time, technology has been used as a
medium to encourage inquiry, enhance communication, construct teaching materials, and assist
students self-expression (Beak et al., 2008). According to Beak and others 2008, technology
could be use to encourage inquiry which is very important in teaching science in elementary. It
also enhances communication and most importantly is that we can construct teaching materials
suited to our lesson in easy way to provide better learning experiences.
The importance of technology for science in schools is impossible to ignore, as its use
has the potential to contribute to science teaching and learning by expediting and enhancing
work production, supporting exploration and experimentation, supporting collective knowledgebuilding, improving motivation and engagement, offering learners more responsibility and
control through individual exploration and experimentation, and helping students to visualize
processes more clearly (Henessy, 2006). Research reports that experienced teachers seem
reluctant to incorporate educational technology in schools, while student teachers and newly
qualified teachers are more confident users of educational technology (Galanouli and McNair,
2001; Madden et al. 2005; Sime and Priestley, 2005; Andersson, 2006).
The statements of different authors mentioned above reveals that educational
technology is really effective in teaching science. In our generation technology really matters as
far as students ability to learn is concerned. Some invention in science will not be possible
without technology. The advent of technology really benefits majority of the students of todays
generation.

Generally, technology in classroom-related activities refers to computers and videos


and the associated hardware, networks, and software that enable them to function (Mehlinger and
Powers, 2002). Educational technology has an effective role in moving from teacher-centred
learning activities to student-centered learning activities. However, the role of a teacher remains
crucial to the effective use of educational technologies (Zhao et al., 2001).
Therefore, having teachers who are competent in using and managing educational
technology is important. One way of solving this problem is by training student teachers in
educational technology during their initial teacher education (Smarkola, 2008).
It is still the teacher who will make it effective. The teacher must have the ability to
use computer to provide better learning experiences for the pupils. They are the one who is
responsible to use it. Technology for better instruction is useless if the teachers are not using it
properly for teaching.
Another important factor for focusing on educational technology during initial teacher
education is the fact that student teachers or newly qualified teachers are more willing to learn
and use educational technology in their classroom practices. The successful use of educational
technology depends largely on the attitudes of teachers and their willingness to embrace new
technology (Teo et al., 2007). A positive attitude towards educational technology will develop an
intention or determination to use educational technology in her/his classroom. The value of or
teachers perceptions of the usefulness of new technologies are also critical (Ma et al., 2005). It is
reported that teachers generally believe in the usefulness of educational technology in the
classroom ( Plumm, 2008). If a teacher believes in the usefulness of educational technology, it
will be easier for her / him to implement educational technology in the classroom and acquire

related the necessary skills. Since teachers are the keys to the effective use of computers in the
educational system (Zhao et al., 2001), it is important to understand their attitudes toward
computers.
Educational technology tools such as computers, probeware, data collection and analysis
software, digital microscopes, hypermedia/multimedia, student response systems, and interactive
white boards can help students actively engage in the acquisition of scientific knowledge and
development of the nature of science and inquiry. When educational technology tools are used
appropriately and effectively in science classrooms, students actively engage in their knowledge
construction and improve their thinking and problem solving skills (Trowbridge, Bybee, &
Powell, 2008). Many new educational technology tools are now available for science teachers.
However, integrating technology into instruction is still challenging for most teachers (Norris,
Sullivan, Poirot, & Soloway, 2003; Office of Technology Assessment [OTA], 1995). The existing
studies demonstrate that technology integration is a long-term process requiring commitment
(Doering, Hughes, & Huffman, 2003; Hughes, Kerr, & Ooms, 2005; Sandholtz, Ringstaff, &
Dwyer, 1997). Teachers need ongoing support while they make efforts to develop and sustain
effective technology integration. Professional learning communities, where teachers collaborate
with other teachers to improve and support their learning and teaching, are effective for
incorporating technology into teaching (Krajcik et al., 1994; Little, 1990). As a part of a
community, teachers share their knowledge, practices, and experiences; discuss issues related to
student learning; and critique and support each others knowledge and pedagogical growth while
they are learning about new technologies (Hughes et al., 2005). Technology integration is most
commonly associated with professional development opportunities. The need for participantdriven professional development programs in which teachers engage in inquiry and reflect on

their practices to improve their learning about technology has been emphasized by many
researchers (Loucks-Horsley et al., 2003; Zeichner, 2003). Zeichner, for example, argued that
teacher action research is an important aspect of effective professional development. According
to Zeichner, to improve their learning and practices, teachers should become teacher researchers,
conduct self-study research, and engage in teacher research groups. These collaborative groups
provide teachers with support and opportunities to deeply analyze their learning and practices.
Nowadays, language teaching methods and approaches, especially in foreign language
learning and teaching practices, have been innovated, to facilitate language acquisition.
Learning involves understanding how one learns and how a person interacts to learn a language.
This means that teachers must ensure that the tools they use have a proper fit with their teaching
goals and their intended learning outcomes. They have to encourage independent learning and
individual learner creativity to facilitate learning. They have also to encourage learners to assume
some of the responsibilities for their own learning. But, students who learn a foreign language
require more than traditional methods of teaching. They require some other teaching techniques
focusing on the promotion of the use of technology in education. For this reason, when
technology is carefully and thoughtfully integrated into a course, it can make a superb
contribution. Both teachers and students can benefit from technologys presence and its impact
on how the course material is received and understood (Dunn, Wilson, Freeman, Stowell, 2011).
Educators who take advantage of technology encourage their students to sign up for email updates or text message alerts to receive homework assignments and reminders for
activities in the classroom. There are others who use free download computer software available
online to develop language skills and most of these software allow teachers to track their
students progress. As a result, most of the students respond well to these types of

communication and teaching methods. This happens because students are familiar with
technology. By definition, technology can involve any of the following: Hardware (i.e., laptop
or desktop computers, projectors, monitors) Software (i.e., word processing, presentation,
statistical, and networks) Portable handheld devices (i.e., audio/video players, digital books,
smartphones, and personal response systems)Web connections (i.e., online course, coursemanagement systems, socialnetworks, RSS feeds, wikis, blogs, postcasts) (Dunn, Wilson,
Freeman,Stowell, 2011).
The importance of technology in teaching methods is that there is no interruption in the
delivery of the message. Some characteristics are to instantly ask questions, address doubts and
get immediate feedback. Technology has the potential to benefit teaching and learning, helping
professors to explore and use a variety of current programs, tools and resources available online
for free. The web now allows users to modify existing content, create new content, personalize
their web experience, and build online education networks and share interests (the write web)
(Lightle, 2011).
The WWW has made it easy to access information from vast Internet resources for many
educational reasons (Hefzallah, 2000). And, Netscape, from netscape communications and
Internet Explorer, from microsoft are their graphic interface for searching the web, known as
web browsers. Nunn, Wilson, Freeman, and Stowell (2011) show off the following list of upto-date technologies to gather information: Blackboard Academic Suite 8.0, PowerPoint 2007,
Adobe Presenter 7, Respondus 4.0, Google Blogger, GarageBand 3.0, and Adobe Acrobat 9, but
readers should always check on availability of the latest versions of such technologies. Also, the
use of social networking sites such as YouTube, MySpace, Twitter, are some of the most
common ones. Friendster is the first global online social network to support Asian languages

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/) and LinkedIn is a site used for professional purposes as well as


Blog, Delicious, Wiki, Podcast or even Skype. There are other tools that are an excellent source
for teaching, such as Camtasia Studio, Animoto, Picture Trail, for producing video tutorials, or
Power Bullet a flash movie creator, or web sites for sharing presentations, documents, PDFs,
videos and webinars such as Docstoc and Slideshare. As a result of the use of these
technological tools and resources, students who use computers are familiar with tools such as
spelling and grammar checks, as well as Web search engines such as Google, without realizing
that they involve aspects of computational linguistics (Fasold and Connor-Linton, 2006). There
are courses online that have been designed for students with no previous knowledge of English,
or any other language, that would help students to learn. For example there is: English for
Spanish speaking students, whose websites are http://duolingo.com/, www.emagister.com,
www.mansioningles.com,

and

also

online

translators

and

dictionaries

such

as

www.traducegratis.com and http://www.wordreference.com/, and others that can be used for


students and people in general to study languages and translate real content
Routinely, articles and books are published that continue to make the argument that
schools use too much technology. Some critics attack technology use in schools for
physiological, psychological, moral, and physical reasons, and those critics and their opinions
may never change. However, most critics attack technology use because they believe it provides
minimal value-added benefit to educational efforts. Fool's gold: A critical look at computers in
childhood (Cordes

&

Miller,

2000), Oversold

and

underused:

Computers

in

the

classroom (Cuban, 2001), and The Flickering Mind (Oppenheimer, 2003) are three critiques that
have received considerable attention as serious criticisms of technology use in schools.
The main criticism in all three of these books, and other critical articles as well, is that computers

are not as cost effective as other interventions. They note the obsolescence factor of computers
and the ongoing costs of upgrading both hardware and software. Some critics indicate a belief
that many hardware and software companies purposely design products to become quickly
obsolete and thus require updates that educators must buy. It is their belief that educational
technology is too much in its infancy and not yet reliable enough for use by most students.
Despite of its effectiveness, there are some who criticize the effectiveness of it in the
classroom. They believe that it provides minimal value-added benefits to educational efforts. In
this research we will find out the level of its effectiveness into teaching-learning process. This
research will also reveals that technology has many advantages when it comes to teaching
science and other subjects in the field of education.
Some critics such as Kirkpatrick and Cuban (2008) indicate that technology
equipment requires extensive support structures that require districts to take money away from
basic expenditures for other and better uses in the classroom. They believe this money should be
invested in the arts, science laboratories, shops, and anything else that involves more hands-on
ways of learning. Technology literacy, some believe, is highly overblown in its importance and
that people who need to use technology will learn by using task applications that involve "real"
work.
The criticism is especially strong for computer use by younger students. Some critics
believe that with the exceptions of assistive technologies for students with special needs, students
below the third grade should not use much, if any, technology. Other critics are concerned that
technology reduces socialization opportunities. Some parents are concerned about the effect that
children are gaining so much of their world knowledge from a virtual, rather than the real, world.

Other critics are concerned that the sexual and violent content accessible on the Internet
challenges or prevents character education necessary for development of moral citizens (Rifkin,
2000).
Some critics think that technology use is a wasteful and negative use of scarce
resources and give examples of visiting schools where uses of computers are actually making
education worse. They note that in many cases, teachers use computers to entertain students with
irrelevant and unconnected activities because it makes their teaching lives easier and not because
it benefits students as they learn important content.
Subsequently, several people have written very enlightening responses to such critics.
Two articles that are especially informative are "Myths and Realities about Technology in K12"
by G. M. Kleiman (2000) and " Strip Mining for Gold: Research and Policy in Educational
TechnologyA Response to Fool's Gold" by D. H. Clements and J. Samara (2003). Kleiman
(2000) indicated that there are realities to some of the criticisms but that many of the points of
objection are due to poor implementation of technology. He noted:
The central theme underlying all these myths is that while modern technology has
great potential to enhance teaching and learning, turning that potential into reality on a large
scale is a complex, multifaceted task. The key determinant of our success will not be the number
of computers purchased or cables installed, but rather how we define educational visions, prepare
and support teachers, design curriculum, address issues of equity, and respond to the rapidly
changing world. As is always the case in efforts to improve K12 education, simple, short-term
solutions turn out to be illusions; long-term, carefully planned commitments are required. (p. 20)

No doubt, technology will always have critics. Some believe that technology
reduces hands-on experience and student engagement in active participation. Others believe
technology reduces important human contact. In the final analysis, one can conclude that
identified uses of technology can have different critiques depending on one's personal values and
perspectives of what is good and bad in education. The single most important factor for reducing
criticism of technology use in instruction is to have teachers who are competent and
knowledgeable about appropriate and effective use of technology to improve student learning.
Technology has been proved to accommodate learning styles and to be an effective
motivator for students with specific learning needs. Furthermore, students working in
collaborative-team-learning settings appear to function better when learning events are
accompanied by technology use. In addition, technology also is important when used to provide
distance-learning opportunities to students who otherwise would not have access to course
offerings. Distance education is especially important to students in rural settings because many
high school courses that are necessary prerequisites in universities, such as higher mathematics
and science offerings, are less available because of the fewer numbers of students in smaller
schools.
In contrast to the statement above supported by The National Center for Education
Statistics (Fox, 2005) that there are virtually no differences in Internet access between poor
schools and wealthier schools, equal access to technologyespecially in families of high
povertycontinues to be a problem. The National Center for Education Statistics (DeBell &
Chapman, 2003) study reported that among the group of children and adolescents who access the
Internet at only one location, 52 percent of those from families in poverty and 59 percent of those
whose parents have not earned at least a high school credential do so at school. In comparison,

26 percent of those from families not in poverty and 39 percent of those with more highly
educated parents do so only at school. This illustrates the role of schools in bridging the digital
divide.
A reasonable conclusion is that classroom computers and other technology can play
many instructional roles, from personal tutor and information source to data organizer and
communication tool. So, it is important for teachers to consider how computers and other
electronic technologies can enhance the learning experiences of students and increase their
productivity. The primary conclusion of much of the research is that technology has considerable
potential for increasing interest in, and improving the quality of, learning in science and
mathematics classrooms. However, effective use of instructional technology is possible only if
sufficient attention is given to the following: Curriculum uses, Instructional pedagogy used,
Assessments used, Sufficiency of technology and access to the Internet, and Ability of the
teacher, especially, to model uses of technology.
Incorporating technology into the classroom requires a double innovation, says
Shelley Pasnik, director of the Center for Education and Technology, Educators who receive new
technology must first learn how to use the equipment and then decide whether or not it supports
the class objectives and curriculum.
For example, an instructor may restructure a lecture into a group activity, having
students conduct online research to boost their understanding. With such a vast reference tool,
the students might pose questions that no one in the class, not even the teacher himself, can
answer. Many teachers and schools choose to avoid this situation by discouraging the use of
computers in a well-organized lesson. Their latest shipment of Smartboards, ELMOs, or iPads

stays locked in a closet as they struggle to find the time to effectively incorporate them into the
curriculum plan.
Despite the challenges, incorporating technology into education still has proven
benefits, especially when it comes to personalized learning. From math games that adjust the
level of difficulty as players progress to electronic books that talk and respond to the tap of a
finger, products that personalize the learning experience for students often benefit their
understanding. An interactive game is more engaging than a book, so technology often promotes
more practice and review in areas requiring memorization, such as spelling, math and geography.
This frees up time in the classroom so educators can focus on skills like problem solving,
character development and critical thinking.
In some countries years ago, education was not accessible to students living in rural
areas or at a distance from their educational centers. Students did not have access to vast
resources or learning trends. With new technology, its pretty easy accessing a Web site and using
a headset. Distance learning courses online (virtual classroom) and flexibility to manage
academic, personal and professional commitments transgress the barriers of time and place.
Around the world, students at all levels and professors have interest in digital learning
opportunities such as Virtual Learning Environments in which e-learning platforms such as:
E-ducativa or Moodle are used to train users how to manage a virtual information environment
by using Web 2.0 tools that make exploration possible. These tools introduce teachers in the
integration of technology in their everyday teaching. In an online environment, learners pursue
learning in an individualized and self-paced way. Its more of a self-directed learning where the
knowledge is not just transferred but emerges on its own via a virtual classroom
(http://www.etni.org.il/etnirag/issue5/mark_cruthers.htm). The online sessions are far more

convenient and effective as the tutor and student can connect from anywhere with just a
requirement of an internet connection. In a virtual class, content is primarily text-based (digital
textbook E-books) and delivered through chats and presentations. Moreover, links and websites can be shared in an online session. Universities offer seminars about how to use educational
platforms and produce educational videos such as Prezi, Camtasia studio, and Power Bullet.
Technology is highly important to everyone. Integrating technology in the classroom
motivates students.In todays world, if there isnt time to study a career, in a physical location it
is possible to do it through the Internet which is the key access to distance or virtual learning.
There are some private universities considered pioneers in distance education. They offer online
degree programs through global learning or e-learning platforms. On many campuses, students
come to college with cellphones, laptops, iPods, and more knowledge about recent technological
advances than many of their professors (Dunn, Wilson, Freeman, Stowell, 2011). And, this fact is
shaping a new system of education that encourages and promotes the acquisition of technology.
This challenge is compulsory to develop e-learning skills that enable the proficient use of the
Internet and other technologies for learning and educational practice.
Educational technology is also a way for teachers to deliver content to students and
research within the classroom. Students have to know how to use software even more
programs/applications to do several tasks. It can be said that the best technological advances and
the most useful technological tools engage teaching for the better. Since technology is not only
the access to master a foreign language, but a tool of being more effective in the use and
application of existing technology. The best technological tools in use today are tablets, laptops,
smartphones and cellphones blackberry or android. The online services known as Google Apps
are the typical example of todays innovation and explosion, users just have to download iPhone

apps from Apple App Store and Android apps from the Android Market and thats it. They can
communicate with other people everywhere inside or outside their country, share photos or
videos.
Teachers and students have to take advantage of the many benefits softwares have to
develop a positive attitude towards learning. Nowadays, educational softwares have crucial
functions to enhance learning and most of them are free download, and teachers can make good
use of them but they have to select which ones can be incorporated into the EFL classroom.
Teachers who are integrating technology find that students are more motivated to learn, apply
their knowledge to practical problems, and take ownership of their learning. Teachers also report
that by using technology, students are developing key 21st-century skills including creativity,
collaboration, and skills in problem solving and critical thinking. Teachers also see changes in
their teaching practice as a result of technology integration instruction (Lightle, 2011).
The impact of digital technologies on science teacher education is more pervasive than
any curricular or instructional innovation in the past. The impact can be felt on three fronts. First,
as with the hands-on science movement, digital technologies are changing the ways teachers
interact with students in the classroom. Psychological theories (Borich & Tombari, 2007) based
on the importance of language to learning, the ways organizing and relating information
facilitates understanding, and the influence of social factors in the classroom are all impacted by
digital technologies. Second, teacher education courses are not only influenced by new K-12
curricula, they are also influenced by instructional approaches, fueled by the National Science
Education Standards (NRC, 2006), that incorporate a variety of digital technologies.
Technological applications go beyond K-12 curriculum to the delivery of college level content.
For instance, faculty and students explore web resources for educational statistics or education-

The following technology guidelines for science education are intended to provide
assistance in designing instruction and to guide applications of technology to support science
teacher education reform, as framed by Benchmarks for Scientific Literacy (AAAS, 1993) and
the National Science Education Standards (NRC, 1996). The Association for the Education of
Teachers in Science (AETS) joins other national associations of teacher educators in
mathematics, English, and social studies through the National Technology Leadership Initiative
to guide thoughtful consideration for how best to use contemporary technologies to enhance
subject-matter focused educational goals in the preparation of teachers.
There are some proposed guidelines for using technology in the Preparation of Science Teachers
which includes the following; (1) Technology should be introduced in the context of science
content, (2) Technology should address worthwhile science with appropriate pedagogy, (3)
Technology instruction in science should take advantage of the unique features of technology, (4)
Technology should make scientific views more accessible, (5) Technology instruction should
develop students' understanding of the relationship between technology and science.
Technology should be introduced in the context of science content. The first principle is
centered on the notion that technology should not be taught merely for its own sake in the
preparation of science teachers. Features of technology should be introduced and illustrated in
the context of meaningful science. In other words, technology should be presented as a means,
not an end. This principle has implications for teaching science content, as well as for science
teacher preparation. For example, preservice teachers in science education programs are often
required to take a generic educational technology course taught by an instructional technology
expert. In this class, the preservice teachers are supposed to develop a variety of technologyrelated skills, including the ability to use word processors, presentation software, spreadsheets,

and the Internet. Preservice teachers typically are then left to apply their newly developed
technology skills to teaching content in their subject area.
This approach is backwards. Teaching a set of technology or software-based skills and
then trying to find scientific topics for which they might be useful obscures the purpose of
learning and using technology in the science classroomto enhance the learning of science.
Furthermore, this approach can make science appear to be an afterthought. Preservice teachers
are, in essence, left to develop contrived activities that integrate a set of decontextualized
instructional technology skills into the context of their classroom.
If the purpose of technology in science teaching is to enhance science teaching and
learning (rather than for the technology's sake alone), a different approach is necessary. For
example, teacher educators at Oregon State University and the University of Virginia are
collaborating on a project designed to teach Internet and spreadsheet skills to preservice science
and mathematics teachers in the context of an exploration of the El Nio weather phenomenon.
Considering its impact on local weather and climate, El Nio holds both interest and relevance to
the average student. Certainly, it has provided meteorologists and climatologists with a powerful
Technology should address worthwhile science with appropriate pedagogy. Much has
been learned about effective science instruction since the emergence of science education as a
field in the 1950s. Teaching science for understanding, instead of for rote memorization, requires
students to be active participants who are engaged in asking questions, observing and inferring,
collecting and interpreting data, and drawing conclusions (AAAS, 2004; Bybee, 2007; Goodrum,
2002; Matthews, 20044; NRC, 2006; Tobin, Treagust,& Frasier, 2008). In essence, teacher

education courses should emphasize methods for providing students with opportunities to do
science, in addition to learning the facts and concepts of science.
Content-based activities using technology should be used in the process of modeling
effective science teaching for new teachers. Thus, appropriate uses of technology should enhance
the learning of worthwhile science concepts and process skills, as well as reflect the nature of
science. This guideline and Guideline 1 are based on the same principle that science should be
learned in a meaningful context..
Furthermore, activities involving technology should make appropriate connections to
student experiences and promote student-centered, inquiry-based learning. Activities should
support sound scientific curricular goals and should not be developed merely because technology
makes them possible. Indeed, the use of technology in science teaching should support and
facilitate conceptual development, process skills, and habits of mind that make up scientific
literacy, as described by the National Science Education Standards (NRC, 2006) and Project
2061 (AAAS, 20033).
Technological support for inquiry is not the implementation of one application but a
bundle of applications (Germann & Sasse, 2007). Consequently, teacher education courses must
make appropriate pedagogy visible through the complex interactions among students and
classroom technologies. Technology can support student investigations and direct collection and
presentation of data through real-time data collection via microcomputer based probeware.
PowerPoint or spreadsheet functions support presentations that demonstrate the relationship
between hypothesis and data. Further manipulations of the display can help students formulate
conclusions based on data. For example, by examining various graphical formats, students can be

guided to think about implications by looking for trends, identifying categories, or making
comparisons. Through microteaching environments and supervised experience, new teachers
should become aware of how applications of technology help students share and collaborate in
building their knowledge of science and scientific inquiry.
Modeling the use of technologies in the context of learning science is critical in teacher
education for another reason. A common maxim in teacher preparation is that "teachers teach the
way they were taught." Experience has shown that few preservice teachers are able to make the
intellectual leap between learning to use technology out of context in their teacher preparation
programs and using it in the context of teaching science in the classroom. Teachers need to see
specific examples of how technology can enhance science instruction in their content areas
before they can hope to appropriately integrate technology in their own instruction.
Technology instruction in science should take advantage of the unique features of
technology. Technology modeled in science education courses should take advantage of the
capabilities of technology and extend instruction beyond or significantly enhance what can be
done without technology. New teachers should experience technology as a means of helping
students explore topics in more depth and in more interactive ways. An evaluation study of the
Technology-Enhanced Secondary Science Instruction (TESSI) project (Pedretti, Mayer-Smith, &
Woodrow, 2008) documented the impact of technologies integrated at many levels. A preservice
methods course could critically examine the content and outcomes of this study as a way of
applying unique features of technology for learning science. For example, students in TESSI
classrooms ran virtual labs and demonstrations using the technology to slow down the action and
repeat complex activity. Students were able to rerun virtual force and motion demonstrations and

follow how each step was represented on the screen in graphical form. Students in the methods
course could discuss how well these examples utilize unique technological features.
Studies have clearly documented the value of technological capabilities for enhancing
the presentation of complex or abstract content, such as computer visualization techniques
(Baxter, 1995; Lewis, Stern, & Linn 2006). However, a concurrent concern is that novelty and
sophistication of modern technologies might distract or even mislead students in understanding
science concepts that are the target of instruction. Discussion in the methods class could continue
with a critical look at technological applications to assess whether their capabilities supported or
detracted from learning opportunities. An objective of the TESSI project was to document the
roles and perspectives of learners, teachers, and researchers participating in the project (Pedretti
et al., 2008). One hundred forty-four students were either interviewed or surveyed after
completing one school year of physics or general science in the project. Classroom instruction
involved student use of (a) simulations to extend understanding of physics concepts; (b) laser
discs, video tape, and CDs; (c) real-time data collection and graphical analysis tools associated
with computer-interfaced probes and sensors; (d) computer analysis of digitized video; (e)
presentation software; and (f) interactive student assessment software. A goal of instructional
design was to employ technology to enhance the teacher's role in the classroom, not to replace it.
Discussion of this study and others like it helps establish this central goal that should be used in
the assessment of instructional design and implementation in teacher education courses.
None of the students interviewed felt that computer experiences should entirely replace
the "doing" and "seeing" of actual laboratory or in-class demonstrations. They were clear in
stating that computer technologies and hands-on lab experiences play a complementary role, so
that the actual event under study, such as a wave propagating downs a spring, can be perceived

as a concrete event then analyzed by appropriate simulations. Cognizant of balancing


technological enhancements with checks of student understanding, the teachers designed study
guides that kept students mindful of instructional goals, integrated technology with teacher-direct
instruction, and prompted student self-evaluation through small-group reviews and conferences
with a teacher.
Another criteria for assessing instructional design tasks in methods courses is that
taking advantage of technology does not mean using technology to teach the same scientific
topics in fundamentally the same ways as they are taught without technology. Such applications
believe the usefulness of technology. Students in the Pedretti et al. (2008) study took tests on
computers. The software was able to score and give general feedback more quickly than a
teacher-scored test. Using technology to perform tasks that are just as easily or even more
effectively carried out without technology may actually be a hindrance to learning. Such uses of
technology may convince teachers and administrators that preparing teachers to use technology
is not worth the extra effort and expense when, in fact, the opposite may be true.
Technology should make scientific views more accessible. Many scientifically accepted
ideas are difficult for students to understand due to their complexity, abstract nature, and/or
contrariness to common sense and experience. As Wolpert (2002) aptly commented, I would
almost contend that if something fits in with common sense it almost certainly isn't science. The
reason again, is that the way in which the universe works is not the way in which common sense
works: the two are not congruent. (p.11)
A large body of literature concerning misconceptions supports the notion that learning
science is often neither straightforward nor consistent with the conceptions students typically

construct from everyday experiences (Minstrell, 2001; Novick & Nussbaum, 2002; Songer &
Mintzes, 20044; Wandersee, Mintzes, & Novak, 1994; among many others). Whether described
as misconceptions or simply non-intuitive ideas in science (Wolpert, 2002), teachers are faced
with concepts that pose pedagogical conundrums. New teachers may not even recognize that
these instructional puzzles exist unless they are made explicit through their teacher education
course work. Developing the skills for making scientific views more accessible is an example of
what Shulman (2007) called developing "pedagogical content knowledge." The profession of
teaching, Shulman argued, may be distinguished from other disciplines by the knowledge that
teachers develop linking knowledge of content with knowledge of instruction, knowledge of
learners, and knowledge of curriculum. Developing new teacher awareness of the pedagogical
content knowledge domain and how to add to that knowledge is a central goal of science teacher
education.
Appropriate educational technologies have the potential to make scientific concepts
more accessible through visualization, modeling, and multiple representations. Secondary
teachers may have experienced examples of these technologies in college science courses.
Elementary teachers may have had limited experiences in college science. Teacher education
course work has the task of providing experiences and linking previous experience with
technologies whose purpose it is to provide representations of concepts that are difficult to
represent in everyday experience. For example, kinetic molecular theory, an abstract set of
concepts central to the disciplines of physics and chemistry, may be easier for students to
understand if they can see and manipulate representations of molecules operating under a variety
of conditions. Williamson and Abraham (2005) found support for this in their investigation into
the effectiveness of atomic and molecular behavior simulators in a college chemistry course. In

this study, atomic/molecular simulations were integrated into the instruction of two groups of
students, while a third group received no computer animation treatment. The two simulation
treatment groups achieved about one half standard deviation higher scores on assessments of
their understandings of the particulate nature of chemical reactions. The authors concluded that
the simulations increased conceptual understanding by helping students form their own dynamic
mental models.
Technology instruction should develop understanding of the relationship between
technology and science. Despite Western society's heavy dependence on technology, few
teachers actually understand how technology is used in science. Nor can they adequately
describe the relationship between science and technology. For example, one of the most common
definitions of technology used in schools today is "applied science" (Spector& Lederman, 2000).
While this familiar definition seems reasonable at first glance, it ignores the fact that the history
of technology actually precedes that of Western science (Kranzberg, 2004) and that the
relationship between science and technology is reciprocal (AAAS, 2009). A more appropriate
understanding of technology for inclusion in teacher education courses is the concept of
technology as knowledge (not necessarily scientific knowledge) applied to manipulate the
natural world and emphasizes the interactions between science and technology.
Using technologies in learning science provides opportunities for demonstrating to new
teachers the reciprocal relationship between science and technology. Extrapolating from
technology applications for classrooms, new teachers can develop an appreciation for how
advances in science drive technology, and in turn, how scientific knowledge drives new
technologies.

Computer modeling of chemical structures leads to the development of new materials


with numerous uses. In reciprocal fashion, high quality computer displays and faster computers
make possible types of scientific work impossible before such advances. This leads to new ideas
in science.
It is important to realize, however, that such understandings are unlikely to be learned
implicitly through using technology alone. Rather, new teachers must be encouraged to reflect on
science and technology as they use technology to learn and teach science., When using
microscopes, whether the traditional optical microscopes or the newer digital versions, teachers
can be encouraged to think about how science influenced the development of the microscope and
the microscope, in turn, influenced the progress of science. For example, the modern compound
microscope began as a technological development in the field of optics in the 17th century. The
instrument created a sensation as early researchers, including Antoni van Leeuwenhock and
Robert Hooke, used it to uncover previously unknown microstructure and microorganisms. This
new scientific knowledge led to new questions. For example, where do these microorganisms
come from? How do they reproduce? How do they gain sustenance? Such questions, in
conjunction with advances in optics, led to the development of ever more powerful microscopes,
which in turn, became the vehicles for even more impressive discoveries. The cycle continues to
modern times with the invention of the electron microscope and its impact on knowledge in the
fields of medicine and microbiology.
Technologies are simultaneously tools for learning about science and examples of the
application of knowledge to solve human problems. When new teachers understand technologies
as a means of solving human problems, they can be made aware that technologies come with
risks as well as benefits. This feature of technology should be represented in instructional

objectives and be visible in lesson plans and other relevant assignments. For example,
efficiencies of storage and retrieval of information have the associated risks of losing large
quantities of data in damaged disks, system malfunctions, or incorrect actions on the part of
users. Uses of technology in teacher education courses can emphasize how technologies produce
trade-offs, for instance, between gaining more sources of knowledge through the Internet and
CDs while at the same time creating a greater expenditure of time and effort sorting appropriate,
high quality information
Such statements mentioned above reveals the effectiveness of educational technology
in teaching science. It made us realized that educational technology could help us in the future
specially in the field of education to familiarized the pupils in different areas of science that only
technology can provide better learning experiences and understanding of the things around us.

CHAPTER III
THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK AND METHODOLOGY
This chapter will tackle the different methodologies and procedures used by the
researcher in doing his research study. It consists of the theoretical framework which is relevant
to his investigation and methodology which reveals the level of effectiveness of educational
technology tools in teaching science IV, It also includes research design through the use of
descriptive survey method, the research locale wherein the study conducted. It also includes the
instruments used in collecting and gathering the data, as well as the statistical tools used in
interpreting and analyzing the data.
Theoretical Framework and Methodology
These are the following theories which support or hold my research or study.
Technology for improving and facilitating learning processes is everywhere. This includes for
increasing performance within the educational system. Technology begins to change our vision
of education at the moment a teaching-learning program with technology begins. It has been
used in about every classroom, as becomes a part of the courses in universities, high schools and
middle and elementary schools all over the world. Thus, technologies as learning and teaching
tools force teachers and students to use them, similar to learning a new task. For this reason,
technology application in classrooms is essential to ensuring its efficiency and

effective

integration. Technology has now changed how teachers and students access, gather, analyze,
present, and transmit information by giving them more power in the classroom (Dooley, 1999).
The first theories on human behavior as behavior affected by technology are discussed
in this study. These learning theories are behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism. They

provide a pedagogical and/or andragogical basis for understanding how students learn. Also,
some of the approaches to teaching with technology, use of the best technological tools and
appropriate type of instruction to enhance learning under Blooms taxonomy are included. A
general perspective is given of the advantages and disadvantages that technology offers for
education.
Behaviorism
John B. Watson (1878-1958) and B. F. Skinner (1904-1990) define human learning as the
acquisition of new behavior or as a universal learning process, focusing on objectively
observable behaviors. Watson believed that human behavior resulted from specific stimuli that
elicited certain responses. Watsons basic premise was that conclusions about human
development should be based on observation of overt behavior rather than speculation about
subconscious motives or latent cognitive processes (Shaffer, 2000). Skinners major
contributions to society were his writing on improvements of teaching based on his functional
analysis of Verbal Behavior and The Technology of Teaching. These two psychologists
developed, described and experimented a kind of philosophy of learning, for practical classroom
application which are still useful. Among these contributions it is possible to mention: contracts,
consequences, reinforcement, extinction, and behavior modification.
Cognitivism
In Cognitivism, the leading researchers, Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky, investigated the
concepts of working memory: short term and long term memory, by using specific technology
from the field of Computer Science. These concepts are at the same time central to understanding
educational technology. But, when dealing with language acquisition, one of the most influential

representatives is Noam Chomsky. As a linguist, he introduces transformational grammar, or the


formal grammar of a language. Chomsky proved that language is entirely innate and that there is
a universal grammar (UG). In fact, Chomsky simply observed that although both a human
baby and a kitten are capable of inductive reasoning, if they are exposed to exactly the same
linguistic data, the human child will always acquire the ability to understand and produce
language while the kitten will never acquire either ability. In comparison with behaviorism,
cognitive theories go beyond behavior to explain brain-based learning in the same way. Theorists
consider how human memory works to promote learning.
Constructivism
In Constructivism, some of the researchers in education are John Dewey, Jerome Bruner,
and Lev Vygotsky who would demonstrate their knowledge through creativity and collaboration.
According to their theories, students should be provided with opportunities to think by
themselves and articulate their thoughts Dewey proposed a method of directed living in which
students would engage in real-world, practical workshops. Moreover, if it compared to Chomsky
s observations in language exposure, Deweys proposal in constructivism is important to point
out that both agree on how a learner is able to produce or create after being exposed to linguistic
data, prior knowledge or experience. This means that as human beings, it is possible to construct
meaning from new information in order to formulate new concepts in learning. For Noam,
schools should not focus on repetitive and rote memorization. Instead, they should center on the
production of good habits of thinking to develop creativity. This proposal emerged from his view
about how students learn. In this respect, it is important to consider Blooms taxonomy to
understand how and why individuals, groups and societies behave the way they do.

Blooms taxonomy and its domains


In 1956, Benjamin S. Bloom headed a large committee of educational psychologists
who developed a method of taxonomy or classification of global educational goals and/or
possible objectives in the classroom. This taxonomy consists of three domains: cognitive
(knowledge), affective (attitude), and psychomotor (skills) which identifies and classifies the
levels or steps of skills students need to be successful in learning. Thus, the cognitive domain
consists of six levels, the affective consists of five levels, and psychomotor consists of six levels.
During the 1990s a new group of cognitive psychologists, led by Lorin Anderson (a former
student of Blooms), updated the taxonomy reflecting relevance to 21st century work.
The (New version) changed from Nouns to Verbs to describe the different levels of the
taxonomy: (Original version) Evaluation, Synthesis ,Analysis , Application, Comprehension ,
Knowledge (New version) Creating, Evaluating, Analyzing, Applying, Understanding,
Remembering.
These levels of complexity or intellectual behavior are important in learning, to the
extent that students enjoy the learning experience. In other words, when they are engaged in the
process, they become more productive. Bloom has depicted those levels as a stairway which
looks like the Food Guide Pyramid. This stairway leads many teachers to encourage their
students to climb to a higher level of thought where creativity is the most important level to
develop thinking.
The presentation of the Taxonomy as a pyramid (in both the original and revised versions)
suggests that one cannot effectively begin to address higher levels of thinking until those below
have been thoroughly addressed so that a learner can easily follow the process, and continue

developing (http://plpnetwork.com/2012/05/15/flipping-blooms-taxonomy/). Nevertheless, there


are some professors who suggest starting at any level.
Blooms taxonomy is probably the most widely applied one in use today. Besides, it has
had a considerable impact on educational thought and practice all over the world. Furthermore, it
also has been most often transformed into a basic reference for almost all educators.
To evaluate Blooms taxonomy and technology when teaching and learning a foreign
language, its important to remember the three domains of learning and technology as a learning
tool. For instance in pronunciation, the cognitive aspects are learned by having them presented
in an organized and interesting way, and can be tested by traditional pen-and-paper examinations
(Griffiths, 2008). But in psychomotor aspects of pronunciation, learners are required to speak.
Tests are clearly listening tests rather than tests of pronunciation. For example, learners are asked
to discriminate recordings of phonemes, words, and sentences. The affective domain relates to
the learners feelings about what is being learned and the learning situation (Griffiths, 2008). In
many respects, affective considerations must be the most important issues for pronunciation
teaching, for several reasons. Primarily, many teachers pay little attention to the affective side of
language teaching. As a result, there is great potential of embarrassment, ridicule and loss of
face, especially with such a physical activity as pronunciation (Richards, 1994). When learning
the English language, it is much better if students are helped by technology. No matter if it is a
CD player or a Rosetta stone CD-ROM, the point is that all students in the classroom have the
opportunity to be immersed in an English-Speaking environment. Rosetta stone has online
sessions where students are tutored by native speakers who will help master the English
language. If students have a computer to practice pronunciation, listening, and recording of their
voice, besides spelling, their second language acquisition will be a success. Most of todays

universities have equipped labs to improve their students competence and skills in language
acquisition. Naturally, listening is crucial for language learning and the use of technology is
essential to reach this goal. Altogether with technology, good language learners need to apply
other skills such as concentration, motivation and empathy (self-encouragement or setting up
rewards for their progress) to become effective listeners. In fact, successful learners take
advantage not only of pre-recorded material on audio, video tapes, DVD or the Internet, but also,
use TV and movies, or listen to native speakers to learn English. Nevertheless, they have to be
aware of the role of a teacher in the context of the classroom, because teaching and learning may
also be influenced by the approach or methodology of the teacher.
Research Design
This study utilized the descriptive survey method. Strategies include in this method are
sampling, making observations, interviewing and it involves either identifying the characteristics
of an observed phenomenon or exploring possible correlations among two or more phenomena
Sanchez (1998) stated that descriptive research includes all studies that purport to present facts
concerning the nature and status of anything a group of persons, a number of objects, a set
of conditions, a class of events, a system of thought or any other kind of phenomena which one
may wish to study. In this research study, age, sex, and years of teaching of the teachers were
determined. Through this method, the researcher may be able to find out the level of
effectiveness of educational technology as a tool in teaching science IV.
Research Locale
The researcher conducted his research in the following public and private schools
namely; Pagbilao Central Elementary School, Pagbilao East Elementary School, Pagbilao West

Elementary School, Casa Del Nino Jesus de Pagbilao School, Al Castle Elementary School,
Pinagbayanan Elementary School, Talipan Elementary School, He chose this school because hes
been a residents of Pagbilao, he may be feel at ease to communicate well with the teacher of the
following schools mentioned above. He also chose this school because he wants to apply in one
of these schools as by the time he graduate and he wants to help the school on having a program
on how to use educational technology as tools in teaching science through the knowledge he
gained from his research.
Respondents
The researcher selected 30 teachers of Grade 4 who teaches science in different schools in
Pagbilao district. The teachers were selected randomly, they are all came from different public
and private schools in Pagbilao, Quezon namely: Pagbilao Central Elementary School, Pagbilao
East Elementary School, Pagbilao West Elementary School, Casa Del Nino Jesus de Pagbilao
School, Al Castle Elementary School, Pinagbayanan Elementary School, Talipan Elementary
School.
Sampling Procedure

Research Instrument
The researcher gathered data through the use of questionnaire. The questionnaire consist
of the following problem statement, the demographic profile of the respondents include their age,
sex, years of teaching service, also the effectiveness of educational technology tools in teaching

science in terms of management, as strategy, as tool enhancement , and lastly the implication of
using educational technology as tools in teaching science.
Data Gathering Procedures
The data for this research were collected using a survey questionnaire. The survey was
created using suitable questions modified from related research and individual questions formed
by the researcher. The survey was comprised of 20 questions, which were related to the
participants perception regarding the level of effectiveness of educational technology as tools in
teaching science IV. After the professor validated the questionnaire, these were distributed to the
selected public and private schools science teachers in Pagbilao, Quezon. The researchers
assured confidentiality of their survey sheets since the identities are not important. The
researchers also understood that peoples consciousness may also affect their honesty and
effectiveness in answering the survey, and so, the researchers gave people the option of being
anonymous. Participants were given time to respond and then the researchers collected the
surveys the next day. There were no incentives offered for participating in the research. Next, the
researchers planned the questions that they would be asking to the interview.
Statistical Treatment
The researcher was guided by this formula:
For weighted mean
WM=TWF
Where:
WM= weighted mean

TWF= total product of the rank values or weighted of the categories or values
interpretation multiplied by their respective frequency.