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Drilling

Dynamics
Drilling
DrillingDynamics
Dynamics
Drilling
Dynamics
A Key Component of Drilling
Optimization

A Halliburton Company

Drilling Dynamics
Vibration is the resultant motion or oscillation
of a machine in response to a force

Dynamics is one part of


Drilling Efficiency

In the Drilling
Environment
dynamics means

VIBRATION
VIBRATION
VIBRATION
VIBRATION
VIBRATION
VIBRATION
VIBRATION

Overview
Description
Dynamics and its effects

Sources and Factors That Effect Vibration


Solutions
Steps that can be taken to reduce it

Costs of Downhole Vibration


Inefficient Drilling and reduced ROP
Bit Damage
Damage to Rig Equipment
Damage to Downhole Electronics
Accelerated Fatigue
Increased Abrasion of Drill String Components
Poor Well Bore Condition
Interference with Downhole Telemetry

Modes of Vibration
Axial

Axial
Bit Bounce

Lateral
Bit Whirl
BHA Whirl
Bending
Bit Chatter

Lateral

Torsional
Slip Stick
Bit Whirl
BHA Whirl
Torsional

Coupling

Modes Of Vibration
MECHANISMS

MODE OF VIBRATION

FREQUENCY

BIT BOUNCE

AXIAL

1 - 10 Hz

BIT CHATTER

LATERAL

50 - 350+ Hz

BIT WHIRL

LATERAL / TORSIONAL

5 - 100 Hz

BHA WHIRL

LATERAL / TORSIONAL

5 - 20 Hz

SLIP STICK

TORSIONAL

0 - 5 Hz

MODAL COUPLING

AXIAL,LATERAL,TORSIONAL

0 - 20 Hz

Bit Bounce
Causes
Bit/Formation Interaction
Multilobe Pattern of RC Bits
WOB Variation

Consequences
Impact Loading of Cutters, Seals and Bearings
Drill String Can Flex Causing Lateral Shocks

Detection

Axial movement of String at Surface at Shallow Depths


Shaking of Hoisting Equipment at Shallow Depths
Use Downhole Shock Sensor mounted for Z-Axis (DDS)
Broken Teeth / Inserts and Ball Race Indention's on RC Bits
Broken Nose Cutters on PDC Bits

Bit Bounce
Corrective Actions
Decrease WOB and/or Decrease RPM
If Persists Stop, Pick up and Restart with Low RPM and WOB
until Bit is bedded in.

Other Solutions (Post Run)


Less Aggressive Bit
Use Shock Sub if run with correct RPM, WOB and ROP

Backward Whirl

Bit or BHA Whirl


Eccentric rotation
about a point other than
geometric center
Caused by Bit or BHA
/ Wellbore gearing
Results in backward
rotation of
circumferential points
(e.g. blade tip)

Backward Whirl
Potential Consequences
Bit damage
MWD / BHA Tool component failures
Localized Tooljoint / Stabilizer Wear
(Flat Spots)

Connection fatigue cracks leading to washout


and / or twist off

Excessive torque
Enlarged / spiral wellbore profile

Bit Damage
Resulting From Whirl
Impact damage
on rear of blades
due to backward
rotation, resulting
in broken blades

Forward Whirl
Eccentric rotation about
a point other than
geometric center
May occur with bent
housing motors
Results in bit rolling
around wellbore
synchronously with
direction of rotation
Not generally damaging

Bit Whirl

Bottom hole patterns obtained from roller cone bits with 3


(left) and 2 (right) cones. (Ref SPE paper 28323)

Lateral Vibration
Sideways movement of BHA
Random (chaotic) forward & backward
whirl
Caused by imbalance BHA components
DDS indications:
Medium to high Px & Py
Low to medium Ax & Ay
Consequences similar to whirl

Bit Chatter
High frequency resonance of Bit and BHA caused
by impacts of individual cutter blades or
individual cutters
Occurs with PDC bits in high compressive
strength rocks
Consequences
Bit cutter damage
Failure of electronic components and solder joints

Bit Chatter
Detection
DDS high peak x and y accelerations
DDS high average x and y accelerations
Burst data shows high frequency peak in x and y axes

Corrective action
Adjust RPM and WOB down away from resonant
condition

Other Solutions (Post Run)


Consider a bit more suitable to drill the high
compressive strength rock or stringers

Slip-Stick
Torsional Vibration of the Drill String
Initiated by mechanical or frictional resistance to
Rotation
Non-Uniform Rotation of the Drill String
Repeated Stalling of the Bit, Twisting and Build up of
Energy in the Drill Pipe then Freeing of the Bit Causing
Energy Transfer from the Drill String to the BHA.
Rotary Drive Reacts to RPM Changes by Increasing or
Decreasing the Torque Causing a Self Perpetuating
Cycling

Slip-Stick
Consequences
Torque Cycling Over or Under Torques Connections
Fatigue Rates are Increased Through High Amplitude
Shear Stress Cycling
Extreme Levels Cause the String to Rotate Backwards
at the End of the Slip Phase Damaging PDC cutting
Structures
Extreme Levels Can Back off Connections
Lateral Shocks are Associated with the Free Spinning in
the Slip Phase Stressing Collar Connections and
Damaging Downhole Electronics

Slip-Stick
Detection
Surface Torque and RPM Oscillations : Slip-Stick
monitoring Systems or DrilSaver
Downhole Sensors : DDS, 4D
Surface Instrumented Subs : Adams

Corrective Actions
Increase RPM, Decrease WOB
If Vibration Persists Pick up and Restart Drilling with
Higher RPM.

Slip-Stick
Other Solutions
Less Aggressive PDC bit, Select Rock Bit
Good Drilling Practices to Create Smooth Well Profile

Slip-Stick

Torsional Vibration Example


FLAT-TOP TRQ TRACE
DUE TO LIMIT BEING

Coupling of Vibration Mechanisms


Coupling means that one vibration
mechanism can induce another

HIGH RPM
During slip phase
SLIP-STICK

BIT WHIRL
WOB
&
Bending
AXIAL

BIT WHIRL

Factors Effecting Downhole Vibration


Hole Angle
Lateral Vibrations are More Likely in Vertical
Wells
In Directional and High Angle Holes Gravity
Damps Lateral Displacement
Deviated and High angle Holes are More Likely
to Induce Torsional Vibration
High Angle, Tortuous Holes and Large Dogleg
Severities Increase Frictional Torque

Factors Effecting Downhole Vibration


BHA Design
Use of a Downhole Motor Reduces Energy
Interactions Between BHA and Wellbore
Packed Assemblies are less Susceptible to
Vibration than Slick Assemblies
Under Gauge Stabilisers are more likely to
generate Whirl
Surround MWD with Full Gauge Stabilisers to
protect the Tool

Factors Effecting Downhole Vibration


Drill Bits
PDC bits tend to Whirl at High RPM in Hard
formations
Dull or Under Gauge PDC bits can generate
Slip-Stick Torsional Vibrations
Too High WOB and Too Low RPM creates
Torsional Vibration and Slip-Stick
Roller Cone bits can bounce, Axial Vibration,
in Hard Formations or if too low WOB is
applied

Factors Effecting Downhole Vibration


Lithology
Vibration Increases with Formation Strength
Vibrations are Particularly Associated with Zones of High and
Low Compressive Strength

Hole Size
Over Gauge Hole leads to Lateral Shocks, BHA Whirl
and Bit Whirl
Under Gauge Hole Creates Torsional Vibration

Drilling Mud
Mud Condition and type can Influence Vibration levels

Vibration Mechanisms
Each Mechanism Describes the Behaviour
of the Drill String During Vibration
Bit Bounce
Slip-Stick
Bit Whirl
BHA Whirl
Modal Coupling
Bit Chatter
Lateral Shock Motion

Methods of Reducing Vibration Damage

Bit Design

F.A.S.T., SE3000,
Planning - BHA design

WHIRL
Real-time vibration monitoring

DDS, DrilSaver, Instrumented Bit, VSS,


AcoustiCaliper, WOB/TOB
Improved Tool Reliability
Reduced Vibration Drilling systems

SlickBore, Geo-Pilot

Force Balancing
F
P

Engagement
PDC Cutter

Fvertical = WOB
Mcenterline = TORQUE

M M

Penetration and Drag Cutter Forces

Fradial = 0

WOB
TORQUE

Asymmetric Blade Layout


Symmetric
Symmetric
240

Symmetric blades create a lobed


bottom hole pattern in a regular

periodic manner which can lead to


self-regenerative whirl
Asymmetric blade layout upsets the
periodic pattern thus disrupting the
harmonic effects of a lobed bottom
0

120

Asymmetric
248
0

hole pattern
105

Predicted Lobe Generation


for Symmetric & Asymmetric

Symmetric

120
0
240
105

Asymmetric

248

Low Torque Gauge Pads

Removal of sharp edges


and aggressive wear
surface reduces ability of
gauge pad to bite into
borehole wall.

Creates less drag


between the bit and the
borehole wall reducing
any tendency to pivot
about a gauge pad.

Spiraled Blades
As with asymmetry, spiraled cutter
layouts and gauge pads help break up
any regenerative lobed cutting patterns
by:
Lessening probability of a new center of
rotation occurring along a cutter blade or
gauge pad.
Effectively increases resistance of the gauge
pad from biting into the borehole wall.
When spiraled, the release of a blade happens
in closer proximity with the contact of the
next, passing the load to the next blade more
smoothly.

Trac-Set Cutting Structure


Unlike the standard layout, the ridged pattern created by a
Trac-Set cutting structure resists the bits tendency to move
laterally by stabilizing on formation ridges.

Standard Layout

Trac-Set

Restoration Forces
Standard Set
13mm PDC. 50 FPH. 120 RPM
No Offset

Outside Radial
Fr1 = 38.4 lbf
Fr1/Fv = 0.094

Inside Radial
Fr2 = 38.4 lbf
Fr2/Fv = 0.094

Total Vertical Fv = 408 lbf


= = Net Radial Force Fr = 0.0 lbf = =

13 mm PDC. 50 FPH. 120 RPM


< - Offset 0.025

Outside Radial
Fr1 = 35.7 lbf
Fr1/Fv = 0.088

Inside Radial
Fr2 = 44.1 lbf
Fr2/Fv = 0.108

Total Vertical Fv = 408 lbf


< = = Net Radial Force Fr = 8.48 lbf < = =

Restoration Forces
Trac Set
13mm PDC. 50 FPH. 120 RPM
No Offset

13 mm PDC. 50 FPH. 120 RPM


< - Offset 0.025

Inside Radial
Fr2 = 81.0 lbf
Fr2/Fv = 0.180
Outside Radial
Fr1 = 81.0 lbf
Fr1/Fv = 0.180

Total Vertical Fv = 451 lbf


= = Net Radial Force Fr = 0.0 lbf = =

Outside Radial
Fr1 = 96.4 lbf
Fr1/Fv = 0.212

Inside Radial
Fr2 = 60.6 lbf
Fr2/Fv = 0.180

Total Vertical Fv = 454 lbf


= = > Net Radial Force Fr = 35.8 lbf = = >

Impact Arrestors
Impact Arrestors act to dampen chaotic
vibrations that typically exist downhole by
providing stabilization to both the axial and
lateral modes of vibration.

Impact
Arrestor

PDC

Impact Arrestors

Standard

W / Impact Arrestors
ROP

ROP

Time >
Axial Vibration Reduction

DDS Tool
The DDS Sensor
consists of tri-axial
accelerometers
mounted on the
DGR gamma
sensor electronics
insert

Records
accelerations in
g as Average,
Peak, and Burst
Vibrations

DrilSaver
DrilSaver is an advanced Slip-Stick monitoring
system
Uses Fourier analysis to breakdown the torque signal,
providing a frequency domain spectrum of the of the
torque oscillation
Sinusoidal oscillation in the torque signal is
characteristic of torsional vibration present in the
drillstring
DrilSaver provides a method of quantifying torsional
vibration (KT magnitude)

Whirl Program

Based on the DYNAMICS program developed by Boeing

Further developed by Dykstra at Tulsa University and Amoco

Incorporated into Sperry-Suns well planning software (PLANIT)

Uses Jacobi and finite element analysis to predict critical rotary


speeds for excitation of fundamental lateral vibrations (resonance) of
BHA in drilling fluid in a straight hole (vertical or inclined)

Slickbore Bit

Slickbore Bit on Geopilot

Slickbore Bit

End of story