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5 Marblestone Lane So.

Setauket, NY 11720
tel: 631-698-6765 fax: 631-732-2919
e-mail: RStrick@RFSafetySolutions.com
www.RFSafetySolutions.com
www.RFSafetyTraining.com

RF Safety on Building Rooftops


A Guide for Understanding and Working
near Rooftop Antenna Systems

June 20, 2011

2011 RF Safety Solutions LLC


This presentation is copyrighted. No right to distribute copies publicly for sale, rental,
lease, and lending is authorized without written authorization from the author.

Executive Summary
Overview
The explosive growth of telecommunications services during the past 10 to
15 years has led to a proliferation of the antennas that are key components of
these systems. All telecommunications systemsfire, police, and emergency
services; cellular, PCS, and GSM personal communications; paging, radio and
television broadcast services; and satellite communicationsrequire transmitting
antennas. Although many of these antennas are mounted on towers, especially
the majority of high-power radio and television broadcast, many communications
antennas are installed on existing structures. Antennas are found on water
towers, grain silos, large industrial chimneys, in church steeples, on utility light
poles, and on building rooftops. Installing antennas on an existing structure is
usually much less expensive than building a tower; plus, it is usually faster and
normally requires far fewer steps in gaining approval from local authorities.
While water authority personnel and, occasionally, painting contractors may need
to ascend a water tank, the number of personnel that climb a water tank is quite
limited. In contrast, rooftop installations are by far the most challenging antenna
installation sites to manage; it can be challenging to ensure personal safety and
regulatory compliance due to the broad range of personnel that may need to visit
a rooftop. Personnel who may need to visit a rooftop site may include, but are not
limited to:

Building maintenance personnel

Security guards

Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) personnel

Electricians

Elevator maintenance and repair personnel

Painting contractors

Window washers

Insurance agents

Inspectors from municipal agencies

Roofing contractors

Electronics personnel that install and maintain antenna systems

There are two points common to most rooftop antenna sites:

The vast majority of personnel who visit a rooftop will have little or no
knowledge of antennas.

There are locations near some of these antennas where it is not safe for
personnel to remain for more than 2 or 3 minutes.

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Personal Safety, Regulatory Compliance, and Reduction of Liability


Building owners and managers must be concerned with three types of risks:
1. Personal safety
2. Regulatory Compliance
3. Liability
The revenue from renting rooftop space for antennas can be very lucrative but, as
with most business ventures, a small portion of this revenue should be invested in
risk minimization.

Using this Guide


Reading this guide should help you understand the issues associated with rooftop
antenna systems. It may provide all the answers that you need for some rooftops
with certain types of antenna installations. For others, more will have to be done
to minimize risks. The most common solutions are to train personnel and to use
wearable RF personal monitors. Both subjects are covered in detail in Section 3:
Risks and Recommendations.

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Table of Contents
Executive Summary
OVERVIEW ................................................................................................................................................................... 2
PERSONAL SAFETY, REGULATORY COMPLIANCE, AND REDUCTION OF LIABILITY.................................................. 3
USING THIS GUIDE ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

Section 1: Rooftop Antennas


Identifying Antennas and Potential Hazard Areas
OVERVIEW.................................................................................................................................................................. 6
TYPICAL ROOFTOP ANTENNAS......................................................................................................................... 7
OMNIDIRECTIONAL WHIP ANTENNAS ........................................................................................................................ 7
DIRECTIONAL PANEL OR SECTOR ANTENNAS............................................................................................................ 8
MICROWAVE POINT-TO-POINT ANTENNAS ................................................................................................................ 9
OTHER ANTENNAS OCCASIONALLY FOUND ON ROOFTOPS ............................................................. 10
FM RADIO BROADCAST ANTENNAS......................................................................................................................... 10
TELEVISION BROADCAST ANTENNAS....................................................................................................................... 10
SATELLITE-UPLINK ANTENNAS ................................................................................................................................ 11

Section 2: Standards and Regulations


Rooftop Environments Must Comply with FCC Regulations
STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS.................................................................................................................... 12
OVERVIEW OF STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS ...................................................................................................... 12
FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (FCC) REGULATIONS ......................................................................... 12
OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION (OSHA) REGULATIONS .............................................. 14
APPLICABLE EXPOSURE LIMITS FOR ROOFTOPS ...................................................................................................... 14

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Section 3: Risks and Recommendations


How to Reduce RF Safety Risks on Rooftops
RISKS ........................................................................................................................................................................... 15
RECOMMENDATIONS........................................................................................................................................... 15
OVERVIEW ................................................................................................................................................................. 15
EVALUATE THE ROOFTOP ......................................................................................................................................... 15
How to Evaluate a Rooftop .................................................................................................................................. 16
USE RF PERSONAL MONITORS ................................................................................................................................. 16
TRAIN YOUR STAFF ................................................................................................................................................... 16

Appendices
APPENDIX A: RF ENERGY AND THE HUMAN BODY................................................................................................. 17
Types of Radiation ................................................................................................................................................ 17
Heating the Human Body..................................................................................................................................... 17
Time Averaging..................................................................................................................................................... 18
APPENDIX B: AUTHORS QUALIFICATIONS .............................................................................................................. 19

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Section

Rooftop Antennas
Identifying Antennas and Potential Hazard Areas
Overview
A building rooftop can be an excellent location to install antennas. The most
desirable locations provide an unobstructed view1 for the antenna that is not
blocked by another building or a mountain.
Antennas for the following types of services are commonly found on building
rooftops:

Personal communications. This group includes traditional cellular, GSM,


and PCS. All of these systems are used with what everyone calls a cell
phone.

Paging. Although paging services are far less popular than they were a
few years ago, there are still paging systems in use.

Fire, police, and emergency services.

Two-way radio systems. Taxi cab companies and many delivery truck
companies use two-way radio systems to communicate between base
and driver.

Microwave point-to-point systems.

Although less common, some rooftops will have antennas for the following types
of services:

FM radio broadcast. Very high-power FM radio systems are almost


exclusively located on towers, but the antennas for low- to medium-power
stations are sometimes installed on rooftops.

Television broadcast. Traditional high-power television antennas are


almost never installed on a rooftop unless there is a tower on a rooftop.
Some lower-power television systems that support television on smart
phones have been installed on many rooftops.

Satellite communications systems. Most satellite antennas found on roof


tops are receive-only (RO) designs, but satellite antennas that transmit, or
uplink, signals to the satellite are occasionally found on rooftops.

Radio frequency (RF) energy travels in a straight line, just like light.

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SiriusXM Radio. Most users receive SiriusXM radio signals from a


satellite, but there are also high-power terrestrial antenna systems
installed on rooftops in major metropolitan areas.

Each of these antenna systems has different characteristics that determine what
area around them might be a concern.

Typical Rooftop Antennas


The three most common antenna designs found on rooftops are:
1. Omnidirectional whip antennas that are used by fire, police, and
emergency services; paging systems, and two-way radio systems. They
are also used for SiriusXM Radios terrestrial broadcast system.
2. Directional panel or sector antennas that are used by all the personal
communications services systems and sometimes for paging systems.
They are also used for SiriusXM Radios terrestrial broadcast system.
3. Microwave point-to-point antennas that are used by a variety of systems
to communicate between two fixed locations.

Omnidirectional Whip Antennas


Most omnidirectional whip antennas range from 6 to 20 feet tall. All radiate
equally in all directions horizontally, but none have much energy directed
downward. A good rule of -thumb is if the bottom of a whip antenna is a minimum
of 1 foot above the top of your head, you can safely ignore the energy radiating
from the antenna. This is often the case where one or more whip antennas are
mounted on a small, upper roof area above a stairwell or elevator shaft.
Personnel who remain on the main roof have nothing to be concerned about from
the antennas mounted on the upper roof.

These omnidirectional whip antennas have very little energy directed downward, so they
are not a concern for anyone who remains on the main roof level where this picture was
taken.
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Directional Panel or Sector Antennas


Panel or sector antennas radiate over a broad angle horizontally, but the height of
the vertical beam is equal to the height of the antenna. There is a modest amount
of energy directed downward because the antennas are aimed at a slight
downward angle. Older designs were simply mounted using adjustable mounting
brackets while new designs do this internally using electronic adjustment. The
average panel antenna is aimed downward at a 3- to 4-degree angle, and it is
extremely rare to find one that is tilted more than 10 degrees. A good rule of
thumb is if the bottom of a panel antenna is a minimum of 2 feet above the top
of your head you can safely ignore the energy radiating from it. The reason that
2 feet is recommended rather than the 1-foot spacing for the whip antennas is
twofold:

The antennas are tilted.

A panel antenna has a more intense beam of energy than an


omnidirectional antenna of the same height and input power level
because the energy is confined to an angle that is much smaller than 360
degrees.

Tower-mounted panel antennas are almost always 120-degree designs. This is


why there are always sets of three antennas on towers. Some rooftops also use
120-degree antennas, but it is more common to find a 90-degree antenna on
each side of the building. However, in large cities it is not uncommon to find
antennas with much narrower beams of energy that can be aimed down a wide
street, such as Sixth Avenue in Manhattan. Note that it is almost impossible to
determine the rated beamwidth by simply looking at the antenna as they all look
very similar.
Panel antennas have no energy directed backward, regardless of the rated
horizontal
beamwidth.

The roof of this seven-story building contains only 120-degree panel antennasthere are no
omnidirectional antennas. All but one of these antennas, which is mounted above one of the two
stairwells (which can be seen in the top left portion of the picture), is mounted against a chain
link fence close to the edge of the roof. The only RF safety concerns would be (1) if somebody
were to climb a ladder in front of the one elevated antenna or (2) if somebody climbing over the
fence, such as a window washer, were to get too close to one of the antennas.
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Microwave Point-to-Point Antennas


Microwave point-to-point antennas work on the same principle as a conventional
flashlightthe energy emits from a focal point that is aimed at a parabolic
reflector. The energy radiating from these antennas is in a cylindrical beam that is
the same size as an antenna.
Most people are surprised to learn that this type of system is not an RF safety
concern. This is because these systems operate at a maximum power level of
only 2 Watts, and most operate with less than 1 Watt of energy. When even
2 Watts is spread out over the area of a circle that is usually 4 feet in diameter or
more, it results in an extremely weak beam of energy that is a small fraction of the
level about which to be concerned.

The RF energy level emitted by these microwave point-to-point antennas is very low. It is safe
to walk or stand in front of them without limitation.

ENERGY

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Other Antennas Occasionally Found on Rooftops


FM Radio Broadcast Antennas
It is surprising how many FM radio stations are found on building roofs. Most are
mounted on towers well above the surface of the roof, but occasionally one finds
antennas much lower. FM antennas should never be installed less than
about 30 feet above the surface of a roof unless it is part of an extremely
low-power system. The RF energy levels from an FM antenna can be very
dangerous.

These are all FM radio antennas. Unfortunately, there are several different designs, and it
is not easy to know whether a particular antenna is used for an FM broadcast system.
However, FM broadcast systems never use omnidirectional whip antennas or panel
antennas.

Television Broadcast Antennas


Most television antennas found on rooftops are either:

Very low-power2 systems used with local organizations, such as schools,


that are designed to cover a small area, like a college campus.

Television systems that support television on smart phones have been


installed on many rooftops

The term very low power is relative to a typical television broadcast system. Even a very low-power television
system will operate at power levels higher than virtually anything else found on a rooftop and is a potentially
significant RF safety concern. Any rooftop with a TV antenna needs evaluation by a professional.
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Satellite-Uplink Antennas
Personnel should avoid getting into the beam of any satellite-uplink antenna.
Most satellite antennas found on rooftops are receive-only (RO) designs, but
satellite antennas that transmit, or uplink, signals to the satellite are found on
some rooftops. It can be difficult to determine whether a satellite antenna is a RO
or the less commonly found uplink type. One clue is the cable or waveguide
transmission line that is used. When the cable to the feed (at the focal point facing
the reflector) is about a quarter-inch in diameter and looks like the common
coaxial cable used for home television installations, the antenna is invariably RO,
as a small cable like that can not handle a significant amount of power.

The energy level in the beams of these two satellite-uplink antennas might be an RF safety
concern. However, the beam of energy from each antenna is above the head of anyone who
remains at roof level. Personnel need to be aware not to climb a ladder in front of these
antennas.

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Section

Standards and Regulations


Rooftop Environments Must Comply with FCC Regulations
Standards and Regulations
Overview of Standards and Regulations
The two major RF exposure standards and regulations in the United States are
the

Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Regulations and

Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) standard.

All rooftop antenna systems on commercial buildings must be in compliance with


the FCC Regulations.
In addition, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) was
established, and still exists, to protect workers from workplace hazards. Exposure
to the energy from rooftop antennas is an area covered by OSHA.

Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Regulations


The FCC updated its RF safety regulations in 1997. The regulations require that
all transmitting sites in the United States must meet all aspects of these
regulations as of September 1, 2000.
The FCC Regulations are based on setting limits for human exposure. The FCC
limits are similar, but not identical, to the limits of several other major standards.
There are two sets of exposure limits.

Occupational/Controlled

General Population/Uncontrolled

These are Maximum Permissible Exposure (MPE) limits averaged over the body
and averaged over time. The Occupational/Controlled limits are five times higher
than the General Population/Uncontrolled limits at all frequencies above 3 MHz.
The averaging period for Occupational/Controlled exposure is six minutes for
exposure to frequencies below 15 GHz. The averaging time decreases as the
frequency increases from 15 GHz to 300 GHz. The FCC does not allow time
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averaging for General Population/Uncontrolled exposure. The MPE limits are the
same for both the electric field and the magnetic field.
The FCC provides definitions for the two types of exposure and attempts to define
when they apply. A simplified view, endorsed by the Occupational Safety and
Health Administration (OSHA), is that the more restrictive General Population/
Uncontrolled limits apply unless

the organization is operating under a written RF safety program, and

the individuals who may be exposed to levels above the General


Population/Uncontrolled limits have received RF safety training.

A planned Notice of Proposed Rulemaking is aimed at further defining when an


organization is allowed to use the higher MPE limits for Occupational/Controlled
exposure. The terms fully aware and exercise control are referred to in the current
FCC Regulations when defining the requirements for establishing an
Occupational/Controlled Environment. The Notice further defines these two
important terms.
The phrase fully aware refers to workers who

have received both written and verbal information regarding RF radiation.

have received training that includes how to control or mitigate RF


radiation exposure.

The phrase exercise control refers to workers who

understand how to use administrative controls to reduce their exposure


level. Administrative controls include time averaging.

understand how to use engineering controls to reduce their exposure


level. Engineering controls include Personal Protective Equipment (PPE),
specifically RF personal monitors and RF protective clothing.

The FCCs MPE limits for the two classes of exposure are shown in the tables
below. Limits are spatially averaged over the whole body. The Occupational/
Controlled limits are time averaged. The General Population/Uncontrolled
exposure limits are instantaneous.

Table 1: FCC Maximum Permissible Exposure Limits


Table 1A: Occupational/Controlled Exposure

Frequency
(MHz)
0.033
330
30300
3001,500
1,500100,000
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Power Density (S)


(mW/cm2)
100
900/f2
1.0
f/300
5.0

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Table 1B: General Population/Uncontrolled Exposure

Frequency
(MHz)
0.031.34
1.3430
30300
3001,500
1,500100,000

Power Density (S)


(mW/cm2)
100
180/f2
0.2
f/1,500
1.0

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Regulations


OSHA still has an outdated standard on its books that is based on the first
American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard developed in the 1960s.
This is a single-tier standard that suggests limiting exposure to 10.0 mW/cm at all
frequencies. The FCC limits are far more restrictive. Under the General Duty
clause of its regulations, OSHA has been using modern, consensus standards,
such as the FCCs, as a model for enforcement. OSHA defined its position
relative to the FCC Regulations in a reply to an official request from the Personal
Communications Industry Association (PCIA) in October 1998. In essence,
OSHA went on record stating that, while it was not relinquishing its role as the
agency responsible for worker health, organizations that satisfy FCC
requirements would also satisfy OSHA requirements. This may be the official
position of OSHA, but the evaluator could not identify the corresponding
compliance directive. Therefore, local OSHA offices may not be aware of it.
Only FCC MPE limits are considered in this Rooftop Safety Guide since
compliance with the FCC Regulations should also satisfy OSHA requirements.

Applicable Exposure Limits for Rooftops


Extremely few rooftops can qualify for the higher, time-averaged FCC Maximum
Permissible Exposure limits for Occupational/Controlled exposure because the
space will not be tightly access controlled with only qualified personnel allowed in
restricted areas. Therefore, the FCC limits for General Population/Uncontrolled
exposure, which are instantaneous and not time averaged, are applicable.

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Section

Risks and Recommendations


How to Reduce RF Safety Risks on Rooftops
Risks
There are always risks associated with high-power RF transmission equipment.
The goal is always to understand and manage operations so that risks are
minimized. Building owners and managers must be concerned with three types of
risks:
1. Personal safety
2. Compliance with FCC Regulations
3. Liability

Recommendations
Overview
Compliance with the FCC Regulations achieves three additional goals:
1. Satisfies OSHA requirements for its employees.
2. Significantly reduces concern over personal injury from exposure to
excessive levels of RF energy.
3. Reduces an organizations liability. Compliance with FCC and OSHA
regulations strengthens an organizations position should it have to
defend itself against claims of personal injury.
The recommendations contained herein are designed to significantly reduce the
chance of personal injury while complying with federal and local regulations and
ordinances and, thereby, achieving a reduction in liability.

Evaluate the Rooftop


Many companies talk about having an RF survey completed. The problem with
most surveys is that they are conducted by relatively junior technicians with a
limited understanding of RF safety issues.
The goals in evaluating a rooftop in terms of RF safety issues should be to
determine:

what areas of the roof may be visited at any time, by any individual,
without restriction or concern;

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what areas of the roof may have excessive RF energy levels that require
limiting access to personnel with the knowledge and tools needed to work
in such areas; and

what areas of the roof do not have restrictions for personnel that remain at
roof level but may result in excessive RF exposure should personnel use
a ladder or other type of lift device.

How to Evaluate a Rooftop


Most people think that somebody has to make measurements in order to
evaluate a rooftop. That is not truea knowledgeable person can tell a great deal
by looking at pictures of the antenna installations.
In many cases, the typical surveys that are conducted and the largely canned
reports fail to consider how personnel are likely to perform their jobs. For
example, the RF field levels for a person standing at roof level may be relatively
low in an area because the antennas are elevated. But there may be a potential
hazard for anyone climbing a ladder in the vicinity of the antennassimply going
up 3 or 4 feet may change the RF exposure from a benign level to a potential
overexposure situation.
For many installations, it is actually more accurate to perform calculations using
software designed specifically for typical rooftop antennas.

Use RF Personal Monitors


Monitors can be very useful tools, and you probably will only need one monitor for
a rooftop. However, simply giving a monitor to an untrained person can often
cause more problems. When monitors are used by personnel who have had a
modest level of RF safety training, they are very useful in ensuring that no one
remains in an area of excessive RF energy.

Train Your Staff


Training your staff accomplishes several things:

The chances of personal injury are greatly reduced.

It is an important step in achieving regulatory compliance. In particular,


trained personnel are fully aware and able to exercise control over their
exposure. Therefore, they can work in areas that exceed the MPE limit for
General Population/Uncontrolled exposure and, more significantly, can
safely and legally use time averaging to walk or climb past antennas.

Training does not need to be expensive. In fact, it is often possible to train your
entire staff for less than the cost of a single RF personal monitor.

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Appendices
Appendix A: RF Energy and the Human Body
Types of Radiation
Much of the confusion and concern over exposure to RF energy comes from
confusion over the two forms of radiation that people might encounter. I hear it in
the classes that I teach and make it a point to explain the difference in every
class, even if the students are all professional engineers.
Say the word radiation, and everybody gets concerned. Radioactive materials
and X-rays generate what is known as ionizing radiation, which can be very
dangerous. Ionizing radiation kills or mutates human cells; its effects are
cumulative; and there is no practical minimum. So, continuous exposure to low
levels of ionizing radiation can eventually lead to serious health problems. Just
getting an X-ray kills or mutates millions of cells in your body. But your body will
repair itself within two weeks, provided there is no additional exposure. However,
the person giving you the X-ray has to be very careful to get behind the lead in
the door so that they dont get exposed. Unlike you, their exposure could be
repetitive and cause cumulative effects.
In contrast, radio frequency energy and the energy from most of the light
frequencies are forms of non-ionizing radiation. This form of energy can heat
tissue when it is concentrated enough and is the principle behind the common
microwave oven and lasers. But exposure to very tiny amounts of RF energy has
much less impact on you than if the temperature in the room you are in were to
change by a small fraction of a degree. Problems occur with exposure to RF
energy only when it is so concentrated that your body has a problem dealing with
the excess heat. The effects are very similar to overexertion.
Heating the Human Body
The amount of heat produced within the body as a result of exposure to RF
radiation depends on many factors but the two most important are:

how strong or intense the RF energy is, and

how effective the human body is at capturing or absorbing the energy. At


some frequencies, the height of a person makes them a very effective
antenna, which results in more energy being absorbed.

It is important to note that the higher the frequency, the shorter the wavelength.
The term microwaves simply refers to the higher frequency range of the radio
frequency spectrum. A person makes a very good antenna when his or her height
is equal to a quarter to a half of a wavelength. Most adults make good antennas
in the frequency range used by television channels 2 through 6 and FM radio.
People make far less effective antennas and, therefore, absorb less energy at
microwave frequencies.

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Time Averaging
Because the primary effect involves heating of body tissue, the effects of
exposure to RF radiation is not instantaneous. It takes a few minutes to heat the
body. All the major worldwide standards and regulations evaluate exposure
based on the average exposure over any 6-minute interval of time. The FCC
Regulations for Occupational/Controlled exposure allow for time averaging, and it
is one of the most useful tools taught to personnel during RF safety classes. But
unless personnel meet the FCC criteria of being fully aware and able to exercise
control over their exposure, the MPE limits for General Population/Uncontrolled
exposure apply, and those limits are not time averaged.

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Appendix B: Authors Qualifications


Richard Strickland founded RF Safety Solutions in
2001 after 10 years as Director of Business
Development for Narda Safety Test Solutions, the
worlds leading supplier of RF safety measurement
and monitoring products. As director of the RF safety
business at Narda, Mr. Strickland determined which
products were developed and their performance
characteristics. He frequently functioned as program
manager, as he did with the Nardalert XT RF
personal monitor. He initiated the development of
RF radiation training courses at Narda and has
conducted courses ranging from basic employee
awareness seminars to in-depth, application-specific
courses. Audiences have included environmental health and safety professionals,
engineers, technicians, attorneys, communications industry professional
consulting engineers (PEs), and senior managers of major corporations,
government organizations, and professional groups. Mr. Strickland has taught
approximately 300 public and private seminars on RF radiation safety. In-house
course clients include the National Association of Broadcasters, NASA, National
Public Radio, Society of Broadcast Engineers, AT&T Mobility, Sony, Motorola,
NYNEX Mobile, ABC, CapRock, the U.S. Army, Bell Atlantic Mobile, Ameritech,
Primeco, NORTEL, Texas Instruments, and Northrup-Grumman. He has been
both a featured speaker and a member of the radio frequency radiation panel at
the National Association of Broadcasters, the Radio Club of America, and the
International Wireless Conference and Exposition. He is a member of IEEE SC
28 P1466. The project scope of this group is Preparation of a guidance
document for the development of RF safety programs. Mr. Strickland is the
author of more than 25 articles on RF safety practices and measurement issues.
Customers
Richard Strickland provides advice regarding RF radiation safety to several major
companies. Services include RF surveys and RF safety reports, development of
RF safety programs, and RF safety training.
Clients include:

ABC Radio

Hughes Network Systems

ABC Television

Lockheed Martin Corporation

American Tower

NASA

AT&T Mobility

NBC Television

British Aerospace

Raytheon Corporation

Cornell University

Society of Broadcast Engineers

ESPN

U.S. Coast Guard

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Education

MBA, University of Massachusetts, 1980

BA Physics, Bridgewater College, 1972

Advanced (radar & IFF) and basic electronics


courses, U.S. Coast Guard

Presentations More than 40 articles published in technical


publications on RF safety, high-power
&
amplifiers, and radomes
Publications

Organized and conducted approximately 250


public and in-house training courses

Featured speaker for numerous professional


organizations including NATO, National Public
Radio, National Association of Broadcasters,
Society of Broadcast Engineers, and Radio
Club of America

Professional
Memberships

Awards

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Member of the International Electrotechnical


Commission (IEC) Technical Advisory Group
(TAG) 106: Methods for the Assessment of
Electromagnetic Fields Associated with
Human Exposure
Member of the IEEE CS 28 P1466, guidance
document for the development of RF safety
programs
Member of the Association of Federal
Communications Consulting Engineers
(AFCCE)
Winner of the R & D 100 Award for the
Nardalert XT RF Personal Monitor. Mr.
Strickland was the originator of this product.
He functioned as project manager and decided
on all of its features and design details. The
R & D 100 Awards are given annually to the
top 100 scientific and technological
achievements in the world. They are frequently
referred to as the Nobel Prizes of Applied
Research.

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