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Glossary of Buddhist Terms

A
Abhidharma
The section of Buddhist scriptures concerned with philosophical, cosmological and psychological
analysis.

Abhisheka
_

Empowerment

Almighty Ocean
[Tib. Gyalwa Gyamtso, Skt. Jinasagara] Red, sitting four-armed form of Loving Eyes in Union.

Altar
The Altar can consist of several groups of objects. Most important are the three objects
representing _ Buddhas body, speech and mind. They constitute a basic altar. The first of this
objects is a statue of Buddha or of a _ Bodhisattva. It is placed in the center. Second object is a
sacred text. It represents Buddhas speech, is wrapped in maroon or yellow cloth and is placed on
the left side. On the right side of the altar a _ Stupa as a symbol of Buddhas mind is located. For
all of these objects pictures may be used as substitutes.
In addition pictures of Buddhas, Bodhisattvas, _ Lamas and _ Protectors can be arranged around
these three objects.
The second group concerns offerings. In most cases seven bowls are used. They contain
offerings made to the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas. The bowls are arranged in a straight line and
contain (from the left to the right as one faces the altar):

Bowl with water to drink (represents the purity of mind)

Bowl with water for washing (represents the purity of the body)

Rice and flowers (represents the beauty of sight)

Rice and incense (represents the pervasiveness of the _ Dharma)

Candle (represents illumination: darkness is ignorance, brightness is wisdom)

Fragrant water (represents devotion)

Rice and food (fruits or sweets) (offered as a gesture of gratitude)

Sometimes a conch shell or a Ting-shag is offered (represents the awakening of beings


hearing the Dharma)

As a third group _ Tormas, _ Dorje, _ Bell, a crystal ball and other objects can be used. Either
permanently ore only during special rituals.
The altar should be on a higher place.

Amithaba
The Buddha of Limitless Light.

Anuttarayogatantra
The highest of the four levels of _ Diamond Way teachings.

Arhat
One who has "conquered the enemy", that is, "the emotions and ignorance that keep one locked
in Samsara". The Arhat represents the _ Small Way ideal, one who has experienced the cessation
of suffering.

Asura
Demi-Gods of the desire-realm are called Asuras.

Avalokiteshvara
_

Loving Eyes

B
Bardo
Literally, "between two". In general, any interval, "a between". Six bardos are usually spoken of in
the _ Diamond Way teachings:

The Death Process. The interval from the moment when the individual begins to die until
the moment when the separation of the mind and body takes place.

The Cho Nyi Bardo. The interval of the ultimate nature of phenomena (the Dharmadata),
when the mind is plunged into its own nature. The first phase of the after-death
experience.

The Bardo of Becoming. The interval in which the mind moves towards rebirth.

The Bardo between Birth and Death. Ordinary waking consciousness during the
present lifetime.

Dream. The dream state we experience in sleep.

Meditative Concentration. The state of meditative stability.

In the west "bardo" is usually referred to only the first three of these, that is, the states between
death and rebirth. These states are no more and no less illusory than dreams and ordinary
waking consciousness.

Bardo Meditation
_

Intermediate State MeditationBearer of Black Coat

[Tib. Bernagchen] Main protector of the Karma Kagyu lineage.

Beads
Beads are used to count _ Mantras. A _ Mala consist of 108 Beads.

Bell
Paired with the vajra the bell represents wisdom, and as wisdom and method are an undivided
unity so the _ Dorje and bell are never parted or employed separately. Its base must be round,
above which is a vase surmounted by the face of Prajnaparamita. Above these are a lotus, a
moon disc and finally a vajra.
The hollow of the bell symbolizes the wisdom recognizing emptiness. The clapper represents the
sound of emptiness. The vase represents the vase containing the nectar of accomplishment.

Bernagchen
_

Bearer of Black Coat

Bhumi
Literally "ground". One of the ten stages of realization and activity through which a _ Bodhisattva
progresses towards _ Enlightenment. The 10 bhumis are:

The Supremely joyful

The Stainless

The Illuminating

The Radiant

Very Difficult to Train For

The Manifesting

The Far Going

The Unwavering

Excellent Intelligence

Cloud of Dharma

Black Coat
_

Bearer of Black Coat

Black Crown
Attribute of the _ Karmapa. Signifying the power to help all beings, the female Buddhas bestowed
this energyfield on Karmapa at his enlightenment several thousand years ago. It is constantly
above his head. The replica shown at ceremonies has the power to open the subconscious of
those present and permits the Karmapa to exchange his limitless space-awareness for beings'
inhibitions and pain. It is a means for gaining liberation through seeing which only a Karmapa can
use.

Bodhgaya
[Lit. Dorje Seat] Now a village in north India. The first Buddhas of each Dharma-period manifest
full enlightenment there.

Bodhicitta
_

Enlightened Mind

Bodhisattva
One who has taken the great vow to rescue all beings from suffering and guide them to
enlightenment.

Bodhisattva Vow
The vow to maintain the enlightened view at all times. The vow is given in the presence of
Bodhisattva and is repeated as often as possible.

Bond
[Tib. Damtsig, Skt. Samaya] The basis for the rapid psychological growth in Diamond Way
Buddhism. Through the unbroken connection to teacher, meditation forms and co-disciples,
students quickly manifest their potential. Especially the bond to one's first teacher is very
important.

Buddha
[Tib. Sangye] The name denotes a state of mind. "Sang" means "perfectly purified" of all

obscurations. "Gye" means "perfect unfoldment" of all qualities and wisdom.

Buddha aspects
[Tib. Yidam] The great richness of enlightened mind expresses itself in countless forms of energy
and light. By identifying with them in meditation and daily life they rapidly awaken our innate
Buddha-nature.

Buddha Dharma Center


During his teachings in the West _ Lopon Tsechu Rinpoche gained more and more western
students, which visit him from time to time. To accommodate them and his local students Lopon
Tsechu Rinpoche founded the Buddha Dharma Center. It is a place where students can get in
contact with _ Mahayana-Buddhism. This goes for lay and ordained-people as well. _ [more].

Buddhism
The teachings of the historical _ Buddha, Siddharta Gautama, are the basis of what is called
`Buddhism'. Buddhism can be subdivided into _ Small Way, _ Great Way and _ Diamond Way.

Buddha energies
_

Buddha aspects

Buddha of Limitless Light


[Tib. pame, Skr. Amitabha] His mental realm is the pure land of highest bliss.

C
Calendar
The Tibetan calendar is divided into major cycles of sixty years duration. These sixty-year cycles
are themselves divided into five minor twelve-year cycles, each year of which is identified by the
name of an animal.

Rabbit

Dragon

Snake

Horse

Sheep

Monkey

Bird

Dog

Pig

Mouse

Ox

Tiger

Two consecutive years are paired with one of the five elements. As there are:

Fire

Earth

Iron

Water

Wood

So one gets i.e. a Earth Dragon Year, followed by a Earth Snake Year, followed by a Iron Horse
Year and so on. After 60 years the combinations are repeated and the cycle is closed.
The calendar was introduced in 1027 starting with the Fire Rabbit Year. The 16 th cycle ended
1986 with a Fire Tiger Year. Thus we're living in the 17th cycle.
The Tibetan year is based on twelve lunar month and lasts 360 days. Because twelve lunar
months consists of only 355 (or 354) days, 5 (or 6) days in the Tibetan Year must be left out.
Also, in order to avoid an unlucky day, an auspicious date may happen twice. This makes it not
even easy to transform a date from the Western Calendar into a date of the Tibetan Calendar
and vice versa.
To keep pace with the solar year (365.25 days)every 3 years a leap month is added. There is an
intelligent calculation which month will be the leap month. This certain month is simply repeated.
In 1997 the fifth month of the Fire Ox Year was repeated.
Due to the leap month the New Year's Day (Losar) of the Tibetan Calendar moves between
February and March.
The month starts with the new crescent and full moon is on the 15 th.

Chagya Chenpo
_

Mahamudra

Chakrasamvara
_

Highest Joy

Changchub Dorje
[1703-1732] The twelfth Karmapa, Changchub Dorje was born at Chile Chakhor in Derge
province in east Tibet. Shamarpa heard talk of the doings of a remarkable child, and sent a
party to investigate. His envoys brought the child to Karma Gon, one of Karmapa's principal
monasteries, where he met Shamarpa Paichen Chokyi Dondrub. The two were to spend the
rest of their lives together, travelling and teaching in Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan, India and China.
Only one day separated their deaths. Both gave Kagyu transmission to the eighth Situpa, and
named him lineage holder.

Chang Chub Kyi Sem


_

Enlightened Mind

Channa Dorje
_

Diamond-holder Power Buddha

Chenrezi
_

Loving Eyes

Cho
_

Dharma

Chodrag Gyamtso
[1454 - 1506] The seventh Karmapa, Chodrag Gyamtso, was from Kyilha in Northern Tibet.

Wiping his face immediately after birth, he is reported to have said "AH", the Sanskrit syllable
symbolising the ultimate nature of reality. The nearby Nyewo Ngarteng Monastery was headed
by one Cho Paljor, a student of the sixth Karmapa, who had a dream that his teacher had taken
rebirth at Kyilha. He searched, and found the week-old child. The baby immediately recognised
the possessions of the sixth Karmapa, and placed his hands in blessing on Cho Paljor's head.
Seven weeks later, Chodrag Gyamtso was brought to Arik Thang, where Tongwa Donden had
taught, and where there was a vast seat, like a throne, made of stone slabs. He blessed the ten
thousand who had come to welcome him. At four, he was given a series of empowerments by
Goshir Paljor Dondrup, and at eight, at Karma Gon, he was given the Kagyu teachings from
Bengar Jampal Zangpo and Goshir Paljor Dondrub.
He was invited to teach and give empowerments throughout Tibet; during his travels he wrote
many texts and commentaries, and attended to the development of the many students who
travelled with him. These tent-dwelling nomads - said to be several thousand strong - led a
rigorous life, following a strict schedule of study and meditation laid down by the Karmapa.
While at Nyriro Dong Tse, he met the fourth Shamarpa, to whom he gave the full teachings.
Another of his students, Denma Drubchen Denma Drubchen Tashi Paljor, was to become the
next lineage holder.

Chokhor Duchen
Name of the day where Buddha started his teachings.

Chokyi Drakpa Yeshe Pal Zangpo


[1453 - 1524] The Fourth Shamarpa was born in the Tresh province of Kham in eastern Tibet.
Wondrous signs manifested at his birthplace in Tre Kangmar, with wide ranging interpretations
by the local communities. The Seventh Karmapa _ Chodrag Gyamtso was seven years old when
he set up camp near Kangmar and remained in retreat while he sent his attendant to invite the
Shamarpa. This learned monk was Paljor Dndrup - the first Gyaltsab Rinpoche, a man of
exceptional realisation. He was later to become a Guru to the Shamarpa. When the Karmapa
and the Shamarpa met it was the renewal of a very close bond, comparable to the joyful reunion
of father and son. The Karmapa enthroned the young Shamarpa under the name of Chkyi
Drakpa Yeshe Pal Zangpo and returned the red crown to him. The Karmapa proposed that from
then on they both propagate the Dharma, but in different parts of the country. The Shamarpa
would remain in the Kongpo area of southern Tibet, while the Karmapa continued towards
eastern Kham. Some years later, they were together again at Tresh Kangmar. The Shamarpa
arrived laden with offerings and the Karmapa imparted to him the empowerments of
Mahamudra, the Six Yogas of Naropa and many other important instructions of the Kagyu
lineage.

Chopal Yeshe
[1406 - 1452] The Third Shamarpa was only five months old and had no difficulty recognizing
many of the monks who were close to him in his previous incarnations, which suggested that he
was the incarnate for whom they all anxiously awaited. A year later he visited Takse monastery
at the invitation of its monks. It had been one of the Shamarpa's monasteries in previous
centuries. He studied there under the tutelage of two great Scholars - Payl Chzang and Wn
Drakpa. At the age of eight, he met with the Fifth Karmapa _ Deshin Shegpa and stayed with
him while he received all the Kagyu teachings including numerous empowerments and ritual
readings. At this time, the Karmapa gave the Shamarpa full authorization to instruct.
As his extraordinary clairvoyant abilities emerged, the fame of the Third Shamarpa spread
rapidly into China. The Shamarpa could see his own past lives in vivid detail and this intrigued
the Chinese Emperor. The fact that the Shamarpa had been the Guru of the Fifth Karmapa in
his previous incarnation also fueled the wish for a closer relationship. The Emperor sent a
minister to a distant part of Tibet bearing gifts for the Shamarpa. Statues of the Buddha and
Dorje Chang arrived made of the finest bell metal and the Shamarpa communicated the
importance of generosity in a letter of thanks. When the Shamarpa later ruled as the Karmapa's
representative in Kong-Po and other provinces in southern Tibet, he kept this basic Buddhist

principle in mind when attending to the needs of the people.

Chorten
_

Stupa

Choying Dorje
[1604-1674] The tenth Karmapa, Choying Dorje, was born in Khaytri Tang inGolok province, in
the far north-east of Tibet. He was identified as the reincarnation and enthroned by the sixth
Shamarpa, Chokyi Wangchuk, who also gave him the full Kagyu transmission. The Karmapa
travelled throughout Tibet, teaching and promoting the welfare of the people, until certain
political difficulties arose. Ngawang Lozang Gyamtso, the fifth Dalai Lama, had become the
official ruler of Tibet, a role that would continue to be filled by his successive incarnations. He
established a pact with the Mongol ruler Goshir Khan; the ensuing sectarian persecution
severely weakened Kagyu doctrine in Tibet, and placed the Karmapa in such a difficult position
that he was forced to leave the country. Travelling through Nepal and Burma to Yunnan in
China, Choying Dorje made virtue of necessity and founded monasteries along his route.
Twenty years were to pass before he could return to his homeland. He identified the seventh
Shamarpa, _ Yeshe Nyingpo, and with the transmission of the Kagyu teachings, selected him as
lineage holder.

Cho Ku
_

State of Truth

Cho Nyi Bardo


_

Bardo

Clear Light Meditation


[Tib. Osel] One of the _ Six Teachings of Naropa.

Compassion
It denotes the attitude that the benefit of other beings is more important to us than our own.
Compassion is always paired with love. While compassion stands for the wish that other beings
may be free from suffering and free from the cause of suffering, love stands for the wish that all
beings may be happy.
There are several means to develop compassion (_ Enlightened Mind). In _ Mahayana and _
Diamond Way Buddhism the development of compassion is very important.
Wisdom and compassion are inseparable in Mahayana Buddhism. The development of wisdom
leads us to the realization of emptiness. The _ Rangjung Rigpe Dorje said: "The true nature of
emptiness is compassion. Without experiencing the wealth of compassion it means nothing,
when somebody claims to have recognized emptiness. "Cosmology
There are different cosmologies in Buddhism. _ Hinayana, _ Mahayana, _ Kalachakra and _
Mahamudra got different ways to view and explain the world. The extent of the world is different,
too. All those explanations are quite different from today's astrophysical point of view.

In the cosmology of the Hinayana (Theravada) there is only one world. Our one. In the
center of the world lies mount Meru with mountain ranges and four main continents
surrounding this mountain. The southern continent 'Jambu' (India) is the place where we
all live. The other continents are inhabited too, but Jambu is the only place where
beings can mature. In doing good things the Karma of the beings can be filled up with
good impressions.
Without beginning or end world after world is created and destroyed by the Karma of
sentient beings.

In the cosmology of the Mahayana the structure of the world (Meru, four main
continents) is equal to the world of the Hinayana. But there is not only one world, there

is an infinite number of worlds. They are arranged in a hierarchical way. The worlds are
created not only by Karma but also by the compassion of the Buddhas and vows of the
Bodhisattvas. Here too there was never a beginning in space and time. Worlds are
created and destroyed until all beings are liberated from the sufferings of cyclic
existence.

The cosmology of the Kalachakra contains a slightly different description of the world.
This cosmology is concerned with the integration of macrocosm and microcosm into a
coherent system. It also includes an astrological system.

In Mahamudra there is actually no cosmology. One speaks of a 'Non-Cosmology'. In the


cosmologies mentioned above Karma is the cause for the creation and destruction of
the worlds. Mahamudra defines the universe as primordial purity. Everything
experienced is only an expression of the pure state of mind.

Crown Ceremony
_

Black Crown

D
Dakini
The feminine energy principle, associated with knowledge and intelligence and wisdom.

Dangma Lhungyel Gyeltsen


Dangma Lhungyel Gyeltsen is an emanation of _ Drime Shenyen (Vimalamitra). He had a
vision of Dorje Legpa which allowed him to find the Dharma teachings which had been hidden
by _ Nyang Tingdsin Sangpo (_ Phowa Lineage). Fifteen years after the discovery of the
teachings, he looked for a suitable student to whom he could transfer his experience. He
chose _ Jetsun Senge Wangtschug.

Damtsig
_

Bond

Dalai Lama
The Dalai Lama is the spiritual head of the _ Gelug-Lineage of Tibetan Buddhism. Until the
chinese invasion he was the political leader of Tibet, too.

Damzigpas
_

Protector

Dasabhumi
The ten stages of the _ Bodhisattva realization. _ Bhumi

Death
When dying one enters the _ Bardos of death, dharmadata and rebirth. First, comes the
process of dying itself. Afterwards, a period follows wherein mind continues its habitual flow
from the previous life. After recognizing that one is actually dead, a process of restructuring
takes place and, depending on the dominant state, mind enters a new realm among the six
levels of existence.
To get e detailed description of the Bardos of death, dharmadata and rebirth, _ [more].

Deshin Shegpa
[1384 - 1415] Deshin Shegpa, the fifth Karmapa was born in the Nyang Dam region of Soutern
Tibet, immediately sitting up, wiping his face, and declaring "I am the Karmapa - Om Mani

Peme Hung Shri". Rinchen Pal, the secretary to the third Karmapa, who identified and became
secretary to the fourth Karmapa, also located this child, and in due course served him as
secretary for the third time. Deshin Shegpa was brought to Tsawa Phu in Kongpo where a
significant number of the fourth Karmapa's disciples were living. Shamar _ Kacho Wangpo
immediately recognised the child as the incarnation of Rolpe Dorje, and presented him with the
Black Crown and other possessions of the fourth Karmapa. He went on to give the Karmapa
the full cycle of Kagyu teachings.
This Karmapa was a famous traveller, teaching throughout Tibet, Mongolia and China, where
he was invited by the Emperor, Tai Ming Chen, who eagerly became a student of Deshin
Shegpa. Returning to Tibet after some years, Karmapa built many shrines and stupas, and
continued to teach and give empowerments. He found the next Shamar reincarnation, _
Chopal Yeshe, arranged his ordination, and gave him the Kagyu transmission. The next
lineage holder, however, was his student Ratnabhadra.

Dewachen
_

Realm of Great Joy

Dhagpo Kagyu Ling


This Place in France / Dordogne, near Peyzac le Moustier is Karmapas main seat in Europe. It
is guided by _ Jigme Rinpoche. Every year in summer a course is held in Buddhist Philosophy.
The course lasts three weeks and there are four such courses over a period of four years. The
lectures are held mainly by teachers from the _ KIBI. The contents of the teachings are the
same as at the KIBI but in a shorter form. _ [more].

Dharma
[Tib. Cho] The Buddha's teachings.

Dharmadhatu
The realm of all phenomena, the space in which all transpires.

Dharmakaya
_

State of Truth

Dharmata
The fundamental nature of all phenomena, the essence of reality.

Diamond Dagger
[Tib. Dorje Purbha, Skt. Vajrakilaya] Wrathful embodiment of Diamond Mind and important
activity of the Buddhas.

Diamond-holder Power Buddha


[Tib. Channa Dorje, Skt. Vajrapani] The power and energy of all Buddhas.

Diamond Mind
[Tib. Dorje Sempa, Skt. Vajrasattva]

Embodying the cleaning power of all Buddhas.

In the _ Nyingma tradition Diamond-Mind represents the _ "State of Joy": Out of the
formless _ "State of Truth" two states manifest spontaneously in order to help sentient
beings. One of them is the "Joy-State" or Sambhogakaya. The "State of Joy" exists to
help those beings whose minds have already been largely purified, namely the
Bodhisattvas. (see also _ Phowa Lineage)

Diamond Paunch
[Tib. Dorje Droll] Wrathful aspect of Guru Rinpoche.

Diamond Sow
[Tib. Dorje Pamo, Skt. Vajravarahi] The highest wisdom of the Buddhas. The pig represents
basic ignorance which is transformed into highest wisdom.

Diamond Way
[Tib. Dorje Thegpa, Skt. Vajrayana] Consequential methods of quick transformation based on
the motivation and philosophy of the _ Great Way (Mahayana). Can only be practiced with the
willingness to see all things on the level of purity.

Disturbing Emotions

Ignorance

Attachment

Anger

Pride

Jealousy

Dlkar
_

Liberatice

Dlma
_

Liberatice

Dorje
[Skt.Vajra]

Something invisible, something that can cut through anything else. Literal translations
of vajra (a word cognate with english "vigor") are "thunderbolt" and "diamond".

The dorje or vajra is a Diamond Way ritual implement symbolizing methods. It is used
in combination with the _ Bell, because method and wisdom are inseparable. Vajras
may have nine, five or three spokes. The spokes of a peaceful Vajra meet at the tip
whereas those of a wrathful vajra are slightly splayed at the end. The upper sets of
spokes of a five-spoked vajra symbolize the five wisdoms.

Dorje Droll
_

Diamond Paunch

Dorje Pamo
_

Diamond Sow

Dorje Purbha
_

Diamond Dagger

Dorje Sempa
_

Diamond Mind

Dorje Thegpa
_

Diamond Way

Dream Meditation
[Tib. Milam] One of the _ Six Teachings of Naropa.

Drime Shenyen
[Skt. Vimalamitra] was born into a housekeeper's family in West-India. Although he preceded

Yeshe Do (Jnana Sutra) to China, his studies with Palgji Senge were less profound, and he
eventually completed his studies as Palgji Senge's pupil. After his teacher _ Shri Singha (Shri
Singha) died, Drime Shenyen became the teacher to an Indian king for 20 years and
subsequently practised for another seven years in a cemetery.
The Tibetan king _ Trisong Detsen (_ Phowa Lineage), wanting to establish the Dharma in
Tibet, invited Drime Shenyen to Tibet. He accepted. The king, _ Guru Rinpoche and Drime
Shenyen were instrumental in bringing Buddhism to Tibet. The most essential teachings that
Drime Shenyen had brought to Tibet were called Vima Nyingthig in his honour. After having
spent 13 years in Tibet, Drime Shenyen went to China to the Wu T'ai Chan mountain, where
he realized the rainbow-body transformation. It is said that he will be living and emanating in
this, for ordinary human beings unrecognizable form, as long as Buddhism exists in the world.

Dschampel Shenyen
(Skt. Manjushrimitra) was born into a Brahman family. He was a scholar. In a vision from
Manjushri he received a prophecy: "If you want to reach enlightenment during your lifetime, go
to Sitavana." According to the prophecy he met _ Garab Dorje (_ Phowa Lineage) there and
studied the Dharma with him for 75 years. After the death of his teacher he started
categorizing the teachings and meditated for 109 years in Sosadvipa, another cemetery, west
of Bodhgaya. The extremely long lifespan that was attributed to him and many other teachers
in that epoch could be variously explained - there was a tradition whereby every 6 months
were counted as one year, and also many of the great masters had reached long-living
realization through their practice.

Dkyi Khorlo
_

Wheel of Time

Dudul Dorje
[1733 - 1797] The thirteenth Karmapa, Dudul Dorje, was born at Champa Drongsar in South
Tibet, and once located by Situpa, brought to Tsurphu at the age of five. In a further escalation
of the sectarian politics of the time, the then ruler of Tibet, the seventh Dalai Lama, Kalzang
Gyatso, with his prime minister, Sonam Topgyal, instituted a rule that all government officials
must be Gelugpa. As a consequence of this, the Dalai Lama's approval of the new Karmapa
incarnation was required. Finally, though, the thirteenth Karmapa and the ninth Shamarpa, _
Kunchok Jungnay, were enthroned.
The Karmapa received full teachings from Situpa, but the Shamarpa only lived for eight years,
precipitating another controversy. Subsequently, Dudul Dorje and Situpa, once again helped
by Kato Rigdzin Tsewang Norbu, recognised Shamarpa's reincarnation in a younger brother of
the fourth Panchen Lama, Palden Yeshe. The seventh Gyaltsap Rinpoche (1699-1765),
however, had already installed a son of the wealthy Ger Namsayling family as reincarnation,
with the approval of Shamarpa's monks at Yangpachen monastery, his principal seat in Tibet.
The dispute eventually reached the courts, where it was decided that the Karmapa had indeed
located the true incarnation.

Dukar
_

White Umbrella

Dusum Chenpa
[1110 - 1193] Born the son of a practising Buddhist in Ratay in East Tibet, Dusum Khyenpa
received his first dharma teachings from his father, and continued his education with other
Buddhist teachers of the region until his twentieth year. Then he moved to Central Tibet where
he spent the next twelve years in meditation and in study with famous scholars, among them
Kyabpa Chokyi Senge, and Patsab Lotsawa Nyima Trag. At the age of thirty he was given
Kagyu teachings by _ Gampopa; he was farther connected with the lineage by teachings he
received from Rechungpa and from other students of Milarepa. The depth of his practice was
such that he developed siddhis (powers) that enabled him to visit the sacred sites of the

Diamond Way in India. At one of these, Udhiyana, dakinis shared their wisdom teachings with
him. At forty-four, he left Central Tibet to return to the region of his birth, and spent the thirtynine years until his death in establishing three thriving monasteries, sharing the Kagyu
teachings, and training his students. Of these, he chose Drogon Rechen to be the next
lineage-holder.

Dzog chen, Dzogchen


_

Maha Ati

Dzogpa Chenpo
_

Maha Ati

E
Emotion
_

Disturbing Emotions

Empowerment
[Tib.Wang] Ceremony which introduces the practitioner to the powerfield of a certain Buddha
aspect. It may be given as a blessing or at the start of a practice. One also needs a _ Lung, a
reading of the text, and a _ Thri, the instructions on how to use it. The effectiveness of these
methods in developing one's awareness cannot be overestimated.

Emptiness
[Tib. Tongpanyi, Skt. Shunyata] The fact that nothing outer or inner exists through or in itself.
Everything arises from conditions, the ultimate nature of which is the potential of space.

Enlightened Mind
[Tib. Chang Chub Kyi Sem, Skt. Bodhicitta] Has two aspects: the relative means perfecting
ourselves through the six liberating actions for the benefit of all beings. The absolute is
spontaneous and effortless activity without thought or hesitation. The experience of subject,
object and action as a totality makes this intuitive state automatic.

Enlightenment
Complete enlightenment is a state of realization in which the most subtle traces of ignorance
about the nature of reality are eliminated; sometimes called "the embodiment of the "Three _
Kayas". There are degrees or stages of Enlightenment. _ Bhumi.

F
Form Realm
Beings of the Form Realm are free from the attachment present in the desire realm. But they
still adhere to a form. They only suffer from their death and from being born in the lower
realms. This happens when there is no karma left to support this existence.
This realm is subdivided into four levels of meditative concentration:

Prathamadhyana (Skt.)

Dvitiyadhyana (Skt.)

Tritityadhyana (Skt.)

Caturthadhyana (Skt.)

Formless Realm
Beings of the Formless Realm are free from attachment and exist free from location and form.
They only suffer from their death and from being born in the lower realms. This happens when
there is no karma left to support this existence.
This realm is subdivided into four levels of meditative concentration:

Infinite space

Infinite consciousness

Nothing whatever

Neither discernment nor no discernment

A birth in the Formless Realm will take place after achieving the same state of meditative
concentration (Samadhi) during meditation in the former existence. One enjoys this state of _
Samadhi, a state without any sufferings. But keeping this state without developing _ Vipasyana
doesn't lead to _ Liberation, but to a birth in the Formless Realm. One can remain in this
Realm for millions of years, it is very pleasant but of no benefit.

G
Gampopa
[1079 - 1153] Main disciple of _ Milarepa and teacher of the first Karmapa, _ Dusum Chenpa.
He was prophesized by the Buddha to spread the Dharma widely in Tibet and is the source of
the monastic Kagyu transmissions.

Garab Dorje
(Skt. Prahevajra), Nirmanakaya (_ Phowa Lineage). The "State of compassion" (_ Tulku) is the
manifestation of enlightenment in the physical realm. It is there to help those beings who have
not yet reached the level of a Bodhisattva. The first human lineage-holder of the _ Dzog chen
was the _ Nirmanakaya Garab Dorje, an emanation of the Buddha _ Diamond Mind. He was
born a son of a royal family in Uddiyana, the land of the _ Dakini. Even as a child he already
showed many special signs which made it very clear that he was by no means an ordinary
boy. It is said that he entered into a philosophical debate with 500 scholars and won, at age
seven and that without ever having studied himself. Afterwards he meditated in a hut on top of
a mountain until his 32nd birthday. It was here that he received the direct transmissions of
Diamond-Mind and realized his Buddhahood. Together with the Dakinis he spent three years
recording those teachings. He meditated and taught for the rest of his life in Sitavana, a
famous old cemetery Northeast of Bodhgaya. In old India cemeteries were considered to be
powerful places, inhabited by Dakinis, ghosts, wild animals and Yogis. The cemetery offered
them the opportunity for undisturbed practice and also served as a daily reminder of
impermanence. It is here that Garab Dorje met his "main-pupil" _ Dschampel Shenyen.

Gelug
The latest of the four main lineages of Tibetan Buddhism. This reformed school, founded by
Tsongkhapa, puts special stress on studying the scriptures and on the monastic tradition.
Though possessing several Tantras, it does not accept the first _ "Nyingma" transmission of
Buddhism into Tibet and often represents itself as belonging to the _ Great Way, not the _
Diamond Way.

Gendun Rinpoche

Lama Gendun Rinpoche was the meditation master and spiritual director of Dhagpo Kagyu
Ling (France). He spent more than thirty years in solitary retreat and was then sent to Europe
by the _ Rangjung Rigpe Dorje. He passed away in October 1997. _ [more].

Great Black
[Tib. Nagpo Chenpo, Skt. Mahakala] The protection power of all Buddhas.

Great Perfection
_

Maha Ati

Great Way
[Tib. Theg Chen, Skt. Mahayana] Motivation and practice to reach enlightenment for the
benefit of all beings. Its very basis is the development of compassion and transpersonal
wisdom.

Green Liberatrice
_

Liberatice

God
Inhabitant of the least painful of the Six Realms of _ Samsara. The lives of gods, while long
and marked by sensuous bliss, are ended in great sorrow as they foresee their future lower
rebirth. There are gods of the Desire, Form and Formless Realms.

Gompa
Literally "to meditate". Third phase of practice, which follows receipt of teachings and
instruction and effort made to comprehend them. Gompa is the actual pursuit of meditational
practice.

Guru Rinpoche
[Tib. Pema Jungne, Skt. Padmasambhava, Lit. the Lotus-born] The probably Afghan yogi who
brought the full cycle of Buddhism to Tibet in the eighth century. Guru Rinpoche is an
emanation of the Buddha _ Amithaba. From 810 onwards, he spent more than 55 years in
Tibet. He manifested an exciting life and countless wonders and is highly revered in the three
non-reformed schools of Tibetan Buddhism. He founded the Nyingma lineage of Tibetan
Buddhism. His energy-field is especially present on the tenth day after new moon. ( _ Phowa
Lineage)

Guru Tschober
[1196 - 1231] Guru Tschober was the son of the younger brother of _ Khepa Nyibum (_ Phowa
Lineage). Until his seventh birthday he seemed to be a rather stupid child, but then, suddenly,
he showed great aspects of wisdom. He lived with his uncle Khepa Nyibum until age 18 and
received his complete transmissions. Later in his life he studied with the famous Sakya
Pandita. He became known for his sharp intellect and his scholarly wisdom. It is said that he
had a vision of each of the Buddha-aspects that he meditated on.Guru Yoga _ Three Lights
Meditation.

Gyalwa Gyamtso
_

Almighty Ocean

Gyelwa Shangton
[1097 - 1167] Already as an adolescent Shangton studied the Dharma intensively. He had
visions of _ Loving Eyes, the Liberatress and other Buddha-Aspects. Dorje Legpa especially
appeared to him on several occasions, asking Shangton to accompany him so that he would
reach enlightenment. Dorje Legpa protected him in many dangerous situations. In Chimphu he
discovered different Dharma-jewels of _ Drime Shenyen `s (Vimalamitra). Gyelwa Shanton had
also visions of Drime Shenyen. He received the complete transmission of the highest
teachings from _ Jetsun Senge Wangtschug (_ Phowa Lineage). As a sign that he had reached

realization, his body did not throw a shadow anymore.

Gyulu
_

Illusory Body Meditation

H
Hayagriva
_

Horsehead

Heart Sutra
The extremely concise statement of the doctrine of _ Emptiness, regarded as the heart or
essence of the vast Prajnaparamita (Perfection of Wisdom) Literature. In many _ Great Way
traditions, the sutra is chanted regularly.

Highest Joy
[Tib. Khorlo Demchok, Skt. Chakrasamvara, Lit. Wheel of Highest Joy] Radiant transpersonal
joy which is the true nature of space. Blue skin, wrathful. May appear alone or in union with _
Diamond Sow. Transforms attachment.

Hinayana
_

Small Way

Horsehead
[Tib. Tamdrin, Skt. Hayagriva] Protector of the pure land of Highest Joy.

I
Illusory Body Meditation
[Tib. Gyulu] One of the _ Six Teachings of Naropa.

Initiation
[Tib. Wang, Skt. Abhisheka] A better word is empowerment. Ceremony which introduces the
practitioner to the powerfield of a certain Buddha aspect. It may be given as a blessing or at
the start of a practice. One also needs a "lung," a reading of the text, and a "thri," the
instructions on how to use it. The effectiveness of these methods in developing one's
awareness cannot be overestimated.

Inner Heat Meditation


[Tib. Tumo] One of the _ Six Teachings of Naropa.

Interdependent Origination
This important topic is explained by Buddha in short terms as follows: `Causes and conditions
leading to results'. `Interdependent Origination' means that all phenomena (objects) exists only
interdependent on other phenomena.
The causes are subdivided in Inner Causes (_ Twelve Links of Interdependent Origination) and
Outer Causes (explained as the steps in the development of a rice-grain to a rice-plant).
The conditions are subdivided in Inner Conditions (matter of our body, liquids inside our body,
heat of our body, breath, openings in our body and consciousness) and Outer Conditions
(earth, water, fire, wind, space and time)
`Interdependent Origination' can be treated from another point of view, too: All phenomena

exist only depending on their parts. A table does only exist because it has a table-top and legs.
The legs only exists because of the wood they are made from. The wood does only exist
because of the molecules, atoms and so on.

Intermediate State Meditation


[Tib. Bardo] One of the _ Six Teachings of Naropa.

J
Jampel Maseng
_

Wisdom Buddha on a Lion

Jambyang Rinpoche
[c. 1880 - 1947] The Fifth Shamarpa stated that the Karmapa and Shamarpa incarnations are
inseparable on an absolute level of mind. They are two distinct emanations "manifesting
sometimes as father and son, sometimes as brother like relatives." This occurred when the
Twelfth Shamarpa Jamyang Rinpoche, became the Fifteenth Karmapa's son. The Twelfth
Shamarpa led a quiet but fruitful life. He was a bodhisattva yogi, who taught and guided those
who had the good fortune to know him and his blessings radiated out to all who were
receptive. He left his foot imprint in a rock as a symbol of his attainment.

Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo


[1820 - 1892] He was one of the greatest lamas of the last century, and one of the most
important _ Tertons. He was considered to be a body emanation of _ Jigme Lingpa. At 19 he
received the Longchen-Nyingthig transmission from _ Jigme Gyalwe Nyugu (_ Phowa
Lineage). He and Patrul Rinpoche were the main students of Jigme Gyalwe Nyugu.
During a thirteen year period he received all of the existing teachings of the various lineages
from some 150 Lamas. During that time he studied about 700 works. Dilgo Khyentse, who is
one of his reincarnations, said that Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo's main practice was that of
Guru Yoga. In the Autobiography of Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo it is written that he realized
the true nature of mind during his Ngondro practice.
Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo was heavily involved in the development of the non-sectarian
Rime-movement. During that time many lineages and practices were under the threat of
extinction. The goal of the Rime movement was for the practitioner to attain complete mastery
of the teachings of all the lineages, so as to then be able to give each of his students the
precise teaching to fit their individual needs.

Jamyang Tschokyi Lodro


[1893 - 1959] Jamyang Tschokyi Lodro, the activity-incarnation of _Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo
(_ Phowa Lineage), is considered to be one of the greatest Dharma Masters of this century. As
a child he had already received the Longchen-Nyingthig-transmission from _ Adzom Drukpa.
As a fifteen-year-old he became the abbot of the Dzongsar monastery, which had been the
seat of his predecessor Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo. In 1956 he crossed Lhasa to travel to
India, and visited many holy sites in India and Nepal and spent the last years of his life in
Sikkim.

Jetsun Senge Wangtschug


Already as an adolescent Senge Wangtschug was very learned in the Dharma and had
received transmissions from _ Dangma Lhungyel Gyeltsen(_ Phowa Lineage). Inspired by a
vision of _ Drime Shenyen (Vimalamitra) he freed himself of any attachment to his physical
body and reached rainbow-body realization at age 125. He was reborn in the 19th century as
the famous _Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo .

Jewel Ornament of Liberation

Main philosophical work of _ Gampopa. It explains the view and path of the _ Great Way.
Excellent introduction to the basic teachings.

Jigme Gyalwe Nyugu


[1765 - 1843] Jigme Gyalwa Nyugu was one of _ Jigme Lingpas (_ Phowa Lineage) main
students. He was also a student of Jigme Lingpa's main lineage-holder, the first Dodrupchen
Rinpoche. First he practised many years in Kham and then spent much time with his teacher
Jigme Lingpa in Central Tibet. After he had reached realization he returned to Kham upon the
advice of his teacher. He practised there in austerity for 21 years on a lonely mountain. His
reputation spread fast and soon some two hundred yogis became his students and lived with
him in tents. He became one of the main teachers of Patrul Rinpoche, who twenty-five times
received the teaching of the preparatory exercises from him and who recorded them. This is
how the Kunsang Lame Shalung was created. This was published in English under the title
"The Words of my perfect Teacher". Today it is a standard text in the _ Nyingma lineage, and
one from which many _ Kagyu Lineage-teachers like to quote. Jigme Gyalwe Nyugu together
with the Dodrupchen Rinpoche spread the Longchen Nyingthig throughout Tibet, especially in
East Tibet.

Jigme Lingpa
[1729 - 1798] Jigme Lingpa is one of the greatest and, even today, one of the most important
teachers of the _ Dzog chen lineage. He received three visionary transmission from Longchen
Rabjam and realized his teachings, which were to become famous throughout Tibet under the
name of Longchen Nyingthig. He kept them secret for about seven years, until the time had
come to teach them since it is very important that a _ Terton practises the teachings himself,
before he passes them on to others. Jigme Lingpa had many excellent students. The first
Dodrupchen Rinpoche, Jigme Trinle, became his main lineage-holder. Among Jigme Lingpa's
reincarnations are many famous Lamas such as Do Khyentse Yeshe Dorje (his mindemanation), Patrul Rinpoche (Jigme Lingpais speech-emanation) and _ Jamyang Khyentse
Wangpo (his body-emanation) (_ Phowa Lineage).

Jigme Tenpe Nyima


[1865 - 1926] Jigme Tenpe Nyima was the third Dodrupchen Rinpoche, a reincarnation of the
main-lineage-holder of the Jigme Lingpa. He received many teachings from Patrul Rinpoche,
with whom he had a very close relationship. When Tenpe Nyima was only eight years old,
Patrul Rinpoche invited everyone in the area so that Jigme Tenpe Nyima could give them
teachings on the Bodhicarayavatara ("Entering into the Bodhisattva Way of Life" by
Shantideva). Later on he received from _Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo (_ Phowa Lineage) the
transmission of the Longchen Nyingthig.

Jigme Rinpoche
Lama Jigme Rinpoche was born into the family of His Holiness the _ Rangjung Rigpe Dorje
and as the brother of His Eminence Shamar Rinpoche, as the reincarnation of the Tibetan
yogi. He received extensive teachings from the Karmapa, who, during his first visit in the West,
left him there as his representative. Since that time, Lama Jigme Rinpoche is guiding
Karmapa's main seat in Europe, Dhagpo Kagyu Ling in France.
He has given countless Dharma teachings there and has watched the center grow from a
small farm house in the countryside into a large center. Besides his great organizational skills,
he is highly respected as a lama. Many have already benefited greatly from his profound
knowledge, his understanding of western lifestyle, and his practical wisdom, warmth and
humor. _ Section Teachers.

Jigtenpas
_

Protector

Jinasagara
_

Almighty Ocean

Juwels, Three
_

Refuge

K
Kacho Wangpo
[1350 - 1405] The Second Shamarpa Kach Wangpo, was able to recall the knowledge of his
previous incarnation. He began to teach at the young age of three. The Fourth Karmapa _
Rolpe Dorje, enthroned the self recognized Shamarpa at the age of six. He underwent
monastic ordination and rigorously observed the Pratimoksha and Bodhisattva Vows as he had
done in his previous incarnation. The Karmapa gave him a Diamond Way (Vajrayana)
empowerment whereby one penetrates into the true nature of all phenomenon.
From the Karmapa, he also received the empowerments of Mahamudra, the Six Yogas of
Naropa as well as the treasured 'Whispered Transmission.' The Shamarpa also studied the
sutras and tantras with many other great lamas and siddhas. He made every demand on
himself in practice, while spurring on the sluggish minds of the indolent to greater diligence.
After having returned the red crown to the Second Shamarpa in a ceremony, the Fourth
Karmapa Rolpe Dorje, recalled the prediction made by the Second Karmapa. _ Karma Pakshi
had foreseen future Karmapas manifesting in two separate Nirmanakaya forms. He told the
Shamarpa: 'You are the one manifestation while I am the other. Therefore, the responsibility to
maintain the continuity of the teachings of the Kagyu lineage rests equally on you as it does on
me.' The Karmapa then formally made him his deputy, both temporally and spiritually. When
the Fourth Karmapa passed away, the Shamarpa became the honorary holder of the Kagyu
teachings, enthroning the Fifth Karmapa and transmitting all the profound instructions to him
as his Guru. One of the Shamarpa's many disciples - Sokwn Rigpai Raldri, was later to
become a Guru to the Sixth Karmapa.

Kagyu Lineage
The yogic transmission among the four main schools of Tibetan Buddhism. It encompasses
both the old (Nyingma) and the new (Sarma) teachings which reached Tibet. Being heavily
practice-oriented, it is called the "oral" or "perfection" school. It was brought to Tibet by the
hero _ Marpa around year 1050 and derives its power from the close bond between teacher
and student.
Four major and eight minor schools originated from _ Gampopa's three main disciples. Today
the major ones have all fused into the Karma Kagyu of which H.H. _ Karmapa is the head.
Among the minor ones, the Drugpa and the Drigung Kagyu have strong followings in Bhutan
and Ladakh.

Kagyu Monlam
_

Monlam

Kalachakra
[Lit. the Wheel of Time] A cycle of complex teachings embracing _ Cosmology, history,
psychology, and spiritual practice in one coherent system. Name of a _ Tantra and of the _
Wheel of Time featured in it.

Kalpa
A vast stretch of time.

Karma
[Tib. Le, Lit. action] Law of cause and effect. Any outer and inner situation depends on the
impressions stored in beings' minds and in the world around them. These are produced by

one's physical, verbal and mental actions right now.

Karma Gn
Located in the Andalusian mountains in Spain, near the village of Aldea Alta (near Malaga) lies
this center of the _ Kagyu Lineage. Every year a great _ Phowa-course with Lama _ Ole Nydahl
and _ Lopon Tsechu Rinpoche takes place with participants from all over the world.
Karma Gn is under constant development. The idea is, that it will turn into a Karma Kagyu
center fit for the modern buddhism in the west. _ [more].

Karmapa, The
[Lit. Activity Man] First consciously reborn _ Lama of Tibet and the spiritual head of the _ Kagyu
Lineage. The Karmapas embody the activity of all Buddhas and were prophesized by Buddha
Shakyamuni and by _ Guru Rinpoche. Before his death each Karmapa leaves a letter
containing the exact conditions of his next birth.
Up until now, there have been seventeen incarnations:

Dusum Chenpa 1110 - 1193

Karma Pakshi 1204 - 1283

Rangjung Dorje 1284 - 1339

Rolpe Dorje 1340 - 1383

Deshin Shegpa 1384 - 1415

Tongwa Donden 1416 - 1453

Chodrag Gyamtso 1454 - 1506

Mikyo Dorje 1507 - 1554

Wangchug Dorje 1556 - 1603

Choying Dorje 1604 - 1674

Yeshe Dorje 1676 - 1702

Changchub Dorje 1703 - 1732

Dudul Dorje 1733 - 1797

Thegchog Dorje 1798 - 1868

Khakhyab Dorje 1871 - 1922

Rangjung Rigpe Dorje 1924 - 1981

Thaye Dorje 1983 -

Karmapa Meditation, The


_

Three Lights Meditation

Karma Pakshi
[1204 - 1283] From Chilay Tsakto in Eastern Tibet, the second Karmapa, Karma Pakshi, was
something of a child prodigy. By the age of six, he had taught himself to read and write. At ten,
he was displaying a photographic memory for texts. On his way to Central Tibet for further
education, he encountered Pomdragpa Sonam Dorje, who had been told by a vision of Dusum

Khyenpa, the first Karmapa, that this boy would become the next lineage-holder. Karma
Pakshi was persuaded to stay, and received the Kagyu transmission. In time, he became
renowned for his powers, and had students throughout Tibet, China and Mongolia.

Kayas, Three
Three states of the totality of the completely enlightened experience. The three states (or
bodies) of experience of a Buddha. _ State of Truth, _ State of Joy, _ Tulku (State of
compassion).

Khakhyab Dorje
[1871 - 1922] The fifteenth Karmapa, Khakyab Dorje, spoke the mantra of Chenrezig at his
birth in Sheikor village in Tsang province in central Tibet. Five years later he was able to read
the scriptures. Recognised and enthroned by the ninth Kyabgon Drukchen, Khakyab Dorje
was given the Kagyu teachings by Jamgon Kongtrul Lodro Thaye. Khenchen Tashi Ozer and
other masters completed his education. He went on to teach and give empowerments
throughout Tibet, and preserved many rare texts by having them reprinted. Unlike the previous
Karmapas, Khakyab Dorje married, and fathered three sons, two of whom he recognised as
the second Jamgon Kongtrul and the twelfth Shamarpa, Jamyang Rinpoche. Among his
closest students were Situ Pema Wangchok Gyalpo (who Karmapa had recognised as the
Situpa reincarnation), Jamgon Palden Khyentse Ozer, and Beru Khyentse Lodro Mizay
Jampa'i Gocha.

Kharlo Demchok
_

Highest Joy

Khaydrup Drakpa Senge


[1283 - 1349] The Third _ Rangjung Dorje presented the First Shamarpa Khaydrup Drakpa
Senge, with a red crown. This gesture was recognition that this exemplary disciple was
unsurpassed in realisation and accomplishments and in every respect his equal. The red
crown worn by the Shamarpa resembles the black crown worn by the Karmapa. The black
crown is a replica of one that hovers over the head of each of the Karmapa incarnations that is
visible only to those of exceptional purity of mind. This imperceptible crown is made from the
hair of celestial dakinis and was made by them and given to the Karmapa in adoration of his
realisation. The Buddha Sakyamuni made this prediction in the Good Kalpa Sutra: 'In the
future, a mahabodhisattva with a ruby red crown shall come to lead the suffering multitudes
out of their cyclic bewilderment and misery.' The Buddha's prophecy reached its fulfillment in
the Shamarpa.
This Buddha in the form of a bodhisattva is known by the Tibetans as the tathagatha Kncho
Yenlak or the 'Red Crown Karmapa'.
The First Shamarpa was a very gifted child. Early on in life, it had become evident that he had
a brilliant mind. What was much less apparent, however, was that he was clairvoyant. He had
assimilated Diamond Way (Vajrayana) teachings through a dakini known only to him. Of all the
transmissions that he received, the Shamarpa had the greatest affinity for the practices of
Dorje Pagmo (Vajra Varahi.) His main Guru was the Third Karmapa, but he studied with no
less than fifty of the greatest lamas, siddhas and translators of the time. Under the skillful
guidance of his teachers, the Shamarpa became well versed in all aspects of the Buddha's
teachings. He exercised consummate skill in the art of debate and demonstrated proficiency in
dispelling doubts and misconceptions. The Shamarpa composed texts on the tantras and a
commentary on the Prajnaparamita Sutra.

Khenpo
The chief instructor or spiritual authority in a monastery. Though the word is often translated as
"abbot", the khenpo is not usually the administrator of the monastery. The title is also accorded
to lamas of great learning.

Khepa Nyibum
[1158 - 1213] Khepa Nyibum was the son of _ Gyelwa Shangton (_ Phowa Lineage). At age
five, he had already received empowernments and teachings from his father and mastered
them. Until his 20th birthday he exclusively studied Dharma-practice. Later he studied many
Sutras and Tantras with different teachers. Until his death he showed many extraordinary
signs.

Khyentse Do Ngag Lingpa


[1910 - 1991] Khyentse Do Ngag Lingpa is normally known under the name of Namen Dilgo
Khyentse Rinpoche Tashi Paljor. He is, like _ Jamyang Tschokyi Lodro a reincarnation of _
Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo .
As an adolescent he received the Longchen-Nyingthig transmission and explanations from
several teachers, the main ones being _ Jamyang Tschokyi Lodro (_ Phowa Lineage) and _
Adzom Drukpa. As an eighteen-year-old he already undertook a 12 year retreat. Upon the
invitation of the Bhutanese King he spent many years in Bhutan. He built a large monastery
near the Bodhnath-Stupa in Kathmandu. In the mid 70s he started to pay more frequent visits
to Western countries, and created a Dharma-center in the South of France, near Karmapa's
Dhagpo Kagyu Ling center. He died in Bhutan in September 1991.

Khyil-khor
_

Mandala

KIBI
[Lit.: Karmapa International Buddhist Institute].
The KIBI is located in New Dehli and offers a four year program in Buddhist studies. Classes
are held from mid-October to mid-March. The core curriculum comprises Buddhist Philosophy,
Buddhist Epistemology, and Tibetan Language. The courses are designed to meet the needs
of both beginners and advanced students.
A detailed description of the activities and classes is _ available.

Kumaraja
[1266 - 1343] Kumaraja revealed special qualities even as a child, and studied with many of
the great teachers. In Tsurphu he received the _ Kagyu Lineage-transmissions. He met Master
Orgyenpa and the third Karmapa _ Rangjung Dorje, who at that time was only 3 years old. His
main teacher was _ Melong Dorje (_ Phowa Lineage) from whom he received many
transmissions. Since he had nothing that he could give as an offering to his teacher, he worked
very hard for him for eight years, painting and copying books. After the death of Melong Dorje,
the third Karmapa invited him to Tsurphu, where Kumaraja gave Karmapa the _ Maha Ati
transmissions. At that time there was nobody else capable of receiving these transmissions,
and in that way the third Karmapa became a Maha-Ati lineage-holder until Kumaraja could
pass the transmissions onto _ Longtschen Rabjam.
Karmapa had already received the transmissions in a vision of _ Drime Shenyen (Vimalamitra),
but he was a student of Kumaraja, and wanted to give an example to his own students of how
to follow a Diamond-teacher. (He also received visionary transmissions from. _ Guru Rinpoche.
He nevertheless invited Master Gyalse Legpa, so that Karmapa could formally receive the
transmissions from him.) The special transmission that Karmapa gave was called Karma
Nyingthig, "Heart-Essence of Karmapa". Since that time the Maha-Ati teachings are part of the
Kagyu-transmissions. For a long time after this, Kumaraja practised the teachings in solitude
under the toughest conditions, before working for the benefit of all sentient beings.

Kunchok Jungnay
[1733 - 1741] The ninth incarnation of the Shamarpa Kunchok Jungnay was born in Paro,
Bhutan. The Eighth Tai Situ Rinpoche recognized him. So adverse were the karmic conditions

of this time that the child Rinpoche passed away at the age of eight.

Kunchok Yenlak
[1526 - 1583] When the Fifth Shamarpa was born, flowers blossomed through the snow in the
middle of a bleak Tibetan winter. At the time of his birth, the new born baby sat up and
enunciated "Ah Hung" three times as a spontaneous assertion of its unborn nature. These
syllables express the unborn nature of all phenomenon.
When the Eighth Karmapa _ Mikyo Dorje was in Tsari, a neighboring province to Gaden
Kongsar in Kongpo, he met with the two years old Shamarpa. The Karmapa joyfully opened
his arms to the delighted infant Rinpoche. 'So this is how the Shamarpa returns,' he remarked.
He put the child upon his lap and cut the Shamarpa's hair as an initial step towards his future
ordination. The Fifth Shamarpa received the name of Kncho Yenlak and his red crown in a
ceremony. The Shamarpa remained with the Karmapa until the age of twelve and received
initiation into the Six Yogas of Naropa, Mahamudra and many other teachings of the Kagyu
lineage.
The Eighth Karmapa had two outstanding disciples in Tsukla Trengwa - Shamar Rinpoche and
the Second Pawo Rinpoche. The Shamarpa tirelessly pursued every avenue that would foster
a greater understanding of the Dharma. The Shamarpa was a radiant disciple who propagated
the Dharma through the great cycles of activity, learning and meditation. When the Eighth
Karmapa left his body, a precise letter of prediction left by him that announced his next place
of rebirth facilitated the difficult task of identifying his ninth incarnation. The Fifth Shamarpa
became the Root Guru of the Ninth Karmapa _ Wangchug Dorje. As the holder of the Kagyu
lineage in the absence of its spiritual leader, the Shamarpa then passed on all of the teachings
to a youthful and receptive Karmapa.

Kuntu Sangpo
(Skt. Samantabhadra) Dharmakaya, (_ Phowa Lineage). In the _ Nyingma tradition
Dharmakaya is called the _ "State of Truth". It is symbolized in the form of the Root-Buddha
Kuntu Sangpo. All Dharma-teachings go back to the "Truth-State", the complete realization of
the nature of mind.

Kyab Dro
_

Refuge

L
Lama
[Lit. highest mother] Teacher. In the _ Diamond Way he is especially important. Without him,
there is no key to the deepest teachings.

Lamae Naljor
_

Three Lights Meditation

Le
_

Karma

Level of Joy
_

State of Joy

Level of Truth
_

State of Truth

Lha tong

[Skt.Vipassana ] Meditation that develops insight into the nature of mind. It is sometimes
described as analytical meditation. It is one of the two types of meditation found in all Buddhist
traditions, the other being tranquillity meditation (Tib. _ Shi nay)

Liberatice
[Skt. Tara ] White Liberatice [Tib. Dlkar], Green Liberatice [Tib. Dlma]: Female embodiment
of the compassion of all Buddhas. She protects against dangers, fears and pain. Helps in
finding partners.

Liberation
[Skt. Abhimukti] Once you recognize the emptiness of mind, you reach liberation from the
involuntary cycle of existence. You become liberated from all perturbing feelings. However, it is
a state where you have not reached complete _ Enlightenment and have not gained complete
understanding of "the way things are."

Lineage Holders, The Four


The heart sons of _ Karmapa, who carry on the transmission between his lives: Kunzig Shamar
Rinpoche, Tai Situ Rinpoche, Jamgon Kongtrul Rinpoche, and Goshir Gyaltsab Rinpoche.

Longtschen Rabjam
[1308 - 1363] Longtschen became known as the great scholar of the _ Nyingma lineage. Like
the third Karmapa, he carried the title "Kunkhyen" - All-Knowing. As a child he studied the
Dharma in great depth, and at 19 entered the famous Shedra Sangpu and acquired great
scholarly wisdom there. Longtschen chose to practise in the solitude of the mountains, having
become disgusted by the unpleasant behavior of certain scholars. There he met _ Kumaraja
who was traveling with his students under the most difficult of circumstances from valley to
valley. He accompanied them for 2 years and received during that time all of Kumaraja's
transmissions. After several years in retreat, he attracted more and more students, even
though he had spend nearly all of his life in mountain caves. He created 250 Dharma-works. ( _
Phowa Lineage)

Long-life Goddess
[Tib. Tseringma] Main important partner of Milarepa.

Long Ku
_

State of Joy

Lopon Tsechu Rinpoche


Rinpoche was born in Bhutan in 1918. As a small boy he became a monk in Phunaka Dzong,
the biggest Bhutanese monastery. When he was 13 years old he left Bhutan and went to study
and practice under the spiritual guidance of his uncle, Drukpa Rinpoche Lama Sherab Dorje, in
Nepal. Later Rinpoche returned to Bhutan and completed his studies. Afterwards he traveled
again to Nepal. He had many teachers from the _ Kagyu Lineage, _ Nyingma, _ Sakya and _
Gelug lineages. In 1944 Rinpoche met H.H. the Rangjung Rigpe Dorje in Bum Tang in Bhutan
and H.H. became one of his most important masters. Rinpoche received most of the teachings
and transmissions of the Karma Kagyu Lineage from him.
In 1987 he visited for the first time Europe at the invitation of his first Occidental students and
close friends Lama _ Ole Nydahl and his wife Hannah from Denmark. Since that time he
travels extensively throughout West and East Europe, North and South America and also
Australia giving teachings and countless initiations in the Buddhist Karma Kagyu Centers
founded by Lama Ole Nydahl. Rinpoche also visits different Buddhist Centers in China, Tibet,
Mongolia, Japan, Korea, Thailand, Taiwan, Sri Lanka, India and Hong Kong. The immense
power of his compassion is felt by people of very background and brings benefit to all beings.
Section Teachers.

Losar

Name of New Years Day in the _ Calendar

Loving Eyes
[Tib. Chenrezig, Skr. Avalokiteshvara, Lit. The one whose eyes look at everyone] The love and
compassion of all Buddhas.

Lung
A ritual reading of texts of the _ Diamond Way. The mere hearing of the syllables transmits
their inner meaning; see also _ Empowerment.

M
Madhyamaka
[Tib. U ma] The Middle View. A philosophical school based on the _ Prajnaparamita Sutras and
their doctrine of _ Emptiness. The Madhyamaka is concerned with the transcendence of
affirmation and negation both, and stresses the dependent origination of all things.

Maha Ati
[Tib. Dzogpa Chenpo] The "Great Perfection" is the absolute teaching of the old or _ Nyingma
tradition. Essence and goal correspond to the _ Mahamudra of the Kagyu transmission.

Mahakala
_

Great Black

Mahamudra
[Tib. Chagya Chenpo] The "Great Seal" of reality. Buddha's promise that this is the ultimate
teaching. It is mainly taught in the Kagyu tradition and brings about the direct experience of
mind. Mahamudra includes basis, way and goal and is the quintessence of all Buddhist
teachings.

Mahasiddhas
Great Indian Tantric Masters renowned for effecting changes in the phenomenal world through
spiritual power. They came from all walks of life, and developed the means by which the
Dharma could be effectively practiced by people of widely varying capacities and inclinations.

Mahayana
_

Great Way

Maitripa
[1007 - ?] He was one of the teachers of _ Marpa and taught him the _ Mahamudra. Marpa
received Mahamudra-teachings from _ Naropa as well.

Maitreya
The next Buddha to appear in the current age.

Mala
A mala is a chain that is made up of _ Beadsand is used for counting "mantras". _ Mantra are
the expression of a Buddha-aspect on the level of sound. For certain Diamond-Way
techniques, the number of mantras gets counted to ensure that certain meditation results will
occur.
The large bead at the end of a Mala stands for the wisdom which recognizes emptiness and
the cylindrical bead surmounting it, emptiness itself, both symbolize having vanquished all
opponents.

Mandala
[Tib. Khyil-khor, Lit. Center-circle ] Powerfield which arises out of the potential of space. An
enlightened mandala manifests from the thirty-seven perfect qualities of Buddhas and
Bodhisattvas.

Manjushri
_

Wisdom Buddha on a Lion

Mantra
[Tib. Ngag] Natural vibration of a Buddha aspect. When used, the Buddha is there. Important
part of Diamond Way meditation.

Marpa
[1012 - 1097] The "Great Translator." Travelling to India three times, Marpa was able to rebuild
the Buddhism in Tibet. His main teachers were _ Naropa and _ Maitripa. He was the first
Tibetan lineage holder of the Kagyu tradition and became Milarepa's teacher. The lay and yogi
transmissions of the Kagyu lineage are often called "Marpa Kagyu."

Medicine, Tibetan
In Tibetan medicine, the body is more than a mere life-support system. It is a vehicle for
achieving Buddhahood.
The physical world, including our bodies, is recognized as a product of our individual
perception. The root of this perception lies in basic ignorance, leading to a separation between
a subject, an object, and an action. Because of this, attachment, aversion, and indifference
evolve, and with them all kinds of disturbing emotions. The emotions grow into habits, and into
inner, often subconscious, psychological states, which are mirrored by our body. Therefore,
Tibetan medicine is not only committed to healing the human body of illness and disease, i.e.
the symptoms. It equally reveals a path in which disturbing emotions and basic ignorance can
be overcome. True healing begins when the patient is directed towards health-producing
attitudes and behaviour. Health then becomes a heightened state of vitality, creativity, peace
and joy. _ [more].

Meditation
[Tib.: Gom] The word 'meditation' is used to denote the practice itself. But it is actually only the
third step of a buddhist's practice. The first step is to recieve teachings, the second the effort to
understand them and the final step is meditation. While meditating we spiritualize what we
have learned.
For a efficient meditation the right understanding of the buddhist path is absolutely necessary.

Melong Dorje
[1243 - 1303] Melong Dorje was born as the son of a Yogi . As an adolescent he often recited
the Prajnaparamita-texts and through that reached an understanding of absolute truth and
experience in his mediation-practice. Under the harshest conditions he made different
pilgrimages. At age 18 he met _ Trulshik Senge Gyalpa (_ Phowa Lineage) and became his
student. Even during the "_ Preliminary Practices" he had a vision of Diamond-Mind which
lasted for a full six days. He received in his dreams many blessings from the Gurus of the
lineage. Melong Dorje had many vision of Buddha-Aspects and studied with many teachers,
among whom was Towarepa in Tsurphu. He was a contemporary of the Kagyu-Master
Orgyenpa, which whom he studied for 10 years. (Orgyenpa was the Root-Lama of the third
Karmapa _ Rangjung Dorje.)

Mikyo Dorje
[1507 - 1554] At his birth in Nagam Chu province, in eastern Tibet, the eighth Karmapa, Mikyo
Dorje, sat up and declared "I am the Karmapa! I am the Karmapa" His father sought out Situ
Tashi Namgyal, to request advice about his remarkable son. He was told the child was

probably the Karmapa reincarnation, and instructed to care for and raise him with that in mind.
Almost simulaneously, a family named Amdo, from Kongpo in central Tibet, brought forward
their son's claim to be the Karmapa. Gyaltsap Tashi Namgyal was asked to watch over this
second child. Meanwhile, the first child had been taken to Lho Rong, in Riwo Che province,
where a number of the previous Karmapa's disciples had gathered. They were convinced that
this was the reincarnation of their teacher. And so began a trying period, as the two factions
each persisted in supporting their particular candidate. Finally, Gyaltsap arranged for the two
children to meet and to be tested. Following tradition, each was asked to select the
possessions of the previous Karmapa from a random assortment of objects. Mikyo Dorje
proved able to choose the correct objects - his rival was not. Thus it was Mikyo Dorje who was
proclaimed Karmapa, and immediately announced that his rival was, in fact, the reincarnation
of Zurmang Chungtsang from Zurmang Monastery in the east of Tibet.
Mikyo Dorje took the full Kagyu teachings from Tashi Paljor, and rounded off his studies with a
range of accomplished masters. He went on to write many treatises, and found several
monastic colleges. He selected as lineage holder the fifth Shamarpa, _ Kunchok Yenlak, whom
he had identified, and to whom he had passed on the Kagyu transmission, stating that the
Karmapa and Shamarpa incarnations are inseparable, and of the same mind-stream.

Milam
_

Dream Meditation

Milarepa
[1040 - 1123] Main disciple of _ Marpa and teacher of _ Gampopa. He is the most famous of
Tibetan yogis. Started his career by killing thirty-five enemies of his family. Due to his
unshakeable confidence in Marpa, and a willingness to meditate under extreme conditions, he
realized the teachings in a single lifetime.

Mind
One distinguishes between two types of mind:

The un-enlightened mind: experience of conditioned and relative views and


phenomena.

The enlightened mind: absolute views, free of perturbing feelings and free of
confusion.

By its very nature, the mind is empty, just like space. It does not possess any physical or
"substantive" form but is empty. Its characteristics are clarity and wisdom. Its expression is
limitless. In no way is it limited. In other words, it can reach anything.

Mipam Chodrup Gyamtso


[1742 - 1792] The Tenth Shamarpa Mipham Chodrup Gyatso, was a brother to the Panchen
Lama of the Gelugpa School. He spent his infancy in the central Tibetan province of Tsang.
Much to the astonishment of his parents, the young Rinpoche had recounted many tales of his
past lives and events known to have occurred within Tsurphu Monastery. The Thirteenth
Karmapa _ Dudul Dorje, recognized and enthroned the Tenth Shamarpa. The Shamarpa
received all the instructions of the lineage from the Karmapa and the Eighth Tai Situ Rinpoche.
Many great lamas and scholars of other Buddhist schools also influenced his education. He
traveled extensively through Kham, Derge and Nangshen where he gave teachings and
empowerments to lamas, tulkus and the lay population. He visited many holy places in Central
Tibet to meditate and make offerings. After his travels, he returned to Tsurphu and His
Holiness the Karmapa.
Some years later, internal division arose within the political and spiritual hierarchy of Tibet that
resulted in dark times for the Shamarpa. The Eleventh Dalai Lama passed away and the
regent left in charge was unable to see beyond the narrow confines of his own monasteries.
This resulted in the persecution of the Shamarpa and the seizing of his red crown. The regent

and his followers, in collusion with the army, appropriated all of the Shamarpa's monasteries
and forced them to integrate into the Gelugpa School. There was to be no future Shamarpa
incarnation by a legal decree that forbid his enthronement. The Tenth Shamarpa went into
exile unable to return to his beloved Tibet. Nonetheless, the generosity and patience of the
bodhisattva shone through despite these monumental obstacles. The Shamarpa spent his
remaining years in Nepal attending to the spiritual needs of the Nepali people.

Mipam Chokyi Lodro


[1952 - ] Just as the Fifth Shamarpa had foretold, the Fourteenth Shamarpa manifested as the
nephew of the Sixteenth Karmapa _ Rangjung Rigpe Dorje. Long before the Shamarpa was
born, there was anticipation in the monastic communities that there was soon to be an
auspicious birth in the Karmapa's family. The Karmapa sent black pills and a special protective
cord for the unborn baby to his sister-in-law, when no one was aware that she was an
expectant mother.
At the age of six, the young Rinpoche saw some Yangpachen lamas coming towards Tsurphu
Monastery from a distance. ' They are from my monastery,' he exclaimed in delight. This was
remarkable because the Shamarpa had overseen the Dechen Yangpachen Monastery in his
previous incarnations. This prompted a plea from the lamas for a formal recognition of their
Rinpoche, however, for political reasons the Karmapa did not think it prudent to do so. Most of
the great Tibetan lamas made a pilgrimage to India at the invitation of the Indian Mahabodhi
Society and the Karmapa and the Shamarpa visited the Dechen Yangpachen Monastery upon
their return. In its main temple were the statues of all the previous Shamarpas. The young
child approached them and identified them one by one without any prompting. He tried on the
crowns saying: 'These are my hats.' At the time he was only four years old.
Over the next four years, the political situation in Tibet deteriorated further. The Sixteenth
Gyalwa Karmapa and the eight years old Shamarpa left Tibet to settle in the northern Indian
state of Sikkim. The Karmapa sought official recognition of the Kunzig Shamarpa from the
Fourteenth Dalai Lama Tenzin Gyatso. The Dalai Lama made an official statement that granted
the request and the enthronement took place in 1964 at Rumtek Monastery in Sikkim. The
Shamarpa remained in the monastery for a course of intensive study. He received all the
instructions of the Kagyu lineage from the Karmapa and studied traditional arts and sciences,
the sutras and the tantras under Thrangu Rinpoche.
The Fourteenth Shamarpa has established the Karmapa International Buddhist Institute (KIBI)
in New Delhi, India while observing his monastic obligations. In accordance with the wishes of
His Holiness the Sixteenth Gyalwa Karmapa, KIBI operates today as an institute for higher
learning in the Buddhist tradition. The Shamarpa envisages a renewal of the essential
teachings of the Mahamudra. The origins of the Kagyu teachings are being retraced and many
important treatises of the mahasiddhas are being researched and revised, including the
Seventh Karmapa's pivotal work - ' The Treasures of Mahamudra.' A Mahamudra teaching
centre is currently in the planning stages that will eventually give special emphasis to the
teachings of the Karma Kagyu lineage in order to ensure their future preservation.

Mipam Chokyi Wangchuk


[1584 - 1630] The Ninth Karmapa recognized the sixth incarnation of the Shamarpa Mipham
Chkyi Wangchuk. The Sixth Shamarpa's place of birth was Drikhung in central Tibet. At the
age of sixteen, the Sixth Shamarpa had fully committed to memory no less than ten books on
the Prajnaparamita, sixteen on the Vinaya, five on the Abidharma, seven treatises on
medicine, the entire Sanskrit language and various studies of the arts; He selected the Zamo
Nang Dn and its commentary and the full text of the Kalachakra Tantra from the Diamond
Way (Vajrayana) teachings. The youthful and exuberant Shamarpa expressed the wish to test
his freshly acquired learning before the best minds of the land.
The Shamarpa became a highly respected master of the Kagyu teachings. He worked
unceasingly in the three spheres of beneficial activity: learning, meditation and practical

achievement. He visited China at the invitation of the Emperor who saw to the printing of the
Kanjur (the complete teachings of the Buddha) in order to honor the wishes of his Guru. The
Shamarpa enthroned the Tenth Karmapa _ Choying Dorje upon his return to Tibet. The
Shamarpa became his Root-Guru and passed on to him the instructions of the Kagyu lineage.
As the Shamarpa's renown spread into India, twenty-five of the greatest panditas invited him to
teach the Dharma at Bodhgaya. He was unable to accept their invitations, but he replied to
them individually in the Sanskrit language. The Shamarpa's skillful diplomacy managed to
avert conflict as Tibet seemed headed towards civil war. He asked the country's rulers to
observe the Dharma's basic principles, thereby saving many innocent lives.

Monlam
This event takes place on the first days of a new year (note: the Tibetan year consists of 355
days. So the Tibetan new year moves through our calendar) on varying places. In 1996 it took
place in Bodhgaya and was conducted by the 17th Karmapa _ Thaye Dorje and _ Kunzig
Shamar Rinpoche. The purpose is doing aspiration prayers for the benefit of others. It was told
by Nagarjuna that if aspiration prayers are done together with great bodhisattvas, the resulting
prayer is so powerfull that it can avert natural disasters and can remove all kinds of bad karma,
for example.
The tradition was established in Tibet in the eigth century. During the following centuries these
gatherings grow more and more popular. More than 50.000 monks participated. In the 13 th
century the 3rd Karmapa introduced the monlam to the _ Kagyu Lineage. Today representatives
of the four lineages of Tibetan Buddhism are doing the prayers together. _ [more].

Music, Tibetan
Tibet stands at the influence of three civilization, the Turko-Mongolian, the Chinese and the
Indian. Enriched from time to time by influences from these, its own ancient tradition has
developed in high isolation from the rest of the civilized world. Music plays an important part in
Tibetan life. The Lamas say "Religion is sound". The recitation of mantras, chanting and the
playing of instrumental music are fundamental in their worship. Their cerebrations include the
services of the regular Liturgy and various extra-liturgical rituals (see also _ explaning Tibetan
Music in details).

N
Nagpo Chenpo
_

Great Black

Naropa
[1016 - 1100] Indian Mahasiddha and former professor at Nalanda University. Disciple of
Tilopa and teacher of _ Marpa.

Ngag
_

Mantra

Ngondro
_

Preliminary Practices

Nidana
_

Twelve Links of Interdependent Origination

Nirmanakaya
_

Tulku

Nirvana

Transcendence of suffering; cessation of birth in _ Samsara.

Nyang Tingdsin Sangpo


As a child Nyang Tingdsin Sangpo was a playmate of the Tibetan King _ Trisong Detsen (_
Phowa Lineage). It is said that he was able to sit motionless in meditation for seven years. He
persuaded the king to invite the Master _ Drime Shenyen (Vimalamitra) to Tibet. Nyang
Tingdsin Sangpo was a student of Drime Shenyen and _ Guru Rinpoche, and received the
highest transmission from him. Later on he tamed the demon Dorje Legpa, who had
devastated East Tibet with hailstorms. This is how Dorje Legpa became a Dharma protector.

Nydahl, Ole
_

Ole Nydahl

Nyingma
The earliest of the four main lineages of Tibetan Buddhism, the "old school." Its origins go back
to the first spreading of Buddhism in Tibet in the eighth century. The outer structure and
transmission was destroyed by King Langdharma shortly after, but the hidden treasures have
remained until today.

O
Ole Nydahl
Lama Ole Nydahl is one of the very few Westerners who is fully qualified as a Lama and
Meditation teacher in the Tibetan Buddhist tradition. In December 1969 he and his wife,
Hannah became the first western students of His Holiness the 16 th Gyalwa Karmapa, _
Rangjung Rigpe Dorje, one of the greatest yogis of this century and the head of the _ Kagyu
Lineagetradition of Tibetan Buddhism. His Holiness asked Hannah and Ole to bring Buddhism
to the West. For the last 25 years they have been traveling non-stop, teaching and setting up
212 (summer 1998) meditation centers around the world.
Lama Ole Nydahl is also in the transmission the _ Phowa Lineage: The 16th Karmapa brought
together Hannah and Ole Nydahl and the Drikung Lama Ayang Tulku, the holder of the Phowa
practice. Early in 1972 they were the first Westerners to learn a meditation on conscious dying,
called "Phowa".
In 1983 Ayang Tulku turned against Kunzig Shamarpa and against the place of a future 17th
Karmapa in Tibetan Politics. Because of this it became impossible to continue to teach his
transmission. The honorable Tenga Rinpoche gave Lama Ole a slightly different Phowa
transmission. Kunzig Shamarpa told Lama Ole to give Phowa to all those who want to receive
it. In the fall of 1987 Lama Ole Nydahl taught the Phowa for the first time in Graz/Austria to 130
friends. Now, Lama Ole gives about 13 Phowa courses every year. By the summer of 1998, he
has already taught more than 28,000 people "conscious' dying". _ Section Teachers.

Om Mani Padme Hum


[Skrt.] In the Tibetan language this mantra was translated to "Om Mani Peme Hung". It is used
in the _ Loving Eyes meditation.

Osel
_

Clear Light Meditation

Osel Natsog Rangdrol


[1842 - 1924] Osel Natsog Rangdrol is normally known under the name of Adzom Drukpa,
since he was the reincarnation of the great Pema Karpo, a 16th century Drukpa-Kagyu
teacher. Osel Natsog Rangdrol realized the nature of mind at age 21 during the practice of the
_ Preliminary Practices. His teacher Pema Dudul advised him to live the life of a yogi. He

received the Longchen-Nyingthig transmission from _ Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo (_ Phowa


Lineage). In the latter part of his life he taught all the great _ Dzog chen, Palyul and Shechen
Lamas of the Nyingma monastery, Kathok. He gave the Longchen-Nyingthig transmission to _
Jamyang Tschokyi Lodro, a reincarnation of his teacher Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo.

P
Padmasambhava
_

Guru Rinpoche

Palchen Chokyi Dondrup


[1695 - 1732] The birth of the Eighth Shamarpa Palchen Chkyi Dndrup, took place in Yilmo,
Nepal. As an infant, he had astonished his family with vivid tales of his past lives. The
Karmapa had sent a letter of recognition with a party of monks who were to oversee his safe
return to Tibet. However, the King of Nepal asked the three years old Rinpoche to honor
Katmandu with his presence. He remained there until he was seven years of age. When the
Karmapa again requested his return, a full contingent of monks was finally able to escort the
Shamarpa back to a jubilant Tibet.
The Eighth Shamarpa received the lineage teachings and instructions from the Eleventh
Karmapa before he died. The Shamarpa in turn, recognized and enthroned the Twelfth
Karmapa _ Changchub Dorje and the Eighth Tai Situ Rinpoche. He acted as the Karmapa's
Root-Guru. Later the Shamarpa, Tai Situ Rinpoche and Gyaltsab Rinpoche, traveled together
with the Karmapa on an extensive Dharma tour that covered vast tracts of Tibet and
neighboring countries. They returned to Kham when it became evident to the Karmapa and the
Shamarpa that both of their deaths were immanent. They wrote prayers of supplication for
their followers to recite, in order to ensure their swift rebirths. The Karmapa left these in the
custody of Tai Situ Rinpoche who was to remain in Kham as head of the Kagyu lineage in his
absence. They both then departed for China where the Karmapa passed away on the day of
the new moon. The following day, the Shamarpa also left his body.

Paramita, Six
The six liberating actions of a _ Bodhisattva for the benefit of all beings.

Generosity

Morality

Patience

Diligence

Meditative Concentration

Wisdom

Pema Jungne
_

Guru Rinpoche

Phowa
_

Topga Rinpoche

At the age of 16 Togpa Rinpoche was appointed 'Vajra Master' in Tsurphu by the _ Rangjung
Rigpe Dorje. Later, in exile, he held the office of secretary general of the Rumtek monastery.
Rinpoche is regarded as very learned and is particularly knowledgeable about history. Topga
Rinpoche teached Buddhist philosophy, Buddhist epistemology and Tibetan linguistics at the

KIBI (Karmapa International Buddhist Institute) in New Delhi. He died on September 19th,
1997 in Dehli. _ Section Teachers.

Torma
Ritual offering cakes made of oat and butter and kneaded into doughs.

Transference of Consciousness Meditation


Phowa Lineage
The Phowa which Lama Ole Nydahl teaches originates from the Longchen-Nyingthig tradition
of the _ Nyingma school of Tibetan Buddhism. The Longchen Nyingthig contains the deepest
teachings of the _ Maha Ati, the Great Perfection.
The innermost and deepest Maha Ati teachings are called "Nyingthig", which means literally
"heart-drop". The teaching of the Longchen Nyingthig were given by Guru Rinpoche at Samye
monastery . The Tibetan king Trisong Detsen, Yeshe Tsogyal Guru Rinpoche's main Tibetan
companion and the great scholar Vairocana received the teachings. Afterwards these too were
hidden as termas. Many hundred years later they were rediscovered by Jigme Lingpa, who
was a reincarnation of king Trisong Detsen as well as of Vimalamitra. These teaching were
named "Longchen" after Longchen Rabjam, who is known as one of the great scholars of the
Nyingma Tradition, a contemporary of the third Karmapa _ Rangjung Dorje.
Finally the Karma Nyingthig are Maha-Ati teachings by Karmapa Rangjung Dorje. At the time
of the third Karmapa, there was a time when nobody in the Nyingma tradition had the complete
experience of the teachings necessary to pass them on. During this period, it was the
Karmapa who held the transmission and ensured its survival.
The Holder of the Phowa Lineage:

Kuntu Sangpo

Dorje Sempa

Garab Dorje

Dschampel Shenyen

Shri Singha

Yeshe Do

Drime Shenyen

Guru Rinpoche

Trisong Detsen 790-858

Yeshe Tsogyal

Nyang Tingdsin Sangpo

Dangma Lhungyel Gyeltsen

Jetsun Senge Wangtschug

Gyelwa Shangton 1097-1167

Khepa Nyibum 1158-1213

Guru Tschober 1196-1231

Trulshik Senge Gyalpa

Melong Dorje 1243-1303

Kumaraja 1266-1343

Longtschen Rabjam 1308-1363

Jigme Lingpa 1729-1798

Jigme Gyalwe Nyugu 1765-1843

Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo 1820-1892

Osel Natsog Rangdrol 1842-1924

Jigme Tenpe Nyima 1865-1926

Jamyang Tschokyi Lodro 1893-1959

Khyentse Do Ngag Lingpa 1910-1991

During the great "Dolma Naljorma" initiations in Rumtek in the year 1971, the 16th Karmapa
brought several times together Hannah and Ole Nydahl and the Drikung Lama Ayang Tulku.
Karmapa stated that a cooperation would become very useful, as long as it would happen in
his power-field. Hannah and Ole Nydahl offered to support Lama Ayang Tulku's work for the
Kagyus in the secret refugee camps in South-India, and he gratefully invited them to go there
with him. There he learnt the Phowa and helped many people than.
In the fall of 1987 Lama Ole Nydahl taught the Phowa for the first time in Graz/Austria to 130
friends. At that time it took seven days before all had obtained the outer signs - nowadays only
2-3 days are necessary. Often about a third to half of those present already have strong
experiences during the transmission of the text (tib.: Lung). One can really say, that the Phowa
power-field, already in 1971 wished for and started by Karmapa, has been growing
tremendously in the West.

Power Circle
_

Mandala

Powerfield
_

Mandala

Pratyekabuddha
_

Small Way

Prajnaparamita
The perfection of wisdom, a name for the body of _ Great Way Sutras expounding the Doctrine
of _ Emptiness. Among the most famous of these are the _ Heart Sutra and the Diamond Sutra.
Also, the name of the female Buddha who represents perfect wisdom.

Preliminary Practices
[Tib. Ngondro] Four are general and four are special. First comes a thorough self-motivation
through the understanding of four basic facts about our life: The rarity and preciousness of our
present existence, that we can use it to reach liberation and enlightenment. Impermanence,
that one should use it now. Karma - cause and effect - that we create our own lives. And the
fact that enlightenment is the only lasting joy. The latter are a set of four repetitive but intensely
rewarding practices which create masses of good imprints in one's subconscious. These work
deeply in our minds, give increasing joy, and remove the causes of future suffering. The
Ngondro is the basis for recognizing mind both through its nature as energy and as

awareness.
Furthermore, there are four other distinct steps of preparation, each step leading to very
specific results, they are:

Prostrations,

Diamond-Mind (Dorje Sempa-) Meditation,

Mandala-Offerings, and

Meditation on the Teacher (Guru-Yoga).

Prostrations
_

Preliminary Practices (Ngondro)

Protector
There are three kinds: Unenlightened energy-fields - Jigtenpas - believing in a "self" are better
avoided; they may be very difficult customers. If controlled by yogis like Guru Rinpoche and
the Karmapas, they become Damzigpas, held positive by the promise not to harm beings.
They often look somewhat "unusual" and, gradually becoming _ Bodhisattva, manifest a
vertical wisdom-eye in their foreheads. The most important protectors are direct emanations of
the Buddhas: male Mahakalas and female Mahakalis. They are harmonious in outer
appearance and are always from the eighth Bodhisattva-level and up. From the taking of
Buddhist _ Refuge they ensure that every experience becomes a part of the Practitioner's way
towards Enlightenment.

Puja
Meditation sung in Tibetan. An invocation with ritual offerings.

Pure Land
Pure lands are manifested by enlightened Buddhas. These are not places that can be located
geographically, but spaces of the mind. As a human being, you can experience them here and
now through meditating. For people who have not reached liberation, it means _ Realm of
Great Joy - the pure land of the _ Buddha of Limitless Light. It is possible to reach this level of
awareness through practicing certain meditations and by making strong wishes.

Pure Realm
A Buddha's field of consciousness. It is experienced as continual blissful growth in a palace of
energy and light. This again arises from the thirty-seven perfect qualities.

Q
No entries yet.

R
Rangjung Dorje
[1284 - 1339] The Third Karmapa, Rangjung Dorje was born in Dingri Langkor, startling those
present by sitting up and proclaiming himself to be the Karmapa. Three years later he renewed
his assertions by making himself a black hat and again declaring himself to be the Karmapa.
Two more years were to pass before he met Drubtop Urgyenpa who recognised the child as
the reincarnation of Karma Pakshi, and gave him the actual Black Crown, all the possessions
of the second Karmapa, and - not least - all the Kagyu teachings. Not content with this,

Rangjung Dorje sought out masters of all the Buddhist traditions of the time, studying with
Trophu Kunden Sherab and Nyenre Gendun Bum among others. As a result, he achieved
great fame, and attracted any disciples. A practical man, he built bridges as well as meditation
centres, benefiting his countrymen's daily life as well as their spiritual one. For posterity, he
wrote many texts and commentaries, preserving many of the teachings in a form we use today.
His two main disciples were Gyalwa Yungton Dorje Pal, who was to become the next lineage
holder, and the first Shamarpa, _ Khaydrup Drakpa Senge. The Shamarpa lineage is the
second line of reincarnates in history of the Tibetan tradition (the Karmapas being the first),
and began when Rangjung Dorje presented Khaydrup Drakpa Senge with a ruby-red crown,
and the title Shamarpa (Holder of the Red Crown). The Red Crown is an exact replica of the
Black Crown worn by the Karmapas, and exemplifies the close relationship between them.
These crowns are symbols of activities that benefit beings, and in no way denote separate
lineages. Both the "Black Hat Lama" and the "Red Hat Lama" are of the Karma Kagyu
Lineage.The Shamarpa is also known as a manifestation of Amithaba, the Buddha of Limitless
Light.

Rangjung Rigpe Dorje


[1924-1981] The sixteenth Karmapa, Rangjung Rigpe Dorje, was born at Denkhok in Derge
province in east Tibet. Jampal Tsultrim, the fifteenth Karmapa's personal attendant, had been
entrusted by his master with a letter setting forth the circumstances of his new incarnation.
Jampal Tsultrim now handed this letter to the authorities at Tsurphu monastery, who - having
had Beru Khyentse, Situpa and Jamgon Kontrul clarify certain points - sent out the searchparty which successfully located the child. He was taken to Palpung Monastery where Situ
Pema Wangchok gave him ordination, bodhisattva vows, and many teachings. In addition,
Beru Khyentse Lodro Mizat Pampa'i Gocha taught him the Tantra, Bo Kangkar Rinpoche
taught him the sutras, and Jamgon Palden Kyentse Oser taught him Mahamudra and the Six
Yogas of Naropa. He would come to regard Situ Pema Wangchok and Jamgon Palden
Kyentse Oser as his main gurus.

Realm of Desire
The realm of desire (_ Samsara) is subdivided into six realms of beings:
The three miserable realms:

Hells. There are 18 hells - cold ones and hot ones. These hells doesn't really
(materially) exist: The mind experiences the results of lots of very negative actions
done in former existences. These results lead to a paranoid state in which the world is
experienced as a hell.

Starving spirits. They got always hunger and thirst but they are not able to eat or drink.
The existence as a starving spirit is a result of ones own illusion, too. This is due to
extreme avarice in former existences.

Animals.

The three happier realms ("happier" doesn't mean "happy" - take a look around...):

Humans.

Demi-gods (Asuras). They are wealthy and live under good conditions. But they are
envious of the gods because they still live better.

Gods. They live under very good conditions. They are clear-sighted, but they are not
enlightened. They still suffer from desire. Because they are clear-sighted, they can see
their rebirth in the lower realms. This let them suffer, too.

As long as a being is not liberated it will continue to take birth in one of these realms. In all
realms the beings suffer.

The only realm with the possibility to achieve a positive spiritual development is the realm of
humans. In the miserable realms the sufferings are too intense or the mind is too dim. Beings
of the realms of the demi-gods and gods live in such good conditions that they are not
interested in working with the mind.

Realm of Great Joy


[Tib. Dewachen, Skr. Sukhavati] _ Pure Realm of the _ Buddha of Limitless Light.

Rechungpa
(1083 - ca. 1160) His parents gave him the name Dorje Drak (Vajra-glory). Already as a young
child he could keep a lot of teachings in his mind. When he was twelve years old he first met _
Milarepa. A short time before Milarepa had a vision of Dorje Pagmo. She made the prophecy
to him that he will meet a moon-like disciple. Rechungpa received teachings from Milarepa
(e.g. _ Six Teachings of Naropa) and stayed with him for many years. During this time he went
to India and received teachings from Balancandra and Tipupa, _ Marpa's son. He also went to
Central-Tibet and received teachings - including Mahamudra teachings - from various
teachers. After reaching full realization Milarepa told him to leave. Rechungpa thought the
Dharma in Tibet and had a lot of disciples.

Refuge
[Tib. Kyab Dro] A reorientation towards values that can be trusted. One takes Refuge in the
state of Buddha as the goal, in the Dharma - the teachings - as the way, and in the Sangha the practitioners - as one's friends on the way. These are called the Three Jewels. To practice
the Diamond Way one needs the additional Refuge in the Three Roots, called Lama, Yidam
and Protector. They are the sources of blessing, inspiration and protection along the way.

Rinpoche
Honorific title meaning "Precious One." It is frequently given to Buddhist Masters.

Rolpe Dorje
[1340 - 1383] The fourth Karmapa, Rolpe Dorje emulated his previous incarnation by sitting up
at his birth, in Kongpo province in Central Tibet, and speaking - this time choosing to recite the
mantra of Chenrezig, "Om Mani Peme Hung Shri". Having - as that previous incarnation - left
clear instructions with his secretary, Rinchen Pal, as to which signs to look for, the child was
quickly found, and his training begun. At six he took refuge vows and the lay precepts from
Tokden Gon Gyalwa, who also taught the young Karmapa the Tantrayana. He was twelve
before, travelling to Central Tibet, he met the lineage holder Gyalwa Yungton Dorje Pal, and
proceeded to convince the older man of his authenticity by recounting many anecdotes from
his previous life as the third Karmapa. He went on to request Gyalwa Yungton Dorje Pal to
give him the transmission of the Kagyu teachings. Once his education at the hands of his
former student was complete, Rolpe Dorje travelled widely through Tibet and China, teaching
and taking disciples; the foremost of these was the second Shamarpa, who became the next
lineage holder.

Root Lama
A teacher from whom one has received the _ Empowerment, instructions, and precepts that
form the core of one's own practice.

Roots, Three
_

Refuge

Rumtek
A monastery in Sikkim, India. The former King of Sikkim Tashi Namgyal gave land to the
Rangjung Rigpe Dorje to built a monastery after the chinese had forced him out of Tibet.

Sakya
One of the three old or unreformed lineages of Tibetan Buddhism. There is both hereditary and
incarnate succession. This school has contributed some of the most important philosophical
commentaries.

Samadhi
Meditative concentration.

Samatha
_

Shi nay

Samaya
_

Bond

Sambhokakaya
_

State of Joy

Samsara
Cyclic existence, the beginningless and endless wheel of rebirth ( _Realm of Desire).

Sanga
The community of those who practice the _ Dharma.

Sangye
_

Buddha

Sanskrit
Language in old India which is sometimes still used today. Sanskrit was a scholar-, cult- and
cultural language. After _ Buddhas teachings have been passed on in an oral tradition for some
hundred years, Sanskrit was used to write the teachings down.

Shamarpa, The
It was the prophecy of the Second Karmapa Karma Pakshi, that "future Karmapas shall
manifest in two Nirmanakaya forms." On an absolute level of mind, these forms are
immeasurable and unquantifiable but not separate or totally unrelated. The Shamarpa is one
of the two Nirmanakaya forms of the Karmapa. For those who aspire to reach great and
perfect enlightenment, these emanated human forms are the shining inspiration to attain
Nirvana and an inexhaustible source of assistance to the floundering multitudes trapped in
cyclic existence.
Up until now, there have been seventeen incarnations:

Khaydrup Drakpa Senge 1283 - 1349

Kacho Wangpo 1350 - 1405

Chopal Yeshe 1406 - 1452

Chokyi Drakpa Yeshe Pal Zangpo 1453 - 1524

Kunchok Yenlak 1526 - 1583

Mipam Chokyi Wangchuk 1584 - 1630

Yeshe Nyingpo 1631 - 1694

Palchen Chokyi Dondrup 1695 - 1732

Kunchok Jungnay 1733 - 1741

Mipam Chodrup Gyamtso 1742 - 1792

No formal recognistion, for political reason, until:

Jambyang Rinpoche c. 1880 - 1947

Tinlay Kunchup 1948 - 1950

Mipam Chokyi Lodro 1952 -

Section Teachers

Shastra
Philosophical treatise.

Shi nay
[Skt. Samatha] Tranquillity meditation, which develops calmness of mind. One of the two basic
meditations in all traditions of Buddhism, the other being _ Vipasyana.

Shravaka
_

Small Way

Shrine
_

Altar

Shunyata
_

Emptiness

Shri Singha
(Skt. Palgji Senge) was born in China and was a great scholar of all wordly sciences. In a
vision, _ Loving Eyes told him to go to Sosadvipa to gain enlightenment there. To prepare Shri
Singha studied different tantras for seven years on the holy mountain of Wu T'ai Chan in
China. After another vision of Loving Eyes, he engaged in a practice for three years, whose
results as well as other special powers allowed him to travel in a very short time to Sosadvipa
in India. He met _ Dschampel Shenyen (Manjushrimitra) there with whom he studied and
practised for 25 years. After the death of his master he returned to China. He categorized the
highest teachings that he had received and meditated for a long time at the Silji cemetery. _
Phowa Lineage

Siddha
A practitioner who has attained spiritual realization and supernatural powers.

Siddhis
A term for different capabilities: Through recognizing emptiness, clarity and openness of the
mind, different qualities arise naturally, since they are part of mind. The Buddha distinguishes
between two types:

Normal Siddhis: all those forces of the conditioned world that transform elements

Extraordinary Siddhis: the ability to open beings up for the liberating and
enlightening truths; to lead to realization

Simhasana Manjushri
_Wisdom

Buddha on a Lion

Six Teachings of Naropa


Highly effective methods of the _ Kagyu Lineage. Their goal is realizing the nature of mind
through its energetic aspect. They consist of the following meditations:

Inner Heat [Tib. Tumo]

Clear Light [Tib. Osel]

Dream [Tib. Milam]

Illusory Body [Tib. Gyulu]

Intermediate State [Tib. Bardo]

Transference of Consciousness [Tib. Phowa]

Basis, way and goal are the _ Mahamudra.

Six Paramitas
_

Paramita

Skandhas, The Five


Five aggregates that describe the physical and mental existence of all beings in the Desire
Realm:

Form

Sensation

Recognition

Formation

Consciousness

Small Way
[Tib. Thek Chung, Skt. Hinayana, today: Theravada] The way of the "listeners" [Skt.
Shravakas] and "non-teaching Buddhas" [Skt. Pratyeka Buddhas]. Here the focus is on one's
own liberation.

State of compassion
_

Tulku, See also _ The three Kayas.

State of Joy
[Tib. Long Ku, Skt. Sambhogakaya] The free play and spontaneous bliss of mind. It manifests
from the _ State of Truth to help sentient beings on their way. See also _ The three Kayas.

State of Truth
[Tib. Cho Ku, Skt.Dharmakaya] The State of Truth is timeless enlightenment itself, the true
nature and radiant awareness of mind. See also _The three Kayas.

Stupa
[Tib. Chorten] A physical representation of perfect enlightenment. It shows the transformation
of all emotions and elements into the five enlightened wisdoms and the five Buddha families.
Its symmetrical form is usually filled with relics, mantras, etc.

Sukhavati
_

Realm of Great Joy

Sutra

'Sutra' denotes the teachings given by Buddha Sakyamuni himself or ascribed to him. There
are a lot of them and they are divided into different groups. There are Sutras of the Hinayana
(Pali-Canon) and such of the Mahayana (_ Prajnaparamita, etc.).

Svabhavikakaya
Denotes the essence of the _ Buddha aspects (Dharmakaya, Sambhogakaya , Nirmanakaya).
If you compare Dharmakaya with water vapor, Sambhogakaya with clouds and Nirmanakaya
with rain, then Svabhavikakaya is the essence of it all - water.

T
Tamdrin
_

Horsehead

Tantra
Root-scriptures of the _ Diamond Way. These scriptures are ascribed to Buddha Shakyamuni
and his different manifestations. They describe the _ Mandala and practice connected with a
enlightened being. Tantra means literally ''Thread"

Tara
_

Liberatice

Tathagata
The "Thus-gone" one, an epithet for a _ Buddha.

Tathagatagarbha
The seed of _ Enlightenment, the potential for Buddhahood in every sentient being.

Terton
A discoverer of hidden texts understood to have been concealed by great teachers of the past
in various ways, until the time when they could be understood and applied.

Thangka
A thangka is a complicated, composite three-dimensional object consisting of: a picture panel
which is painted or embroidered, a textile mounting; and one or more of the following: a silk
cover, leather corners, wooden dowels at the top and bottom and metal or wooden decorative
knobs on the bottom dowel.
Thangkas are intended to serve as a record of, and guide for contemplative experience. For
example, you might be instructed by your teacher to imagine yourself as a specific figure in a
specific setting. You could use a thangka as a reference for the details of posture, attitude,
colour, clothing. etc., of a figure located in a field, or in a palace, possibly surrounded by many
other figures of meditation teachers, your family, etc. _ Pictures of Thangkas.

Thaye Dorje
[1983 - ] The 17th Karmapa (_ Karmapas Homepage)

Thegchog Dorje
[1798 - 1868] The fourteenth Karmapa, Thegchog Dorje, was born in the village of Danang in
the Do Kham region in east Tibet. He was identified by Drukchen Kunzig Chokyi Nangwa, the
holder of the thirteenth Karmapa's letter giving the details of his forthcoming reincarnation.
Thegchog Dorje was ordained by Pema Nyinche Wangpo and Drukchen Kunzig Chokyi
Nangwa, both of whom went on to give the Karmapa the complete Kagyu transmission. He
later found himself in the unusual position of taking teachings from one of his close students Jamgon Lodro Thaye - who had been fortunate enough to receive the rare Tercho teachings,

which he now passed to his guru, the Karmapa. Thegchog Dorje taught widely in Tibet. He
identified the tenth Situpa, Pema Kunzang, but it was Jamgon Lodro Thaye who became the
next lineage holder.

Theg Chen
_

Great Way

Theg Chung
_

Small Way

Theravada
_

Small Way

Three Lights Meditation


[Tib. Lamae Naljor, Skt. Guru Yoga] Meditation on the Buddha in the form of one's teacher. The
most direct way to receive his blessing of body, speech and mind is to identify oneself with his
enlightened state. This does not mean becoming a carbon copy but resting in the same
fearless space.

Three-year Retreat
Traditional education for Kagyu monks or nuns. It takes three years, three months and three
days and is done in celebate groups. The places of retreat are positioned in isolation from the
outside world.

Thri
A explanation of texts of the _ Diamond Way. The teachers explains details for a special
practice; see also _ Empowerment.

Tilopa
[988 - 1069] Great Indian meditator or Mahasiddha. He collected the full transmissions of the _
Diamond Way. Passing them to his main disciple, _ Naropa, he thus became the originator of
the _ Kagyu Lineage.

Tinlay Kunchup
[1948 - 1950] It was a reflection on the adverse karmic conditions of the time that the infant
Thirteenth Shamar Rinpoche lived for little more than a year before passing away.

Tongpanyi
_

Emptiness

Tongwa Donden
[1416 - 1453] The birth of the sixth Karmapa, Tongwa Donden at Ngomto Shakyam near
Karma Gon in East Tibet, was marked by many auspicious signs. One month later, carried by
his mother as she went begging, he became highly excited when their path crossed that of
Ngompa Chadral, a student of the fifth Karmapa. Ngompa Chadral asked the identity of the
child, who smiled back and replied "I'm the Karmapa"; he cared for the baby for seven months,
before taking him to Karma Gon, one of Karmapa's three main monasteries in Tibet. As young
as he was, Tongwa Donden immediately began to teach. At three, he met Ratnabhadra, and
received full Kagyu transmission. At six, he created several Tantric rituals. The third Shamarpa,
_ Chopal Yeshe, came to Karma Gon during this period to crown the Karmapa, and to give him
further teachings. He was nine when he was ordained by Khenchen Sonam Zangpo at the
monastery of Wolkar Tashi Tang. Tongwa Donden's life was spent teaching, and building
monasteries and shrines, throughout Tibet. Bengar Jampal Zangpo and the first Gyaltsap,
Goshir Paljor Dondrup, were his two principal students and became his lineage holders. They
would become the main teachers of the seventh Karmapa, Chodrag Gyamtso.

Topga Rinpoche

At the age of 16 Togpa Rinpoche was appointed 'Vajra Master' in Tsurphu by the _ Rangjung
Rigpe Dorje. Later, in exile, he held the office of secretary general of the Rumtek monastery.
Rinpoche is regarded as very learned and is particularly knowledgeable about history. Topga
Rinpoche teached Buddhist philosophy, Buddhist epistemology and Tibetan linguistics at the
KIBI (Karmapa International Buddhist Institute) in New Delhi. He died on September 19th,
1997 in Dehli. _ Section Teachers.

Torma
Ritual offering cakes made of oat and butter and kneaded into doughs.

Transference of Consciousness Meditation


[Tib. Phowa] One of the _ Six Teachings of Naropa. See also _ Phowa Lineage

Trisong Detsen
[790 - 858] The Tibetan king Trisong Detsen invited the scholar Shantarakshita to Tibet, and
with his help sought to establish the first Tibetan monastery. Shantarakshita was disturbed by
ghosts and demons throughout the project and therefore advised the king to invite the Indian
Master _ Guru Rinpoche to help. Trisong Detsen followed his advice. With the aid of Guru
Rinpoche they were able to build Samye monastery. Trisong Detsen invited many Indian
scholars to Tibet. Under his regime translators were educated and he undertook the translation
of all important texts into Tibetan. King Trisong Detsen was a pupil of Guru Rinpoche. ( _
Phowa Lineage)

Trulshik Senge Gyalpa


Already as a child Senge Gyalpa showed signs of being special. At age 10 he realized the
dream-character of all phenomena. He became famous for his deep compassion. When he
was 18, his behavior was that of a "crazy Yogi" but at at age 20 has was ordained as a novice.
He reached highest realization through _ Guru Tschober and's (_ Phowa Lineage) teachings
and practised for many years in secluded caves.

Tseringma
_

Long-life Goddess

Tsurphu
Karmapas former monastery in Tibet. It is located at an altitude of 4.600 m, about two hours
drive northwest of Lhasa. The 16th Karmapa had to leave Tsurphu due to the Chinese invasion
of Tibet.
_

Tulku
[Tib. Nirmanakaya] State of compassion. A being who is consciously reborn for the benefit of
all beings manifesting with the power to open their abilities. May or may not remember former
lives. The word means "Illusion-Body," a form which one has and uses, but is not dependent
upon.
Great examples of Tulkus are the various Karmapas. One distinguishes between different
types of Tulkus:

Choki Tulku: for example the Buddha Shakyamuni

Kyewa Tulku: different teachers and other people, who act in the best interest of all,
for example the various Karmapas.

Sowo Tulku: things that were created, for example texts or statues.

Ngagtsog Tulku: things that manifest themselves due to the wishes of Buddhas, for
example a bridge appearing over a river.

also _ The three Kayas.

Tumo
_

Inner Heat Meditation

Twelve Links of Interdependent Origination, The


[Skrt: Pratityasamutpada]
To realize that staying in _ Samsara is not a desirable condition can be achieved in many
ways. One is to contemplate on the way in which Samsara works. Once we have realized the
true nature of Samsara, we should generate aspiration to attain _ Liberation from it.

Ignorance: We don't recognize the true nature of mind. We believe in a real existing
`Self'.

Formation: This ignorance leads to _ Disturbing Emotions, which results in actions.


These distorted actions leave imprints on the stream of our consciousness ( _ Karma).
Under appropriate conditions these imprints will manifest and form our future
existence.

Consciousness: The stream of consciousness carries the imprints and let them ripen.

Name and Form: Habits from former existences let as consider the `Self' consisting of
a body (form) and mental actions (name). (_ Skandhas).

Senses: They are part of `name' and are ready to get in contact with the outer world.

Contact: In this link the contact of consciousness with the object is established

Sensation: Contact with pleasant objects leads to pleasant sensations, contact with
unpleasant objects leads to unpleasant sensations.

Attachment: Sensation leads to attachment (desire).

Craving: We try to get the objects we desire or try to avoid them. This leads to further
imprints on consciousness.

Becoming: After death imprints on the consciousness lead to the next existence.

Birth: According to the imprints (_ Karma) we take birth

Aging and Death: After being born we are getting older and older and finally we die.

There are some ways in which this item can be explained. The order of the links differs slightly
between the explanations. The described lifetimes in the twelve links differs, too. In the
description above the links can be considered as one lifetime or as three lifetimes (Link 1 to 3,
4 to 9 and 10 to 12). _ Interdependent Origination

U
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Vajra
_

Dorje

Vajrakilaya
_

Diamond Dagger

Vajrapani
_

Diamond-holder Power Buddha

Vajrasattva
_

Diamond Mind

Vajravarahi
_

Diamond Sow

Vajrayana
_

Diamond Way

Vinaya
Buddhist scriptures concerned with monastic discipline and moral conduct; the code of
virtuous behavior so presented.

Vipasyana
_

Lha tong

W
Wang
_

Empowerment.

Wangchug Dorje
[1556 - 1603] The ninth Karmapa, Wangchuk Dorje, was born in the Treshod region of East
Tibet. He, too, sat up at birth and declared "I am the Karmapa!". Not surprisingly, this
engendered a fair amount of talk in the neighbourhood, which reached the ears of Kyamo
Nangso Chokyung Tashi, a student of Mikyo Dorje who had been told by his master that he
would serve him once again in his next incarnation. He went to see the child, and took him to
Kyamo Lhundrub Tse Monastery. Eventually Shamar _ Kunchok Yenlak and Situ Chokyi Gocha
heard of this special child, and determined that he was indeed the Karmapa. Situpa took it
upon himself to travel to visit the child, to give him the long-life empowerment of Amitayus, the
Buddha of Limitless Life. It was not until later, at Lhundrub Tse, that Shamarpa met the new
Karmapa, and gave him refuge vows and extensive teachings. Once Wangchuk Dorje had
received the complete Kagyu transmission, he began to travel and teach throughout Tibet. He
frequently acted as arbitrator in local disputes, and took steps to improve the living conditions
of the people; as a result he was regarded as the secular leader of Tibet as well as a great
religious leader.

Wheel of Time
[Tib. Dkyi Khorlo, Skt. Kalachakra] Important Buddha aspect. Transforms ignorance.

Wheel of Life
_

Samsara

White Liberatice
_

Liberatice

White Umbrella

[Tib. Dukar] Protective female Buddha. She emanated spontaneously from Buddha's crown.

Wisdom Buddha on a Lion


[Tib. Jampel Maseng, Skt. Simhasana Manjushri] Much-used meditative aspect in the Kagyu
school. The embodiment of the wisdom of all Buddhas.

World
_

Cosmology

X
No entries yet.

Y
Yeshe
Primordial awareness.

Yeshe Do
(Skt. Jnana Sutra ) Yeshe Do was born into a cast-less family in East India. He lived as one of
500 scholars in Bodhgaya. On one occasion when he was taking a stroll with another scholar
(_ Drime Shenyen (Vimalamitra)), _ Diamond Mind appeared and told him to go to China to
reach enlightenment. Diamond-Mind told both that they had been scholars for 500 years
without ever reaching enlightenment and that they wouldn't reach it now if they were to
continue. Drime Shenyen left immediately for China, studied with _ Shri Singha (Shri Singha)
and shared his experiences with Yeshe Do upon his return. When Yeshe Do subsequently
travelled to China, he too met Palgji Senge and studied for a long time with him. He mediated
on the teachings for 16 years and then returned to India. Unlike Drime Shenyen, Yeshe Do had
received the complete transmission, which he passed on to Drime Shenyen ( _ Phowa Lineage)

Yeshe Dorje
[1676-1702] The eleventh Karmapa, Yeshe Dorje, was born at Maysho in east Tibet. Once
identified by Shamar _ Yeshe Nyingpo, he was taken to his monastery of Yangchen in central
Tibet before being enthroned at the monastery of Tsurphu, one of the Karmapa's three
principal seats in Tibet. Not only did Shamarpa give him the Kagyu teachings, but Yongay
Mingur Dorje and Taksham Nuden Dorje also gave him Tercho teachings, which originated
with Padmasambhava, the Indian master - thereby fulfilling a prophecy of Phamasambhava's,
recorded in the scriptures, to the effect that the eleventh Karmapa would hold certain Tercho
lineages. Yeshe Dorje also located and identified the eighth Shamarpa, _ Palchen Chokyi
Dondrup, who became his close student and next lineage holder.

Yeshe Khandro
_

Dakini of highest wisdom.

Yeshe Nyingpo
[1631 - 1694] It was the express wish of the Tenth Karmapa that the Sixth Shamarpa Yeshe
Nyingpo, take his next rebirth by the Marchu River in the eastern province of Kham. At the age
of four, the agile young Rinpoche had already scaled the faces of great cliffs and mastered
numerous difficult activities beyond the abilities of other boys his own age. His humble
circumstances as a nomad shepherd boy belied the fact that he was the seventh incarnation of
the Shamarpa.
The Karmapa had become aware that the Shamarpa was born when he was in Jangyl, a

province in neighboring China. He left unattended and on foot, traveling through the Tibetan
province of Kham to meet with him. The Shamarpa was waiting for him by a river and when
the Karmapa finally arrived after the hardship of his long journey, the Shamarpa crossed the
river to bow down before him. His nomad parents granted permission for the child to leave
home and the Karmapa and the Shamarpa then left for Jangyl, where enthronement of the
Seventh Shamarpa took place. The Shamarpa received the red crown along with all the
teachings and instructions of the lineage. They returned to Tibet together. When the Tenth
Karmapa passed away, the Seventh Shamarpa recognized and enthroned the Eleventh
Karmapa _ Yeshe Dorje. The Seventh Shamarpa passed away having transmitted to the
Karmapa all the lineage teachings and instructions entrusted to him as acting head of the
Kagyu school.

Yeshe Tsogyal
Yeshe Tsogyal is a famous devotional Yogini in Tibet. She is an emanation of Dorje Phagmo,
Tara and other Buddha-Aspects. As a young woman, she was one of the Tibetan King _
Trisong Detsen 's serving-women. He offered her as a "present" to his teacher _ Guru
Rinpoche, a Dharma-offering for his empowernment. From then on she became the main
companion and pupil of Guru Rinpoche. She received nearly all of Guru Rinpoche's teachings.
Through her practice she reached highest realization. Together with Guru Rinpoche they hid
termas all over Tibet and elsewhere. (_ Phowa Lineage)

Yidak
Hungry Ghosts, occupants of one of the three unfortunate realms of samsara (i.e., Hells,
Hungry Ghosts and Animals). The yidaks are tormented by unappeasable appetites.

Yidam
_

Buddha aspects

Yogi
In general, a term used for a practitioner of the Diamond-Way of Tibetan Buddhism. It is also
used as a special term for a practitioner who is experiencing his/her mind on the absolute and
the relative level simultaneously, for someone who experiences his/her mind in its natural form.

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