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# math 131

## 6.2 Volumes of Revolution: The Disk Method

One of the simplest applications of integration (Theorem 6.1)and the accumulation processis to determine so-called volumes of revolution. In this section we
will concentrate on a method known as the disk method.

Solids of Revolution
If a region in the plane is revolved about a line in the same plane, the resulting
object is a solid of revolution, and the line is called the axis of revolution. The
following situation is typical of the problems we will encounter.
Solids of Revolution from Areas Under Curves. Suppose that y = f ( x ) is a continuous (non-negative) function on the interval [ a, b]. Rotate the region under the f
between x = a and x = b around the the x-axis and determine the volume of the
resulting solid of revolution. See Figure 6.10
f ( xi )

y = f (x)

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## Figure 6.10: Left: The region under

the continuous curve y = f ( x ) on
the interval [ a, b]. Right: The solid
generated by rotating the region about
the x-axis. Note: The point ( xi , f ( xi ))
on the curve traces out a circular crosssection of radius r = f ( xi ) when
rotated.

Once we know the cross-sectional areas of the solid, we can use Theorem 6.1
to determine the volume. But as Figure 6.10 shows, when the point ( xi , f ( xi )) on
the curve is rotated about the x-axis, it forms a circular cross-section of radius
R = f ( xi ). Therefore, the cross-sectional area at xi is
A( xi ) = pR2 = p [ f ( xi )]2 .
Since f is continuous, so is p [ f ( x )]2 and consequently Theorem 6.1 applies.
Volume of Solid of Revolution =

Z b
a

A( x ) dx =

Z b
a

p [ f ( x )]2 dx.

Of course, we could use this same process if we rotated the region about the y-axis
and integrated along the y-axis. We gather these results together and state them as
a theorem.
THEOREM 6.2 (The Disk Method). If V is the volume of the solid of revolution determined by

rotating the continuous function f ( x ) on the interval [ a, b] about the x-axis, then
V=p

Z b
a

[ f ( x )]2 dx.

(6.2)

If V is the volume of the solid of revolution determined by rotating the continuous function
f (y) on the interval [c, d] about the y-axis, then
V=p

Z d
c

[ f (y)]2 dy.

(6.3)

## Another Development of the Disk Method Using Riemann Sums

Instead of using Theorem 6.1, we could obtain Theorem 6.2 directly by using the
subdivide and conquer strategy once again. Since we will use this strategy in
later situations, lets quickly go through the argument here.1

## There are often several ways to prove

a result in mathematics. I hope one of
these two will resonate with you.

math 131

## As above, we start with a continuous function on [ a, b]. This time, though, we

create a regular partition of [ a, b] using n intervals and draw the corresponding
approximating rectangles of equal width Dx. In left half of Figure 6.11 we have
drawn a single representative approximating rectangle on the ith subinterval.
y = f (x)

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f (x )

Dx

y = f (x)

## Figure 6.11: Left: The region under

the continuous curve y = f ( x ) on
the interval [ a, b] and a representative
rectangle. Right: The disk (cylinder) of
radius R = f ( xi ) generated by rotating
the x-axis. The volume or this disk is
pR2 w = p [ f ( xi )]2 Dx.

f (x )

Dx

## Rotating each representative rectangle creates a representative disk (cylinder) of

radius R = f ( xi ). (See the right half of Figure 6.11.) The volume of this cylinder is
given by (6.1)
Volume of a Cylinder = (area of the base) height.
In this case when the disk is situated on its side, we think of the height as the
width Dx of the disk. Moreover, since the base is a circle, its area is pR2 =
p [ f ( xi )]2 so
Volume of a representative disk = DVi = p [ f ( xi )]2 Dx.
To determine the volume of entire solid of revolution, we take each approximating rectangle, form the corresponding disks (see the middle panel of Figure 6.12)
and sum the resulting volumes, it generates a representative disk whose volume is
DV = pR2 Dx = p [ R( xi )]2 Dx.

## Figure 6.12: A general solid of revolution and its approximation by a series

of n disks. (Diagram from Larson &
Edwards)

Approximating the volume of the entire solid by n such disks (see the righthand panel of Figure 6.12) of width Dx and radius f ( xi ) produces a Riemann sum
Volume of Revolution

i =1

i =1

(6.4)

## As usual, to improve the approximation we let the number of subdivisions n !

and take a limit. Recall from our earlier work with Riemann sums, this limit exists

math 131

n

## Volume of Revolution = lim p [ f ( xi )]2 Dx = p

n!

i =1

Z b
a

[ f ( x )]2 dx

(6.5)

where we have used the fact that the limit of a Riemann sum is a definite integral.
This is the same result we obtained in Theorem 6.2. Ee could use this same process
if we rotated the region about the y-axis and integrated along the y-axis.
Stop! Notice how we used the subdivide and conquer process to approximate
the quantity we wish to determine. That is we have subdivided the volume into
approximating disks whose volume we know how to compute. We have then
refined this approximation by using finer and finer subdivisions. Taking the limit
of this process provides the answer to our question. Identifying that limit with an
integral makes it possible to easily (!) compute the volume in question. OK, time
for some examples.
Ill admit it is hard to draw figures like Figure 6.12. However, drawing a representative rectangle for the region in question, as in the left half of Figure 6.11 is
usually sufficient to set up the required volume integral.
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Examples
EXAMPLE 6.3. Let y = f ( x ) = x2 on the interval [0, 1]. Rotate the region between the

curve and the x-axis around the x-axis and find the volume of the resulting solid.
SOLUTION. Using Theorem 6.2

V=p

Z b
a

[ f ( x )]2 dx = p

Z 1
0

[ x2 ]2 dx =

px5
5

=
0

p
.
5

## Figure 6.13: Left: A representative

rectangle for the curve y = x2 . Right:
A representative circular slice for the
curve y = x2 rotated about the x-axis.
1

x2

## on the interval [0, 1]. Rotate the region between the

curve and the y-axis around the y-axis and find the volume of the resulting solid.
SOLUTION. The region is not the same one as in Example 6.3. It lies between the

y-axis and the curve, not the x-axis. See Figure 6.14.
Since the rotation is about the y-axis, we need to solve for x as a function of y.
p
Since y = x2 , then x = y. Notice that the region lies over the interval [0, 1] on the
y-axis now. Using Theorem 6.2
V=p

Z d
c

[ g(y)]2 dy = p

Z 1
1
p
py2
p
[ y]2 dy =
= .
0

## EXAMPLE 6.5. Find the volume p

of a sphere of radius r which can be obtained by

## rotating the semi-circle f ( x ) =

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x=

## Figure 6.14: Left: A representative

rectangle for the region between the
p
curve y = x2 (x = y) and the y-axis.
Right: A representative circular slice
p
for the curve x = y rotated about the
x-axis.

## Figure 6.15: Left: A representative

p
rectangle for the curve y = r2 x2 .
Right: A representative circular slice for
the sphere that results when rotating

math 131

## SOLUTION. Using Theorem 6.2

V=p

Z b
a

[ f ( x )]2 dx = p
=p

Z r p
r
Z r

[ r2

r2

x2 dx
r
x3
3
r

r3
r3
r3 +
3
3

= p r2 x

=p
=

x2 ]2 dx

r3

4pr3
.
3

Amazing! We have derived the volume formula of a sphere from the volume by disks
formula.
YOU TRY IT 6.9. Find the volume of a cone of radius r and height h by rotating the line

through (0, 0) and (r, h) about the y-axis. (See Figure 6.16.)
EXAMPLE 6.6 (Two Pieces). Consider the region enclosed by the curves y =

x, y = 6
x, and the x-axis. Rotate this region about the x-axis and find the resulting volume.

SOLUTION. It is important to sketch the region to see the relationship between the

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r
Figure 6.16: Determine the volume of a
cone of radius r and height h.

curves. Pay particular attention to the bounding curves. Draw representative rectangles. This will help you set up the appropriate integrals. It is less important to try to
draw a very accurate three-dimensional picture.

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p
First determine where the curves intersect: Obviously y = x meets the x-axis at
p
x = 0 and y = 6 x meets the x-axis at x = 6. For y = 6 x and y = x,
p
6 x = x ) 36 12x + x2 = x ) x2 13x + 36 = ( x 4)( x + 9) = 0
) x = 4, (x =

## 9 is not in the domain).

From Figure 6.17 we see that the solid is made up of two separate pieces (the top
curve changes at x = 4) and each requires its own integral. Using Theorem 6.2

V=p

=p

Z 4 p
Z 6
[ x ]2 dx + p
[6
0

Z 4

x dx + p

0
4
px2

Z 6
4

[6

x ]2 dx

x ]2 dx
6

p (6 x )3
2 0
3
4

( 8p )
= (8p 0) + 0
3
32p
=
.
3

## Note: We used a mental adjustment to do the second integral (with u = 6 x and

du = dx). Overall, the integration is easy once the problem is set up correctly. Be
sure you have the correct region.

## Figure 6.17: Left: The

p region enclosed
by the curves y = x, y = 6 x,
and the x-axis and two representative
rectangles. Right: The resulting solid of
revolution about the x-axis is formed
by two distinct pieces each requiring its
own integral.

math 131

## application: volumes of revolution, part ii

EXAMPLE 6.7 (One Piece: Two integrals). Reconsider the same region as in Example 6.6

p
enclosed by the curves y = x, y = 6 x, and the x-axis. Now rotate this region

SOLUTION. OK, the region is the same as above. Here is where you have to be very

careful. Since the rotation is about the y-axis, the strips are horizontal this time. Notice that there are two strips. When this region is rotated about the y-axis, the solid
will have a hollowed out center portion (see Figure 6.18). Thus, we must take the
outer region formed by the curve y = 6 x and subtract the inner region formed by
p
y = x from it.
2

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Since the rotation is about the y-axis, to use the disk method we need to write the
curves in the form x as a function of y. We have
p
y = x ) x = y2 and y = 6 x ) x = 6 y.
The outer curve is x = 6 y and the inner curve is x = y2 from the perspective of the
y-axis. From the previous problem we already know the intersection points. However
we need their y-coordinates. When x = 4 the corresponding y-coordinate (using either
p
y = x or y = 6 x) is y = 2. The other coordinate is y = 0. So this time using
Theorem 6.2 (note the subtraction of the inner volume)
V = Outer Volume

=p

Z 2

y]2 dy

[6

p (6 y )3
3

Inner Volume
p

0
2
5
py

64p
=
3
664p
=
.
15

Z 2

216p
3

[y2 ]2 dy

32p
5

Whew! Thats a lot of things to process. Getting a clear picture of the region is
crucial. Even if you never draw the three-dimensional version, understanding the
representative rectangles is critical. In this case the representative rectangles did
not extend from the bottom to the top curve (i.e., the left to the right), but rather
from the y-axis to each curve separately to represent the outer solid and the inner
solid.
Caution!

We wrote the volume of the solid as the outer minus inner volume:
V=p

Z 2
0

y]2 dy

[6

Z 2
0

[y2 ]2 dy.

Since the interval is the same for both integrals, we could have written this as
V=p

Z 2
0

[6

y ]2

[y2 ]2 dy

where each individual radius is squared separately. If you do combine the integrals,
you cannot square the difference of the two radii:
V 6= p

Z 2
0

[6

y2 ]2 dy

## Figure 6.18: Left: The

p region enclosed
by the curves y = x, y = 6 x,
and the x-axis and two representative
rectangles. Right: The resulting solid of
revolution about the x-axis (a volcano)
is formed by two distinct pieces each
requiring its own integral.

10

math 131

because

[6

y ]2

[ y2 ]2 6 = [6

11

y2 ]2 .

## Youve been warned!

Look, there are two situations you need to distinguish when multiple curves
are used for a solid of revolution. The curves might create two pieces which sum
together to create the entire solid in which case you will need to add integrals
together to find the volume (see Figure 6.17). Or the curves might be situated so
that resulting solid is formed by hollowing out one solid from another in which
case you will need to subtract one integral from another (see Figure 6.18). This is
why a sketch of the position of the curves relative to the axis of rotation is critical.
Lets do a couple more.
EXAMPLE 6.8. Consider the region enclosed by the curves y =

x, y = x
x-axis. Rotate this region about the x-axis and find the resulting volume.

2, and the

## SOLUTION. Is this the sum of two integrals or is it difference of two integrals?

p
First determine where the curves intersect: Obviously y = x meets the x-axis at
p
x = 0 and y = x 2 meets the x-axis at x = 2. Now y = x 2 and y = x intersect
when
p
x 2 = x ) x2 4x + 4 = x ) x2 3x + 4 = ( x 4)( x + 1) = 0
) x = 4, (not x =

1).

Z 4 p
=p
[ x ]2 dx
0

=p
=

Z 4

0
4
2
px

= (8p
=

x dx

16p
.
3

p(x

0) +

Inner Volume
p
Z 4
2

Z 4

[x

2]2 dx

Outer

Inner

## Figure 6.19: Left: The

p region enclosed
by the curves y = x, y = 2 x, and
the x-axis. When rotated about the
x-axis, one region must be subtracted
from the other. Instead of using representative rectangles, we simply indicate

2]2 dx

[x

2)3

8p
3

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From the sketch in Figure 6.19 if revolved about the x-axis will result in a solid that
has been partially hollowed out (a cone has been removed). This requires a difference
of integrals. Using Theorem 6.2
V = Outer Volume

4
2

## EXAMPLE 6.9. Again consider the region enclosed by the curves y =

x, y = x 2,
and the x-axis. This time rotate the region about the y-axis and find the resulting
volume.
SOLUTION. Is this the sum of two integrals or is it difference of two integrals? Since

the rotation is about the y-axis, the radii of the respective regions are horizontal, see
Figure 6.20. This is again a difference of two integrals.
Translating the curves into functions of y we have x = y2 , x = y + 2, and y = 0 (the
x-axis). The curves intersect the x-axis at y = 0. Weve seen that the line and square
root function meet when x = 4 since x = y + 2 there, then the y-coordinate of the
intersection is y = 2.

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Inner
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Outer

Figure 6.20: p
The region enclosed by the
curves y = x, y = 2 x, and the
rotated about the y-axis, one region
must be subtracted from the other.

math 131

12

## Using Theorem 6.2

V = Outer Volume

Inner Volume = p

Z 2
0

[y + 2]2 dy

Z 2
0

[y2 ]2 dy

p ( y + 2)3
py5
3
5
0

0
64p
8p
32p
=
3
3
5
184p
=
.
15

EXAMPLE 6.10. Consider the region enclosed by the curves y = e x , x = 1 and the

y-axis. Rotate the region about the y-axis and find the resulting volume.

Inner

SOLUTION. Is this the sum of two integrals or is it difference of two integrals? Since

the rotation is about the y-axis, the radii of the respective regions are horizontal, see
Figure 6.21. This is again a difference of two integrals.
Translating the curves into functions of y we see y = e x becomes x = ln y. Notice
that x = ln y meets the y-axis at 1 and it meets the line x = 1 at y = e.
The solid formed by the region between the y-axis and the curve x = ln y must
be subtracted from the ordinary cylinder formed by rotating the line x = 1 about the
y-axis. This cylinder has radius 1 and height e so its volume is v = p (1)2 e = pe. (We
could also find this by integrating, but why bother.) So Using Theorem 6.2
V = Outer Volume

Inner Volume = pe

Z e
1

## [ln y]2 dy =???

Since we dont know an antiderivative for (ln x )2 we are stuck. (By the way, notice
that the limits of integration for the integral are from 1 to e, not 0 to e.) So we will
have to invent another method of finding such volumes if we are to solve this problem. This shows the importance of having a wide-variety of methods for solving a
single problem.
YOU TRY IT 6.10. Let R be the entire region enclosed by y = x2 and y = 2

x2 in the upper
half-plane. Sketch the region. Rotate R about the x-axis and find the resulting volume.
3 p.)
YOU TRY IT 6.11. Let R be the region enclosed by y = 2x and y = x2 .

(a) Rotation about the x-axis. Find the volume of the hollowed-out solid generated by
(b) Rotation about the y-axis. Find the volume of the solid generated by revolving R
about the y-axis by using the disk method and integrating along the y-axis. (Answer:
8p/3)

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1
0

y = e x or
x = ln y

Outer

## Figure 6.21: The region enclosed by the

curves y = e x , x = 1 and the y-axis.
Rotate the region about the y-axis and
find the resulting volume.

math 131

6.3

## application: volumes of revolution, part ii

It is relatively easy to adapt the disk method to finding volumes of solids of revolution using other horizontal or vertical axes. The key steps are to determine the
radii of the slices and express them in terms of the correct variable. A couple of
examples should give you the idea.
EXAMPLE 6.11. Consider the region enclosed by the curves y = x2

2x and y = 3.
Rotate this region about the line y = 3 and find the resulting volume.
SOLUTION. The two curves meet when

x2

2x = 3 ) x2

2x

3 = (x

3)( x + 1) = 0 ) x = 3,

1.

The parabola and the line are easy to sketch; see Figure 6.22 on the left.
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y=x

y=3

2x

## Figure 6.22: Left: The region enclosed

by the curves y = x2 2x and y = 3.
Since the axis of revolution is y = 3, a
line y = 3 to the curve y = x2 2x.
Right: The resulting solid of revolution
about the line y = 3.

A representative radius extends from the line y = 3 to the curve y = x2 2x. The
length of a radius is the difference between these two values, that is, the radius of a
circular cross-section perpendicular to the line y = 3 is
r=3

( x2

2x ) = 3 + 2x

x2 .

## Since a cross-section is a circle, its area is

A = A( x ) = pr2 = p (3 + 2x

x 2 )2 .

Since we know the cross-sectional area, we can use Theorem 6.1 to find the volume
V=

Z b
a

A( x ) dx = p

=p

Z 3

1
Z 3
1

(3 + 2x

x2 )2 dx

9 + 12x

2x2

= p 9x + 6x2

=p
=

27 + 54

2x3
3
18

512p
.
15

4x3 + x4 )2 dx
3
x5
5
1

243
2
81 +
9+6+
5
3
x4 +

1
5

## EXAMPLE 6.12. Consider the region enclosed by the curves x = y2 and x = 2

y2 .

Rotate this region about the line x = 3 and find the resulting volume.
SOLUTION. The two curves meet when

y2 = 2

y2 ) 2y2 = 2 ) y = 1.

## The region is easy to sketch; see Figure 6.23 on the left.

An outer representative radius extends from the line x = 3 to the curve x = y2
and an inner representative radius extends from the line x = 3 to x = 2 y2 . The
length of a representative radius is the difference between the corresponding pairs of

13

math 131

## application: volumes of revolution, part ii

x=2

...
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y2

x=3

x=3

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14

## Figure 6.23: Left: The region enclosed

by the curves x = y2 and x = 2 y2
from the axis of rotation x = 3. Right:
The resulting hollowed out solid of
revolution about the line x = 3 looks
like a doughnut.

## values. The outer radius is R = 3 y2 and the inner radius is 3 (2 y2 ) = 1 + y2 .

The integration will take place along the y-axis on the interval [ 1, 1] because the
disks are horizontal when points are rotated about the line x = 3. Since we know the
cross-sections are circles, we can use Theorem 6.1 to find the volume
V = Outer Volume

Inner Volume = p

=p
=p

Z 1

1
Z 1
1
Z 1
1

(3

y2 )2 dy

6y2 + y4 dy

8y2 dy

= p 8y

=p
=

32p
.
3

8y3
3

8
3

Z 1

(1 + y2 )2 dy
Z 1

1 + 2y2 + y4 dy

8+

8
3

Because the interval of integration was the same for both the inner and outer volumes,
we are able to combine the two integrals which greatly simplified the integration and
evaluation. If you understand this problem, you are in good shape.
YOU TRY IT 6.12. Let R be the region enclosed by y = x3 , x = 2, and the x-axis. Draw the

region.
(a) Rotate R about the x-axis and find the resulting volume. (Answer: 128p/7)
(b) Rotate R about the line y = 9 and find the resulting volume. (Answer: 376p/7)
(c) Rotate R about the line x = 2 and find the resulting volume. (Answer: 16p/5)
YOU TRY IT 6.13. Draw the region R in the first quadrant enclosed by y = x2 , y = 2

x and

the x-axis.
(a) Rotate R about the x-axis and find the resulting volume. [Is it the sum of two integrals
or outside minus inside?]
(b) Rotate R about the y-axis and find the resulting volume. [Is it the sum of two integrals
or outside minus inside?]
YOU TRY IT 6.14. Let S be the region in the first quadrant enclosed by y = x2 , y = 2

x and

the y-axis.
(a) Rotate S about the x-axis. [Is it the sum of two integrals or outside minus inside?]
(b) Rotate S about the y-axis. [Is it the sum of two integrals or outside minus inside?]
p
YOU TRY IT 6.15. Let R be the region in the upper half-plane bounded by y = x + 2, the
x-axis and the line y = x. Find the volume resulting when R is rotated around the x-axis.
Remember: Outside minus inside. How many integrals do you need?

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YOU TRY IT 6.16. A small canal bouy is formed by taking the region in the first quadrant

bounded by the y-axis, the parabola y = 2x2 , and the line y = 5 3x and rotating it about
the y-axis. (Units are feet.) Find the volume of this bouy. (Answer: 2p cubic feet.)

6.15 .

math 131

## application: volumes of revolution, part ii

15

YOU TRY IT 6.17. Just set up the integrals for each of the following volume problems. Sim-

## plify the integrands where possible. Use figures below.

(a) R is the region enclosed by y = x2 , y = x + 2, and the y-axis in the first quadrant.
(b) Same R, but rotate around the y-axis.
(c) Same R, but rotate around the line y = 4.
(d) S is the region enclosed by y = x2 + 2x + 3, y = 3x

## (f ) R is the region enclosed by y = 12 x2 + 2 and y = x2 . Rotate R about the x-axis.

(g) Same R, but rotate around the line y = 4.
(h) S is the region enclosed by y =
(i) T is the region enclosed by y =
(j) V is the region enclosed by y =
y-axis.

1 2
2x

2, y = 4

2, y = 4

## (k) Same V, but rotate around the x-axis.

(l) Hard: Same V, but rotate around the line y = 2.
6

ac

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## Figure 6.25: The regions for you try

it 6.17 .

2
R

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SOLUTION. Here are the solutions before the integands have been simplified. Re-

## member, you should simplify each integrand before actually integrating.

(a) p
(c) p
(e) p

Z 2

0
Z 2
0

Z 2
1

( x + 2)2 dx
(4
(3x

x2 )2 dx

Z 2

3)2 dx + p

( x2 )2 dx

Z 2
0

Z 3
2

(4

( x + 2))2 dx

( x2 + 2x + 3)2 dx

(b) p
(d) p

Z 4
p
0

Z 2
0

( y)2 dy

Z 4
2

(y

( x2 + 2x + 3)2 dx

(f ) Homework

2)2 dy
p

Z 2
1

(3x

3)2 dx

math 131

## application: volumes of revolution, part ii

(g) Homework
(i) p
(j) p

Z 1
0

Z 1
0

(y2 + 2)2 dy + p
y)2 dy

(4

(l) p

Z 3
2

22 dx

p
p

Z 4

1
Z 1

0
Z 3
2

Z 4
p

(k) p

Z 3 p

22 dx

( y)2 dy

y)2 dy

(4

(y2 + 2)2 dy

(2

(h) p

Z
2
2) dx + p

4
3

( x
Z 4
3

Z 4 p
2

2)2 dx + p
22 (2

(4

Z 4
3

2y

(4

x )2 dx

x ))2 dx

YOU TRY IT 6.18 (Rotation about the x-axis). Let R be the region in the first quadrant enclosed

p
by y = x 1, y = x 7 and the x-axis. Sketch the region. Rotate R about the x-axis and
find the resulting volume. (Answer: 63/2p.)
YOU TRY IT 6.19. Let R be the entire region enclosed by y = x2 and y = 2

x2 in the upper
half-plane. Sketch the region. Rotate R about the x-axis and find the resulting volume.
3 p.)
YOU TRY IT 6.20 (Rotation about the y-axis). Let R be the region enclosed by the x-axis, y =

x, and y = 2

x. Rotate R about the y-axis and find the volume. (Answer: 32p/15.)

YOU TRY IT 6.21 (Rotation about a line parallel to the x-axis). Find the volume of the hollowed-

## out solid generated by revolving R about the line y = 4. (Answer: 32p/5)

YOU TRY IT 6.22 (Rotation about a line parallel to the x-axis). Let R be the region enclosed by

y = 1 x2 and the x-axis. Rotate R about the line y = 2 and find the resulting volume.
YOU TRY IT 6.23. Extra Fun.

(a) Let R be the region enclosed by y = arctan x, y = p/4, and the y-axis. Find the
area
p of R. Hint: Only integration along one axis is possible at this point. (Answer:
ln 2 = 0.5 ln 2)
(b) Rotate R about the y-axis and find the resulting volume. Use a trig identity for tan2 q.
YOU TRY IT 6.24. Here are a few more:

(a) Let y = 1x on [1, a], where a > 1. Let R be the region under the curve over this interval.
Rotate R about the x-axis. What value of a gives a volume of p/2? (Answer: a = 2)
(b) What happens to the volume if a ! ? Does the volume get infinitely large? Use
(c) Instead rotate R about the y-axis. What value of a gives a volume of p/2? This is
particularly easy to do by shells! (Answer: a = 5/4)

## x, y = 2, and the y-axis.

(a) Rotate R about the x-axis and find the resulting volume. (Answer: 8p)
(b) Rotate R about the line y = 2 and find the resulting volume. (Answer: 8p/3)
(c) Rotate R about the line y = 4 and find the resulting volume. (Answer: 40p/3)

dy

16