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AS 4440

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AS 44402004

Australian Standard

Installation of nailplated timber roof


trusses

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This Australian Standard was prepared by Committee TM-002, Timber Framing. It


was approved on behalf of the Council of Standards Australia on 7 April 2004 and
published on 1 June 2004.

The following are represented on Committee TM-002:


Association of Consulting Engineers, Australia
Australian Building Codes Board
Australian Institute of Building
Building Research Association of New Zealand
CSIRO Manufacturing and infrastructures Technology
Engineers Australia
Forest Industries Federation (WA)
Housing Industry Association
Master Builders, Australia
New Zealand Forest Industries Council
New Zealand Forest Research Institute
New Zealand Timber Industry Federation
Plantation Timber Association Australia
Plywood Association of Australasia
South Australian Housing Trust
Structural Engineered Timber Manufactures Association, New Zealand
Timber and Building Materials Association, NSW
Timber Development Association, NSW
Timber Development Association of South Australia
Timber Merchants Association of Victoria
Timber Promotion Council
Timber Queensland

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Executive, Standards Australia International Ltd, GPO Box 5420, Sydney, NSW
2001.

This Standard was issued in draft form for comment as DR 02024.

AS 44402004

Australian Standard

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Installation of nailplated timber roof


trusses

Originated as AS 44401997.
Second edition 2004.

COPYRIGHT
Standards Australia International
All rights are reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or copied in any form or by any
means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, without the written permission of the
publisher.
Published by Standards Australia International Ltd
GPO Box 5420, Sydney, NSW 2001, Australia
ISBN 0 7337 6041 4

AS 44402004

PREFACE
This Standard was prepared by the Joint Standards Australia/Standards New Zealand
Committee TM/2, Timber Framing, to supersede AS 44401997, Installation of nailplated
timber trusses.
The Standard is the result of a consensus among Australian and New Zealand
representatives on the Joint Committee to produce it as an Australian Standard.
The objective of this Standard is to provide basic performance requirements and
specifications for the bracing, connection and installation of nailplated timber trusses.

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The objective of this revision is to incorporate latest technical information and performance
criteria, which resulted from the continued development of timber framing systems in
Australia and overseas. Reflected in this Standard, the following have been included in this
revision:
(a)

Provision for limit state design methods.

(b)

Requirement for fixing to non-loadbearing external walls (Clause 2.2.3(d)).

(c)

Amendment to the definitions of bow (Clause 3.4.2) and plumb (Clause 3.4.3).

(d)

Provision for intermediate ceiling joists (Clause 3.6 and Appendix D).

(e)

Provision for internal top chord ties for north-light trusses (Clause 4.2.2.2) and tophat trusses (Clause 4.2.2.3).

(f)

Deletion of the informative Appendix for the permanent bottom chord ties (the
original Appendix G).

This Standard is intended to promote an agreement across different industries, and to


replace the various installation manuals and inconsistent bracing details currently in use. It
provides a unique method of bracing, connection and installation yet does not preclude the
use of other methods that are approved and authorized.
Statements expressed in mandatory terms in notes to tables and figures are deemed to be
requirements of this Standard.
The term informative has been used in this Standard to define the application of the
appendix to which it applies. An informative appendix is only for information and
guidance.

AS 44402004

CONTENTS
Page
SECTION 1 SCOPE AND GENERAL
1.1 SCOPE ........................................................................................................................ 5
1.2 APPLICATION ........................................................................................................... 5
1.3 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS .................................................................................. 6
1.4 USE OF ALTERNATIVE MATERIALS OR METHODS .......................................... 6
1.5 DEFINITIONS ............................................................................................................ 6
1.6 LOADS...................................................................................................................... 11
1.7 DOCUMENTATION AT APPROVAL STAGE AND DELIVERY.......................... 11
1.8 NAILS ....................................................................................................................... 11

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SECTION 2 SUPPORTING STRUCTURES


2.1 GENERAL ................................................................................................................ 12
2.2 WALLS ..................................................................................................................... 12
SECTION 3 TRUSS INSTALLATION
3.1 TRUSS LAYOUT...................................................................................................... 15
3.2 STABILITY DURING INSTALLATION ................................................................. 15
3.3 TEMPORARY BRACING ........................................................................................ 15
3.4 INSTALLATION TOLERANCES ............................................................................ 16
3.5 PLASTERBOARD FIXED DIRECTLY TO BOTTOM CHORDS ........................... 17
3.6 INTERMEDIATE CEILING JOISTS........................................................................ 17
3.7 TIE-DOWN REQUIREMENTS ................................................................................ 17
3.8 MULTIPLE (MULTI-PLY) TRUSS.......................................................................... 17
3.9 TRUSS MODIFICATION ......................................................................................... 17
3.10 REJECTION CRITERIA ........................................................................................... 18
3.11 TRANSPORT, STORAGE, LIFTING AND HANDLING ........................................ 18
SECTION 4 ROOF BRACING
4.1 GENERAL ................................................................................................................ 19
4.2 ROOF BATTENS...................................................................................................... 19
4.3 TOP CHORD BRACING .......................................................................................... 22
4.4 BOTTOM CHORD BRACING ................................................................................. 37
4.5 WEB BRACING ....................................................................................................... 38
SECTION 5 TRUSS CONNECTION
5.1 GENERAL ................................................................................................................ 39
5.2 HIP ENDS ................................................................................................................. 39
5.3 GIRDER TRUSSES .................................................................................................. 45
5.4 VALLEY (SADDLE) TRUSSES............................................................................... 47
SECTION 6 TRUSS OVERHANGS
6.1 STANDARD TRUSS-OVERHANGS ....................................................................... 49
6.2 GABLE VERGE........................................................................................................ 50
6.3 BOXED GABLE ENDS ............................................................................................ 53
6.4 VERANDAHS........................................................................................................... 53
6.5 PERGOLAS .............................................................................................................. 53

AS 44402004

Page

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APPENDICES
A
DOCUMENTATION AT APPROVAL STAGE AND ON DELIVERY ................... 54
B
RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR TRUSS INSTALLATION.............................. 56
C
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR TEMPORARY BRACING ....................................... 57
D
INTERMEDIATE CEILING JOISTS AND HANGERS ........................................... 60
E
TRANSPORT, STORAGE, LIFTING AND HANDLING OF TRUSSES................. 61
F
TYPICAL SPECIFICATION FOR, AND EXAMPLE OF, A STEELBRACE .......... 63
G
FIXING DETAILS FOR TYPICAL GIRDER BRACKETS (TRUSS BOOTS) ........ 64

AS 44402004

STANDARDS AUSTRALIA
Australian Standard
Installation of nailplated timber roof trusses

SECT ION

SCOPE

AND

GENERA L

1.1 SCOPE
This Standard specifies requirements for the bracing, connection and installation of
nailplated timber trusses in roof structures for typical application.
1.2 APPLICATION

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This Standard is intended to apply to nailplated timber roof trusses within the following
general limitations:
(a)

Residential structures (BCA Classes 1, 2, 3 and 10) and light commercial structures.

(b)

Maximum roof pitch of 45 (100:100).


NOTE: For roof pitch greater than 35, supporting structure may need special consideration.

(c)

Shape in plan view to be rectangular or near rectangular, or a series or combination of


rectangular shapes or near-rectangular shapes, including splayed-end and boomerangshaped buildings and the like, and projections such as bay windows.

(d)

Maximum truss span of 16 m.

(e)

Maximum truss spacing of

(f)

(i)

900 mm; or

(ii)

1200 mm, for lightweight roofs (e.g., metal sheet roofs) in wind classification
N3 or lower.

Maximum design gust wind speed of 74 m/s (wind classification C3) for ultimate
limit state method in accordance with either AS/NZS 1170.2 or AS 4055.

This Standard may also be applicable to the design and construction of other classes of
buildings where the design criteria, loadings and other parameters applicable to those
classes of building are within the limitations of this Standard.
NOTES:
1

Additional limitations are also included in the relevant Clauses of this Standard.

Subject to approval, this Standard may be used for other structures similar to those specified
herein.

AS 1720.1 provides for the design of timber elements within nailplated timber trusses, which
is not covered by this Standard.

Roof bracing and truss connection specified in this Standard does not cover nailplated timber
truss subjected to snow load.

Specifications in this Standard are applicable for use in conjunction with non-trussed hip-end
components.

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AS 44402004

1.3 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS

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The following documents are referred to in this Standard:


AS
1170
1170.4

Minimum design loads on structures


Part 4: Earthquake loads

1397

Steel sheet and strip Hot-dipped zinc-coated or aluminium/zinc-coated

1684

Residential timber-framed construction (all parts)

1720
1720.1

Timber structures
Part 1: Design methods

4055

Wind loads for housing

AS/NZS
1170
1170.0
1170.1
1170.2

Structural design action


Part 0: General principles
Part 1: Permanent, imposed and other actions
Part 2: Wind actions

4491

Timber Glossary of terms in timber related Standards

ABCB
BCA

Building Code of Australia

1.4 USE OF ALTERNATIVE MATERIALS OR METHODS


This Standard does not preclude the use of materials or methods of bracing, fixing and
installation other than those specified in this Standard, provided it can be shown that these
satisfy the performance requirements met by the materials and methods described herein.
1.5 DEFINITIONS
For the purpose of this Standard, the definitions given in AS/NZS 4491, AS 1684 series,
and those below apply.
NOTES:
1

The names of the various timber truss members used in this Standard are given in Figures 1.1
to 1.7.

The following abbreviations are used in this Standard:


(a)

BC bottom chord.

(b)

HTC horizontal top chord.

(c)

TC top chord.

(d)

TG truncated girder (truss).

(e)

TS truncated standard (truss).

1.5.1 Approved
As approved by the regulatory authority.
1.5.2 Approved specification
Documentation approved by regulatory authority.
1.5.3 Boxed eaves
Eaves that form a horizontal plane below the rafter or truss overhang; also called flat eaves.
1.5.4 Camber
A curvature built into a truss intended to compensate for the long-term deflection due to
dead loads.
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AS 44402004

1.5.5 Eaves
The portion of main building outside the external wall line. Generally, it includes the truss
overhang and also cantilevered portions if present.
1.5.6 Gable-end truss
The first truss at a gable end.
1.5.7 Galvanized steel
Steel having a minimum corrosion protection of Grade Z275 in accordance with AS 1397.
1.5.8 Girder truss
A truss that supports other trusses or beams (see Figure 1.6 and Figure 3.1).
1.5.9 Nailplates
Metal plate connectors manufactured predominantly from light gauge galvanized steel with
teeth spaced and formed within the parent metal. Nailplates are normally pressed into
opposite faces of the timber members to form a spliced or gusseted type of joint.
1.5.10 Truss overhang
The portion of top chord extending beyond the body of the truss to provide eaves.
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1.5.11 Pitching point


The intersection of underside of top chord and underside of bottom chord (see Figures 1.1,
1.2 and 1.7).
1.5.12 Raking eaves
Eaves line that follows the line of the roof, also called flush eaves.
1.5.13 Raking truss
A gable-end truss, which has the top chord lowered to accommodate outriggers; also known
as set-down or cut-down truss.
1.5.14 Regulatory authority
The authority that is authorized by legal statute as having jurisdiction to approve the design
and construction of a building, or any part of the building design and construction process.
NOTE: In the context of this Standard, the regulatory authority may include local council
building surveyors, private building surveyors or other persons nominated by the appropriate state
or territory building legislation as having the legal responsibility for approving the use of timber
trusses.

1.5.15 Reinforced-head nails


Nails with either an enlarged shank beneath the nail head or specially tapered head with
enough thickness to eliminate the possibility of the head becoming brittle during driving or
under load, and breaking off.
1.5.16 Spacing
The centre-to-centre distance apart of structural timber members or trusses.
1.5.17 Truss span
See Figures 1.1 and 1.2.
1.5.18 Station
The position of a truncated truss, a truncated girder truss, or a Dutch-hip girder truss,
measured from the pitching point to the near face of the truss (see Figure 1.7).

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AS 44402004

1.5.19 Steelbrace
A steel-bracing member with properties as specified in Clause 4.3.2.
1.5.20 Structural fascia
A fascia that is capable of distributing truss-overhang loads to adjacent trusses.
NOTES:
1

The common timber fascia is taken as a structural fascia when fixed directly to the end of the
truss overhang (see Figures 1.3 to 1.5). Other fascia or combination of members with similar
stiffness may be used.

Light gauge steel fascia is not generally capable of carrying out this function.

1.5.21 Timber truss


Framework constructed with timber of uniform thickness and fastened together in one plane
by connectors such as metal nailplates, bolts, plywood gussets, or other similar devices.
NOTE: Timber framework fastened by other connectors similar to nailplates, e.g., bolts, plywood
gussets, and the like, is not covered by this Standard.

1.5.22 Truss engineer

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A professional engineer, as specified in BCA, experienced in the design of nailplated timber


truss systems.
1.5.23 Valley (saddle) truss
Frames that are supported on trusses and used to form the roof between roof segments
(see Figures 1.6, 3.1 and 4.2).
1.5.24 Verge overhang
Truss overhang at a gable end (see Figure 1.3).
1.5.25 Waling plate
Timber member normally fixed to the face of a truss to support intersecting rafters or
trusses.
Nailplate

Top chord
Battens

Roofing
Web tie
(web bracing)

Pitch
Pi tching
point

Pitching point
Web
Fascia

Ceiling

Cantil ever
web

Bottom chord tie

Bottom chord

Ceiling batten

Cantilever
Truss
overhang

Truss span

Truss
overhang

Overall length

FIGURE 1.1 TERMS APPYLING TO TIMBER TRUSSES

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AS 44402004

Apex
Top chord panel points

Top chord panel point

Pitching point

Pitching point

Heel

Bottom chord panel points


Cut-off

Truss
overhang

Truss overhang
Truss span

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FIGURE 1.2 TERMS APPLYING TO CUT-OFF TRUSS AND PANEL POINTS

Standard
trusses

Outriggers

Bargeboard
Gable-end studs
End wall
Raking truss

Structural
fascia

Barge rafter

FIGURE 1.3 TERMS APPLYING TO ROOF TRUSS SYSTEM GABLE END

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AS 44402004

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Standard truss
Truncated standard truss
Truncated girder truss
Creeper trusses
Creeper
rafter
Hip
truss
Creeper
rafter
Creeper
trusses

Jack trusses

Structural Fascia

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FIGURE 1.4 TERMS APPLYING TO ROOF TRUSS SYSTEM HIP END

Standard truss
Dutch-hip girder truss

Waling plate

Creeper trusses
Creeper
rafter
Hip truss
Creeper
rafter
Creeper
trusses

Jack trusses

Structural Fascia

FIGURE 1.5 TERMS APPLYING TO ROOF TRUSS SYSTEM DUTCH-HIP END

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AS 44402004

11

Intermediate top chord


ties as specified in
Clause 5.4.1

Saddle trusses

Wall
plate
Trusses

Saddle truss
Girder
truss

Wall
plate
Trusses

FIGURE 1.6 TERMS APPLYING TO GIRDER TRUSS AND SADDLE TRUSS

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Top chord extension

Jack or hip truss


Truncated
standard truss

Truncated girder
Pitching
point

Station(of truncated girder)

Near face of
truncated girder

FIGURE 1.7 TERMS APPLYING TO STATION AND PITCHING POINT

1.6 LOADS
The standard loads, i.e., dead load, live load, wind load, and earthquake load, imposed on
trusses shall be in accordance with AS/NZS 1170.0, AS/NZS 1170.1, AS/NZS 1170.2, and
AS 1170.4, as appropriate.
Loads other than the standard loads shall not be imposed on the trusses without being
approved. Typical fittings, which may induce special loads, are hot-water services,
airconditioning, solar systems, protective handrails, and fall-resistant systems. Loads shall
not differ, nor be located at positions other than those taken in design.
1.7 DOCUMENTATION AT APPROVAL STAGE AND DELIVERY
NOTE: Documentation that should be available at the approval stage and at the time of delivery is
set out in Appendix A.

1.8 NAILS
Where 65 mm nails for connecting timber to timber are referred to in this Standard, they
shall be a minimum of 2.5 65 mm nails.
NOTE: Nailing details in this Standard may be substituted by screws of equivalent capacity.
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AS 44402004

12

SE C T I ON

S U PPO RT I N G

ST RU CT U RE S

2.1 GENERAL
The correct information regarding location and dimensions of the supporting structures
shall be provided prior to the manufacture of timber trusses. Due consideration shall be
given to the reactions from any girder trusses.
CAUTION: THE SUPPORTING STRUCTURE SHALL BE STABLE AT THE TIME
OF TRUSS INSTALLATION.

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NOTES:
1

The stability of supporting structures may be achieved by temporary bracing in cases where
the trusses will provide stability. When the trusses are in place and fixed correctly the
temporary wall bracing may be removed.

Lintels should be designed to carry the load applied by the trusses. The location of point loads
from any girder truss should be checked. Lintels may be chosen from relevant truss-span
charts providing the correct specification of load magnitude and supported truss-spans are
used.

Appendix B gives some recommended practices for the installation and fixing of nailplated
timber trusses.

2.2 WALLS
2.2.1 Loadbearing walls
Loadbearing walls shall comply with the requirements specified in the relevant Standards,
as appropriate to the material, and shall not be lower than the non-loadbearing walls when
trusses are supporting a level ceiling.
If any internal walls are required for support, the truss itself and the layout shall be marked
accordingly.
2.2.2 Non-loadbearing walls
Non-loadbearing walls shall comply with the requirements specified in the relevant
Standards, as appropriate to the material. Non-loadbearing walls, as designated, shall not
carry any truss loading and shall not be packed to touch the underside of trusses
(see Figure 2.1).
NOTE: One way to ensure non-loadbearing is to set the non-loadbearing walls at a lower level
than the loadbearing walls. The recommended difference in level is the ceiling batten depth, if
any, plus 10 mm min..

Ceiling batten depth,


if any, plus 10 mm min.
(recommended)

Timber truss

Loadbearing
wall
Loadbearing w all

FIGURE 2.1 LOADBEARING AND NON-LOADBEARING WALLS


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AS 44402004

13

2.2.3 Fixing to top plates of non-loadbearing walls


The requirements for fixing of timber trusses to the top plates of non-loadbearing walls
shall be in accordance with the following wall designations:
(a)

Non-bracing wall Where a non-loadbearing wall is stable in its own right, no


stabilizing fixing is required.

(b)

Bracing wall Where a freestanding non-loadbearing wall is designated as a bracing


unit in accordance with AS 1684.2 or AS 1684.3, the timber trusses shall be fixed to
the top plate of the wall in such a way that the bottom chord of the truss is restrained
horizontally but allows for deflection when the truss is loaded. Figure 2.2 gives an
example of the fixing details.

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(b) Truss perpendicular to wall

FIGURE 2.2 FIXING OF TRUSSES TO FREESTANDING NON-LOADBEARING WALL


THAT IS A BRACING WALL

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AS 44402004

(c)

14

Non-bracing wall For an internal non-loadbearing wall not designated as a bracing


unit, stability of the wall shall be required to resist normal applied force, e.g., when
closing doors. The top plate of the wall shall be stabilized at maximum 1800 mm
centres. Where trusses are parallel to the wall, nogging shall be used in between the
bottom chords and fixed to the bracket. Figure 2.3 gives an example of fixing details.

Truss parallel
to wall
Nogging

Truss at right
angle to wall
Truss
parallel
to wall

Two end
nails to
timber

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Wall
top
plate

Internal wall bracket nailed


at top of slot. Do not drive
nails fully home to allow for
vertical movement of truss
on loading
(a) Truss parallel to wall

Wall top
plate

(b) Truss perpendicular to wall

FIGURE 2.3 FIXING OF TRUSSES TO FREESTANDING NON-LOADBEARING WALL


THAT IS NOT A BRACING WALL

(d)

Non-loadbearing external wall For a non-loadbearing external wall, such as


verandah wall where trusses are pitched off verandah beams or other beams, the top
plate of the wall shall be stabilized at maximum 3000 mm centres. Figure 2.4 gives an
example of fixing details.

Block pieces
Wall top
plate
Fixing of block
pieces to wall
top plate in
accordance
with AS 1684
series

Truss
bottom
chord
Gap betw een top
plate and truss

FIGURE 2.4 FIXING OF TRUSSES TO NON-LOADBEARING EXTERNAL WALL

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AS 44402004

15

SECT ION

TRUSS

IN STA L L AT I ON

3.1 TRUSS LAYOUT


A layout with sufficient information to correctly locate the timber trusses shall be available
prior to the installation. If the information provided is unclear, guidance shall be sought
before proceeding with the truss erection.
NOTE: A typical roof truss layout, in part, is given in Figure 3.1 with a particular emphasis on
the girder truss location.
Ridge line

Valley (saddle)
trusses
Valley
line

Standard
trusses

Girder
truss

Truncated
standard
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Top
plate

Girder truss
flush w ith
this line

Truncated
girder

Eaves line

Hip truss

Jack trusses

Girder truss

FIGURE 3.1 TYPICAL TRUSS LAYOUT

3.2 STABILITY DURING INSTALLATION


All trusses shall be braced (temporarily and/or permanently) and stabilized throughout the
installation of the roof truss system. Any nailplated truss shall not be loaded, including
stood on, until all temporary bracing for that truss is fixed in place and stabilized in
accordance with this Standard. All relevant workplace safety practices shall be followed.
NOTE: As truss installation invariably involves working at heights, a risk assessment should be
undertaken with any construction site.

3.3 TEMPORARY BRACING


Trusses shall be temporarily braced during installation to ensure they are held straight and
plumb to the installation tolerances, as specified in Clause 3.3, prior to fixing the permanent
bracing.
NOTES:
1

Recommended temporary bracing details are given in Appendix C.

If trusses are installed without adequate temporary bracing, the following problems may
occur:

(a)

Collapse of trusses during installation.

(b)

Exceeding tolerances may cause overloading, buckling and possible permanent damage
to the trusses.

It is recommended that the first truss be erected correctly, straight and vertical, and
temporarily braced in position; the remaining trusses are then set in line with the first one.

The temporary bracing shall not be removed until the permanent bracing has been installed.
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16

3.4 INSTALLATION TOLERANCES


3.4.1 General
Trusses shall be installed straight and vertical and in their correct position as specified in
Clauses 3.4.2 to 3.4.4.
NOTE: The best method for ensuring correct truss positioning is to mark the locations on the top
plate or other supporting elements in accordance with the truss layout prior to truss installation.

3.4.2 Bow
Trusses shall be erected with minimal bow, in the truss and in any chord, with a tolerance
not exceeding the lesser of L/200 and 50 mm, where L is as defined in Figure 3.2(a) or
Figure 3.2(b).
Tru s s

Bow

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(a) Case 1
Bow

Tru s s

(b) Case 2

FIGURE 3.2 BOW

3.4.3 Plumb
Trusses shall be so erected that no part of the truss is out of plumb with a tolerance
exceeding the lesser of height/50 and 50 mm (see Figure 3.3).
Tru s s

Height
of any
s e c ti o n

Out of plumb

FIGURE 3.3 PLUMB


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AS 44402004

3.4.4 Spacing
Trusses shall be erected at a spacing not exceeding that specified in the design
specifications or truss layout.
3.5 PLASTERBOARD FIXED DIRECTLY TO BOTTOM CHORDS
Where plasterboard is fixed directly to the bottom chord of trusses, supplementary noggings
shall be supplied with the roof trusses. The supplementary noggings shall be not less than
70 mm 35 mm F4 on edge, and shall be fitted as follows:
(a)

At hip ends The supplementary noggings shall be fitted where the bottom chords of
the hip-end system do not continue to run parallel to the main run of trusses. They
shall be fixed at a spacing required by the plasterboard.

(b)

Elsewhere The supplementary noggings shall be fitted between trusses where


internal walls run parallel to the common trusses. They shall be fixed at a spacing not
exceeding that for the common trusses.

3.6 INTERMEDIATE CEILING JOISTS


NOTE: Recommendations for the fixing of intermediate ceiling joists are given in Appendix D.

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3.7 TIE-DOWN REQUIREMENTS


The requirements for fixing trusses to supporting structures shall be in accordance with the
approved specifications. In the absence of any tie-down documentation, the provisions for
tie-down set out in the AS 1684 series shall be used.
3.8 MULTIPLE (MULTI-PLY) TRUSS
A truss that is designated as double- triple- or multi-ply shall be nailed or bolted, or both, in
accordance with the truss details before the truss is loaded.
NOTES:
1

The laminating of a multiple (multi-ply) truss should be done at the time of manufacture.

If a multi-ply truss is to be laminated on site, the truss components should be labelled


appropriately.

3.9 TRUSS MODIFICATION


Under no circumstances shall a truss be modified by cutting, drilling, or by any other
method that may interfere with its structural integrity, without being approved.

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3.10 REJECTION CRITERIA


Trusses designed and manufactured for criteria other than those being used on site shall not
be used without being approved.
NOTE: Design criteria for trusses should be checked when they are delivered to site to ensure that
they are the correct trusses. If any truss has been cut, drilled, damaged, or manufactured in such a
way as to impair performance, notification should be given to the truss engineer in order to
provide adequate rectification to the truss.

Trusses with severely degraded timbers or nailplates due to poor storage shall not be loaded
prior to rectification or replacement.
NOTES:

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Manufacturing error or damage deemed severe enough to warrant attention should include but
not be limited to the following:
(a)

Broken or split timbers.

(b)

Missing nailplates on one or both sides of a joint.

(c)

Nailplates obviously misplaced, for example, missing a member at a joint or nailplate


not properly embedded.

(d)

Any nailplate showing evidence of flattening of the teeth, or excessive splitting of the
timber under the nailplate.

A truss supported away from the design location may be rejected.

If a fault is discovered after the truss has been loaded, the load should be supported to
alleviate the load on the truss until rectified.

3.11 TRANSPORT, STORAGE, LIFTING AND HANDLING


NOTE: Recommended practices for the transport, storage, lifting and handling of timber trusses
are described in Appendix E.

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SECT ION

ROOF

BRAC ING

4.1 GENERAL
This Section specifies the permanent bracing requirements for roof trusses. These
requirements are suitable for restraining loads imposed by the direct action of wind on the
roof structure and do not make any allowance for wind loads on walls.
Before being loaded, roof trusses shall be permanently braced to a building element such as
supporting walls, which in turn can transfer these bracing loads to the structure, to prevent
rotation or buckling of trusses under the weight of roofing and ceiling materials or under
wind uplift.
Roof bracing shall comply with the following Clauses:
(a)

Lateral restraints to truss top chords, i.e., roof battens or purlins .............. Clause 4.2.

(b)

Diagonal bracing to truss top chords using steelbrace .............................. Clause 4.3.

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NOTE: Typical specification for and examples of steelbraces are given in Appendix F.

(c)

Bottom chord bracing ............................................................................. Clause 4.4.

(d)

Web ties ................................................................................................. Clause 4.5.

4.2 ROOF BATTENS


4.2.1 General
The size, spacing and fixing of roof battens or purlins shall be in accordance with the
approved specifications. Battens shall be fixed to every truss, including each ply of the
multiple-truss.
In areas where battens or purlins are not bound at each end by diagonal bracing, battens
shall be continuous (see Figure 4.1).

Steelbrace

Roof battens
continuous
in this area

Rid

Roof battens
continuous
in this area

ge

See Note

Top plate

See Note

No two splices shall


be adjacent on any
truss top chord

Bracing angle
between 30
to 45 , to top
plate w hen
view ed on plan

NOTE: Not more than 1 in 3 battens are spliced on any truss top chord.

FIGURE 4.1 TYPICAL BRACING LAYOUT

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In addition to providing support to the roof cladding, roof battens or purlins prevent truss
top chords from buckling. The buckling action is due to the compressive force in the top
chord of the roof truss. This buckling action is resisted by the roof battens or purlins, which
in turn transfer it to the steel roof bracing and down to the supporting structure. Each
element and fixing along this sequence is essential for the stability of the roof structure.
Where required, splices in battens or purlins shall be arranged such that in any top chord no
more than one-third of battens or purlins are spliced and no two splices are adjacent. There
shall be no splices in battens or purlins over girder trusses.
4.2.2 Intermediate and internal top chord ties
4.2.2.1 Intermediate top chord ties for valley intersection
Due consideration shall be given to the restraint requirement for the supporting truss top
chords where the valley trusses are located. Where the spacing of valley trusses is greater
than the restraint spacing in design, either the roof battens shall be continued at the design
spacing or intermediate top chord ties shall be fixed to the supporting trusses as shown in
Figure 4.2(a) (see also Clause 5.4).

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4.2.2.2 Internal top chord ties for north-light or similar trusses


With north-light or similar trusses fabricated typically as shown in Figure 4.2(b), the
internal top chord shall be restrained with top chord ties as specified. The ties shall also be
restrained with diagonal timber, or cross steelbraces (see Clause 4.3).
4.2.2.3 Internal top chord ties for top-hat trusses
Some extremely deep trusses are fabricated in two segments, with a smaller upper truss
sitting piggyback on a lower truncated truss (see Figure 4.2(c)). The horizontal top chord of
the lower truss shall be restrained with top chord ties as specified. The ties shall also be
restrained with diagonally crossed steelbraces (see Clause 4.3).

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Valley truss

Valley truss

See Clause 5.4 for


connection details

Top chord of
supporting truss

Intermediate
top chord ties
as required

(a) Intermediate top chord tie to supporting truss for valley intersection

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Roof battens
Top chord ties
as required

Internal top
chord segment

(b) Internal top chord ties for north-light and similar trusses

R o o f b a t te n s

To p
c h ord ti e s
a s s p e c i fi e d

H o r iz o n t al to p ch o r d

Upper
t ru s s
segment

Lower
t ru s s
segment

(c) Internal top chord ties for top-hat trusses

FIGURE 4.2 INTERMEDIATE TOP CHORD TIES


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4.3 TOP CHORD BRACING


4.3.1 General
The requirement for a top chord bracing system is to transfer forces generated in the top
chord restraints (usually roof battens or purlins) back to the supporting structure. The forces
are generated by resisting buckling of the top chord members, and by wind loading
perpendicular to the span of the trusses.
Bracing systems other than steelbrace, as specified in Clauses 4.3.2 to 4.3.8, such as timber
brace or tension strapping, may be used, provided that they can be shown to transfer the
necessary forces and limit movement of the top chords in an out-of-plane direction. The
material and methods described in Clauses 4.3.2 to 4.3.8 are deemed to satisfy the
requirements.
For complicated truss layouts not covered in this Standard, approved specification shall be
obtained.
4.3.2 Steelbrace
The steelbrace shall be manufactured from structural grade steel and, when installed, shall
not sag more than (distance between support points)/500.

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The steelbrace shall be in accordance with the following specifications:


(a)

Minimum tension capacity of 8.4 kN.

(b)

Minimum corrosion protection equivalent to Z 275 galvanized steel.

(c)

End fixing that provides a minimum tension capacity of 8.4 kN.

(d)

Brace to intermediate truss fixing of minimum tension capacity of 0.70 kN.

(e)

Minimum tension capacity at splice of 7.2 kN. For lap splice (see Figure 4.20(a)), the
splice shall be located not less than 2.5 m from the anchorage point measured along
the steelbrace. (See Figures 4.22 to 4.24 for the definition of anchorage point.)

NOTE: See Appendix F for a typical example of a steelbrace that is deemed to satisfy the
requirements specified in this Clause.

Where tension devices are used to pre-tension the steelbrace, the design of the tension
device shall be such that it does not contribute more than 3.8 mm to the extension of the
bracing system when a 8.4 kN load is applied.
NOTE: Care should be taken when using tension devices, i.e., the steelbrace should not be overtensioned. Flat brace should only be tensioned enough to remove any noticeable sag between
braced members. Where tensioners are used, additional temporary bracing may be required to
prevent the distortion of trusses.

4.3.3 Steelbrace for gable roof


4.3.3.1 General
The type and layout of the top chord steelbrace are related to the truss span, shape and
loading of the roof. The angle from steelbrace to wall frame shall be between 30 and 45.
Bracing bays shall extend from the end trusses of the roof, unless otherwise specified in this
Standard.
The area of the standard truss-overhangs (see Clause 6.1) is not required to be braced.
In Figure 4.3 to Figure 4.18, length (L) and half truss-span (h) are defined as follows:
(a)

Length (L) The length of run of similar trusses with similar support positions.
However, where adjoining sections of the roof have trusses running parallel to the
trusses in the section being considered and where the top chords are in the same
plane, length (L) may be extended into the adjoining section, provided that the trusses
have common support positions (see Figure 4.3).

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(b)

Half-span (h) The horizontal distance from the pitching point to the point at which
the top pitch changes (see Figure 4.3).
L

L

Vertical bracing
see Figure 4.26

Steelbrace

h
Ridge

h

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Bracing angle between 30 and 45


to top plate w hen view ed on plan

FIGURE 4.3 LENGTH (L) AND HALF-SPAN (h)

4.3.3.2 Truss spans up to 8 m


For truss spans up to 8 m, the single steelbrace shall be arranged in a V-shape
configuration. Each truss in the brace section shall be crossed with at least two braces.
The top chord steelbrace shall be arranged according to the following roof lengths:
(a)

Roof length (L) less than half truss-span (h) See Figure 4.4(a).
NOTE: Approved specification is required for freestanding roofs where roof length L < h/2.

(b)

Very short roof Where the roof length (L) is 1 to 1.5 times the half truss-span (h) of
the roof truss, the steelbrace shall be arranged as shown in Figure 4.4(b).

Steelbrace

Ridge

Steelbrace

Ridge

8 m

8 m

(a)

(b)

FIGURE 4.4 STEELBRACE LAYOUT FOR VERY SHORT ROOF


TRUSS SPANS UP TO 8 m
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Short roof Where the roof length (L) is 1.5 to 3.5 times the half truss-span (h) of the
roof truss, the steelbrace shall be arranged as shown in Figure 4.5.

8 m

(c)

24

Ridge

Steelbrace
L

FIGURE 4.5 STEELBRACE LAYOUT FOR SHORT ROOF TRUSS SPANS UP TO 8 m

(d)

Long roof Where the roof length (L) is 3.5 to 4 times the halfpan (h) of the roof
truss, the steelbrace shall be arranged as shown in Figure 4.6.

Ridge

8 m

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S t e e lb r a c e
L

FIGURE 4.6 STEELBRACE LAYOUT FOR LONG ROOF TRUSS SPANS UP TO 8 m


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25

(e)

Very long roof Where the roof length (L) is more than 4 times the half truss-span (h)
of the roof truss, the steelbrace shall be arranged as shown in Figure 4.7.

Steelbrace

Ridge

8 m

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FIGURE 4.7 STEELBRACE LAYOUT FOR VERY LONG ROOF


TRUSS SPANS UP TO 8 m

4.3.3.3 Truss spans of 8 m to 13 m


For truss spans of 8 m to 13 m, a steelbrace in an X-shape configuration shall be used. A
single steelbrace shall be used with the limitation in the overall length, i.e., truss span plus
truss overhangs, of roof trusses as specified in Table 4.1. Each truss in the brace section
shall be crossed with at least four braces.
TABLE 4.1
MAXIMUM TRUSS SPAN (m) FOR SINGLE OR DOUBLE STEELBRACE
Single steelbrace
Wind
classification
Up to N3, C1
Up to N4, C2
C3

Roof pitch
<15
13.0
13.0
12.0

Roof pitch
15 to 20
13.0
13.0
11.0

Roof pitch
20+ to 30
12.5
10.5
8.5

Roof pitch
30+ to 35

Roof pitch
35+ to 45

11.5
9.5
Not suitable

9.5
8.0
Not suitable

Double
steelbrace
13.0
13.0
13.0

For a roof with overall truss length greater than the maximum values specified in Table 4.1
but less than 13.0 m, a double steelbrace shall be used, as shown in Figure 4.8.
Double steelbrace

FIGURE 4.8 DOUBLE STEELBRACE


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The top chord steelbrace for truss spans of 8 m to 13 m shall be arranged according to the
following roof lengths:
(a)

Very short roof Where the roof length (L) is very short compared to the half trussspan (h) of the roof truss such that it would result in a brace angle greater than 45, a
diagonal steelbrace arrangement shall be required each side of the ridge line as shown
in Figure 4.9. Bracing bays shall be spaced across the roof such that the brace angle is
always between 30 and 45.

8 to 13 m

B r a c in g
a n g le

S t e e lb r a c e
L

FIGURE 4.9 STEELBRACE LAYOUT FOR VERY SHORT ROOF TRUSS SPANS 8 m
TO 13 m

(b)

Short roof Where the roof length (L) is 1.5 to 3.5 times the half truss-span (h) of the
roof truss, the steelbrace shall be arranged as shown in Figure 4.10.

8 to 13 m

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Ridge

Ridge

Steelbrace
L

FIGURE 4.10 STEELBRACE LAYOUT FOR SHORT ROOF


TRUSS SPANS 8 m TO 13 m
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Long roof Where the roof length (L) is long compared to the half truss-span (h) of
the roof truss such that it would result in a brace angle less than 30, two or more
crossed bracing bays shall be required each side of the ridgeline to ensure the brace
angle is between 30 and 45 (see Figure 4.11).

8 to 13 m

(c)

Ridge

Steelbrace
L

FIGURE 4.11 STEELBRACE LAYOUT FOR LONG ROOF TRUSS SPANS 8 m TO 13 m

(d)

Very long roof For a very long roof, the steelbrace shall be continued for the length
of building such that each truss is crossed with at least four braces (see Figure 4.12).

Ridge

8 to 13 m

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Steelbrace
L

FIGURE 4.12 STEELBRACE LAYOUT FOR VERY LONG ROOF


TRUSS SPANS 8 m TO 13 m

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4.3.3.4 Truss spans 13 m to 16 m

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For truss spans of 13 m to 16 m, the steelbrace shall be in an X-shape configuration over


the whole roof with an additional braced bay at each end and intermediate braced bays at
maximum 13 000 mm centres, as shown in Figure 4.13.

FIGURE 4.13 STEELBRACE LAYOUT FOR TRUSS SPANS 13 m TO 16 m

Either single or double steelbrace shall be used in accordance with Table 4.2 and
Figure 4.8.
TABLE 4.2
MAXIMUM TRUSS SPAN FOR SINGLE OR DOUBLE STEELBRACE
metres
Wind
classification
Up to N3, C1
Up to N4, C2
C3

Single brace

Double brace

Roof pitch

Roof pitch

<15

15 to 20

<15

15 to 20

20+ to 30

30+ to 35

35+ to 45

16.0
15.5
N/S

16.0
13.0
N/S

16.0
16.0
16.0

16.0
16.0
15.5

16.0
14.5
N/S

16.0
13.5
N/S

13.5
N/S
N/S

LEGEND:
N/S = not suitable

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4.3.4 Steelbrace for hip roof


4.3.4.1 Bracing requirement for standard trusses
For roofs on buildings of rectangular plan with trussed hip ends or Dutch-hip ends, the
steelbrace for standard trusses shall be required between the apex of hip ends only. In such
cases the roof length (L) shall be taken as being the distance between the two intersections
of hip and ridgeline, at each end of the building. One of the criteria from Clauses 4.3.3.2
to 4.3.3.4 shall then be applied as shown in Figure 4.14(a) except where the roof length (L)
of standard trusses is less than the half truss-span (h) of the roof truss, in which case
steelbrace shall be arranged as shown in Figure 4.14(b).

S t e e lb r a c e

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Ridge

(a) Roof length L half-span of the roof truss, h

Steelbrace

Ridge

L
(b) Roof length L < half-span of the roof truss, h

FIGURE 4.14 STEELBRACE LAYOUT FOR STANDARD TRUSSES OF HIP ROOF


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4.3.4.2 Bracing requirement for jack trusses


For standard truss spans of 13 m to 16 m, the single steelbrace for jack trusses shall be
arranged in an X-shape configuration. The angle from steelbrace to end wall shall be
between 30 and 45. The top chord steelbrace for jack trusses shall be arranged in
accordance with the following:
(a)

Where the horizontal top chord length (HTL) is less than the truncated girder station
(TGS), the steelbrace shall be arranged as shown in Figure 4.15.
13 m to 16 m

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7*6

HTL

Steelbrace

FIGURE 4.15 STEELBRACE LAYOUT FOR JACK TRUSS HTL < TGS

(b)

Where the horizontal top chord length (HTL) is 1 to 1.5 times the truncated girder
station (TGS), the steelbrace shall be arranged as shown in Figure 4.16.
13 m to 16 m

TGS

HTL

Steelbrace

FIGURE 4.16 STEELBRACE LAYOUT FOR JACK TRUSS HTL = 1 TO 1.5 TGS
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(c)

Where the horizontal top chord length (HTL) is longer than 1.5 times the truncated
girder station (TGS), the steelbrace shall be arranged as shown in Figure 4.17.
13 m to 16 m

TGS

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HTL

Steelbrace

FIGURE 4.17 STEELBRACE LAYOUT FOR JACK TRUSS HTL > 1.5 TGS

4.3.5 Steelbrace for dual-pitched roof


On dual-pitched or cut-off roofs where the ridgeline is not central on the building, each side
of the ridge shall be considered as a separate case. A steelbrace layout resulting from a
combination of the criteria specified in Clauses 4.3.3.2 to 4.3.3.4 shall apply. Figure 4.18
gives a typical example of a layout.

h1
Ridge

h2

Steelbrace
L

FIGURE 4.18 TYPICAL STEELBRACE LAYOUT FOR DUAL-PITCHED OR CUT-OFF


ROOF

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4.3.6 Steelbrace for bell roof


Bell trusses shall be braced as shown in Figure 4.19. The steelbrace shall be spliced at bell
breaks.
Bell truncated
girder

Standard
bell truss

Steelbrace

Hip truss
or rafter

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Ridge

Refer to Figure 4.20(b)


for splice detail at break

Jack truss or rafter (bracing requirement


for jack trusses in accordance with
Clause 4.3.4.2, not show n for clarity)

FIGURE 4.19 STEELBRACE LAYOUT FOR BELL ROOF

4.3.7 Steelbrace for mono-pitched roof


Where the roof consists of half trusses (mono-pitched roof), the truss span of the half truss
shall be taken as the half truss-span (h), and one of the criteria from Clauses 4.3.3.2
to 4.3.3.4 shall be applied. The apex of the half truss shall be braced to the supporting
structure with diagonal bracing in the vertical plane as specified for half truss fixing for
apex bracing in Clause 4.3.8(g).

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4.3.8 Fixing
The steelbrace shall be arranged in a V-shape or X-shape configuration over the top of the
top chords as specified in the bracing layouts in Clauses 4.3.3 to 4.3.6. Steelbrace shall be
fixed to each truss in the brace section and to the supports, using a minimum of
2.8 mm 30 mm reinforced-head nails in accordance with the following details:
(a)

Typical spliced detail See Figure 4.20.

Top chord

Three nails
through
common
holes in
overlapped
ends
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Two nails to top chord


through each brace

Top
chord

Bend both brace


ends over top
chord and fix
with three nails
to each face of
top chord

Steelbrace

Steelbrace

(a) Lap splice

(b) Wraparound splice

FIGURE 4.20 TYPICAL SPLICE DETAILS

(b)

End fixing details (at apex) See Figure 4.21.

Two nails to
top chord

Two nails
to top chord

Steelbrace

Bend brace over


end-truss top chord
and fix with three nails
to the face of top chord

End-truss of
braced bay

FIGURE 4.21 END FIXING DETAILS AT APEX

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34

End fixing details (at heel, to top plate) See Figures 4.22 and 4.23.

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<45

Bend steelbrace to side


of top plate and under
plate; fix w ith two nails to
side and three nails under
top plate. Nails shall be
not closer than 10 mm
to the edge of the timber

For fixing to
masonry-w all
plate, use similar
details as specified
in Figure 4.27

FIGURE 4.22 END FIXING DETAILS AT HEEL TO TOP PLATE

Two nails to each top chord

Steelbrace
Two nails
to each top
chord

Bend steelbrace
over and fix with
three nails to face
of top chord

Framing anchor,
one to each side
of truss
Framing anchor, one
to each side of truss
For fixing to
masonry-w all
plate, use similar
details as specified
in Figure 4.27

Anchorage
point

Timber block of similar size


to truss top chord fitted tightly
between trusses using two nails
to truss and three nails to top plate

FIGURE 4.23 END FIXING DETAILS AT HEEL TO TOP PLATE (ALTERNATIVE)

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(d)

End fixing details (at heel, to girder truss) See Figure 4.24.
Two nails to top chord
Girder truss

Two nails to
top of truss
and three to
the side

Standard
trusses

Anchorage
point

Girder bracket

FIGURE 4.24 END FIXING DETAILS AT HEEL TO GIRDER TRUSS

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(e)

Fixing details for cantilevers See Figure 4.25.

Timber block of similar


size to truss top chord,
fitted tightly betw een
trusses, using two
nails to fix to each
truss and three
nails to fix to
top late

Steelbrace in plane of bottom chord shall be


extended over sufficient trusses so that the
trusses are adequately tied to the bottom plate

The angle between the steelbrace and


supporting top plate does not exceed 45

Steelbrace continuous
to truss heel
Two nails to
top chord

90 mm x 35 mm F 5 min. timber
block fixed in line with bottom
of bottom chord, fitted tightly
between trusses using framing
anchors as shown

Refer to Figure 4.21


for end-fixing details
(to both ends)

For fixing to masonry-wall


plate, use similar details as
specified in F igure 4.27

FIGURE 4.25 FIXING DETAILS FOR CANTILEVERS


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AS 44402004

(f)

36

Fixing details for cut-off or half trusses See Figure 4.26.

Bend steelbrace over


timber block and fix
with five nails

Timber block of similar size to top


chord fixed to truss at each end with
two nails and one framing anchor

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Bend steelbrace
to side of top
plate and under,
if necessary, and
fix w ith five nails
to side or under
top plate. Nails
shall be not closer
than 10 mm to the
edge of the timber

For fixing to masonry-wall


plate, use similar details as
specified in Figure 4.27

30 bracing angle 45

FIGURE 4.26 FIXING DETAILS FOR CUT-OFF OR HALF TRUSSES

(g)

Fixing details for brick-wall plate See Figure 4.27.

S t e e lb r a c e f ix e d
w i th tw o n a il s

F r a m in g a n c h o r
each side
F ix w it h f iv e
n a il s t o s i de
o f w a l l pl a te
a n d t im b e r
b lo c k

M i n . 3 5 m m t h ic k
w a l l p la t e ( re f e r
t o A S 1 6 8 4 .2 o r
A S 1 6 8 4 .3 fo r
f ix in g o f w a ll p l a te
t o b r ic k w o r k)
C u t -o ff o r
h a lf t r u ss e s
M i n . 4 5 m m t h ic k
t im b e r b l o c k f it te d
t ig h t ly b e t w e e n
t ru s s e s a n d n a ile d
d o w n to to p pl a te

Masonry

FIGURE 4.27 FIXING DETAILS FOR BRICK-WALL PLATE


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AS 44402004

37

4.4 BOTTOM CHORD BRACING


4.4.1 General
Permanent bottom chord bracing shall be required to restrain truss bottom chords against
lateral buckling. Provisions in Clauses 4.4.2.1 to 4.4.2.3 are deemed to comply.
4.4.2 Bottom chord lateral restraints
4.4.2.1 Battened ceiling
Where battens are fixed directly to the bottom chords of the trusses with nails or screws,
these battens provide the required bottom chord lateral restraints. Metal furring channels
clipped to trusses, which allow horizontal movement, shall require additional bottom chord
lateral restraints as for suspended ceilings.
Batten sizes shall comply with the approved specifications. Batten spacing shall not exceed
that specified by the approved specifications for ceiling support and bottom chord restraint
centres.
4.4.2.2 Suspended or no ceilings

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For suspended ceilings, or exposed bottom chords, or where ceiling battens do not provide
lateral restraint to bottom chords, for example, metal furring channels clipped to trusses that
allow horizontal movements, the size and spacing of separate bottom chord ties shall
comply with the approved specifications.
Where bottom chord ties are required, they shall be braced or fixed to a building element
such as supporting walls, which in turn can transfer these bracing loads to the structure.
Steelbrace shall be used for fixing top of truss bottom chords to brace lateral ties to
sidewalls. Steelbrace shall be at approximately 45 to wall top plates (see Figure 4.28), and
shall be fixed to each truss and to the wall in the same manner as for top chord brace
fixing.
NOTES:
1

Bottom chord ties are not intended to replace the binders required to support the end wall.

Bottom chord ties and bracing details are intended only to laterally restrain (i.e., to stop from
buckling) truss bottom chords and do not provide lateral stability to the building to resist
lateral wind loads.
Span/2

Span/2

St e e lb r a c e

Span

B o t to m
c h o rd ti e s

FIGURE 4.28 TYPICAL BOTTOM CHORD TIES BRACING LAYOUT

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AS 44402004

38

4.4.2.3 Bottom chord ties for construction


Where bottom chord ties are not required as specified in Clauses 4.4.2.1 and 4.4.2.2, for
example, where the ceiling is fixed directly to the bottom chord, for the purpose of
construction, the following bottom chord ties shall be installed, unless another tie
configuration is approved by the regulatory authority:
(a)

Spacing ..................................................................................... 4000 mm maximum.

(b)

Fixing .............. Fixed to each truss bottom chord with a minimum of one 65 mm nail.

NOTE: Bottom chord ties are neither intended to replace the binders required to support the end
wall, nor designed to be a trafficable platform. They are intended for the purposes of locating
trusses in their proper alignment (see Appendix C).

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4.5 WEB BRACING


Where truss designs require bracing to be applied to webs, this can be achieved by the use
of longitudinal ties, T-stiffeners or other supplementary members. Where longitudinal ties
are used, they shall be a minimum of 70 mm 35 mm F5, or as specified in the design
specifications. The web ties shall be fixed to the web of each truss at even spacing of the
web with two 65 mm long nails and braced to the truss with one bay of crossed steelbrace at
each end and an intermediate bay at 10 m centres. Web ties shall be continuous or, where
required, spliced by lapping over at least two adjacent trusses. Figure 4.29 shows typical
web tie bracing and fixing details.

Tw o n a ils to w e b o f e a c h
in t e r se c t io n a n d t ru s s

B r a c e s to c ro s s
a t m i d -l e n g th to
m a t c h t ie

B e n d st e e lb r a c e
o v e r c h o rd a n d
f ix w it h fi v e n a i ls
t o f ac e o f c h o rd .
Ty p ic a l b o t h e n d s
o f b r a ce

W e b t ie , a s sp e c i fi e d ,
f ix e d t o e a c h tr u s s
w e b a t e ve n s p a c in g
w i th tw o 6 5 m m n a i ls

A n g l e o f b r a ce
t o w e b ti e s s h a ll
be between 30
and 45

FIGURE 4.29 TYPICAL WEB TIE BRACING AND FIXING DETAILS

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AS 44402004

39

S E C T I ON

T RU SS

CON N E CT I O N

5.1 GENERAL
This Section specifies the minimum requirements for truss-to-truss connections. At least
two 2.5 mm nails, with a penetration of 10 times of nail diameter into supporting member,
shall be used to connect each member.
NOTES:
1 Connection details specified in this Section are also applicable for use in conjunction with
non-trussed hip-end components.
2 Nailing details in this Standard may be substituted by screws with equivalent capacity (see
Clause 1.8).
3 Where hip end is constructed in a manner other than that shown in this Section, maximum
truncated truss station may be read as maximum jack span.

5.2 HIP ENDS

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5.2.1 Hip-end connection for low wind area (wind classification N1, N2, N3, OR C1)
Connection of jack, or creeper, and hip trusses at a hip-end roof for wind classification N1,
N2, N3, or C1 shall be in accordance with the details shown and described in Figures 5.1
and 5.2. These details are suitable for a maximum truncated girder station of 3600 mm.
The fixing requirements for hip ends in this Clause are based on the design criteria that are
governed by dead loads.
D e t a il A 1 o r E 1
D e t a il D 1 o r E 1

D e t a il C 1

D e t a il B 1

De t a il A 1 o r B 1

NOTES:
1 For effective skew nailing, the nail shall be driven into one member not closer than 25 mm to, nor more than 38 mm
from, he arris in contact with the adjacent member. The nail shall be driven at an angle between 30 and 45 to the
face into which the nail is driven.
2 Where nails are smaller than the nominated size or other than plain shank nails, or machine driven, or both, their
performance shall not be inferior to the nail sizes given.
3 Roof battens or purlins and ceiling battens shall be fixed to trusses in accordance with the approved specification.
4 Hip-end connection for wind classification N4 is similar to that for C2 (see Clause 5.2.2)

FIGURE 5.1 TYPICAL FULLY TRUSSED HIP-END CONNECTION FOR


WIND CLASSIFICATION N1, N2, N3, OR C1

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AS 44402004

40

Detail

Description

A1

Hip truss to truncated girder truss

Connection details
Hi p T C

TS o r TG H TC

Top chord one framing anchor bent


to suit, with 4/2.8 mm 30 mm
reinforced-head nails into the side of
each top chord for truncated girder

Hi p TC
TG BC

Bottom chord three effective flathead 65 mm nails

TG B C

H i p BC

B1

Jack truss to truncated girder


truss

Jack TC

Hi p B C

TG HTC

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Top chord one framing anchor bent


to suit, with 4/2.8 mm 30 mm
reinforced-head nails into the side of
each top chord for truncated girder

TG BC

NOTE: For wind classification up


to N2, tile roofs, truncated girder
with truss spans up to 8000 mm
and station up to 2400 mm,
detail C1 may be used.

Jack BC

Bottom chord three effective flathead 65 mm nails each side of jack


truss

TG BC
TG BC

C1

Extended jack or hip truss top


chord to truncated standard
trusses

Jack BC

Jack TC
TS HTC

Two 65 mm skew nails into the side


of each top chord

FIGURE 5.2 (in part) CONNECTION DETAILS HIP-END TRUSSES FOR


WIND CLASSIFICATION N1, N2, N3 OR C1

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AS 44402004

41

Detail
D1

Description

Connection details

Creeper TC

Creeper or jack truss to hip truss


(maximum creeper/jack station
1800 mm)
Top chord three effective flat-head
65 mm nails through jack truss top
chord into hip truss top chord

Web

Hip TC
Creeper TC
Creeper BC

Bottom chord three effective flathead 65 mm nails through jack truss


bottom chord to hip truss bottom
chord

Hip BC
Creeper BC

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E1

Creeper TC

Creeper or jack truss to hip truss


(maximum creeper/jack station
3000 mm)
Top chord fix as detail D1 plus one
mitre plate with 6/2.8 mm 30 mm
reinforced-head nails to each top
chord

Web

Hip TC
Creeper TC
Creeper BC

Bottom chord three effective flathead 65 mm nails through jack truss


bottom chord to hip truss bottom
chord

Hip BC
Creeper BC

FIGURE 5.2 (in part) CONNECTION DETAILS HIP-END TRUSSES FOR


WIND CLASSIFICATION N1, N2, N3 OR C1

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AS 44402004

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5.2.2 Hip-end connection for high wind area (wind classification N4, C2 or C3)
Connection of jack and hip trusses at a hip end roof for wind classification N4, C2 or C3
shall be in accordance with the details shown and described in Figures 5.3 and 5.4. These
details are suitable for a maximum truncated girder station of 3600 mm.

D e t a il A 2

D e t a il C2

D e t a il D 2

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D e t a il E 2 or F 2

D e t a il B 2

NOTES:
1

For effective skew nailing, the nail shall be driven into one member not closer than 25 mm to, nor more than 38 mm
from, the arris in contact with the adjacent member. The nail shall be driven at an angle between 30 and 45 to the
face into which it is driven.

Where nails are smaller than the nominated size or other than plain shank nails, or machine driven, or both, their
performance shall not be inferior to the nail sizes given.

Roof battens or purlins and ceiling battens shall be fixed to trusses in accordance with the approved specification.

Where framing anchors or G.I. straps are specified, they shall be fixed in accordance with the approved
specifications.

5
6

Jack trusses are assumed to be supported on the horizontal top chord of the truncated girder.
Hip-end connection for wind classification C1 is similar to that for N3 (see Clause 5.2.1)

FIGURE 5.3 TYPICAL FULLY TRUSSED HIP-END CONNECTION FOR


WIND CLASSIFICATION N4, C2, OR C3

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AS 44402004

43

Detail
A2

Description

Connection details

Hip truss to truncated girder truss


Top chord 1/30 mm 0.8 mm G.I. looped strap
with 4/2.8 mm 30 mm reinforced-head nails to
each leg

Hip TC

TG HTC
Jack TC
TG BC
Bottom chord use one mitre plate with
6/2.8 mm nails into each face

Hip BC

Jack BC
(see detail B2)

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B2

Jack truss to truncated girder truss

Jack TC

Top chord
(a)

Station up to 2400 mm one framing anchor


with 4/2.8 mm 30 mm reinforced-head
nails into the side of each top chord

TG HTC
Jack TC
(b)

Station 2450 mm to 3600 mm


1/30 mm 0.8 mm G.I. looped strap bent
under the horizontal top chord, fixed with
4/2.8 mm 30 mm reinforced-head nails to
each leg

TG HTC
Bottom chord one framing anchor with
4/2.8 mm 30 mm reinforced-head nails into the
side of each bottom chord

TG BC

Jack BC

FIGURE 5.4 (in part) CONNECTION DETAILS HIP-END TRUSSES FOR


WIND CLASSIFICATION N4, C2, OR C3

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AS 44402004

44

Detail
C2

Description

Connection details

Intersection of jack and hip trusses to


truncated standard trusses

Hip TC

Jack top chord to hip top chord one mitre plate


with 6/2.8 mm 30 mm reinforced-head nails
into each face
Jack top chord to truncated standard horizontal
top chord one framing anchor with 4/2.8 mm
30 mm reinforced-head nails into the side of each
top chord
D2

Jack TC

Extended jack truss top chord to truncated


standard trusses

TS HTC

Jack TC

One framing anchor with 4/2.8 mm 30 mm


reinforced-head nails into the side of each top
chord

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TS HTC

E2

Creeper truss to hip truss (maximum jack


station 2400 mm)
Top chord one mitre plate with 6/2.8 mm
30 mm reinforced-head nails into each face

Hip TC
Creeper TC

Bottom chord one mitre plate with 6/2.8 mm


30 mm reinforced-head nails into each face

Hip BC
Creeper BC
F2

Creeper truss to hip truss (maximum jack


station 3000 mm)
Top chord 1/30 mm 0.8 mm G.I. looped strap
with 4/2.8 mm 30 mm reinforced-head nails to
each leg and one mitre plate with 6/2.8 mm
30 mm reinforced-head nails into each face

Hip TC
Creeper TC
Creeper TC

Bottom chord see detail E2

Hip TC

FIGURE 5.4 (in part) CONNECTION DETAILS HIP-END TRUSSES FOR


WIND CLASSIFICATION N4, C2, OR C3
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AS 44402004

45

5.3 GIRDER TRUSSES


5.3.1 Girder brackets (truss boots)
5.3.1.1 General
Where girder brackets (also called truss boots) are used for the connection of a truss to a
girder truss or between the girder trusses, the appropriate girder brackets shall be indicated
on the truss layout.
The girder brackets shall be designated as follows:
(a)

Framing bracket (joist hanger) .......................................................... Clause 5.3.1.2.

(b)

Standard truss boot ........................................................................... Clause 5.3.1.3.

(c)

Anti-twist truss boot ......................................................................... Clause 5.3.1.4.

(d)

High-load truss boot ......................................................................... Clause 5.3.1.5.

To accommodate the bolts for the truss boot, the bottom chord size of the girder truss shall
be in accordance with the approved specifications.
The fixing of girder brackets to the trusses shall be in accordance with the approved
specifications. The specifications in Clauses 5.3.1.2 to 5.3.1.5 are also deemed satisfactory.

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Special attention shall be given to the use of the correct bolts and washers in accordance
with the approved specifications.
NOTE: Care should be taken to minimize interference of the girder brackets with ceiling material.

5.3.1.2 Framing bracket (joist hanger)


The framing bracket (also known as joist hanger) may be used to support standard trusses
with a small truss span, such as half trusses, jack or creeper trusses. It shall be fixed to both
supporting and supported trusses with nailing in accordance with the approved
specifications.
NOTE: An example for fixing detail of framing bracket (joist hanger) is given in Appendix G.

5.3.1.3 Standard truss boot


A standard truss boot is designed to support standard and truncated standard trusses. The
fixing details shall be in accordance with the approved specifications.
To prevent long-term twist of the girder bottom chord and the distortion of the truss system,
an anti-twist bracing shall be used.
NOTE: A typical detail of a standard truss boot with anti-twist bracing is given in Appendix G.

5.3.1.4 Anti-twist truss boot


An anti-twist truss boot is designed to support standard and truncated standard trusses as
well as small girder trusses. It shall be connected to the girder truss and the supported truss
in accordance with the approved specifications.
NOTES:
1 Nails may also be required to locate the bracket on the girder truss prior to bolting.
2 An example of the fixing detail of an anti-twist truss boot is given in Appendix G.

No additional bracing is required for girder truss bottom chord with anti-twist truss boot.
5.3.1.5 High-load truss boot
A high-load truss boot is usually a welded bracket designed to support heavy loading from
large standard and truncated standard trusses, as well as girder and truncated girder trusses.
It shall be connected to both supporting and supported trusses in accordance with the
approved specifications.
NOTE: An example for fixing detail of high-load truss boot is given in Appendix G.

No anti-twist bracing is required for girder truss bottom chord with high-load truss boot.
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5.3.2 Waling plates for Dutch-hip girder


A waling plate shall be fixed to every intersection of top chords and webs of the supporting
truss. The fixing and connection details of supported trusses to the waling plate shall be in
accordance with the approved specifications (see Figure 5.5).
NOTES:
1

It may be necessary to increase the depth of the truss chord or web to accommodate nails or
bolts.

It is recommended that the waling plate is fixed to the Dutch-hip girder during truss
fabrication.

Refer to truss designer's


specifications for fixing
details

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Waling plate

FIGURE 5.5 DUTCH-HIP GIRDER FITTED WITH WALING PLATE

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AS 44402004

47

5.4 VALLEY (SADDLE) TRUSSES


5.4.1 Valley truss connection for wind classification N1, N2, N3 or C1
Connection of valley trusses to the supporting truss for wind classification N1, N2, N3 or
C1 shall be in accordance with the details shown and described in Figure 5.6 (see also
Clause 4.2.2).
Description
Roof pitch 15 one
effective 65 mm nail
driven through bottom
chord of valley truss into
top chord of supporting
truss at each intersection
of the trusses

Connection details

Where truss spacing is greater than roof batten


centres, intermediate TC steel-brace ties shall
be required to overlap the existing battens
One effective
65 mm skew
nail driven
through valley
truss BC into
supporting
truss TC

Valley truss

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Supporting
truss top
chord

Roof pitch >15 one


effective 65 mm skew nail
driven through bottom
chord of valley truss into
top chord of supporting
truss at each intersection
of the trusses, plus
1/35 mm 45 mm min.
timber ledger or block
nailed to supporting truss
top chord with one 65 mm
nail, or one framing
anchor without timber
ledger

Where truss spacing is greater than


roof batten centres, intermediate TC
steel-brace ties shall be required to
overlap the existing battens
Valley truss
Valley
truss
35 mm x 45 mm
timber ledge or
block fixed to
top chord
Supporting
truss top
chord
Alternatively,
one framing
anchor without
timber ledge

Block infill (minimum of


70 mm 35 mm) to
where the valley truss is
cantilevered more than
450 mm or where the
valley truss is not
supported by two truss
top chords, fixed to the
valley truss bottom chord
with 2/65 mm nails, and
to each end to supporting
truss top chord with
2/65 mm nails

One effective 65 mm skew nail


driven through valley truss BC
into supporting truss TC
>450 mm

Supporting
truss top
chord

Valley truss

65 mm
nails

65 mm nails

Block infill

FIGURE 5.6 VALLEY TRUSS CONNECTION FOR WIND CLASSIFICATION


N1, N2, N3 OR C1
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5.4.2 Valley truss connection for wind classification N4, C2, OR C3


Connection of valley trusses to the supporting truss for wind classification N4, C2, OR C3
shall be in accordance with the details shown and described in Figure 5.7 (see also
Clause 4.2.2).
Description
Supporting trusses with a
ceiling one framing
anchor with
4/2.8 mm 30 mm
reinforced-head nails to
each face

Connection details

Where truss spacing is greater than roof


batten centres, intermediate TC ties shall
be required to overlap the existing battens
Va l le y tr u s s

Va l le y tr u s s

S u p p o r ti n g
t ru s s t o p c h o r d

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O n e fr a m i n g a n c h o r w i th
4 / 2 . 8 m m n a i ls to e ac h fa c e

Supporting trusses
without a ceiling two
framing anchors with
4/2.8 mm 30 mm
reinforced-head nails to
each face

Where truss spacing is greater than roof


batten centres, intermediate TC ties shall
be required to overlap the existing battens

Valley truss
Valley truss

Supporting
truss top chord
Two framing anchors with
4/ 2.8 mm nails to each face

Block infill (minimum of


70 mm 35 mm) to
where the valley truss is
cantilevered more than
450 mm or where the
valley truss is not
supported by two truss
top chords, fixed to the
valley truss bottom chord
with 2/65 mm nails, and
to each end of supporting
truss top chord with
2/65 mm nails

S u p p o r ti n g t ru s s
t o p c h o rd

>450 mm
Va l le y tr u s s
6 5 m m n a ils

6 5 m m n a ils

B l o ck in f il l

F r a m in g
anchor

FIGURE 5.7 VALLEY TRUSS CONNECTION FOR WIND CLASSIFICATION


N4, C2, OR C3
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AS 44402004

49

SECT ION

TRUSS

OVERHANGS

6.1 STANDARD TRUSS-OVERHANGS


6.1.1 General
The conditions for the truss overhangs on the standard trusses shall be clearly shown on the
drawings and built in accordance with the engineering specifications. There are generally
two types of standard truss-overhangs, i.e., raking-eaves overhangs and boxed-eaves
overhangs (see Figure 6.1).
NOTE: Truss overhang should not support other structures, e.g., carport roof, pergola, protective
handrails, and the like, without prior approval.

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Dropper

E a ve s l e d g e r

(a) Raking-eaves overhang

(b) Boxed-eaves overhang

FIGURE 6.1 STANDARDS TRUSS-OVERHANGS NON-PROPPED

6.1.2 Raking eaves in hip corner


The fascia running up to the corner of a hip-end roof shall be designed to carry the small
loads from the end creeper rafters or trusses. In such a case, a structural member or similar
member, i.e., the fascia itself or a combination of member and fascia, shall be used.
NOTE: The size and details of the structural fascia should be in accordance with the approved
specifications.

6.1.3 Boxed eaves


6.1.3.1 Propped boxed eaves
Where the eaves trimmer is attached to the end of each top chord and to either a stud or
ribbon plate at the wall, the truss overhang shall then be regarded as being propped, and a
structural fascia is not required (see Figure 6.2).
6.1.3.2 Non-propped boxed eaves
The truss overhang shall not be regarded as being propped where, for instance
(a)

the eaves trimmer, as specified in Figure 6.2(a), is omitted; or

(b)

with brickwork, a dropper is used outside the brick to support the eaves trimmer
(see Figure 6.1(b)).

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Stiffener, if required
Equal
Eaves trimmer

Equal

Propping
effect
on stud w all
requires
checking

Ledger plate

Ledger
plate

Eaves trimmer lifted to


prop overhang midway

(a) Truss pitch >18

(b) Truss pitch <18

NOTE: The above details should be used in accordance with approved specification.

FIGURE 6.2 STANDARDS TRUSS-OVERHANGS PROPPED

6.2 GABLE VERGE


6.2.1 Gable-end truss

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6.2.1.1 General
A gable-end truss may either sit on the end wall (i.e., be supported in full length by the top
plate) or be free spanning. These two supporting conditions will significantly affect the
design of a gable-end truss, and thus the supporting condition shall be confirmed prior to
the design.
The arrangement and fixing of a gable-end truss shall be in accordance with one of the
methods described in Clauses 6.2.1.2 and 6.2.1.3, and shown in Figures 6.3 and 6.4.
NOTE: Gable-end studs should be of sufficient size and grade to resist all roof dead, live and
wind loads on gable end. The studs should be spaced at centres to provide adequate grid to fix
brickwork or cladding.

6.2.1.2 Gable-end truss sitting on or supported by the end wall


Where a gable-end truss is designed to be supported by the end wall, either the truss is
sitting on the end wall or is set flush with the inside of end wall, the fixing details shown in
Figure 6.3 shall be required, as appropriate.
NOTE: Where gable-end studs are designed to support the gable overhang, the fabricator should
advise the builder that the gable-end studs are required to be installed for this purpose.
Gable-end truss

Gable-end
stud

Gable-end
stud

Gable-end truss

Ribbon plate or blocks


at panel points, fixed to
truss in accordance with
approved specification

Ribbon plate or blocks


at panel points, fixed to
truss in accordance with
approved specification

Loadbearing
end w all

Loadbearing
end w all

(a) Gable-end truss sitting inside of end wall

(b) Gable-end truss set flush with inside of end


wall, with supporting blocks

FIGURE 6.3 GABLE-END TRUSS SUPPORTED BY END WALL

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51

6.2.1.3 Gable-end truss, free spanning


Where a gable-end truss is located at the end wall and is designed to be free spanning, the
truss shall be installed for one of the following design conditions:
(a)

Where the verge outriggers or purlins are not propped from the end wall, the gableend truss shall be designed to carry the load of the verge overhangs as well as the
normal spacing load (see Figure 6.4(a)).

(b)

Where the verge outriggers or purlins are supported by the gable-end studs, a standard
truss may be used as the gable-end truss (see Figure 6.4(b)).

G ab l e -e n d tr u s s
( fr ee s p a n n i n g )

G a b l e -e n d tr u s s
( fr e e sp a n n i n g )

G a b l e -e nd s tu d
( s u p p o rtin g ve r g e
o ve r h a ng )

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N on - lo a d b e a r in g
e n d w a ll

(a) Verge overhang supported


by gable-end truss

L o a d b e ar in g en d w a l l

(b) Verge overhang supported


by gable-end studs

FIGURE 6.4 GABLE-END TRUSS FREE SPANNIG

To form the verge overhang, a gable-end truss shall be either a raking truss (also called setdown or cut-down truss) having the top chords set-down to allow for outriggers or extended
purlins to cross over, or a truss of the normal height with Z-sprockets (see Clause 6.2.2 and
Figure 6.5).
6.2.2 Verge overhang
The size and grade of the verge overhang shall be in accordance with the approved
specifications. Typical verge overhang details are given in Figure 6.5.

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Max. 300 mm

Gable-end
truss

Roof batten

Non-structural block
for fixing bargeboard
Standard truss

Gable-end stud
(if applicable)

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(a) Small verge overhang

R o o f b a t te n
B a r g e r a ft e r
R a k i n g tr u s s s o lo c a te d
t h a t g a b l e - e nd s tu d is
s it ti n g o n s tu d en d w a l l

O u t -r i g g er

S t a n d a rd tr u s s
G a b l e -e n d s tu d
( if a p p li c a b le )

(b) Outrigger supported by raking truss

Nailplate

Roof batten

Z-sprocket fixed to
truss top chord with
framing anchor

Barge rafter

Z-sprocket

End truss so located


that gable-end stud is
sitting on stud end wall
Standard truss

Gable-end stud
(if applicable)

(c) Verge overhang formed with Z-sprockets

FIGURE 6.5 TYPICAL VERGE OVERHANG DETAILS


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6.3 BOXED GABLE ENDS


Boxed gable ends have a truss suspended at the end of the gable overhang to provide a
fixing framework for the gable-end lining. The last truss is either a standard truss or a
special truss with vertical webs only. In either case, it is not usually regarded as a true truss,
but is primarily just framework acting in the same way as valley trusses. The bottom chord
of this truss is commonly dropped to line up with the fascia of the common trusses.
The outriggers size and location, fixing details, and any additional requirements to install
supplementary bracing shall be in accordance with the approved specifications.
NOTES:
1
2

The outriggers may be substantial members located at the heel and apex only, or may be
smaller members regularly spaced along the truss chords.
The following alternative forms of support may be used:
(a)

Lintels may be extended out from the main walls to support the boxed gable-end truss
at the heels.

(b)

The lower outriggers may be formed by running approximately sized bottom chord ties
out to the boxed gable-end truss.

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Typical installation details are shown in Figure 6.6.

Upper outrigger
Optional brace(s),
refer to approved
specification

Standard truss

Waling plate
Lower outrigger
Box gable
end truss

Fixings, refer to
approved specification

FIGURE 6.6 TYPICAL INSTALLATION OF BOXED GABLE END

6.4 VERANDAHS
Verandahs shall be formed either by extending the truss overhang or by the addition of
separate rafters. If the truss overhang is intended to be used to form the verandah, adequate
support shall be provided to the end of the truss overhang, as specified in the design.
6.5 PERGOLAS
Pergola rafters shall not be attached to the ends of truss overhangs without specific design,
unless the reaction load transmitted by the rafter is taken by some means such as proper
propping back to the wall (see Figure 6.2).

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AS 44402004

54

APPENDIX A

DOCUMENTATION AT APPROVAL STAGE AND ON DELIVERY


(Informative)
A1 INTRODUCTION
This Appendix sets out the minimum information on nailplated timber trusses that should be
available at the building application approval stage, as described in Paragraph A2, and at
the time of delivery of trusses, as described in Paragraph A3. Paragraph A4 recommends a
check list at building application stage. It is also recommended as a check list for the
recipient to use when trusses are delivered on site.
A2 APPROVAL STAGE

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The following minimum information should be available at the approval stage:


(a)

Truss layout.

(b)

Design criteria.

(c)

Reactions and fixings.

(d)

Special loads including, but not limited to, airconditioning units, cooling/heating
units, hot water units, special lighting, operable walls and lifting devices.

(e)

Special conditions, e.g., corrosive environment such as exposure to swimming pool.

NOTE: For jack trusses with a span less than 3600 mm, creeper rafter and valley trusses,
Items (b) and (c) may be omitted.

A3 DELIVERY
The following information should be provided at the time of delivery:
(a)

Truss layout, including bracing details.

(b)

Design criteria.

(c)

Support locations and fixings.

(d)

Details of any special bracing requirements.

NOTE: For jack trusses with a span less than 3600 mm, creeper rafter and valley trusses,
Items (b) and (c) may be omitted.

Truss configuration and design member and nailplate details should be available on request
at the time of delivery.
A4 CHECK LIST
The following information should be provided in the check list for approval:
(a)

Name and address of the truss supplier.

(b)

Name and address of the client.

(c)

Site address.

(d)

Design criteria of the project.

(e)

Roof or truss layout with reactions for typical trusses such as standard trusses,
truncated girder trusses, hip trusses and girder trusses.

(f)

Date of submission (or delivery).

(g)

Roof layout (with fixing details) received.

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A recommended check list is shown in Figure A1.

Check list for certifier to check at building application stage


Check list for recipient to check at delivery on site
Truss supplier:
Client name:
Client address:

Site address:

Roof layout, with/without fixing details, received: Yes/No

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Date:
Design criteria

Unit

Roofing or flooring

Material or kg/m

Top chord restraint spacing

mm

Ceiling

Material or kg/m
Material or kg/m
Ceiling batten or direct

Bottom chord design restraint spacing

Specified

Accepted

2
2

Batten or direct
mm

Wind classification (N1 to N4, C1 to C3)


Internal pressure coefficient

(Cpi ) = 0.2 or 0.7

Truss spacing

mm

Roof pitch

degrees
degrees

Bottom chord pitch

degrees

Truss overhang

mm

Propped by eaves sprocket

Yes/No

Structural fascia

Yes/No

Special loads:

Water tank

Litres or kg

Solar system

Litres or kg

Airconditioning

kg

Others

kg

Special conditions (e.g., exposure to swimming pool)

The above criteria for roof/floor trusses supplied/submitted for approval have been
checked and accepted by:
Name:

Signature:
FIGURE A1 EXAMPLE OF CHECK LIST FOR APPROVAL

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AS 44402004

56

APPENDIX B

RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR TRUSS INSTALLATION


(Informative)
B1 INTRODUCTION
This Appendix provides some recommended practices for the installation of nailplated
timber trusses.
B2 CAMBERS
Trusses are built with cambers to allow for the initial deflection at the take up of load and
some creep (i.e., long-term deflection) as the timber settles. Thus, packing to the underside
of a truss over a non-loadbearing wall may stop these deflections and in turn support the
truss in an incorrect position.
A truss carrying a large load, such as a girder truss, may require more camber than a
standard truss.

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B3 FIXING OF CORNICE
Trusses settle in varying amounts during the period following full dead loading due to the
effect of creep. With seasoned timber this takes up to a year to be fully realized, but in most
instances settlement occurs within three to six months. To accommodate this settlement, the
best practice is to fix the cornice to the ceiling alone, and to leave it free at the walls.
Shadow-line cornices are suitable for this detail.
It is recognized that common practice is to fix the cornice to the walls as well as to the
ceiling. This practice is acceptable without further consideration, provided that the camber
at the location of the internal wall bracket is nominal, and seasoned timber is used in the
truss.
The most critical circumstance is where a girder truss crosses a wall. If the cornice is fixed
at this location and the truss camber is significant, then localized crushing and the attendant
deformation of the cornice can be expected.
B4 BEARING WIDTH
The minimum bearing width for timber trusses should be 70 mm. For bearing widths less
than 70 mm, confirmation from the truss engineer should be sought.

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APPENDIX C

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR TEMPORARY BRACING


(Informative)
C1 GENERAL
This Appendix provides temporary bracing details recommended for gable, hip and Dutchhip end roof trusses.

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The first truss should be erected correctly, straight and vertical, and temporarily braced in
position as described in Paragraphs C2 or C3, as appropriate. Each successive truss should
then be spaced using a gauging rod (see Figure C1) and fixed back to the first truss with
temporary ties to top chord at a maximum spacing of 3000 mm, and to bottom chord at a
maximum spacing of 4000 mm.

Tie

Gauging rod
(see Detail A)

)LUVWW UXVV
Locate and space
each truss using
gauging rod

Gauging rod

Truss spacing

Nails

DETAIL A

FIGURE C1 EXAMPLE OF GAUGING ROD

Temporary ties should be made in accordance with Table C1. Ties should be fixed to each
truss with a minimum of one 65 mm nail.
Steelbrace is not acceptable for temporary bracing.
TABLE C1
SIZE OF TEMPORARY TIES
Truss spacing
Up to 900 mm
Over 900, up to 1200 mm

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To top chord

To bottom chord

25 50 F5 or 35 45 F5

35 70 F5

35 70 F5

35 70 F5

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C2 HIP OR DUTCH-HIP END ROOF


Temporary bracing for a hip or Dutch-hip end roof is achieved by erecting and fixing the
truncated girder, or Dutch-hip girder, truss in the correct position to the top plates, and
bracing the girder truss back to the corner of the building as shown in Figure C2.

Tie
Tie
Brace

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Brace

Top plate

Brace

FIGURE C2 TEMPORARY BRACING FOR HIP OR DUTCH-HIP END ROOF

C3 GABLE-END ROOF
Temporary bracing for a gable-end roof is achieved by erecting and fixing the first truss to
top plates at one end of the roof and bracing the truss to a rigid element, e.g., a wall or the
ground, as shown in Figures C3 and C4.

Temporary longitudinal
ties to the top of top
chords at maximum
spacing of 3000 mm

Trusses

First truss

Wall frame

Gable-end wall

FIGURE C3 TEMPORARY BRACING FOR GABLE-END ROOF


METHOD 1 POST WALL FRAME
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Temporary longitudinal ties to the top


of truss top chord at 3000 mm max.

First truss
Trusses
Solid prop fixed
to ground at tie
location
Wall
frame

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Gable-end
wall

FIGURE C4 TEMPORARY BRACING FOR GABLE-END ROOF


METHOD 2 PROP TO GROUND

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APPENDIX D

INTERMEDIATE CEILING JOISTS AND HANGERS


(Informative)
D1 GENERAL
This Appendix provides detailed recommendations for the fixing of intermediate ceiling
joists and hangers as part of the roof truss system. Intermediate ceiling joists and hangers
may be required where the ceiling material is to be fixed directly to the truss bottom chord
(see Figure D1).
The hangers should be located within 300 mm from every bottom chord panel point of the
supporting trusses.
D2 SIZE
The size of intermediate ceiling joists and hangers should comply with the approved
specifications.

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D3 CONNECTION
The connection of the hanger to the intermediate ceiling joist should be made with a metal
connector suitable for the purpose, or a timber block fixed with two 65 mm nails to each
member.
The hangers should be fixed to the truss bottom chord as follows:
(a)

In wind classification lower than C3, use two 65 mm skew nails, or equivalent.

(b)

In cyclonic areas, use one framing anchor or equivalent.


Connection
see AS 1684

Connection see
Paragraph D1

Truss
bottom
chord

Hanger
Intermediate
ceiling joist

Truss bottom chord

FIGURE D1 INTERMEDIATE CEILING JOISTS AND HANGERS

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APPENDIX E

TRANSPORT, STORAGE, LIFTING AND HANDLING OF TRUSSES


(Informative)
E1 GENERAL
This Appendix provides recommendations for the transport, storage, lifting and handling of
timber nailplated trusses.
E2 TRANSPORT
Trusses should be fully supported when being transported in either a horizontal or vertical
situation. No excess stress from the tie-down straps or bracing should be placed on any part
of the truss. Where necessary, right-angle protectors should be used to avoid damage.
E3 STORAGE

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Trusses should be stored on relatively smooth ground. Care should be taken so as not to
allow excessive bending of trusses to occur.
When trusses are stored on site, they should be blocked above the ground to protect them
from ground water as follows:
(a)

If the trusses are stored horizontally, the blocking should be at 2.0 m to 2.5 m centres,
or as required, to prevent bending of the trusses.

(b)

If the trusses are stored vertically, they should be supported at the designed support
locations or bottom chord panel points, and in a manner that will prevent tipping or
toppling. This is an important precaution to take to prevent personal injury.

Stored trusses should be protected from the elements in a manner that provides adequate
ventilation of the trusses. If tarpaulins or other similar materials are used, the ends should
be left open for ventilation.
E4 LIFTING AND HANDLING
Throughout all phases of installation, care should be taken to avoid excessive sagging of
trusses, which can cause joint and timber damage.
Where possible, trusses shall be lifted in a vertical position. Spreader bars with attachments
to the panel points should be used where the truss span exceeds 9.0 m. Trusses should not
be lifted by the apex joint only.
In general, trusses should be slung from the top chord panel points as shown in Figures E1
and E2. Slings should be located at equal distances from the truss centre-line, and be
approximately one-third to one-half truss length apart.
The angle between sling legs should be less than 60. Several typical examples are shown
in Figures E1 to E3.
Where a crane is not used for lifting, the trusses should be lifted by hand following the
guidelines for lifting points in Figures E1 to E3. Where trusses are too large to be lifted
vertically, skids should be used to slide the truss up to the top plate level and sufficient
skids should be used to stop undue truss deflections.
CAUTION: UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCE SHOULD TRUSSES BE DRAGGED
HEEL UP FIRST OVER THE TOP PLATE.

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Crane

Crane

<60
<60
0

1/3 to 1/2 span

1/3 to 1/2 span

FIGURE E1 VERTICAL LIFTING OF TRUSSESTRUSS SPAN LESS THAN 9 m

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Crane

Crane

chain for brace on lateral


movement of truss

Vertical chain
or sling

1/3 to 1/2 span

1/3 to 1/2 span

FIGURE E2 VERTICAL LIFTING OF TRUSSESTRUSS SPAN FROM 9 m TO 16 m

Crane

0
0

0
0
0
0

FIGURE E3 HORIZONTAL LIFTING OF TRUSSES


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APPENDIX F

TYPICAL SPECIFICATION FOR, AND EXAMPLE OF, A STEELBRACE


(Informative)
The following typical specification for steelbrace (see also Figure F1) is deemed to satisfy
the requirements specified in Clause 4.3.2:
(a)

Steel :
(i)

Grade................................................................................................... G 300.

(ii)

Thickness ............................................................................................... 1 mm.

(iii) Galvanized coating ................................................................................ Z 275.


(iv)

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(b)

Pre-punched holesin a pattern .....................................................................


to allow a minimum of three nails to be driven into the centre third of a 35 mm
width of timber when placed at an angle of 45, at any position along the length
of the brace.

Nails .......................................... minimum 2.8 mm 30 mm with reinforced heads.

20
20

16

Countersunk
nail holes

16

120

DIMENSIONS IN MILLIMETRES

FIGURE F1 TYPICAL STEELBRACE

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AS 44402004

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APPENDIX G

FIXING DETAILS FOR TYPICAL GIRDER BRACKETS (TRUSS BOOTS)


(Informative)
This Appendix provides some typical girder bracket (truss boot) details for connection of
truss to truss as follows:
(a)

Framing bracket (joist hanger) (see Figure G1).

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H a l f tr us s ,
ja c k tr us s ,
o r c r e ep e r

S u p p o r ti n g
t ru s s

F r a m i ng b r ack e t ( jo i s t h a n g e r)
( F o r n a il in g d e t a il s , re f e r t o
m a n u fa c t u rer 's s p e ci fi c a ti o n s )

FIGURE G1 FRAMING BRACKET (JOIST HANGER)

(b)

Standard truss boot with anti-twist bracing (see Figure G2).

D o u b l e o r s in g l e
g ir d e r t ru s s

G i rd e r b r a c k e t

F o r b o l ti n g a n d /o r
n a il in g d e ta i ls , r e fe r
t o m a n u f a c tu r e r 's
s p e c if ic a t io n s
S t a n d a rd tr u s s
Te n s io n s tr a p t o r e s tr a in
b o t to m c h o rd tw is t o r
b u il t- i n a n ti - ro t a ti o n f la n g e
t o b e n a i le d to u n d e rs i d e
o f g ir d e r a n d c a r r ie d t r u s s

FIGURE G2 STANDARD TRUSS BOOT AND ANTI-TWIST BRACING

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65

(c)

AS 44402004

Anti-twist truss boot (see Figure G3).

For connection details, refer to


manufacturer's specifications

FIGURE G3 ANTI-TWIST TRUSS BOOT

High-load truss boot (see Figure G4).

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(d)

For connection details, refer to


manufacturer's specifications

FIGURE G4 HIGH-LOAD TRUSS BOOT

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AS 44402004
66

NOTES

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67

NOTES

AS 44402004

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AS 44402004
68

NOTES

Standards Australia
Standards Australia is an independent company, limited by guarantee, which prepares and publishes
most of the voluntary technical and commercial standards used in Australia. These standards are
developed through an open process of consultation and consensus, in which all interested parties are
invited to participate. Through a Memorandum of Understanding with the Commonwealth government,
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Standards Australia is recognized as Australias peak national standards body. For further information
on Standards Australia visit us at

www.standards.org.au
Australian Standards
Australian Standards are prepared by committees of experts from industry, governments, consumers
and other relevant sectors. The requirements or recommendations contained in published Standards are
a consensus of the views of representative interests and also take account of comments received from
other sources. They reflect the latest scientific and industry experience. Australian Standards are kept
under continuous review after publication and are updated regularly to take account of changing
technology.

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Standards Australia is responsible for ensuring that the Australian viewpoint is considered in the
formulation of international Standards and that the latest international experience is incorporated in
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Standards Australia represents Australia at both ISO (The International Organization
for Standardization) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC).

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