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Classic plate-and-frame filter press and details; the plates are

separated for manual removal of the cake (T. Shriuer Co.)


sumber : chemical process and equipment, selection and design

Tekanan penyaring kerangka dan penyaring lempeng merupakan yang paling


sederhana dari semua penyaring tekanan, dan yang paling banyak digunakan. Filter ini terdiri
dari seperangkat lempengan yang dirancang untuk member sederetan kompartemen untuk
pengumpulan zat padat. Lempengan tersebut ditutup dengan medium filter seperti kanvas.
Slurry umpan masuk ke dalam masing-masing lempengan dan medium filternya dengan
tekanan, cairannnya lewat melalui kanvas dan keluar melalui pipa keluaran dan
meninggalkan zat padat basah diantara lempengan tersebut.lempengan press yang digunakan
ada yang berbentuk bujur sangkar atau lingkaran, ada yang terletak vertikal dan horizontal.
Tetapi umumnya lempengan untuk zat padat itu dirancang dengan membuat tekanan pada
permukaan lempeng atau dalam bentuk plate and frame.
Pada desain plate and frame ini, lempengan berbentuk bujur sangkar dengan panjang
sisi 6-28 in dan disusun silih berganti dengan bingkai terbuka. Lempengan tersebut tebalnya
berkisar 0,25 sampai 2 in, sedangkan bingkainya setebal 0,25 sampai 8 inci.lempengan dan
frame itu didudukan secara vertikal pada rak logam dengan medium filter dipasang menutupi
setiap frame dan dirapatkan dengan bantuan skrup dan rem hidrolik. Bubur umpa masuk pada
satu ujung rakitan lempeng dan frame tersebut. Slurry mengalir melalui saluran yang
terpasang memanjang pada salah satu sudut rakitan dari sudut tersebut melalui saluran
tambahan mengalir kedalam masing-masing frame. Disini zat padat tersebut diendapakan

diatas permukaan plate. Cairan mengalir menembus kain filter melalui alur atau gelombang
pada permukaan lempeng, sampai keluar press filter tersebut. Sesudah filter tersebut dirakit,
slurry dimasukkan dari pompa atau tangki pendorong pada tekanan 3 sampai 10 atm. Filtrasi
lalu diteruskan sampai tidak ada lagi zat cair yang keluar dan tekanan filtrasi naik secara
signifikan. Hal ini terjadi bila frame sudah penuh dengan zat padat sehingga slurry tidak
dapat masuk lagi.

ANOTHER FORM OF PRESSURE DEPENDENCE

Equation (11.24) cannot be entirely valid because it predicts zero


resistivity at zero pressure, whereas cakes do have structures and
significant resistivities even at minimal operating pressures.
Modified Eq. (11.12) is extrapolatable, and is rewritten here as
(Y = cra(1+ kP) (11.25)
with a similar one for porosity
& = 1 - (1 - &a)(1 + kP). (11.26)
Some data fitted to these equations by Tiller et al. (1979) are in
Table 11.8; here the constant k is the same for both LY and E,
although this is not necessarily generally the case. Unfortunately,
these data show that the parameters are not independent of the
pressure range. Apparently the correlation problem has not been
solved. Perhaps it can be concluded that insofar as the existing
tiltration theory is applicable to real filtering behavior, the
approximation of Almy and Lewis may be adequate over the
moderate ranges or pressures that are used commonly, somewhere
between 0.5 and 5 atm.
PRETREATMENT OF SLURRIES

Since the sizes of particles and agglomerates of the slurry are a main
determinant of a rate of filtration, any methods of influencing these
sizes are of great practical value. For example, Figures 1.2(b) and
(c) show CaCO, and TiO, each to be precipitated at two different
values of pH with resultant great differences in resistivity and
porosity. At lOpsia, for instance, the resistivities of the two
CaCO,s are in the ratio of 5, with corresponding differences in rate
of filtration. Pretreatment of a slurry to enhance coagulation and
particle growth is an important aspect of filter process design.
Another method of long standing for improving filtration behavior
is the formation of an open cake structure by addition of relatively
large and rigid particles of a filter aid. The common methods of
pretreatment are listed in Table 11.4, and some chemical flocculants
that are of practical value are described in Table 11.5. These effects
cannot be predicted safely and must be measured.

COMPRESSION-PERMEABILITY CELL

Such equipment consists of a hollow cylinder fitted with a


permeable bottom and a permeable piston under controlled
pressure. Slurry is charged to the slurry, cake is formed with gentle
suction, and the piston is lowered to the cake level. The rate of flow
of filtrate at low head through the compressed cake is measured at a
series of pressures on the piston. From the results the resistivity of
the cake becomes known as a function of pressure. The data of
Figures 11.4(b) and (c) were obtained this way; those of Figure

11.4(a) by filtration tests.


There is much evidence, however, that the resistivity behavior
of a cake under filtration conditions may be different from that
measured in a CP cell. The literature is reviewed by Wakeman
(1978). CP cell data are easily obtained and may be of value in a
qualitative sense as an indication of the sensitivity of resistivity to
pressure, but apparently are not of acceptable engineering accuracy
for the design of filtration equipment. The deduction of resistivities
from filtration tests is illustrated in Example 11.1.