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Higher Technological institute

Tenth of Ramadan City


Mechanical Department

Thermo-Fluid Lab. (B)


5- Extended Surface (Fin)
OBJECTIVES
- Measuring the temperature distribution along an extended surface and comparing the

result with a theoretical analysis


- Calculating the heat transfer from an extended surface resulting from combined modes of
free convection and radiation heat transfer

THEORY
Where it is required to cool a surface by convection, the rate of heat removal can be
improved by increasing the area of the surface. This usually achieved by adding extended
surfaces called fins. The term extended surface or fin is commonly used to depict a case that
involves heat transfer by conduction within a solid and heat transfer by convection (and/or
radiation) from the boundaries of the solid (fins enhance heat transfer from a surface by
exposing a larger surface area to convection and radiation.. The direction of heat transfer in
extended surfaces from the boundaries is perpendicular to the principal direction of heat
transfer in the solid. A temperature gradient exists along each fin or pin due to the
combination of the conductivity of the material and heat loss to the surroundings A
temperature gradient exists along each fin or pin due to the combination of the conductivity
of the material and heat loss to the surroundings. The temperature distribution along the fin
must be known to determine the heat transfer from the surface to its surroundings. Since
radiation and natural convection from the surface occur simultaneously, both of these effects
must also be included in the analysis.

EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS

Figure 1. Turbine Service unit

The experimental setup consists of a cylindrical 1cm diameter brass rod and an
electrical heater that is in direct contact with the brass rod. The brass rod is 35cm long rod
with eight thermocouples each are located 5cm apart. There is one extra thermocouple to
measure the ambient temperature.

1-Brass rod (Diameter "D" = 10mm and Length "L" = 35 cm) 2- Thermostat 3- Insulating housing 4 Power
supply lead and plug 5- 240 V electric heater 6- Support 7- Plate 8- Support for thermocouple 9- Additional
thermocouple to measure ambient temperature 10- Mounting 11- Eight thermocouple with 5cm intervals 12Plugs that connect the thermocouple to console.
Figure 2. Extended surface heat transfer unit.

Figure 3. Thermocouples location.

For steady state the temperature distribution along the fin can be calculated from
(

(1)

Note: the magnitude of the temperature gradient decreases with increasing "x". This
trend is a consequence of the reduction in the conduction heat transfer with increasing x due
to continuous convection and radiation losses from the fin surface and the value for "m" can
be found by iteration using a suggested starting value of 7.0.
Plot a graph of measured surface temperature "Tx" against position "x" along the
extended surface and draw a smooth curve through the points. Plot the theoretical
temperature profile which you have calculated using the average value for m and compare
the curve with your measured values.

The total heat loss from the rod can be calculated as follows:
QFin = H As (Ts Ta)

(2)

H = h c + hR

(3)

As = D L

(4)

hc = 1.32 [

hR = F [

(5)

(6)

Ts = (T1 + T2 + T3 + T4 + T5 + T6 + T7 + T8)/8

(7)

Where "H" is the combined heat transfer coefficient due to natural convection and
radiation (W/m2C), "hc" is the convection heat transfer coefficient (W/m2C), "hr" is the
radiation heat transfer coefficient (W/m2C), "As" is fin heat transfer area (m2). "Ts" is the
average surface temperature of the fin (C),"Ta" is the ambient temperature = T9 (C), "D" is
the fin diameter (= 1 cm), "L" is the fin length (= 35 cm), "" is Steven Boltzmann constant
(= 5.67 10-8 W/m2 K4), "" is the emissivity of the surface (= 0.85) and "F" is the shape
factor (=1).
Fin efficiency can be calculated from
(8)

100

(9)

QInput = V I

Where " " is the fin efficiency (%), QInput is the supplied heat (Watt), "V" is the
supplied voltage (volt) and "I" is the supplied current (ampere).

PROCEDURES
1- Switch on the front Mains switch (if the panel meters do not illuminate check the RCD
and circuit breakers at the rear of the service unit, all switches at the rear should be up).
2- Set the heater voltage to the required volts (adjust the VOLTAGE CONTROL
potentiometer to give a reading on the top panel meter with the selector switch set to
position V).
3- Allow the temperatures to stabilize (Monitor the temperatures using the lower selector
switch/meter).
4- Record the Voltage and Current supplied to the heater.
5- Record the temperature at each position along the rod (T1 to T8).
6- Record the ambient air temperature T9.

Student Name:

Student No.:

Gr.:

Experiment No. 5

Extended Surface (Fin)


Table 1. Measured variables.
Position
"x" (cm)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Measured Temperature
"Tx" (C)

Voltage
"V" (volt)

Current
"I" (ampere)

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
Ta

Table 2. Constants.
Fin
Diameter
"D" (m)
0.01

Steven Boltzmann
constant

Fin length

Emissivity

Shape factor

"L" (m)

" " (W/m2 K4)

""

"F"

0.35

5.67 10-8

0.85

0..75

Table 3. Calculated variables.


Position
"x" (cm)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Calculated
Temperature

"Tx" (C)

Ts

As
(m2)

hc
(W/m2C)

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
Ta

hR
(W/m2C)

H
(W/m2C)

Qfin

QInput

(W)

(W)

(%)

Chart1. Variation of calculated and measured temperature against position "x"..


Tx, C

x, cm
CONCLUSIONS
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