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KINNAIRD COLLEGE FOR WOMEN, LHR

Dependent &
Independent Sample
T-tests
Data Analysis and Report Writing
Aqsa Aziz

The family of t tests (one sample t test, independent samples t test, and
dependent samples t test) are all parametric tests used at the bivariate level and
all compare means between two groups.

Table of Contents

INDEPENDENT SAMPLE T-TEST.......................................................3


NULL HYPOTHESIS.............................................................................................3
ALTERNATE HYPOTHESIS......................................................................................3
LEVEL OF SIGNIFICANCE......................................................................................3
TEST STATISTICS................................................................................................3
COMPUTATIONS.................................................................................................3
DECISION.........................................................................................................4
CONCLUSION....................................................................................................4
DEPENDENT SAMPLE T-TEST...........................................................4
NULL HYPOTHESIS.............................................................................................4
ALTERNATE HYPOTHESIS......................................................................................4
LEVEL OF SIGNIFICANCE......................................................................................4
TEST STATISTICS................................................................................................4
COMPUTATIONS.................................................................................................4
DECISION.........................................................................................................5
CONCLUSION....................................................................................................5

Independent Sample T-test


From the built-in data in SPSS, file name accidents.sav is chosen for this
test. The variables to be analyzed are: (a) Gender
and
(b) Accidents.
The analysis of these variables will test the hypothesis that there is no
difference between the means of male accidents and female accidents.

Null Hypothesis
H 0 ; male =female

Alternate Hypothesis
H 1 ; male female

Level of Significance
The analysis will be done at 5% level of significance. i.e.:

=0.05

Test Statistics
Since n < 30 and we have to compare means for two independent normally
distributed populations, independent Sample T test will be used.

Computations
Group Statistics
Gender
Accidents

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

Male

65191.67

1466.889

846.909

Female

56411.00

2030.166

1172.117

Independent Samples Test


Levene's Test
for Equality of
Variances

t-test for Equality of Means


95% Confidence Interval of

Accidents

Equal

Sig.

.580

.489

df

Sig. (2-

Mean

Std. Error

tailed)

Difference

Difference

the Difference
Lower

Upper

6.072

.004

8780.667

1446.068

4765.739

12795.595

6.072

3.641

.005

8780.667

1446.068

4604.701

12956.633

variances
assumed
Equal
variances
not
assumed

Degree of freedom= df = 4

Sig. (2-tailed) = P-value= 0.004

Decision
From the calculations it is found that P value for 2-tailed test is 0.004. Which
P< i.e.
0.004< 0.05 . Hence will reject our null hypothesis
implies that:
and accept alternate hypothesis.

Conclusion
From the statistical analysis done, we conclude that there is difference
between the mean number of accidents for male and mean number of
accidents for female. And we say that mean accidents for males is not equal
to mean accidents for females.

Dependent Sample T-test


From the built-in data in SPSS, file name debate_aggregate.sav is chosen
for this test. The variables to be analyzed are: (a) Pref1
and
(b) Pref2.
The analysis of these variables will test the hypothesis that there is no
difference between the means of preference before debate and preference
after debate.

Null Hypothesis
H 0 ; before= after

Alternate Hypothesis
H 1 ; berfore after

Level of Significance
The analysis will be done at 5% level of significance. i.e.:

=0.05

Test Statistics
Since n < 30 and the two variables involved are collected from the same
individuals (that is, each individual gives us two values, one for each of the
two groups), or the variables come from matched pairs of individuals.

Computations

Paired Samples Statistics


Mean
Pair 1

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

Preference before debate

2.50

16

1.155

.289

Preference after debate

2.50

16

1.155

.289

Paired Samples Correlations


N
Pair 1

Preference before debate &

Correlation
16

Sig.

.000

1.000

Preference after debate


Paired Samples Test
Paired Differences
95% Confidence Interval of

Pair 1 Preference before debate

Std.

Std. Error

Mean

Deviation

Mean

.000

1.633

.408

the Difference
Lower
-.870

Sig. (2-

Upper
.870

t
.000

df

tailed)
15

- Preference after debate

Degree of freedom=df=15

Sig. (2-tailed) =P-value=1.000

Decision
From the calculations it is found that P value for 2-tailed test is 1.000. Which
P> i.e.
1.000>0.05 . Hence we will reject our alternate
implies that:
hypothesis and accept null hypothesis.

Conclusion
From the statistical analysis done, we conclude that there is no difference
between the mean preference of candidates before debate and the mean
preference of candidate after debate. And we say that mean preference of
candidates before and after debate is same.

1.000