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Materials Engineering 10:

Engineering Materials
Lecture 04
Material Properties:

Thermal, Electrical, Magnetic, Optical


and Chemical
MatE 10: Lecture 04

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MUST WITHSTAND THE EXTREMEST OF


TEMPERATURES
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maximum service
temperatures

thermal
diffusivity

dictated by chemical bonds present

Thermal Property

response to increase/decrease in temperature

coefficient of
thermal expansion
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heat capacity
thermal
conductivity
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Thermal Properties
maximum service
temperature
limiting temperature at which the
material starts to creep

thermal diffusivity

measure of the rate at which a


temperature disturbance at one point
in a body travels to another point

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Thermal Properties
coefficient of thermal
expansion
measure of the amount by which a
length of material expands when
temperature is increased

l = change in length
l = original length
T = change in T

Unit: C-1

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Thermal Properties
thermal conductivity

Unit: J s-1 K-1


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measure of the rate at which heat


flows through the material
measure of the ability of a material
to conduct heat

Q = amount of heat, Joules


t = time, sec
T = change in temperature

higher , better conductor


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Thermal Properties
specific heat capacity
amount of heat needed to raise one
kilogram of material by 1C

Unit: J kg-1 C-1

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Q = amount of heat, Joules


m = mass, kg
T = change in temperature

higher c, slower to heat


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Example:
By how much will a 10cm strip of a) Cu and b) PVC
expand when the temp changes from 200C to
300C?
Cu = 18 x 10-6/K
PVC = 75 x 10-6/K

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electrical
resistance

resistivity

Electrical Property
response to electron flow

electrical
conductance
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conductivity
dielectric
strength

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Electrical Properties
electrical resistance
opposition to the passage of an
electric current through that
conductor

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R = resistance, ohm
= resistivity
(measure of the electrical resistance of a material)

A = x-sectional area, m2
L = length, m
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Electrical Properties
electrical conductance
opposite of resistance

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G = conductance, ohm
= conductivity
A = x-sectional area, m2
L = length, m
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Paper Circuit

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Electrical Properties
superconductivity
materials with zero resistivity
(no electrical losses)
strong repulsive interaction
with magnetic field

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Electrical Properties
dielectric strength
measure of the highest voltage
an insulating material can
withstand without material
breakdown

=
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ferromagnetism

Magnetic Property
response to magnetic field

paramagnetism
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diamagnetism
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Magnetic Property

ferromagnetism

paramagnetism

diamagnetism

attracted to magnets
have some unpaired
electrons so their atoms
have a net magnetic
moment
Fe, Ni, Co

Slightly attracted to
magnets
due to the presence of
some unpaired electrons,
and from the realignment
of the electron paths
caused by the external
magnetic field
magnesium, molybdenum,
lithium, and tantalum

little or not attracted at all


all the electron are paired
so there is no permanent
net magnetic moment per
atom
Most elements in the
periodic table, including
copper, silver, and gold, are
diamagnetic.

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Ferrofluids

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transluscency

opacity

Optical Property
response to electromagnetic radiation,
particularly to visible light

transparency
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Optical Properties

more
crystalline,
more opaque

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Optical Properties

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corrosivity
toxicity

heat of
combustion

measurement usually requires destroying the material

Chemical Property

response to chemical changes brought


about by reactions

chemical
stability
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flammability
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Chemical Property

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