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# Materials Engineering 10:

Engineering Materials
Lecture 04
Material Properties:

## Thermal, Electrical, Magnetic, Optical

and Chemical
MatE 10: Lecture 04

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## MUST WITHSTAND THE EXTREMEST OF

TEMPERATURES
MatE 10: Lecture 04

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maximum service
temperatures

thermal
diffusivity

Thermal Property

## response to increase/decrease in temperature

coefficient of
thermal expansion
MatE 10: Lecture 04

heat capacity
thermal
conductivity
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Thermal Properties
maximum service
temperature
limiting temperature at which the
material starts to creep

thermal diffusivity

## measure of the rate at which a

temperature disturbance at one point
in a body travels to another point

## MatE 10: Lecture 04

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Thermal Properties
coefficient of thermal
expansion
measure of the amount by which a
length of material expands when
temperature is increased

l = change in length
l = original length
T = change in T

Unit: C-1

## MatE 10: Lecture 04

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Thermal Properties
thermal conductivity

## Unit: J s-1 K-1

MatE 10: Lecture 04

## measure of the rate at which heat

flows through the material
measure of the ability of a material
to conduct heat

## Q = amount of heat, Joules

t = time, sec
T = change in temperature

## higher , better conductor

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Thermal Properties
specific heat capacity
amount of heat needed to raise one
kilogram of material by 1C

## Q = amount of heat, Joules

m = mass, kg
T = change in temperature

## higher c, slower to heat

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Example:
By how much will a 10cm strip of a) Cu and b) PVC
expand when the temp changes from 200C to
300C?
Cu = 18 x 10-6/K
PVC = 75 x 10-6/K

## MatE 10: Lecture 04

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electrical
resistance

resistivity

Electrical Property
response to electron flow

electrical
conductance
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conductivity
dielectric
strength

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Electrical Properties
electrical resistance
opposition to the passage of an
electric current through that
conductor

## MatE 10: Lecture 04

R = resistance, ohm
= resistivity
(measure of the electrical resistance of a material)

A = x-sectional area, m2
L = length, m
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Electrical Properties
electrical conductance
opposite of resistance

## MatE 10: Lecture 04

G = conductance, ohm
= conductivity
A = x-sectional area, m2
L = length, m
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Paper Circuit

## MatE 10: Lecture 04

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Electrical Properties
superconductivity
materials with zero resistivity
(no electrical losses)
strong repulsive interaction
with magnetic field

## MatE 10: Lecture 04

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Electrical Properties
dielectric strength
measure of the highest voltage
an insulating material can
withstand without material
breakdown

=
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ferromagnetism

Magnetic Property
response to magnetic field

paramagnetism
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diamagnetism
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Magnetic Property

ferromagnetism

paramagnetism

diamagnetism

attracted to magnets
have some unpaired
electrons so their atoms
have a net magnetic
moment
Fe, Ni, Co

Slightly attracted to
magnets
due to the presence of
some unpaired electrons,
and from the realignment
of the electron paths
caused by the external
magnetic field
magnesium, molybdenum,
lithium, and tantalum

## little or not attracted at all

all the electron are paired
so there is no permanent
net magnetic moment per
atom
Most elements in the
periodic table, including
copper, silver, and gold, are
diamagnetic.

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Ferrofluids

## MatE 10: Lecture 04

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transluscency

opacity

Optical Property
particularly to visible light

transparency
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Optical Properties

more
crystalline,
more opaque

## MatE 10: Lecture 04

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Optical Properties

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corrosivity
toxicity

heat of
combustion

## measurement usually requires destroying the material

Chemical Property