Artigo contendo a cinética da cristalização da hexamina.

© All Rights Reserved

94 tayangan

Artigo contendo a cinética da cristalização da hexamina.

© All Rights Reserved

- The Reaction Between Formaldehyde and Ammonia
- Hexamine production technology
- Project Report on Hexamine
- hexamine.pdf
- Rate of a Reaction.pptx
- CHE 555 Assignment 2 May 2017
- Prarancangan Pabrik Kimia Hexamine
- Chemical Engineering Cost Estimation - Aries & Newton
- Calcium Carbonate Scale Formation—Assessing the Initial
- Chemical Kinetics 1.doc
- White paper crys process dev
- vacuum pan
- CrystalProcessDev-A4.pdf
- Potash Crystallization
- Water–disaccharides interactions in saturated solution and the crystallisation conditions - Gharsallaoui et al. (Food Chemistry, 2008)
- jurnal 2
- 1-s2.0-S1383586605003874-main
- Experiment 2 Preparation of Solution
- 10.1016@s1359-0294(00)00034-0.pdf
- Class 9 Science

Anda di halaman 1dari 8

A. Alamdari , F. Tabkhi

Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, 71345 Shiraz, Iran

Received 9 December 2002; received in revised form 13 January 2003; accepted 18 April 2003

Abstract

The values of kinetic parameters for hexamine crystallization from aqueous solution, necessary for control of industrial crystallizers were

calculated in this study. Hexamine is an intermediate chemical mainly used in pharmaceutical and resin industries. In Meissner process, the

major industrial method of hexamine production, formaldehyde and ammonia in gaseous states are introduced into the reaction vessel, and

crystalline hexamine is continuously produced. The reaction between formaldehyde and ammonia is very fast and thus the whole process is

controlled by the crystallization stage. However, the kinetic information reported in the literature for industrial crystallization of hexamine is

very limited. Mechanistic modeling of hexamine crystallization was performed using mass and population balance equations. These equations

were solved using the backward difference method. Kinetic parameters in the growth and nucleation rate equations were determined by fitting

the mechanistic model to the industrial data obtained in the present study from an industrial MSMPR crystallizer. To determine the population

densities and supersaturations, both the solid and liquor phases were sampled during the transient step of particle size evolution. To optimize

the parameters, the differences between the model-predicted data and the plant data were minimized using the nonlinear unconstrained method

in an optimization subroutine. The growth and nucleation rate equations for hexamine crystallization in industrial scale were calculated as

G = 0.7S1.47 and B = 9138MT0.74 S0.551 , respectively. The growth and nucleation rate equations obtained in this study can be used to simulate

the crystallization stage of hexamine plants.

2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Hexamine; Crystallization; Kinetics

1. Introduction

producing soluble hexamine followed by hexamine crystallization is presented by the overall equation of

in pharmaceutical industries as a primary feed material, and

in chemical industries as an intermediate material. It is well

soluble in water and, like some other tertiary amines, has an

inverse solubility at low temperatures [1].

The most common production method of hexamine in industrial scale is the reaction of formaldehyde with ammonia

or ammonium salts [2]. This reaction in aqueous solution

at room temperature is very fast and produces considerable

amount of heat and water. The temperature at which the

reaction can take place with a high efficiency has been reported as between 0 and 90 C [1,3]. Side reactions due to

temperature rise may be prevented by cooling. The reaction

fax: +98-711-628-7294.

E-mail address: alamdari44@yahoo.com (A. Alamdari).

0255-2701/$ see front matter 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/S0255-2701(03)00085-0

(1)

An optimum method to produce hexamine from formaldehyde and gaseous ammonia is the Meissner process in which

the reaction and crystallization stages take place simultaneously to produce crystalline hexamine. Due to a high

dissolution rate of ammonia and formaldehyde in the aqueous solution and a high reaction rate of hexamine production, the crystallization stage controls the Meissner process

[3].

The overall growth rates of spheres of compressed polycrystalline hexamine with diameters of 10 and 16 mm

in aqueous solutions were studied by Bomio et al. at a

temperature of 30 C and in a supersaturation range of

0.00060.002 kg kg1

solution [4]. They observed a linear dependency of growth on supersaturation for a relative solution/sphere velocity under 84 mm s1 and a slightly higher

804

Therefore, they concluded that at lower velocities the diffusion is controlling and at higher velocities both the diffusion

and surface reaction are controlling the growth process.

For different solution/sphere velocities, they calculated the

growth rate coefficient as in the range 0.00250.0493 kg

m2 s1 and the growth order in the range 0.951.16. They

also calculated the activation energy for hexamine growth

as 50.2 kJ mol1 for the temperature range 24.535 C.

The growth kinetics of hexamine crystallizing from pure

ethanol at 25 C were studied by Bourne and Davey [5]. They

used a fluidized bed, a rotating disk, and a single crystal system and found an independent growth rate of crystal size.

They reported that the growth rates attainable from ethanolic solutions are much higher than those from the aqueous

solutions at the same absolute supersaturations. They also

noted that measurements made at 25 C on the two different

experimental systems of their study suggested no influence

of hydrodynamics on the growth rates. However, secondary

nucleation which substantially affects the CSD of product

strongly depends on hydrodynamics and hence on the scale

of equipments.

In another study Bourne et al. [6] using a rotating disc

system correlated the surface integration kinetic data of hexamine crystallizing from aqueous solutions at 30 C in the

absence of diffusional effects as:

MA = 0.383(wi ws )

1.41

(2)

s1 ), wi is the interfacial solution concentration, and ws

is the saturation concentration (kghexamine kg1

solution ). They

also calculated the activation energies for the growth of

hexamine as in the range 28.960.7 kJ mol1 depending on

the rotational rate of discs. They reported that the values of

activation energy were influenced by mass transfer.

The growth and nucleation rates of hexamine crystallizing from methanol and from an aqueous solution containing

76% 2-propanol in a bench scale MSMPR crystallizer at

steady state were studied by Myerson et al. [7]. Rohani and

Bourne used experimental data of hexamine crystallizing

from alcoholic solutions in the literature to develop a general model for a seeded cooling batch crystallizer based on

population and mass balances [8].

However, the values of kinetic parameters used in the rate

equations of growth and nucleation for hexamine crystallizing from water in industrial scale, have not been reported.

These parameters are necessary for simulation of crystallization process and control of crystal size distribution (CSD)

of product.

Table 1

The composition of the stream containing formaldehyde

Component

Mass fraction

N2

0.3985

H2 O

0.2816

CH2 O

0.2589

CH3 OH

0.021

CO2

0.0249

A stream containing formaldehyde, water vapor, and inert

gases with a flow rate of 0.344 kg s1 is injected to a 15.5

m3 crystallizer at 100120 C (Fig. 1). The composition of

the stream is reported in Table 1. In another stream ammonia

gas with a purity of 99.8 mass percent in stoichiometric

proportion to formaldehyde, enters the crystallizer where

these reactants dissolve in aqueous solution and react with

each other to produce hexamine. The operating conditions

are listed in Table 2.

A double propeller mixer suspends the crystals in the solution. The high flow rate of gases entering at mid-height

of the body of the reaction vessel also enhances mixing.

Therefore, the vessel behaves as an MSMPR crystallizer. A

side stream continuously leaves the crystallizer and enters

an evaporator under a pressure lower than that of the crystallizer. The stream, after being concentrated sufficiently in

the evaporator, returns to the crystallizer to complete the cycle. This concentration is necessary to vaporize the water

produced by the reaction, and to create supersaturation as a

driving force for nucleation and growth of hexamine crystals

in the solution. The product stream from the crystallizer is

sent to a centrifuge filter by a positive displacement pump.

The filtrate, containing very fine particles passed through

the meshes of the centrifuge basket, is sent to a dissolution

Table 2

The operating conditions of the hexamine plant

Crystallizer pressure (bar)

Crystallizer temperature ( C)

0.25

0.59

6070

12.88

These particles are expected to be produced through the

mechanism of contact nucleation. The clear solution from

the dissolution tank is sent to a head tank, and thereafter is

returned to the crystallizer. The dissolution of fines prevents

their return to the crystallizer and maintains the MSMPR

conditions. The solution level in the crystallizer is controlled

by a simple hydrodynamic controller installed between the

head tank and the crystallizer. However, the variation of the

suspension volume is generally within the range of 5.5%.

parameters of crystallization, was obtained during the course

of start up of the industrial hexamine crystallizer. As the

reaction progressed and evaporation continued, spontaneous

nucleation created new crystals which they began to grow.

Thus the size distribution of crystals was evolving before

the steady state conditions were reached.

Consecutive sampling from the suspension was carried out

and crystals were separated from the liquor in each sample

using a Buchner funnel under vacuum conditions. Crystals

were well washed by hexamine saturated methanol and were

dried in a laboratory oven. The CSD was measured using

sieve analysis and the hexamine concentration in the filtrate

from each sample was determined by gravimetric method,

after the complete water evaporation from the sample. Since

there was only one solute component in the solution, the

gravimetric method seemed to be accurate enough to measure the hexamine concentrations. This method has been reported as an accurate method for measuring concentrations

of KCl in controlled cooling crystallization operations [9].

To obtain an insight into the morphology of hexamine

crystals, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) photomicrographs were prepared using a Cambridge 360 electronic

microscope.

4. Mathematical modeling

The form of the growth rate equation was assumed as:

G = KG S g

(3)

where KG is the growth rate coefficient and S is the supersaturation. S was calculated as the difference of the liquor concentration and the saturation concentration. The secondary

nucleation rate equation was assumed as:

B = KN MTi S j

crystal agglomeration and breakage is [10]:

n

n

n

+G

+Q

= 0

t

L

V

(4)

suspension density of crystals in the solution. Assuming

a size independent growth rate of crystals, the transient

population balance equation in a continuous MSMPR crys-

(5)

where Q is the volumetric flow rate of suspension leaving the crystallizer as product and V is the volume of the

suspension in the crystallizer. Q and V remained almost

constant with time at the conditions of the industrial crystallizer under study. An initial condition for the population

balance equation is:

n(0, L) = f(L)

3. Industrial data

805

(6)

where f(L) is the size distribution of crystals initially created in the solution by spontaneous nucleation due to a

high supersaturation. f(L) was measured by sieve analysis

of crystals in a sample taken from the crystallizer contents

at time zero, after spontaneous nucleation had occurred.

During the transient period of start up, and thereafter at

steady state period, secondary nucleation creates nuclei in

the solution. The nuclei density represented by the following

equation is another boundary condition of the population

balance equation:

n(t, 0) = n = B /G

(7)

over time during the course of start up. The range of variations was from 60 to 67 C. The temperature values necessary for modeling were calculated by linear interpolation

between the recorded values.

The mass balance equation for hexamine component was

written as:

d

w + MT

w + MT

V

= m

r +m

hQ

1/s + MT /c

dt 1/s + MT /c

(8)

where m

r is the rate of hexamine production by reaction

and m

h is the mass flow rate of hexamine returned to the

crystallizer from the head tank. The last term on the right

hand side of Eq. (8) is the mass flow rate of hexamine in

both solid and liquid phases taken out from the crystallizer.

c and s are the crystal and the mother liquor densities,

respectively, and w is the mass fraction of hexamine in the

clear solution. The initial condition of Eq. (8) is the mass

fraction of hexamine in the initial solution at time zero, w0 .

The mass flow rate of hexamine produced by reaction was

calculated from the mass flow rate of formaldehyde entering the crystallizer. The hexamine mass flow rate entering

the crystallizer from the head tank was calculated by balancing the hexamine mass around the centrifuge, the fines

dissolution tank, and the head tank.

The simultaneous solution of the mass and population balances predicts the CSD of product at different times. Kinetic

parameters of the crystallization process were determined

by fitting the model generated set of CSD to the measured

806

equation, calculates the difference between these two sets of

distributions:

fobj =

11

5

(9)

k =1j =1

mass of solid free solution and was calculated as:

L

c kv L3 ndL

(10)

P = 1018

0

The conversion factor of 1018 has been introduced to adjust the units of crystal size in the equation. Optimum kinetic parameters were obtained by minimizing the objective

function.

5. Solution of model

Initially, an arbitrary value for each kinetic parameter was

assumed. The solution of model equations yielded the population densities of crystals at time increments from the beginning. Using the model predicted population densities of

crystals at different times, the values of objective function

corresponding to assumed parameters were calculated. The

values of parameters for least value of objective function

were determined using unconstrained nonlinear minimization.

Since the model equations were nonlinear, they were

solved numerically. The backward finite difference method

was used to prevent divergence in calculations. The programs were written using the package of matlab and the

parameter optimization was carried out using fminsearch

routine in this package.

The optimized values for kinetic parameters of hexamine crystallization under the industrial conditions specified

are given in Table 3. It is pertinent to note that the hexamine crystals suspended in the solution were assumed not to

stick together considerably and thus, the agglomeration was

considered negligible. This assumption was checked by visualization of crystals under the microscope. No significant

agglomeration was observed, but crystals appeared mostly

individual and unattached. This observation also showed no

significant crystal breakage. Fig. 2 shows representative phoTable 3

The optimized values of the kinetic parameters of hexamine crystallization

KG

KN

0.7

1.47

9138

0.74

0.551

tomicrographs of hexamine crystals sampled from the industrial crystallizer under this study.

The initial CSD measured experimentally was fitted with

a smooth exponential function, f(L), in order to minimize

errors due to fluctuations in the input data to the model:

f(L) = 3.25 105 (1 e0.022L )

(11)

followed by measuring CSD at five different times during

the transient period of operation, is shown in Fig. 3. The figure also shows the set of CSD predicted by the model using

the optimized values of the kinetic parameters. As the crystallization process continues, after about 20 h, the size distribution of particles in the crystallizer is expected to approach

the steady CSD suggested by the model shown in Fig. 4.

Hexamine concentrations in the solution predicted by the

model, and those measured experimentally in the industrial

unit are shown in Fig. 5. Both the model predicted and the

plant data showed a peak in concentrations of hexamine in

the solution during the transient period. The reaction of ammonia with formaldehyde and the accompanied evaporation

taking place in the solution both continuously increase the

concentration of hexamine. On the other hand, mass deposition of hexamine on the surface area of suspended crystals

diminishes the concentration. At the beginning of the process, there was not enough surface area available to consume

hexamine generated in the solution; therefore, the concentration increased greatly. This led to a higher supersaturation, which accordingly increased the growth and nucleation

rates. Higher rates of these mechanisms resulted in more

crystal surface area available for mass deposition of hexamine (Figs. 6 and 7). Therefore, as enough surface area

was generated, the mass deposition prevailed the concentration increase by reaction and evaporation, and the concentration started to decrease. As the steady state condition was

reached, an equilibrium state was established between the

concentration rise of hexamine by reaction and evaporation

and the concentration fall by mass deposition.

Comparison of the model predicted data with the plant

data in both Figs. 5 and 7 shows the consistency of the results and the accuracy of the calculated values of the kinetic

parameters. It is worth noting that the industrial data of hexamine concentrations in the clear solution and suspension

densities of crystals shown in these figures were not directly

used in the definition of the objective function for minimization in Eq. (9). Therefore, a good agreement of the model

predicted data with the plant data presents the validity of the

mechanistic model.

Since the temperature in the present industrial operation

was almost constant around 65 C and the hexamine solubility in water at the conditions of the operation is approximately independent of temperature, a peak in supersaturation values similar to that of concentration values with time

was expected. The calculated values of supersaturation are

shown in Fig. 8. The same behavior was expected for the

growth rate; however, calculations showed that the nucle-

Fig. 2. Representative photomicrographs of hexamine crystals sampled from the industrial crystallizer.

807

808

Fig. 3. Cumulative size distribution at different times during the evolution of particle size, comparison between the model predictions and the plant data.

Fig. 4. Cumulative size distribution predicted by the model using the optimized parameters.

Fig. 5. Hexamine concentrations in the solution with time, comparison between the model predictions and the plant data.

809

predicted by model using optimized parameters.

Fig. 6. Predictions of surface area available in the solution.

the model predicted data and the plant data.

Fig. 10. Variations of nucleation rate with time, predicted by model using

optimized parameters.

ation rate behaved differently (Figs. 9 and 10). Due to increasing supersaturation at the first few hours of operation,

the nucleation rate was expected to increase and approached

its maximum value. Thereafter, no considerable decline in

nucleation rate was calculated. This was due to large mass

of crystals created after about 10 h. The generation of secondary nuclei due to mass of existing crystals, compensated

the reduction of nucleation caused by lower values of supersaturation as the process approached towards the steady

state conditions.

7. Conclusions

The process of hexamine crystallization in an industrial

MSMPR crystallizer was modeled using the population and

mass balance equations. Minimizing the differences between

the model-predicted data and the plant data, the kinetic parameters of growth and nucleation rates were calculated.

These parameters may be used to optimize the quality and

the quantity of hexamine product crystallized from aqueous

solutions in industrial plants.

Appendix A. Nomenclature

AT

B

CSD

f(L)

fobj

Fig. 8. Variations of supersaturation with time, calculated by the model

using the optimized parameters.

g, i, j

G

in solution (m2 kg1

solution )

nucleation rate (# (kgsolution s)1 )

crystal size distribution

the population density of initial

crystals (# (m kgsolution )1 )

objective function of optimization

2

((kg kg1

solution ) )

orders in kinetic equations (dimensionless)

growth rate of crystals (m s1 )

810

KG

KN

kv

L

MSMPR

MA

MT

m

h

m

r

n

n

P

q

Q

S

SEM

t

V

w

wi

w0

ws

hexamine

kg1.47

solution )

nucleation rate coefficient (# s1 kg0.74

solid

0.291

kg0.551

hexamine kgsolution )

volumetric shape factor of crystals (#1 )

crystal size (m)

mixed suspension mixed product

removal

mass deposition rate in surface

integration (kghexamine m2 s1 )

suspension density of crystals in solution

(kgsolid kg1

clearsolution )

mass inflow rate of hexamine from head

tank to the crystallizer (kg s1 )

production rate of hexamine by

reaction (kg s1 )

population density of crystals

(# (m kgsolution )1 )

population density of nuclei

(# (m kgsolution )1 )

mass of crystals smaller than size L

in unit mass of solid free solution

(kg kg1

solution )

heat generation in the reaction of

hexamine production (kJ mol1

hexamine )

volume outflow rate of suspension from

the crystallizer (m3 s1 )

supersaturation (kghexamine kg1

solution )

scanning electron microscopy

time (s)

volume of crystallizer and evaporator (m3 )

hexamine concentration in solution

(kghexamine kg1

solution )

interfacial hexamine concentration between

the solid surface and the solution (kghexamine

kg1

solution )

initial concentration of hexamine in

solution (kghexamine kg1

solution )

the saturation concentration of hexamine

(kghexamine kg1

solution )

Greek letters

c

s

solution density (kg m3 )

Subscripts

g

j

k

l

gas

jth sieve used in size analysis

kth set of data points

liquid

Superscripts

exp

mod

experiment

model

References

[1] E.M. Smolin, L. Rapoport, The Chemistry of Heterocyclic Compounds, S-Triazines and Derivatives, Interscience Publication, New

York, 1959.

[2] J. Kirk, D.F. Othmer, Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, third

ed, vol. 2, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1978, p. 511.

[3] F. Meissner, E. Schwiedessen, D.F. Othmer, Continuous production

of hexamethylenetetramine, Ind. Eng. Chem. 46 (1954) 724.

[4] P. Bomio, J.R. Bourne, R.J. Davey, The growth and dissolution of

hexamethylene tetramine in aqueous solution, J. Cryst. Growth 30

(1975) 7785.

[5] J.R. Bourne, R.J. Davey, The growth of hexamethylene tetramine

crystals from ethanolic solutions, J. Cryst. Growth 34 (1976) 230

238.

[6] J.R. Bourne, R.J. Davey, H. Gros, K. Hungerbhler, The rotating

disk configuration in the measurement of crystal growth kinetics

from solution, J. Cryst. Growth 34 (1976) 221229.

[7] A.S. Myerson, S.E. Decker, F. Weiping, Solvent selection and batch

crystallization, Ind. Eng. Chem. Proc. Des. Dev. 25 (1986) 925929.

[8] S. Rohani, J.R. Bourne, A simplified approach to the operation of

batch crystallizer, Can. J. Chem. Eng. 68 (1990) 799806.

[9] H.A. Mohameed, B. Abu-Jdayil, M. Al Khateeb, Effect of cooling

rate on unseeded batch crystallization of KCl, Chem. Eng. Process.

41 (2002) 297.

[10] A.D. Randolph, M.A. Larson, Theory of Particulate Processes, Academic Press, New York, 1988, p. 59.

- The Reaction Between Formaldehyde and AmmoniaDiunggah olehalchemistra
- Hexamine production technologyDiunggah olehVinh Do Thanh
- Project Report on HexamineDiunggah olehtarunbnsl
- hexamine.pdfDiunggah olehmanoranjan singh
- Rate of a Reaction.pptxDiunggah olehLelouch V. Britania
- CHE 555 Assignment 2 May 2017Diunggah olehFatinnnnnn
- Prarancangan Pabrik Kimia HexamineDiunggah olehsimoehch
- Chemical Engineering Cost Estimation - Aries & NewtonDiunggah olehaalbuhse
- Calcium Carbonate Scale Formation—Assessing the InitialDiunggah olehDiman Aditya Kardi
- Chemical Kinetics 1.docDiunggah olehdanielmahsa
- White paper crys process devDiunggah olehKanjakha Pal
- vacuum panDiunggah olehanon_33049728
- CrystalProcessDev-A4.pdfDiunggah olehJonathan C Montealegre
- Potash CrystallizationDiunggah olehUditha Lakshan
- Water–disaccharides interactions in saturated solution and the crystallisation conditions - Gharsallaoui et al. (Food Chemistry, 2008)Diunggah olehFederico Kikut
- jurnal 2Diunggah olehanon_311911019
- 1-s2.0-S1383586605003874-mainDiunggah olehShafira Anandita
- Experiment 2 Preparation of SolutionDiunggah olehJoy Mutia
- 10.1016@s1359-0294(00)00034-0.pdfDiunggah olehSample Son
- Class 9 ScienceDiunggah olehnambiviyan
- StoichiometryWithoutTearsDiunggah olehThirulogachandar Asokan
- Phase Transformation 1 BasicsDiunggah olehAbdul Rahim
- Anvesh SeminarDiunggah olehAnvesh . M . Reddy
- Master Project 2013-07Diunggah olehArul Prakash
- Kinetics LectureDiunggah olehMohamed Mo Galal Hassan-Ghariba
- Pickering the Nature of Solutions, As Elucidated by the Freezing Points of Sulphuric Acid Solutions 1890Diunggah olehMarcelo Silvano de Camargo
- Chemistry 2Diunggah olehRomfel Jay Lucas Marquez
- jncs273Diunggah olehAgus Praditya T
- SPE_105765Diunggah olehvitorteles
- Urea ThermoDiunggah olehBlessedmartyr

- Kinetics of Hexamine Crystallization in Industrial ScaleDiunggah olehRafael
- Batch coolingDiunggah olehClarence AG Yue
- 20. Geokimia Dan SilikaDiunggah olehwandadwilestari
- 1a CrystallizationDiunggah olehLiew Wen Xuan
- 14 Fouling Strategies and the CleaningDiunggah olehengineer63
- 1-s2.0-S0255270107003741-mainDiunggah olehivanlawms6745
- [23] Theory of Coprecipitation MethodDiunggah olehSebastian Pala
- Chapter 5 GravimetricDiunggah olehNor Syafiqah
- Lecture 7.08 - Satuarted, Unsaturated, & Supersaturated SolutionsDiunggah olehJana Aldour
- Drying Crystallization SucroseDiunggah olehmarcogiulietti
- 489Diunggah olehyasirsshah261
- A Clearer View of CrystallizersDiunggah olehfawmer61
- PHD_TAREK_WALY-eDiunggah olehkell2408
- Chm221 Chapter 6Diunggah olehBadrudin Jundaili
- Advances in understanding hydration of Portland cement-Scrivener 2015Diunggah olehfcofimeuanl
- Crystalgrowth pvpDiunggah olehManouk Tchkrtchian
- Unit 1 Science Gr 8.pdfDiunggah olehEthan Skinner
- Gravimetric analysis...Diunggah olehSheldon Miller
- Chapter 22 Precipitation and Crystallization KineticsDiunggah olehAnshul Agrawal
- CrystallizationDiunggah olehkriss Wong
- Sub 154304Diunggah olehchirag_parekh7620046590
- 017Diunggah olehAri Soerjanto
- 2006 Takoyama_NaCl Crystal Growth Rate Under Conditions OfDiunggah olehheri
- Scaling Definition, Cause and SolutionDiunggah olehYunus Muharrahman
- Reduction of metal ionsDiunggah olehz987456321
- Nano ChemistryDiunggah olehAkash Sood
- OILFIELD CHEMICALS TRAINING MANUALDiunggah olehIndra Nainggolan
- Chapter 12 SolutionsDiunggah olehVinicius Costa
- Us 2368901Diunggah olehRahul Ravi Singh
- 1520 Solution 20 EquilibriaDiunggah olehNguyễn Minh Anh