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FOUNDATIONTM Fieldbus technology

Introduction

FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

Business environment leads to needs


Lower installation cost
Multiple instruments on a single pair of wires
Faster commissioning - loop check
Multi-variable transmitters

Operational improvements
More real time information about the process
Measurement validation - quality - safety
Tighter control by distribution of control functions
Mechanism for continuous innovation

Lower maintenance cost - predictive ...


Remote access - unified tools
Advanced process and device diagnostics
Integrated plant asset management functions

FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

What is fieldbus
Fieldbus
P

Process Plant
Automation
and
display systems

Open, digital, bi-directional communications network


Among field measurement and control devices and
automation/display systems

It replaces the traditional point-to-point connections


3

FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

Local Area Network for field instrumentation

Plant network
hierarchy

Office automation
and
departmental computers

Plantwide
Network

Control System
Local Area Networks

Automation and display


systems
Network for field
instrumentation

Fieldbus

FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

Networks for field devices - 3 types

Process
Control

Fieldbus
Block level

Devicebus
Byte level

Logic
Control

Sensorbus
Bit level

Simple Devices

Complex Devices

FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

The OSI model


For meaningful communications

between fieldbus devices and host


systems a common language must
be used

TAG TIC 101


Reactor Temperature
PV = 242 degrees C

Mail message:
Common language
Read & understood

User Layer

Network
Management

Postmaster:
Coordination

M
a
Nn
e a
t g
we
o m
r e
k n
t

Paper contains:
TO/FROM
Mail message

Application
Layer
Application
Layer
Presentation Layer
Session Layer

Envelope contains:
Address TO/FROM
Stamp
Mail message on paper
Location of information critical

Transport Layer
Network Layer
Data Link Layer

Mailbox:
Holds envelope
Address & flag

Physical Layer

Truck transports envelope,


independent of message

Wire Medium

FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

The OSI model


Layers 1-4 handle the communications between processors
Layers 5-7 handle the communications between applications
The user layer is not defined by the ISO-OSI model
User Layer
M
a
Nn
e a
t g
we
o m
r e
k n
t

Application
Layer
Application
Layer

Fieldbus

Presentation Layer
Session Layer
Transport Layer

Devicebus

Network Layer
Data Link Layer

Sensorbus

Physical Layer
Wire Medium

FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

Sensorbus - What is it?


Simple, low cost implementation
High speed, bit level
communication

Process
Control

Fieldbus
Block level

Simple discrete devices


Devicebus

Push buttons
Limit switches
Optical sensors

Byte level

Logic Sensorbus
Bit level
Control

Implementations:

Simple Devices

AS-i bus
Seriplex

FFTechnology/September2000

Complex
Devices

YOKOGAWA

Devicebus - What is it?


High speed, byte-level
communication

Focus on Factory Automation

Process
Control

Fieldbus

More complex discrete devices

Block level

PLC and remote I/O sub-systems

Devicebus
Byte level

Weighing systems

Logic Sensorbus
Bit level
Control

Electric drive sub-systems

Implementations:

Simple Devices

DeviceNet
Profibus DP

FFTechnology/September2000

Complex
Devices

YOKOGAWA

Fieldbus - What is it?


Digital replacement of analogue 420 mA signal
Unlocking advanced functionality

Process
Control

Focus on Process Control

Fieldbus
Block level

Simultaneous power and signal


Devicebus

on the bus - 2-wire

Supports intrinsic safety


Implementations:
Profibus PA
FOUNDATIONTM Fieldbus

Byte level

Logic Sensorbus
Bit level
Control
Simple Devices

10 FFTechnology/September2000

Complex
Devices

YOKOGAWA

FOUNDATIONTM Fieldbus
How does it work?

11 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

Past - Traditional instrumentation


Strengths
OPEN, interoperable and
interchangeable
Broad range of equipment
Multiple vendors
Standard control system interfaces
Standard support equipment

I/O

4-20 mA

Weaknesses
Limited information transmitted
One variable, one direction

Traditional analogue (4-20 mA)


and discrete instruments

Point-to-point wiring

12 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

Present - Hybrid instrumentation


Strengths
More information transmitted
Bi-directional communications
Improved performance and availability
Faster commissioning - ease of
configuration
Improved maintenance through
online diagnostics
Weaknesses
Limited interoperability
Manufacturer dependancy
Lack practical multi-drop capability
Requires special DCS interfaces

13 FFTechnology/September2000

Proprietary or
Custom Interface

I/O

PLC

Analyser
Hybrid Instruments or Intelligent
Instruments with Custom Interfaces

YOKOGAWA

Fieldbus - Customer expectations


Fieldbus is open and interoperable
Supports interchangeability
Supports various bus topologies
Supports control and automation functions

High Speed Backbone

Supported by multiple vendors


Broad range of equipment

Standard control system interfaces


Bi-directional communications
More information transmitted - alarm reporting
Improved performance and availability
Improved maintenance - on-line diagnostics

Bridge

Fieldbus

Standard support equipment


Ease of configuration - single tool
Faster commissioning

14 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

FOUNDATIONTM Fieldbus is an Enabler


Fieldbus
P

Process Plant
Automation
and
display systems

Designed for total plant automation - control and automation


Vendor independent Best in Class solutions
Innovation - seamless integration new device functionality
15 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

FOUNDATION Fieldbus topology


Host
Interface
Ethernet Field
Device

HSE Fieldbus

Linking
Device

I/O
Interface

H1 Fieldbus
H1 Fieldbus

16 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

The H1 FOUNDATION Fieldbus model


OSI model based

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Model


USER LAYER

APPLICATION LAYER

PRESENTATION LAYER

SESSION LAYER

TRANSPORT LAYER

NETWORK LAYER

DATA LINK LAYER

PHYSICAL LAYER

USER LAYER

FIELDBUS MESSAGE
SPECIFICATION
FIELDBUS ACCESS
SUBLAYER

H1
STACK

DATA LINK LAYER


H1 PHYSICAL LAYER

H1 PHYSICAL LAYER

The User Layer is not defined by the OSI Model

17 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

H1 practical implementation
SENSOR / ACTUATOR

SENSOR
USER LAYER
USER LAYER

H1
STACK

H1 STACK

MEDIA ACCESS UNIT (MAU)

PHYSICAL LAYER
Fieldbus wire

Fieldbus wire

18 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

What does FOUNDATION Fieldbus do?


Moves data from
SENSOR
USER LAYER

here to there

ACTUATOR
USER LAYER

Controls, alarms

Ensures secure
H1
STACK

communication

Connects to the
PHYSICAL LAYER

wires here

H1
STACK

PHYSICAL LAYER

Fieldbus wire

19 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

H1 Physical Layer
IEC 61158 compliant
USER LAYER

Converts data from the Stack to physical


signals on the fieldbus

Transmission is Synchronous Serial; the


H1
STACK

clock is encoded in the signal using


Manchester coding

Signalling rate is 31.25 kbits/sec


Supports copper wire and optical fibres
PHYSICAL LAYER

Supports Spur, Daisy chain and Chicken


foot (star) bus topologies

20 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

H1 Physical Layer topology


Up to 32 devices per segment

Spurs

Depends on several factors

Uses (un-)shielded twisted pair cable


Can use existing field wiring
Fibre optic cable is optional

Daisy chain

Power down the bus


Cable length up to 1900 m

Star

Depends on cable quality


Up to 9500 m using repeaters

Designed for intrinsic safety

21 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

Number of devices on a H1 segment

Rate
Mode
Topology
Power Supply Separate
Devices recommended

Local Power

Non I.S.

I.S.

31.25 kbit/s
Voltage
Bus/Tree
DC
2 - 32

31.25 kbit/s
Voltage
Bus/Tree
DC
2 - 12

31.25 kbit/s
Voltage
Bus/Tree
DC
2-6

The maximum number of devices on a H1 fieldbus segment may be


limited by the communication rates of the devices, the maximum
number of addresses on a segment (240), or the available power.

22 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

Designed for intrinsic safety


Based upon Entity concept
Bus power defined as 1.2 W max.
Us= 10.6 V

Current available (cable type A)


60 mA on a 1900 m segment
90 mA on a 400 m segment
Gas group IIB or IIC

IS

Fieldbus

Typically 4 devices on a segment


Multi-barrier concept available

One IS barrier, one pair


for many devices

23 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

Intrinsic safety - Future direction


Based upon FISCO concept
Bus power defined as
Gas group IIC - 1.9 W max.
Gas group IIB - 4.9 W max
Us= 12.6 V

Current available (cable type A)


110 mA on a 750 m segment IIC
200 mA on a 750 m segment IIB

IS

Fieldbus

Typically:
6 devices on a segment in IIC
10 devices on a segment in IIB

Multi-barrier concept available

One IS barrier, one pair


for many devices

24 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

Cable type versus segment length


Cable Type
A: Twisted-pair with Shield
H1 (31.25 kbit/s)

Gauge No.

Max. Length

#18AWG

1900 m

B: Multi-twisted-pair with Shield


H1 (31.25 kbit/s)
#22AWG

1200 m

C: Twisted-pair without Shield


H1 (31.25 kbit/s)
#22AWG

400 m

D: Multi-core without Shield


H1 (31.25 kbit/s)
#16AWG

200 m

Any existing, good quality #18 AWG twisted pair cable can be
used for fieldbus.

25 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

H1 cable length calculation


Cable type
A
B
C
D

Homerun
Cable

* Total length including all spurs

J Box
Field Devices

H1 total length *
1900 m
1200 m
400 m
200 m

Spur

# of devices
25 - 32
19 - 24
15 - 18
13 - 14
2 - 12

Total max Spur length **


1m
30 m
60 m
90 m
120 m

** Maximum length of any spur

26 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

Extending the length of a H1 segment


Repeaters are used to extend the length of a segment
A repeater is an active device

Up to 4 repeaters can be used on a segment


Maximum distance between any two devices on the network is 9500 meters
Fieldbus Segments
T

T
T

T
Fieldbus
Repeater

Fieldbus
Repeater

Fieldbus
Repeater

Fieldbus
Repeater

Fieldbus Network - up to 9500 meter

27 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

H1 communication stack
IEC 61158 compliant
USER LAYER

Data Link Layer (DLL)


Application Layer (AL)

Establishes basic communication services


H1
STACK

PHYSICAL LAYER

between fieldbus devices


Encoding and decoding of User Layer messages
Deterministic control of message transmission
Efficient and secure message transfer
Supports scheduled messaging for time critical
communication (Publisher/Subscriber)
Supports unscheduled messaging for
request/response communication (Client/Server)
Supports unscheduled messaging for Event
Notification (multicast)
Publishes the time on the bus

28 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

H1 device types

100 Mbits/sec HSE Fieldbus

Host Interface

Bridge

Ethernet Field Device

Basic device
Link Master device
Link Active Scheduler (LAS)
31.25 kbits/sec H1 Fieldbus

Linking device (Bridge)

H1 Field Device

29 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

H1 Link Master - Link Active Scheduler (LAS)


Link Active Scheduler controls communication on the bus
A device may send packets of information when permitted by the LAS

Maintains a list of all devices on the segment - Live List


Distributes time to all devices on the segment
H1 Fieldbus
LAS
BASIC
DEVICE

LINK MASTER
DEVICE
(Primary)

BASIC
DEVICE

BASIC
DEVICE

30 FFTechnology/September2000

LINK MASTER
DEVICE
(Back-up)

BASIC
DEVICE

YOKOGAWA

H1 Link Master redundancy - Back-up


LAS function transferred when primary Link Mater fails!

H1 Fieldbus
LAS
BASIC
DEVICE

LINK MASTER
DEVICE
(Primary)

LAS
BASIC
DEVICE

BASIC
DEVICE

31 FFTechnology/September2000

LINK MASTER
DEVICE
(Back-up)

BASIC
DEVICE

YOKOGAWA

Scheduled data transfer - step 1


LAS = Link Active Scheduler
P = Publisher
S = Subscriber
CD = Compel Data

Schedule

LAS

a
b
c

Fieldbus Physical Medium

CD(x,a)
Device x

Device z

Device y

32 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

Scheduled data transfer - step 2


LAS = Link Active Scheduler
P = Publisher
S = Subscriber
DL = Data Link Packet

Schedule

LAS

Physical Medium
DL(a)
Device y

Device x

Device z

33 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

Unscheduled data transfer step 1


Token
Circulation
List

x
y
z

LAS

Physical Medium

LAS = Link Active Scheduler


P = Publisher
S = Subscriber
PT= Pass Token
M = Message

PT(z)
Device x

Device z

Device y

34 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

Unscheduled data transfer step 2

LAS

Physical Medium

LAS = Link Active Scheduler


P = Publisher
S = Subscriber
PT= Pass Token
M = Message

DL (M)

Device x

Device y

Device z

35 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

Publisher/Subscriber
Synchronous data transfer
Network scheduled
Deterministic - control
One-to-many
Unidirectional
Used for publishing data

Temp: 23.4 C
Data

Compel Data

36 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

Client/Server
Asynchronous data transfer
Unscheduled
One-to-one
Bi-directional
Used for operator messages

Flow: 50 m3/hr
Response

Request
Pass Token

37 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

Event notification
Asynchronous data transfer
Unscheduled
One-to-many
Uni-directional
Used for event notification and

HI TEMP
Alarm

trend reports

Data

Pass Token

38 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

H1 User Layer - Unique differentiator


Provides the interface with the process
SENSOR
USER LAYER

and for user interaction with the host system

Standard Function Blocks


Consistent definition of data for integrated and
seamless distribution of functions in field devices from
different manufacturers

H1
STACK

System Management
Deterministic scheduling of function blocks

Device descriptions
Host system to operate the device without the need for
custom programming
PHYSICAL LAYER

Common File Format


Off-line system configuration by host system

39 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

Minimum 3 blocks reside in a device


The Resource Block
Describes the characteristics of a device
Contains manufacturer information

The Transducer Block


Physical I/O interface with the actual sensor or actuator
Performs A/D conversions, square root extraction, linearisation etc.
Transmits/receives information to/from Function Blocks
The Transducer Block is the window to the process - diagnostics

Function Blocks
Similar to the function blocks in todays DCS and PLC systems
Mandatory is at least one Function Block depending on the type of device

40 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

H1 practical implementation
SENSOR / ACTUATOR

SENSOR
USER LAYER
USER LAYER

H1
STACK

H1 STACK

MEDIA ACCESS UNIT (MAU)

PHYSICAL LAYER
Fieldbus wire

Fieldbus wire

41 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

Differential pressure transmitter - example


SENSOR

TRANSDUCER
BLOCK

USER LAYER

H1 STACK
ANALOGUE
INPUT
BLOCK

ANALOGUE
INPUT
BLOCK

RESOURCE
BLOCK

MAU

Fieldbus wire

DIAGNOSTIC
DATA

DIFFERENTIAL
PRESSURE

42 FFTechnology/September2000

STATIC
PRESSURE

YOKOGAWA

Valve positioner - example


TRANSDUCER
BLOCK

ACTUATOR

USER LAYER
DIGITAL
DIGITAL
INPUT
INPUT
BLOCK
BLOCK

ANALOGUE
OUTPUT
BLOCK

H1 STACK

VALVE
POSITION
PID
BLOCK

MAU

Fieldbus wire

DIAGNOSTIC
DATA

43 FFTechnology/September2000

RESOURCE
BLOCK
LIMIT
SWITCH

LIMIT
SWITCH

YOKOGAWA

Function Blocks
Monitor and control process applications
Input blocks - AI, DI
Output blocks - AO, DO
Control blocks - PID, Ratio, Signal Characteriser, Lead/Lag etc.

Reside in any field device and/or host system


Simple control functions may migrate into field devices

Form deterministic control schemes


Interconnect over the bus to implement an integrated control strategy
Interconnect to blocks in the host as part of an advanced control scheme

Execute periodically - cyclically


44 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

Control functions migrate into the field

H1 Fieldbus

Precise timing of block execution

OUT

AI

IN

OUT

PID

45 FFTechnology/September2000

CAS_IN OUT

AO

YOKOGAWA

Distributed control applications

Fieldbus

Host
System

Device 1

Device 2

Application A

Device 3
Application B

Application C

Process

46 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

Function Block structure


Block appearance is standardised
Algorithms are vendor specific
Room for differentiation

Consistent, easy, block

Algorithm

oriented

configuration

Inputs

Outputs
Example:PID

Consistent definition of information


being communicated
Standardised status indication

Alarm
Subsystem

Common set of modes

Mode Structure

Event
(Manual, Auto, etc.) Subsystem

Standard method of mode propagation

47 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

H1 Function Block execution scheduling


Scheduled
Function Block
execution

Scheduled
Function Block
communication

Request/Response
Communication
(unscheduled)

AI
PID
AO
LAS macro-cycle

LAS macro-cycle

Precise timing of block execution - cyclic


Function Block communication over the bus is immediate
48 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

Device Descriptions (DDs)


Extended description of the capability of a field device
Written in a standard Device Description Language (DDL)
DDL technology implements the FF interoperability concept
Interpreted by host system and provide the information needed by
the host to see and use field devices

Provided on CD or floppy or may be uploaded from the field device

Standard and Incremental DDs


Standard DDs for standard Fieldbus Foundation device profiles, including Function
Blocks and Transducer Blocks
Incremental DDs to define manufacturer-specific extensions

49 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

Common File Format (CFF)


Describes the functions and capabilities of a field device
In conjunction with Device Descriptions allows data exchange
among device manufacturers, system builders and end-users
Capabilities File
Electronic form of device specification - used for device configuration
Value File
Data to be downloaded
Uploaded data from devices

Both are standard ASCII text files for human readability

Enable a host system to configure the system off line


Yokogawa complies - Yokogawas main contribution to FF specifications

50 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

What is Interoperability?
The ability to implement control strategies on a system
implemented with devices from multiple vendors

Delivered by:
Standard Physical Layer
Standard communication protocol (Stack)
Standard function blocks
Device descriptions
Common File Format

Freedom for end-users to chose Best in Class solutions


The ability to substitute a field device from one vendor for that
of another vendor without loss of functionality ..

51 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

Interoperability fulfils the expectations of ...


Basic interfacing
Interconnectivity

Support for innovation


Seamless integration of new device features

Substitution
Replacement of similar devices from different manufacturers
Expectation established by the analogue 4-20 mA standard
Substitution requires re-configuration

All layers of the OSI model plus User Layer must interoperate
Physical Layer, Communication Stack and User Layer

52 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

Conformity and Interoperability test procedure


Stack conformity testing

Device interoperability testing

SENSOR

ACTUATOR

SENSOR

ACTUATOR

USER LAYER

USER LAYER

USER LAYER

USER LAYER

H1
STACK

H1
STACK

H1
STACK

H1
STACK

PHYSICAL LAYER

PHYSICAL LAYER

PHYSICAL LAYER

PHYSICAL LAYER
Fieldbus

Fieldbus

Stack registration
20 different stacks registered
Basic and Link Master devices

Device registration
100 different devices registered

Key to interoperability

FOUNDATION

53 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

Will interoperability improve


Not all layers interoperate - tighten the specification
Capabilities File imperfections - vendors to fix
Response time; device expects to have a response within x seconds

Bugs in stack conformity tester - to be fixed


Lack of capability - parameters not in non-volatile RAM
Problem reoccurs at power up; requires down load - vendors to fix

Host System testing being debated


Common File Format is key to interoperability
Yokogawa complies - Yokogawas main contribution to FF specifications

54 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

FOUNDATIONTM Fieldbus
High Speed Ethernet

55 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

FOUNDATION Fieldbus topology


Host
Interface
Ethernet Field
Device

HSE Fieldbus

Linking
Device

I/O
Interface

H1 Fieldbus
H1 Fieldbus

56 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

The HSE FOUNDATION Fieldbus model


OSI model based

FOUNDATION Fieldbus HSE Model


USER LAYER

COTS
Commercial Of The Shelve
Ethernet equipment

HSE
APPLICATION
PROTOCOL

STANDARD
ETHERNET STACK

STANDARD
ETHERNET STACK

PHYSICAL LAYER

PHYSICAL LAYER

USER LAYER

HSE
STACK

HSE PHYSICAL LAYER

The Application Layer is not defined in Ethernet

57 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

HSE Physical Layer


High speed backbone
Converts data from the Stack to physical
USER LAYER

signals on the fieldbus


Uses standard Ethernet electronics
Supports redundant media and devices
Provides interface to other protocols

HSE
STACK

Transmission is TCP/IP
Collision detection

Signalling rate is 100 Mbits/sec


PHYSICAL LAYER

Supports copper wire and optical fibres


Up to 100 m using shielded twisted pair cable
Up to 2000 m using optical fibres

58 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

FOUNDATIONTM Fieldbus integrated network


HSE Client
High

Spe

ed

gh
Hi

Ethe
r

ne t

dE
e
e
Sp

COTS
100 Mbit/s
Switch
High Spe
ed Ether
net

et
n
r
th e

Linking
Device

Linking
Device
H1

P
L

Plant

H1

H1

H1

Plant

Plant

Plant

59 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

HSE communication stack


HSE stacks consists of
USER LAYER

Standard Ethernet stack


FF-HSE Application Protocol

Establishes basic communication services


HSE
STACK

PHYSICAL LAYER

between Ethernet devices


Encoding and decoding of User Layer messages
Deterministic control of message transmission
Efficient and secure message transfer
Supports scheduled messaging for time critical
communication (Publisher/Subscriber)
Supports unscheduled messaging for
request/response communication (Client/Server)
Supports unscheduled messaging for Event
Notification (multicast)
Provides Bridging and Redundancy

60 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

HSE User Layer - Unique differentiator


Provides the interface with the process
SENSOR
USER LAYER

and for user interaction with the host system

Standard Function Blocks


Consistent definition of data for integrated and
seamless distribution of functions in Ethernet
(field) devices from different manufacturers

HSE
STACK

System Management
Deterministic scheduling of function blocks

Device descriptions
PHYSICAL LAYER

Host system to operate the device without the


need for custom programming

Common File Format


Off-line system configuration by host system
61 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

Flexible Function Blocks


Extends the Function Block model into
Discrete Manufacturing

Multiple I/O (MIO) Blocks

FFB is a Wrapper for an


Application-specific Algorithm

8 channels per block


Multiple Analogue Input
Multiple Analogue Output
Multiple Discrete Input
Multiple Discrete Output

ApplicationSpecific
Algorithm

Flexible Specific Blocks


Application specific algorithm

IEC

61131 compliant

62 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

Distributed control functions


HSE Fieldbus

AI

OUT

IN

PID

OUT
BK_CAL IN

BK_CAL OUT

AO

63 FFTechnology/September2000

CAS_IN

YOKOGAWA

HSE Function Block execution scheduling


Scheduled
Function Block
execution

Scheduled
Function Block
communication

Request/Response
Communication
(unscheduled)

AI
PID
AO
LAS macro-cycle

LAS macro-cycle

Precise timing of block execution - cyclic


Function Block communication over the bus is immediate
64 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

FOUNDATIONTM Fieldbus
Designed for total plant automation - control and automation
100 Mbit/s Switch
HMI

Batch Controller
FFB

Gateway

PLC
FFB

Dry contacts

Linking
Device

Pressure
switches
RTD,s & T/Cs
Push buttons

FFB

FFB

Device Net
Interbus S
ASI bus

AI, AO, PID, FFB

Profibus DP
Control Net

On-Off valves

65 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

High Speed Ethernet (HSE) - summary


Cost-effective, high-speed, plant-wide backbone
Standard Ethernet technology running at 100 Mbit/s
Availability of standard Ethernet equipment
Flexible Function Blocks
HSE field device running standard function blocks

Fault tolerant communications and linking devices


Bridging of multiple H1 networks on a linking device
Interface to other protocols through gateways
66 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

FOUNDATIONTM Fieldbus
Impact on Engineering and Installation

67 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

Simplified engineering and installation

4-20 mA

IS

IS

IS

IS

IS

Traditional 4-20 mA wiring,


one IS barrier, one pair
for each device

Fieldbus

One IS barrier, one pair


for many devices

68 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

Fieldbus cabling concept


Quick-connect junction box
bus terminator
Fieldbus H1 segment

Provides flexibility in Plug and Play


General purpose and Intrinsic Safe concepts
Monitors bus voltage and current
Detects short circuits and other wiring problems

69 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

Multi-barrier concept by Turck


Multiple EEx-e / EEx-i barriers for
Linking device

Fieldbus power conditioner

Cabinet - Safe Area

improved solutions for Zone 1


hazardous areas
Up to 4 devices per barrier
Typically up to 12 devices per
segment

I.S. Zone

70 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

Impact on Engineering and Installation


Increased capabilities due to full digital communications
Less devices required - less process intrusions
Reduced wiring and wire terminations - multiple devices on one wire
Less engineering and cabling check-out

Increased freedom in selecting suppliers - interoperability


Unified configuration and device management tools - self-documenting
Download off-line configured network/device configuration
Simpler and significantly faster commissioning

Reduced loading on control room equipment


Distribution of some control and input/output functions to field devices
Smaller control room footprint
Simpler engineering effort

71 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

FOUNDATIONTM Fieldbus
Impact on Operations

72 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

Expanding the view of the process

4-20 mA

IS

IS

IS

IS

IS

73 FFTechnology/September2000

Fieldbus

YOKOGAWA

Utilising the intelligence of the field device


On-board computing power enables
step changes in functionality

Become the window to the process


Become information servers in the
field based architecture

Become an integral part of the


system

74 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

Increased process information


Fieldbus-based
Automation
Systems
Traditional
Automation
Systems

Non-control
Information
Control
Information

Today

Future

Path to integrated Plant Resource Management

75 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

Control functions migrate into the field

AI

PID

PID

AO

4-20 mA

Fieldbus

AI

In todays systems, control functions


reside in central controllers.

PID
AO

all Fieldbus enables control and I/O functions


to be distributed to field instruments.

76 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

Sources of process variability


All control loops

Causes of variability:

30%

Poor tuning

30%

Poor field device performance

15%

Control strategy design

5%
15%

Poor process design


Running properly

Source: Entech - Results from audits of over 300 DCS installations

77 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

Cost savings through improved stability


Product
Specification

New Process
Set Point

Process
Set Point

Increase Increase in
in Scrap Energy and
Feedstock
Costs
Costs

Impact of
reduced
process
variability
Increase in
Quality

Move
process
set point
closer to
product
spec.

Reduce
Scrap
Costs

Reduce
Energy and
Feedstock
Costs

Significant feedstock reduction; virtually no scrap costs


Improved plant productivity
Higher, more consistent final product quality
78 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

Impact on Operations
Improved process performance
Improved accuracy of measurement

Control Anywhere
Tighter control, improved responsiveness and reduced process variability
Reduced raw materials usage - less wastage
Stabilised product quality

Expanded view of the instrumentation


Real time process data includes status information
Improved process availability
Unified Device Management Tools
Consistent device configuration and calibration

79 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

FOUNDATIONTM Fieldbus
Impact on Maintenance

80 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

Simplified maintenance

4-20 mA

IS

IS

IS

IS

IS

Traditional 4-20 mA wiring, one Process Value

Fieldbus

Mode, Value, Status, Alarms, Trends

81 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

Path to Plant Resource Management


Plant
Diagnostics

Field based information servers


Field
Performance
Diagnostics
Device
Diagnostics

Level 4

Level 3

process
equipment
Fisher

Communications
Diagnostics

Level 2

actuators, elements
valves, connections

Level 1
electronics
Fisher

communications

82 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

Field based information server


Auto-tuning function
Matches positioner with the valve

Actual valve position feedback


Tight shut-off
Limit switches

Valve travel accumulation


Valve travel alerts
Prevents packing leakage's

Air supply pressure monitoring


Maintenance history

25:1 data explosion in HART


environment
200:1 data explosion in Fieldbus
environment

83 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA

Impact on Maintenance
Field device has on-board diagnostics
Increased measurement reliability and availability
Eliminates unscheduled downtime

Trouble shoot field devices from central work station


Eliminates unnecessary trips to the field
Problem identification before getting out
Reduced effort for field calibration

Primary element for


measuring flow

Advanced diagnostics
Clogged impulse line detection
Transducer Block implementation

84 FFTechnology/September2000

P transmitter

YOKOGAWA

Fieldbus - a revolution in plant automation

85 FFTechnology/September2000

YOKOGAWA