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POLICINGINCENTRALANDEASTERNEUROPE:ComparingFirsthandKnowledgewithExperiencefromtheWest,
1996CollegeofPoliceandSecurityStudies,Slovenia

THEANALYSYSOFSPECIALPSYCHOLOGICALPROFILE
:BEGINNINGOFPROFILINGINSLOVENIA
PolonaSeli
INTRODUCTION
SomeofthemastersofSloveniancriminalinvestigativeoperativehavealreadyinthepasttriedto
thinkandobtainconclusionsinthewaysthatwouldbecalledabroadapsychologicalprofilingof
perpetrators.Criminalinvestigators,mostlyintheareaofhomicidesandsexualoffences,replaced
duringthisnaivephaseoftheuseof(psychological)profilingtheirlackofknowledgeofpsychological
conceptsrathersuccessfullybyanexceptionalintuition,experience,abilitiesofobservationandcreative
gatheringofselectedinformation.Theyobtainedgreatsuccessthroughtheiradmirableenthusiasm,
intuition,creativityanddevotiontotheirprofession.
Thepresenttimeisundoubtedlyaturningpointinthedevelopmentofcriminalisticscienceintheareaof
investigationofthemostseriouscriminaloffencesofgeneralcrimetypeinSlovenia(homicides,sexual
offences,offencesagainstproperty).Itwouldbereasonabletodefinethecitedareaofcriminal
investigativeworkinamultidisciplinarywayandplaceinitthepsychologicalprofilingasoneof
irreplaceableforms.Consideringthepastengagementofcriminalistsandpresentresourceswecould
exceedthenaive,amateurishuseofthecitedmethodandimprovethequalityandefficiencyofwork
atthesametime.
1PSICHOLOGICALPROFILINGINSLOVENIANCRIMINALISTICPRACTICE
Weunderstandpsychologicalprofilingasaspecialprofessionalsupportandasaprocessofcreative
synthesisofascertainmentsobtainedatthesceneofthecrime,firstinformationgathered,forensic
medicalandpsychological,psychodinamicalyorientedskillsandcognisance.Theapplicabilityofpsycho
dynamicallyorientedtheoreticalconceptsandthecapabilityofthepsychologisttorecogniseconcrete
behaviouralpatternsandtheirinterpretationinagivensituationisbasedonnumerousexperiences,
speciallyforeignones,aswellasonthepostulateofpsychologicalconnectionbetweenpersonal
characteristics(orstructurerespectively)andbehaviouralmanifestations.Anybehaviourmustbe
interpretedastheresultofaninteractionbetweenapersonalityandcircumstantialconditionsvital
situations,whichcouldhaveabreakingimpactonbehaviourofacertainperson,areoftentheproductof
theactivitiesofthatperson.Itisthereforereasonabletodefinetheinteractionbetweenasituation(which,
e.g.culminatedinacriminalact)andpersonalcharacteristicsofanindividual(theperpetrators,whose
psychologicalprofileistobeprepared)withpsychicalphenomena,likedesires,expectations,motifsand
interests.Theyallinfluencethecreationandthechoiceofsituationsofacertainkind.
ThepsychologicalprofilinghashadanenormoussuccessintheUSAintheareaofdiscoveringthe
murdererswithsexualmotivation,inmurderswithundistinguishedmotivewhenthemurderer'spossible
identityortherelationwiththevictimisnotallocated.ItiscompletelydifferentfromsocalledSlovenian
folklorehomicides,causedbyfamilyneighbourhoodrelations,relatedtotheabuseofalcohol,
adulteriesandsimilar,oftendramaticoccurrences,wherethemotiveispracticallyobviousandthepath
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canleadquitesmoothlytotheperpetrator.MorethantwothirdsofhomicidesinSloveniahavebeenof
thedescribedtype.
Sexualhomicidesarisefromdifferent,muchlesstransparentand/orstereotypedynamicswherethe
motivesarenotclearorvisibleandmuchlessdirectlyapplicabledatamaybeobtainedbycriminal
investigation.Theserialkillersrepresentspecialdifficulty,oftenpervertsandsadists,withseriously
damagedpersonalities.Alotofusefulmaterialswerewrittenaboutthembypsychoanalyticallyoriented
theoreticians,whodefinedtheactivitiesofaserialkillerasamurderofamother,sinceitsupposedly
reflectsthedemandfortheprohibitionofincest,i.e.ademandforafatherwhowouldpreventtheaccess
tothemother.Thedataoftheanamnesisofserialkillersoftentestifytheabsenceofafatherlyfigure,
whichobviouslyconfirmsthepsychoanalyticalthesisthattheunsolvedOedipussituationandthe
prevalenceofthemother'soverego(inthesenseofnormativeinstance)bringserialkillerstocommita
seriesofmurders,whichprotecttheperpetratorfromthreateningthefemale(incestuous)pleasureand
theyrepresentonthesymboliclevelthemurderofamother(thesourceofthesethreats).Thesearch
fortheperpetratorswiththedescribedpersonalitydynamicsrequiresthemethods,whichsupplementthe
conventionalcriminalisticmethods,sinceeventheseeminglymostabsurddeedscouldhaveamajor
informationvalueandcouldbepaintedwithapersonaltouchofthemurderer.Allthismustbenoticed,
recognised,evaluated,understood,explained,psychologicallyconnectedandtranslated.Inthissense
thepsychologistmaysupplementcriminalinvestigatorswithanewdimension,withaninsightintothe
latent,butnottheleastdeterminativemotivationoftheperpetrator.
Itisundoubtedlypossibletoexplainthroughpsychologicalfactorsanimportantpartoftheactivitiesof
theperpetrator,however,alwayswithintheframeworkofaconcretesituationandlifehistory,whichis
foreveryonecolouredwithnumerousinteractionsandinterpersonaltransactionsduringtheprocessof
socialisation.Thepsychodynamicviewpointisunequivocallystressingthatthequickestandmost
radicalstructuringofthepersonalityhappensinearlychildhood,howeverthisprocessofpersonality
developmentcontinuesandlaststhroughoutthewholelife.Whilewefollowtheintentiontoform,
throughourwork,apersonalityprofileofamostprobableperpetratoronthebasisofallthedata
available,obtainedthroughcriminalinvestigationofacertaincriminaldeedandthroughpsychological
skills,weshouldunderstandthispersonalityfromtheviewpointofitsdevelopment.Wethereforelook
forthemostprobablepsychologicalreconstructionofsuchdevelopment,inwhichwemustdefinethe
obtaineddegreeofpsychosexualorganisation,fixation,etc.,aswellastheleveloftheobjective
relationships,bothcloselyknittedbetweenthem.Theattainedstadiumofthedevelopmentofobject
relationscanbeseenininterpersonaltransactionsorinrelationtotheworldingeneralrespectively,and
itisthereforenecessarytoknowhowandbeabletorecogniseandexplainitonthegroundsofthedata
gathered.
2APPLICABILITYOFPSYCHOLOGICALCONCEPTSINCRIMINALISTICPRACTICE
Thetheoryofpsychodynamics,whichbelongstogeneraltheoriesofpsychologicaldeterminationof
humanbehaviour,speciallyaccentuatingthelatentdeterminantsofbehaviour,maydemonstrateitselfas
anextremelyproductivemodelofthoughtandexplanatorycontentsalsoatdirectcriminalisticwork.
However,theavailablequantityofknowledgeincreasesthecapability(possibility)ofunderstanding,
explanation,previsionandplanningofconcreteandusefulstrategiesofinvestigationofcertaincriminal
acts.Psychologythusoffersakindofexplanatorysupport,usuallyneverneglectedbythemastersof
criminalisticprofession,thoughsomepsychologicalconceptsandprofessionaltermsareunknownto
them.Thisisthereasonwhythepsychologist'sdutyisalsotomediatehis/herknowledgeinanadequate
way,withoutunnecessarypsychologizing,sincethisistheonlywayhe/shecanbecameaproductive
memberoftheteam.Thepractitioners(criminalists=criminalinvestigators)usuallybelieve,thatitis
notimportant,howsomethingiscalled,itisonlyimportantthatitworks(helps,pointsthewayto
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solution).Thepsychologicalprofileofaperpetrator,obtainedonthebasisofthereconstructionofthe
development,dynamics,traitsandparticularities,isadescriptionofconcrete,mostprobable
characteristicsofacertainperson.However,suchconcreteoutlineofpersonalitymaybeformedonlyon
thebasisofexcellentknowledgeofpsychodynamicconceptsanditems.
Fromthelatteritresultsthatanyhumanactivity,determinedinitsdevelopmentwithinherentrulesand
processesoflearning(lifeexperiencesreshapedbythesociety),derivesfromnecessitiesandisaimedto
fulfilthesenecessities.However,behaviourisonlyfinallydeterminedbynecessities,whichclassifiesthe
necessitiesamongnumerousdeterminantsofbehaviour(includingalsosocialrules).Thustheactivityis
inawayareactiontovariouspossibleimpulses.Thehigherstructuredmentalphenomena(conscious
functions)havedirectionalandbrakingfunctioninrelationtolowerlevelsofpsychicalorganisation
(latentmotivationorsubconsciousness).Thushumanbehaviourasawholeismotivatedandisrunning
underdeterminedrules,whichincludethewaysinwhichthemindandsentimentinfluencethedynamics
ofmotivesinsuchawaythattheyfollowtheprincipleofenergysavinginsteadoftheprincipleof
pleasure.Behaviourmustalwaysbeunderstoodintegrallyandasawholefromthemindandsentiment
tothemotoractivitiesandespeciallydeterminedinmanyways,onepartofbehaviourdeterminants
beinglatent(subconscious).
Anyevaluationand/orexplanationofcertainbehaviour(act)must,ofcourse,becarriedoutintegrally
fromthepersonalityasawholeandmusttakeinconsiderationallofitscomponents.Presentbehaviour
canbeunderstoodonlyifitisgeneticallyresearched,sincesimilarformsofbehaviourmayhave
differentpsychologicalmeaning.Anyinterpretationofbehaviourcanberoundeduponlyifitincludes
thereasons,whichcausedsuchbehaviour.Theinterpretationofcausesisimpossiblewithouttakinginto
considerationthehistoryofthedevelopmentofbasicareamotives(intentional,possessive,self
affirmative,eroticandsexual)andofthetendenciesthatshowthemselvesthroughbehaviourthehistory
ofthedevelopmentofmentalabilities(e.g.:thinking)andrelationswiththesituationsinwhichthe
discussedbehaviourappearsandrepeatsitself.
Psychodynamicandegopsychologicalconceptshaveundoubtedlyimportantimplicationsfor
psychologicalprofiling,sinceitispossibletounderstandalot,e.g.:fromtheattitudetowardsthings(at
thesiteofaconcretecrime),fromthewayofexecution(e.g.murder)andfromthetracesfoundonthe
victim(onthebasisofwhichaforensicexpertmaypresumewhathappenedtothevictimbeforeand/or
aftertheact),alsoaboutthephaseaconcreteperpetratorreachedinhis/hers(personality)development.
Suchfindingsrepresentanadequatebasisfortheeliminationofcertaincharacteristics,conditionsand/or
activitiesoftheperpetratoraswellasforpresumingsomeofhisothercharacteristics.Thoughstrongly
generalised,itisunquestionablypossibletodescribeanyperpetratorasapersonnotadaptedtovalid
formalandinformalregulations(norms,values)ofanormalsocialandculturalsystem.The
psychologyseesinthecitedfactthedetrimentofpsychosocialfunctioning.Oneoftheclearestcriteriais
thecapabilitytoadapt,whichimplicatestheconsiderationoftheprincipleofreality(notpleasure)and
maybedescribedasastructureofmutualrelationswiththeenvironment,whereman'sownstructuresof
adaptabilityprovokeadjustments(changes)withinhimselfandintheenvironment.Therelationbetween
thetwoisalwaysrecurrent.Certainmarkedlysadisticandperverseserialkillersapparentlylivedvery
orderlyandprivatelives,howeverintheircaseitwasonlyanappearance,asocialfront,a
superficialjudgementofinattentiveandnonengagedneighboursand/oracquaintances,noneofwhich
wasdirectedtowardtheprivatesideoflife(indistinctionfromthealreadymentionedpublicside).
Withtheintroductionofpsychologicalprofilingwehavetoovercome,asquicklyaspossible,theexistent
amateurish,unsystematicandprimarilyinformalsolvingofthequestionsofthistype.Discoveryof
perpetratorsofcriminaloffencesofgeneralcrimerequiresaquickrevivalandintroductionofallthose
formsofworkthatcouldincreasetheprofessionalismandefficiencyofcriminalinvestigationservice.A
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multidisciplinaryapproachisundoubtedlypromisinginthissensewhilethevalueandroleof
psychologicalsciencesarecompletelyverifiedandconfirmedbynumerousforeignandsomeofour,
homeexperiences.
Psychologicalfactors(dynamics,personalcharacteristicsandbehaviouralpatterns)ofperpetratorsofthe
mostseriouscriminaldeedsareunfortunatelythephenomenaonwhichthereisverylittlesystematically
collectedandarrangedknowledgeinSlovenia.Thisknowledgecouldofcoursebeacquiredfromthe
analysisofsuccessfullysolvedpastcasesandthroughthediscussionswithperpetrators,already
condemnedfortheircrimes(weplantocarryoutbothtasks)however,thebestsolutionisundoubtedly
togetinvolvedintheinvestigationofactual,unsolvedcriminaloffencescasebycaseandtostudyand
gatherthedatathroughalongerperiodoftime.Thelatterisalsoanurgentconditionfortheformationof
anappropriatedatabase,whichwillprospectivelyallowalsoamorevalidpredictability,basedonthe
characteristicsofperpetratorsfromourculturalarea.
Webelievetoattainanadequateawarenessandobtainnecessaryexperiencethroughconsiderationand
useofboth,nomotheticandidiographicapproach,throughdirectobservationandqualityinterviews,
throughdirectengagement,caseanddocumentstudies,aswellasthroughadequateanalyticalstatistics,
allofwhichcouldopenapathtopsychologicalprofilingasaprofessionalsupportandmethodofwork
thatcouldhardlybemissing.
3THEPROCESSOFPROFILING
Theinvestigatorsofthemostseriousformsofcrimes,likehomicides,rapes,somecategoriesofcrime
againstproperty,etc.,arenotorientedtowardsthediscoveryofsociopsychodynamiclatentsourcesand
factorsofsuchcrimes,butstrivetodiscoverconcreteperpetratorsassoonaspossible.Thecriminalists
mayofcoursespeeduptheidentificationofaconcreteperpetratoralsowiththehelpofetiologically
orientedstudiesandknowledgeonhumanfunctioningofferedbypsychology.Profilingcouldtherefore
beunderstoodasacreativesynthesisofknowledgeandexperiencesofbothprofessions,asamethodby
whichthemostimportantpersonalcharacteristicsandbehaviouralpatternsofperpetratorsmaybe
defined.
Theprocessofthepreparationofapsychologicalprofilecouldrightlybecomparedwiththeprocessof
psychodiagnosticsandtheplanningoftreatmentinaclinicalpsychologicalsituation,whichisoneofthe
morevalidreasonsfortheintroductionofpsychodynamicorientedexpertsincriminalisticpracticeand
analytics.Thesettingupoftheversionofperpetrator'spersonalandbehaviouralcharacteristicsisa
typicalproblemsituationinwhichtheinformationgatheredhastobethoroughlyevaluatedatfirstand
thentheessentialhypothesissetup(asbasicelementsofapsychologicalprofile).
Thisisfollowedbythesocalledtestingofthehypothesisandtheacquisitionoftherecurrent
information,whicheitherconfirmorrequiremodificationorenableit.Thecitedproceduremayshorten
toagreatextentthedirectcriminalisticwork,sinceitoffersamorecomplexawarenessofthedynamics,
connectedwiththetreatedcriminalactandwiththemostprobableperpetrator.Thelatterrepresentsa
sourceofwelcomesuggestionsandrecommendationsforfurtherwork,whichaccordinglydirectsthe
attentionofthecriminalistsonthefieldandincreasestheirsensitivenessfordetails,whichareoftenof
focalimportanceforthecaseitself.Eventhebestqualityandexhaustivepsychologicalprofiledoesnot
offerperpetrator'sidentity,however,eventhepresentationofthetype,characteristicsandparticularities
ofapersonthatmostprobablycommittedacrime,representsanexceptionalcontributiontothe
efficiencyofcriminalinvestigation.Thusitispossibletolearnalot,forexampleinrapes,aboutthe
rapist'sbehaviourthroughathoroughandprofessionally,correctlycarriedoutinterviewwiththevictim,
whichoftengives,togetherwiththedatagatheredatthesiteofthecrime,enoughgroundtopreparethe
profileoftheperpetrator.
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Psychologicalprofilingisananalyticalprocessresultinginthedescriptionofpersonalcharacteristicsas
differentiatingandbehaviouralunits,whichare,becauseoftheirrelativedurabilityandrecognition
withinpersonalactivityandstructure,anadequatebasisforthedescriptionofthemostprobable
perpetratoroftheproceededcriminaloffence.Thepreparationofapsychologicalprofileurgently
requiressomequalitativedatafromthecrimesite,whichdemandshighexpertnessofcriminal
investigativework.Theprofileisthusbasedonanexhaustiveanalysisofaconcretecriminaldeedand
thisisthereason,whywestresssomuchtheimportanceofexpertlydonesurvey.Ifthenecessary
informationisnotprocuredbycriminalists,thepsychologicalprofilingcouldbemoreorlessspeculative
andtoomuchcolouredwiththepossibilitiesofapsychodynamicinterpretation,immanenttothelevel
andwidthoftheinterpreter's(psychologist's)general(professional)knowledge,independentlyfroma
special(concrete)situationandcriminaloffence.Apartformthisthepreparationofaprofile(inits
narrowersense)isoneofthepossibilities,offeredtoanexpertofpsychologyforcreativeincorporation
andexpertsupporttocriminaliststhataredirectlyinvolvedintheinvestigationofacertaincriminaldeed.
Apsychologistmaycreativelycooperatewiththeplanningofinvestigationstrategy,thiskindofsupport
isspeciallyimportantintheinformativeinterviewsandinthepreparationforthepolygraphtesting.
Psychologicalknowledgeandexperiencescouldbeofgreatimportancethroughalongerperiodoftime
whenanalysingalargernumberofcriminaldeeds,sincetheyrepresentasatisfactorybasisforthe
definitionofsomedeterminantsandattributesofcriminalsandoftheircrimes.Itisnotexaggeratedto
statethatpsychologicalprofiling(inabroaderandinitsnarrowersense)isanextremelyusefultoolin
criminalisticworkconceivedonteam.
4FROMTHEINSPECTIONOFTHESITEOFTHECRIME(MURDER)TOTHEPROFILING
OFTHEMOSTPROBABLESUSPECT
Becauseofcloseandvitalinterlacingofbothprofessionswepreparedaspecialschemeforgatheringand
organisationofinformationforthefirstphaseoftheintroductionofthismethodforallcriminal
investigators(i.e.:criminalists)workingintheareaoffeloniesandsexualcrimesintheRepublicof
Slovenia.Itisthesynthesisofforeignknowledge,experiencesofthebestSloveniancriminalistsfromthe
areaofseriousfeloniesanddemandsofpsychologicalprofession(inthesenseofnecessaryinformation
input).
Forthestartingpointofpreparationofthecitedschemeweusedthethesisthatthebasisandthe
necessaryprerequisiteforpsychologicalprofilingofaperpetratorareaqualitysurveyofthesiteofcrime
andanappropriatequantityofinformationcollected.Wepresentedtheprofilingtocriminalistsasa
processthatstartswiththesurveyandcontinuesthroughprogressivephases.Thegatheringof
informationmustbeextensiveincaseofmurderitmustincludealsoasmuchdataaspossibleaboutthe
victim,sinceitisoftenverydifficulttodefinethetypeofsuspectwithoutit.
Thebasicpremiseofthedescribedprocessofcreativesynthesisofdatafromthesiteofthecrime,of
psychologicalprinciplesandknowledge,ofexperiencesandunderstandingofcriminaldeedsisthatintra
psychicalstructure(wayofthinking,feeling,etc.)directsanddefineshumanbehaviour.Thisisthebasis
forthewholeprocessofgeneratingofpersonalityprofileofthewantedperpetrator.Itrunsfromthe
gatheringofdataandtheirsortingthroughthereconstructionoftheeventtotheconstructionofthe
profileandtheconclusionoftheinvestigation.
Weneedanumberofgroupsofdataormaterialsforthepreparationoftheprofile.Theseare:
1. photographs
2. informationontheneighbourhood
3. forensicreport(autopsyminutes)
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4. informationonthemovementsandactivitiesofthevictimbeforedeath
5. completereportofsurvey
6. dataaboutthevictim.
4.1THESCHEMEOFNECESSARYDATA/MATERIALS
4.1.1PHOTOGRAPHS
Thephotographsmustbebigenoughspeciallytheextentandthedepthofwoundsmustbeseenclearly.
Besidesthephotographsofthecrimesiteandofthevictim(s)thephotographicmaterialmustinclude
alsothepositionofthebody,photographedfromvariousangles.Apartfromthephotographsofthe
victim,thephotographsfromthevictim'slifehistorycouldalsobeuseful,speciallythosewhichshowthe
victimtogetherwithitsfamilymembers(e.g.:withchildren).Thesecouldlateronbeusedduringthe
interviewingofthesuspect.
Ifthecrimesiteisanapartment,itisnecessarytoincludethephotographsofallrooms,includingthe
placewherethemurderhappenedandthesketchofthewholeapartment/house(ofallfloors).Ifitis
possibleitmightbereasonabletoaddtothephotographsofthesurroundingsalsosomeaerial
photographs,whichclearlyshowthepositionofthebody(ifitisanoutsidelocation)orthepositionof
thebuildinginwhichthebodywasfound.Theaerialphotographsalleviatethenotionandthefeelingof
spaceandenvironment.Sinceitisoftenhardtogetthemwemayusesomequalitymadesketches.
4.1.2RESIDENTIALNEIGHBOURHOODTHEPLACEMENTOFTHESITEWHERETHE
BODYISDISCOVEREDWITHINTHESOCIOCULTURALANDETHNICFRAMEWORK
Theplacewherethebodyisfoundisnotnecessarilyidenticalwiththesiteofthemurder,howeverthe
dataontheracial,ethnicansocialstructureoftheresidents(inhouses,blocks,streets,neighbourhoods)
areanimportantgroupofinformationwhichhastobeusedpsychologicallyforthepreparationofthe
profileoftheperpetrator.Thedataonregionalorigin(fromPrimorska,Styria,Gorenjska,Dolenjska,
etc.)orthepercentageandnationalityofpossibleimmigrantsisalsorelevantforSlovenian
circumstances.
4.1.3FORENSICREPORT
Theminutesontheautopsymaybeillustratedwiththephotographsofalltheinjuriesfoundonthebody
(details,integrity),however,wemustclearlydefinethecuts,puncturewounds(number),shooting
wounds,contusionsandbruises.Thewayofdamagingthevictimisnotaccidental.Thetoxicological
reportmustincludethedataonthepresenceofdrugsand/oralcoholinvictim'sblood,veryimportantare
thedataaboutthespermfound(wherespeciallythepresenceofthespermintheanus),theresultsofthe
analysisofthepulledouthairand/orpartsofhairorfur,theanalysisofthesmearoforalcavitymayalso
haveanimportantinformationalvalue.Possiblepostmortemwoundsmustbeproperlypresentedaswell.
Otherobservationsofthedissector(hisfeelings,doubts,warnings)maybeextremelyvaluableforthe
processofpsychologicalprofiling.Weparticularlythinkofthosefeelingsthatareusuallynotincludedin
autopsyminutesandinexpertopinions,butoftenshowthemselvesasfoundedorrightrespectivelyandit
isthereforenecessarythatthecriminalistdirectlycommunicateswiththedissectorandthathefollows
theautopsyveryattentively.
4.1.4MOVEMENTSOFTHEVICTIMBEFOREDEATH
Thedataaboutthevictimcansayalotabouttheperpetrator,whichmeansthatthegatheringofsuch
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informationmustbeveryaccurate.Thereportonthemovementsofthevictimbeforedeathincludedata
acquiredattheworkingplace,intheapartment,however,itisnecessarythattheplace(andtime)where
thevictimwaslastseenisspeciallyclearlyandexhaustivelyinvestigatedandtheconnectionwiththesite
ofthecrime(murder)clarified.
Althoughthegatheringoftheinformationonthelastknownmovementsandpossiblesocialcontactsof
thevictimmaybepainstakinganddifficult,itisimportanttofindoutwhowasthelastpersonthevictim
wasseenwith,itisalsoveryimportanttoidentifythepersonswhowereinthevicinityofthevictimat
thattime(e.g.guestsinapublichouse).Experiencehasdemonstratedthatthesiteswherethevictimwas
lastseenmayrepresenttheconnectionbetweentheperpetratorandthevictim.Localandtemporal
(circumstantial),butnotfamiliarorothercontactsorconnectionsmaybepossible.
4.1.5ACOMPREHENSIVEANDEXHAUSTIVESURVEYREPORT
Thereportmustincludethedataontime,siteandweaponsortoolsused,etc.Thisislogicallyfollowed
bythereconstructionoftheevent(versions),however,comprehensiveexplanationsoftheversionsare
necessaryandnotonlyenumerationbyitems.Criminalistsoftenavoidthestatingofversionsand
assumptionsforwhichtheydonothaveenoughclues,whichoftenputstheminablindalleyincasesof
morecomplicatedmurders.Inordertosurpassthesehindrancesitmightbeusefultoorganisecreative
discussionsandanalysesinthesocalledbrainstormingmanner.
Suchreportmustbesupplementedbyofficialminutes(recordings,etc.)ofexhaustiveinterviewswith
witnesses.Thereliabilityandthevalidityofthedatathusacquiredincreaseiftheinterviewsarerecorded
orwrittenimmediatelyaftertheendbythecriminalists.Notestakenlatercanoftenbeimpoverished
becauseofoblivion,(re)organisationandcategorisationofinformation,oftenalsobecauseofthe
selectionandevaluation,whichmayblurthemeaningoforiginalreportsofwitnesses.
4.1.6EXHAUSTIVEDATAONTHEVICTIM
Thesedataregardtheage,gender,race,ethnicandregionalappurtenancehowever,thephysical
appearancedescription(includingclothes,wornonthedayofthemurder),themaritalstatus,the
adaptabilityandconformationinpartnershiprelations,theintelligence,thequalificationsacquiredand
thedataoneducationmustbeproperlypresentedaswell.Thesearemostlyanamnethicaldata,whichare
basedontheestimationsofvariousvaluers,however,becauseofthisdiversificationtheyofferthe
possibilitytoformadequatelyacomplexpresentationofthelifehistoryofthevictim.
Onthebasisofinterviewswiththerelatives(family,friends,acquaintances,collaborators,classmates,
etc.)thecriminalistsmayproperlyilluminatethewayoflife(possiblerecentchanges),personal
characteristicsandparticularities,behaviourtypicalbehaviouralpatternsand/orparticularities.The
enumerateditemsmaybesupportedbyvariouswrittenmaterialsletters,diaries,poems,messagesand
others,foundonthevictimorwithitsrelatives,whichwereeitherwrittenorreceivedbythevictim.
Thereportmustdefinethepermanentresidenceofthevictim(previous,actual,temporarywithregard
tothesiteoftheact),sexualadaptabilityandconformation,profession,employment(previousone/ones,
actual)andrespectprofessional,personal.Medicaldocumentationhastobeacquired(aboutphysical
andmentalhealth/diseases),whichmaysometimesincludethedataoneventualfears,personalhabits
andbadhabitsand/orabusesofdrugsoralcohol.Inanycaseitisnecessarytogatherasmuch
informationaspossible,speciallyaboutthelatter,ifpossiblefromvarioussourcesinordertomitigate
thesubjectivityofevaluationsandopinions.
Thesamerecommendationsarevalidalsofortheevaluationofsocialskills,hobbies,friendsandenemies
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ofthevictim.Itisoftenpossibletolearnalotofusefulandpreciousdata,evenifapparently
unimportant,fromtheinterviewswithpeoplewhoknewthevictimrelativelywell,thereforecriminalists
mustmeticulouslyrecordsuchinterviewswithoutsimultaneousclassificationandselectionofthe
information.
Itisalsoofutterimportancetoobtaindetaileddataonthepossiblerecordsofthevictimintheoperative
registersoftheMinistryoftheInterioraswellastheinformationaboutthecircleofpeoplewithwhom
thevictimhadcontacts(speciallyifitwasasocalledoperativelyinterestingperson),andtocomplement
allthesewiththeinformationaboutpossiblecontacts/conflicts/dealingswithjustice.
5CONSTRUCTIONOFPSYCHOLOGICALPROFILE
Thepresentedgroupsofmaterialsordataaretheinformationalinput,whichrepresentssufficientbasis
fortheprofilinginanarrowersense.Theinformationaboutpossibleconcretesuspectsis
counterproductivefortheprocessofpsychologicalprofilingsinceitmaynotselfconsciouslyinfluence
theattentionandmentalproductioninsuchawaythatthegenerationofprofileisadaptedtoaconcrete
suspect.
Thecollecteddatamustbeorganisedandtiedintogroups.Wethendefinethesearchedforperpetratorby
typeandmethodofmurder,wetrytoidentifyprimarymotives,theriskingofthevictimandoftheact
itselfandthefactorsoftimeandlocation.
Duringthereconstructionoftheeventwesynthesisethefindingsoftheprevioustwolevelsanddefine
whathappenedandhoweverybodybehaved.Specialattentionispaidtotheorganisation,theselectionof
thevictim,possibleperpetrator'sstrategiesofcontroland/orfollowingofthevictimandsequentiallyalso
thedynamicsatthesiteofthecrime(developmentofthecrimeandthemotivationoftheperpetrator).
Thisisfollowedbythepreparationoftheprofileinitsnarrowersense.Personalityprofileofthepossible
perpetratorisbasedontheconnectionofthespecificsoftheconcretemurderandtheparticularitiesof
behaviouralorganisationofthesuspectedmurderer.Itmustmatchtheascertainmentsofthe
reconstruction,includingallthedatacollectedandwiththecategorisation(ofthecrime,perpetrator,
etc.).Simultaneousvalidationundoubtedlyincreasesitsvalue,however,itisnecessarytorecheckthe
informationinputincaseofincongruities.Theprocessesofpsychologicalprofilingandclinical
psychologicaltreatmentarerelatedalsointhiscase.
Thefifthphaseoftheprofilingcoincideswiththeendofinvestigation,whenthecriminalistsuse
recommendedmethodsofworkandprofileofthemostprobableperpetratoranddiscoverthesuspect.
His/herconfessionandprotectivecustodyarethebestconfirmationofthevalueandusefulnessofthe
presentedmethod.
However,itispossiblethatnewinformationappears(e.g.anothermurder)ormaybetheidentificationof
suspectscannotbecarriedoutortheymaynotbetherightones,whichallrequiresanewevaluationof
theinformationinput,followedagainbythecategorisation,reconstructionandmodificationofthe
previousorthepreparationofanewpsychologicalprofile.
6VALIDATIONOFTHEPROCESSOFPSYCHOLOGICALPROFILING
Oncethesuspectconfessesthecrime,itisnecessarytoevaluatecriticallyandtochecktheaccordance
betweenhisconfessionandtheascertainmentsofallthephasesofprofiling.Averyexhaustiveinterview
withtheperpetratorwouldcoverthis,butwehavenotattainedityetinourpractice.However,onlyin
thisway,wemaytalkwithcertaintyaboutthevalidationofprofilingasacomplimentarymethod,andwe
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canproceedtheacquireddataalsofromanomotheticpointofview.
TableofContents|InvestigatingtheApplicationofSelfAdhesiveWallPaperinLiftingFingerprints
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