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Soal Test Teknikal

1. Sebutkan referensi buku ( text book atau buku standard ) yang mendukung untuk
mendesain sebuah Tangki dan Pressure Vessel :
a. A.C. Ugural, S.K. Fenster, Advanced Strength and Applied Elasticity, 4th
ed.
b. E.P. Popov, Engineering Mechanics of Solids, 1st ed.
c. Megyesy, Eugene F. "Pressure Vessel Handbook, 14th Edition." PV
Publishing, Inc. Oklahoma City, OK
d. Hand Book API 650 Welded Steels Tank for Oil Storage
2. Bagian bagian utama dari :
2.1 Tangki penyimpanan Vertikal :
Gasket
Vessel nameplate
Minimum Design Metal Temperature (MDMT)
Vapor-Liquid Separator or Knock-Out Drum
Vortex breaker
Relief valve
Safety valve

2.2 Vessel Horisontal :


Spray Nozzle
Head and Bottom Shell
Baffle
Steam Suply pipe
Preheating Section

2.3 Vessel Vertikal


Spray Nozzle
Top Head Shell
Bottom Head Shell
Baffle
Steam Suply pipe
Preheating Section

3. Konversikan nilai nilai satuan di bawah ini :


1 feet = 12 inchi
1 inchi = 2.54 mm
1 M3 = 1000 LTR
1 M3 = 6,289811 BARREL
1 BBL = 9,3099177 Galon
1 Galon = 3,78541 LTR

4. Diketahui sbb ( pedoman 1 BBl = 0,159 M3 )


Sebuah tangki diameter = 15000 MM, volume = 10000 BBl
Design Code
Type of Tank
Service
Nominal Capasity
Roof Type
Tank Diameter ( D )
Liquid Specific Gravity ( G )
Corrosion Allowance ( CA )
Bottom Plate :
Sheel Plate :
Roof Plate :
Allowable Stress For Design Conditions ( Sd )
Allowable Stress For Hydrostatic ( St )
Material Specifications

API 650
Above ground welded steel tank
Bahan bakar solar
10.000 bbl
Fixed supported cone roof
15.000 mm = 15 m
0.80
1.0 mm
2.00 mm
1.00 mm
20.000 psi
22.500 psi
ASTM A283C

Berapakah :
a. Tinggi tangki
b. Luas permukaan tanah ( dalam & luar )
c. Berapa panjang circum / keliling shell tangki
d. Hitung tebal pelat shell roof dan bottom dengan metode one foot method
api 650
e. Berapa berat total plate :
Jawab :
a. Jawab :Tinggi tangki
V = La x h
1,59 = 176.625 x h
h = 1.59 / 176.625
= 9.00 m = 29.527 = 30 ft
b. Luas Permukaan Tangki ( Dalam dan Luar ) :
Menghitung diameter luar tangki :
d = 2 r h
= 2 x 3.14 x 7500 x 9000
= 423900 mm
Menghitung diameter dalam tangki :
Asumsi ketebalan dinding t = 5 mm ( table sheel design )
do = d - 2t
= 423900 2 x 5

= 423890 mm
c. Berapa panjang circum / keliling shell tangki :
LP = 2 r h
= 2 x 3.14 x 7500 x 9000
= 423.900.000 mm
= 423.900 m
d. Hitung tebal pelat shell roof dan bottom dengan metode one foot method
api 650 :
Dengan ketentuan bahwa ketebalan minimum dari plate ditentukan menurut
persyaratan pada tabel 3.6.1.1 untuk diameter tanki 49.2 ft (15000 mm)
termasuk dalam range diameter tanki antara <50 ft, maka tebal minimal
shell plate yang diijinkan adalah 3/16 inchi ( 5 mm ). Susunan plate dinding
dapat dilihat pada gambar dimana lapisan pertama ( 1 st Course )
merupakan lapisan yang terletak tepat diatas anular plate dan memiliki
ketebalan yang lebih besar dibandingkan lapisan lapisan yan ada
diatasnya. Sedangkan lapisan plate dinding teratas ( 4 course ) merupakan
lapisan dengan ketebalan terkecil namun tidak lebih kecil dari tebal
minimum yang diisyaratkan.
Hasil perhitungan ketebalan minimum shell plate dari lapisan paling bawah
sampai bagian teratas dengan memakai metode one foot method yang
ditentkan berdasarkan dua kondisi cairan sebagai berikut :
a. Berdasarkan cairan yang direncanakan yaitu solar dihitung dengan
menggunakan persamaan :
1st course t1 = 2.6 x 49.2 x ( 30 1 ) x 0.8 ( 25.4 ) + 2 = 5.77 = 6 mm
20.000
2nd course t2 = 2.6 x 49.2 x ( 26 1 ) x 0.8 ( 25.4 ) + 2 = 5.24 = 5.5 mm
20.000
3rd course t3 = 2.6 x 49.2 x ( 22 1 ) x 0.8 ( 25.4 ) + 2 = 4.73 = 5 mm
20.000
4th course t4 = 2.6 x 49.2 x ( 18 1 ) x 0.8 ( 25.4 ) + 2 = 4.2 = 5 mm
20.000
b. Berdasarkan hydrotest yaitu dimana kondisi tanki berisi air,
dihitung menggunakan persamaan :
1st course t1 = 2.6 x 49.2 x ( 30 1 ) ( 25.4 ) = 4.18 = 6 mm
22.500
2nd course t2 = 2.6 x 49.2 x ( 26 1 ) ( 25.4 ) = 3.61 = 5.5 mm

22.500
3rd course t3 = 2.6 x 49.2 x ( 22 1 ) ( 25.4 ) = 3.03 = 5 mm
22.500
4th course t4 = 2.6 x 49.2 x ( 18 1 ) ( 25.4 ) = 2.45 = 5 mm
22.500
Dari hasil kedua perhitungan diatas diambil tebal pelat yang paling besar nilainya untuk
tebal pelat dinding yang akan digunakan yaitu :
1st course : t1 = 6 mm
2nd course : t2 = 5.5 mm
c.
Sheel

3rd course : t3 = 5 mm
4th course : t4 = 5 mm

Berapa berat total plate :

W=xD

W sheel Plate

Course
1st
2nd

47.1
47.1

M
9
9

mm
6
5.5

Kg/m
7.85
7.85

kg
19965.69
18301.88

lb
44016.81
40348.74

3rd

47.1

7.85

16638.07

36680.67

4th

47.1

7.85

16638.07

36680.67

71543.71

157726.89

shell
Perhitungan Ketebalan Plat dasar Tangki ( Bottom )
Untuk tebal minimal bottom plate diambil inchi = 6.35 mm sedangkan untuk
tebal anullar plate atau tebal minimum pelatnya ditentukan menggunakan ketentuan
standard API 650 tabel 3.1 dengan dua parameter yang harus diketahui yaitu :
1. Tebal sheel course yang pertama t = 6 mm = 0.236 inchi
2. Hydrostatic stress test pada shell course yang pertama :
2.6 D ( H 1 ) = 2.6 x 49.2 ( 30 1 ) = 15778.98 psi
T
0.236
Dari table 3.1 kolom < 27000 psi terdapat ts = inchi maka :
tb = = 6.35
CA
= 1.00
min = 7.35 = 8 mm
Jadi tebal minimum bottom dan anullar plate yang digunakan adalah 8.00 mm
Load on Bottom :
Fs = 0.7 x ( A1 x q6 )
= 0.7 [1/2 x 49.2 x 10 )
= 1033.2 lb
Ms = 0.7 x ( A1 x q6 x t )
= 0.7 x [1/2 x 49.2 x 10 x 8)
= 1377.6 lb ft

Perhitungan Atap ( Roof )


Tipe atap yang digunakan yaitu supported cone roof yang terdiri dari plat atap,
rafter, girder dan kolom. Dengan sloop atap 1 : 16 maka = 3.576, Corrosion Allowance
untuk atap sebesar 1.00

Load on Roof :
Fs = 0.7 x ( A1 x q6 )
= 0.7 [1/2 x 49.2 x 10 x 6 )
= 1033.2 lb
Ms = 0.7 x ( A1 x q6 x h )
= 0.7 x [1/2 x 49.2 x 10 x 6 x 29.5 )
= 30479.4 lb ft

5. Sebutkan 3 ( tiga ) macam type sambungan las & gambarkan :


Typical Joints
a. General : Typical tank joints are shown in Figures 3-1, 3-2, 3-3A, 3-3B,
and 3-3C. The wide faces of nonsymmetrical V- or U-butt joints may be on
the outside or the inside of the tank shell at the option of the manufacturer.
The tank shell shall be designed so that all courses are truly vertical.
b. Vertical Shell Joints :
Vertical shell joints shall be butt joints with complete penetration and
complete fusion attained by double welding or other means that will
obtain the same quality of deposited weld metal on the inside and outside
weld surfaces to meet the requirements of 5.2.1 and 5.2.3. The suitability
of the plate preparation and welding procedure shall be determined in
accordance with 7.2.

Vertical joints in adjacent shell courses shall not be aligned but shall be
offset from each other a minimum distance of 5t, where t is the plate
thickness of the thicker course at the point of offset.

c. Horizontal Shell Joints


Horizontal shell joints shall have complete penetration and complete
fusion; however, as an alternative, top angles may be attached to the
shell by a double-welded lap joint. The suitability of the plate
preparation and welding procedure shall be determined in accordance
with 7.2.
Unless otherwise specified, abutting shell plates at horizontal

6. Sebutkan spesifikasi material plate yang anda ketahui :


a. The edge thickness ordered shall not be less than the computed design thickness or
the minimum permitted thickness.

b. The weight ordered shall be great enough to provide an edge thickness not less
than the computed design thickness or the minimum permitted thickness.
c. Whether an edge-thickness or a weight basis is used, an underrun not more than
0.25 mm (0.01 in.) from the computed design thickness or the minimum permitted
thickness is acceptable.
Spesifikasi dari plate yang lebih khusus adalah :
1. ASTM Specifications: Plates that conform to the following ASTM specifications
are acceptable as long as the plates are within the stated limitations:
a. ASTM A 36M/A 36 for plates to a maximum thickness of 40 mm (1.5 in.).
None of the specifications for the appurtenant materials listed in Table 1 of
ASTM A 36M/A 36 are considered acceptable for tanks constructed under
this standard unless it is expressly stated in this standard that the
specifications are acceptable.
b. ASTM A 131M/A 131, Grade A, for plates to a maximum thickness of 12.5
mm (0.5 in.); Grade B for plates to a maximum thickness of 25 mm (1 in.);
Grade CS for plates to a maximum thickness of 40 mm (1.5 in.) [insert
plates and flanges to a maximum thickness of 50 mm (2 in.)]; and Grade
EH36 for plates to a maximum thickness of 45 mm (1.75 in.) [insert plates
and flanges to a maximum thickness of 50 mm (2 in.)].
c. ASTM A 283M/A 283, Grade C, for plates to a maximum thickness of 25
mm (1 in.).
d. ASTM A 285M/A 285, Grade C, for plates to a maximum thickness of 25
mm (1 in.).
e. ASTM A 516M Grades 380, 415, 450, 485/A 516, Grades 55, 60, 65, and
70, for plates to a maximum thickness of 40 mm (1.5 in.) [insert plates and
flanges to a maximum thickness of 100 mm (4 in.)].
f. ASTM A 537M/A 537, Class 1 and Class 2, for plates to a maximum
thickness of 45 mm (1.75 in.) [insert plates to a maximum thickness of 100
mm (4 inches)].
g. ASTM A 573M Grades 400, 450, 485/A 573, Grades 58, 65, and 70, for
plates to a maximum thickness of 40 mm (1.5 in.).
h. ASTM A 633M/A 633, Grades C and D, for plates to a maximum thickness
of 45 mm (1.75 in.) [insert plates to a maximum thickness of 100 mm (4.0
in.)].
i. ASTM A 662M/A 662, Grades B and C, for plates to a maximum thickness
of 40 mm (1.5 in.).
j. ASTM A 678M/A 678, Grade A, for plates to a maximum thickness of 40
mm (1.5 in.) [insert plates to a maximum thickness of 65 mm (2.5 in.)] and
Grade B for plates to a maximum thickness of 45 mm (1.75 in.) [insert
plates to a maximum thickness of 65 mm (2.5 in.)]. Boron additions are not
permitted.
k. ASTM A 737M/A 737, Grade B, for plates to a maximum thickness of 40
mm (1.5 in.).
l. ASTM A 841M/A 841 for plates to a maximum thickness of 40 mm (1.5
in.) [insert plates to a maximum thickness of 65 mm (2.5 in.)].
2.

CSA Specifications : Plate furnished to CSA G40.21-M in Grades 260W, 300W,


and 350W is acceptable within the limitations stated below. (If impact tests are
required, Grades 260W, 300W, and 350W are designated as Grades 260WT,

300WT, and 350WT, respectively.) Imperial unit equivalent grades of CSA


Specification G40.21 are also acceptable.
a. The W grades may be semikilled or fully killed.
b. Fully killed steel made to fine-grain practice must be specified when
required.
c. Elements added for grain refining or strengthening shall be restricted in
accordance with Table 2-1.
d. Plates shall have tensile strengths that are not more than 140 MPa (20 ksi)
above the minimum specified for the grade.
e. Grades 260W and 300W are acceptable for plate to a maximum thickness
of 25 mm (1 in.) if semikilled and to a maximum thickness of 40 mm (1.5
in.) if fully killed and made to fine-grain practice.
f. f. Grade 350W is acceptable for plate to a maximum thickness of 45 mm
(1.75 in.) [insert plates to a maximum thickness of 50 mm (2 in.)] if fully
killed and made to finegrain practice.
3. ISO Specifications : Plate furnished to ISO 630 in Grades E 275 and E 355 is
acceptable within the following limitations:
a. Grade E 275 in Qualities C and D for plate to a maximum thickness of 40
mm (1.5 in.) and with a maximum manganese content of 1.5% (heat).
b. Grade E 355 in Qualities C and D for plate to a maximum thickness of 45
mm (1.75 in.) [insert plates to a maximum thickness of 50 mm (2 in.)].
4. National Standards : Plates produced and tested in accordance with the
requirements of a recognized national standard and within the mechanical and
chemical limitations of one of the grades listed in Table 2-2 are acceptable when
approved by the purchaser. The requirements of this group do not apply to the
ASTM, CSA, and ISO specifications listed in 2.2.2, 2.2.3, and 2.2.4. For the
purposes of this standard, a national standard is a standard that has been
sanctioned by t he government of the country from which the standard originates.
7. Gambarkan dengan menggunakan autocad untuk pertanyaan no 4

Gambar Tangki

8. Proses pembuatan project Balam South GS Wash Tank Project & Pager GS Up
Grade Project dikerjakan dalam format Microsoft Project :