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TOPIC: - GRAVITTION

AND

SATELLITES

1. KEPLER’s Laws….

2. SIR ISSAC NEWTON…

3. Universal law of GRAVITATON…

4. Binary System…

5. Central Forces…

6. Newton’s Shell Theorem…

7. Gravitational Potential Energy…

8. Gravitational potential…

9. Gravitational potential integral…

10. Elastic potential energy…

12. Satellites…

14. Polar satellites…

15. Data transfer from satellites to ground…

Kepler's laws

Though originally stated to describe the motion of planets around

the sun, Kepler's Laws also apply to comets.

LAW 1: The orbit of a planet/comet about the Sun is an ellipse with

the Sun's center of mass at one focus

LAW 2: A line joining a planet/comet and the Sun sweeps out equal

areas in equal intervals of time

the cubes of their semimajor axes:

Ta2 / Tb2 = Ra3 / Rb3

• Square of any planet's orbital period (sidereal) is

proportional to cube of its mean distance (semi-major axis)

from Sun

• Mathematical statement: T = kR3/2 , where T = sideral period,

and R = semi-major axis

• Example - If a is measured in astronomical units (AU = semi-

major axis of Earth's orbit) and sidereal period in years

(Earth's sidereal period), then the constant k in mathematical

expression for Kepler's third law is equal to 1, and the

mathematical relation becomes T2 = R3 .

Examples of Kepler's Third Law

Planet P (yr) a (AU) T2 R3

Mercury 0.24 0.39 0.06 0.06

Venus 0.62 0.72 0.39 0.37

Earth 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00

Mars 1.88 1.52 3.53 3.51

Jupiter 11.9 5.20 142 141

Saturn 29.5 9.54 870 868

Energy of an Orbit

The Total energy of an object in orbit is the sum of kinetic energy

(KE) and gravitational potential energy (PE).

KE = 1/2 mv2

PE = - GMm/r

r = the distance of the orbiting body from the central object and

v = the velocity of the orbiting body

E = 1/2 mv2 - GMm/r

The semi-major axis is directly related to the total energy of the

orbit: E = - GM/2a

Semi-major Axis and Total Energy

The relationship between these two can easily be derived for a

circular orbit and also works for elliptical and hyperbolic

orbits. As we see in the diagram: a = F/m = GM/r2 = v2/r. In the

case of a circle e = 0 and r = a. So

v2 = GM/a and thus:

E = 1/2 m(GM/a) – m(GM)/a = m (GM)/(2a)

E/m = GM/(2a)

elliptical orbits. vc2 = GM/a The energy also provides an expression

for the velocity in orbit

E/m = GM/(2a) = 1/2 v2 - GM/r

and hence v2 = GM/a[2/r - 1/a]

but written in terms of the circular velocity

v2 = vc2[2/r - 1/a]

Keplers 2nd Law

name. Kepler discovered first that planets move in elliptical orbits

about the Sun. The 2nd Law of Kepler describes the relative

velocity of the objects in their elliptical orbits. He discovered that

the line from the Sun to the planet swept out equal areas in equal

times. At first this does not seem very helpful but if we use a little

geometery then we can use it quantitatively. The diagram on the

right illustrates the law.

The area of the shaded segment from A to B equal the area from

segment C to D. Any body in the orbit around the Sun (o) will

travel from A to B in the same time that it travels from C to D. The

rate of sweeping our area by the line between Sun and orbiting

object is called the Areal Velocity, A . In one period, P, of the orbit

the line sweeps out the area of the ellipse so we can calculate this

velocity from

A = (area of ellipse)/(period of ellipse) = (π a b) / P

A = π (1 - e2)1/2 a2/P

Look at the diagram again; as an orbiting object goes from a to b

the area swept out is approximately the area of the triangle o-a-b.

That area is equal to the isoceles triangle o-a'-b' . The area of the

later triangle can be calculate easily; that area is one half the base

(length a'-c-b') times the height (length o-c).

The height of the triangle is just the radius, r, of the orbit at point c

and the base of the triangle is the velocity perpendicular, v_, to the

radius line at that same point times the time of transit from a to b.

So the rate of sweeping out area in the triangle at c is:

A = v_r/2

There are only two points in the orbit where the perpedicular

velocity equals the orbit velocity and that is a perihelion and

aphelion. As a result we can relate the speed in orbit at these two

poins most easily.

rp = a (1 - e) and ra = a (1 + e)

So...

vara/2 = vprp/2 = (π a b) / P

and

va = vp( 1 + e)/(1 - e)

With a little more derivation (using Kepler's 3rd Law) we can show

that

and

va = vc[( 1 - e)/( 1 + e )]1/2

Kepler's 3rd Law - Relationship between

Period and Semi-major Axis

This law was derived empirically by Kepler. He found that if the

period of the planet was given in years and the semi-major axis

was given in Astronomical Units (AU) then

P2 = a3

It is easily derived for a circular orbit and the result applies to

elliptical orbits when the radius of the circle is replaced by the

semi-major axis of the ellipse. The period of an object in a circular

orbit where r = a is

P = 2π a/v

and hence since v = (GM/a)1/2

P = 2π a3/2/(GM)1/2

This relationship is in metric units. If we transform to AU and

years then we get 2π /(GM)1/2 = 1yr/ AU3/2

Newton refined Kepler's 3rd law using center of mass motion.

When this is considered then the mass, M is not just the mass of

the central body (the Sun for the planets) but the sum of the masses

of both the 'central' and 'orbiting' object. In the case of the solar

system, Kepler was not too far off because the mass of the Sun is

more than a thousand times the masses of all the planets and their

mass add only a small amount. So the correct relationship is:

P = 2π a3/2/(G(M+m))1/2

Sir Isaac Newton

The Universal Law of Gravitation

There is a popular story that Newton was sitting under an apple

tree, an apple fell on his head, and he suddenly thought of the

Universal Law of Gravitation. As in all such legends, this is almost

certainly not true in its details, but the story contains elements of

what actually happened.

Probably the more correct version of the story is that Newton, upon

observing an apple fall from a tree, began to think along the

following lines: The apple is accelerated, since its velocity changes

from zero as it is hanging on the tree and moves toward the ground.

Thus, by Newton's 2nd Law there must be a force that acts on the

apple to cause this acceleration. Let's call this force "gravity", and

the associated acceleration the "accleration due to gravity". Then

imagine the apple tree is twice as high. Again, we expect the apple to

be accelerated toward the ground, so this suggests that this force

that we call gravity reaches to the top of the tallest apple tree.

Sir Isaac's Most Excellent Idea

Now came Newton's truly brilliant insight: if the force of gravity

reaches to the top of the highest tree, might it not reach even

further; in particular, might it not reach all the way to the orbit

of the Moon! Then, the orbit of the Moon about the Earth could

be a consequence of the gravitational force, because the

acceleration due to gravity could change the velocity of the Moon

in just such a way that it followed an orbit around the earth.

This can be illustrated with the thought experiment shown in the

following figure. Suppose we fire a cannon horizontally from a

high mountain; the projectile will eventually fall to earth, as

indicated by the shortest trajectory in the figure, because of the

gravitational force directed toward the center of the Earth and

the associated acceleration. (Remember that an acceleration is a

change in velocity and that velocity is a vector, so it has both a

magnitude and a direction. Thus, an acceleration occurs if either

or both the magnitude and the direction of the velocity change.)

But as we increase the muzzle velocity for our imaginary cannon, the projectile will travel further

and further before returning to earth. Finally, Newton reasoned that if the cannon projected the

cannon ball with exactly the right velocity, the projectile would travel completely around the Earth,

always falling in the gravitational field but never reaching the Earth, which is curving away at the

same rate that the projectile falls. That is, the cannon ball would have been put into orbit around

the Earth. Newton concluded that the orbit of the Moon was of exactly the same nature: the Moon

continuously "fell" in its path around the Earth because of the acceleration due to gravity, thus

producing its orbit.

By such reasoning, Newton came to the conclusion that any two

objects in the Universe exert gravitational attraction on each other,

with the force having a universal form:

gravitational constant. It is termed a "universal constant" because

it is thought to be the same at all places and all times, and thus

universally characterizes the intrinsic strength of the gravitational

force.

The Center of Mass for a Binary System

Kepler's Laws the Sun is fixed at a point in space and the planet

revolves around it. Why is the Sun privileged? Kepler had rather

mystical ideas about the Sun, endowing it with almost god-like

qualities that justified its special place. However Newton, largely as

a corollary of his 3rd Law, demonstrated that the situation actually

was more symmetrical than Kepler imagined and that the Sun does

not occupy a privileged postion; in the process he modified

Kepler's 3rd Law.

objects through the equations

objects. The center of mass is familiar to anyone who has ever

played on a see-saw. The fulcrum point at which the see-saw will

exactly balance two people sitting on either end is the center of

mass for the two persons sitting on the see-saw.

Newton's Modification of Kepler's Third Law

Because for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction,

Newton realized that in the planet-Sun system the planet does not

orbit around a stationary Sun. Instead, Newton proposed that both

the planet and the Sun orbited around the common center of mass

for the planet-Sun system. He then modified Kepler's 3rd Law to

read,

have the meanings described above, with the Sun as one mass and

the planet as the other mass. (As in the earlier discussion of

Kepler's 3rd Law, this form of the equation assumes that masses

are measured in solar masses, times in Earth years, and distances

in astronomical units.) Notice the symmetry of this equation: since

the masses are added on the left side and the distances are added

on the right side, it doesn't matter whether the Sun is labeled with

1 and the planet with 2, or vice-versa. One obtains the same result

in either case.

Now notice what happens in Newton's new equation if one of the

masses (either 1 or 2; remember the symmetry) is very large

compared with the other. In particular, suppose the Sun is labeled

as mass 1, and its mass is much larger than the mass for any of the

planets. Then the sum of the two masses is always approximately

equal to the mass of the Sun, and if we take ratios of Kepler's 3rd

Law for two different planets the masses cancel from the ratio and

we are left with the original form of Kepler's 3rd Law:

Thus Kepler's 3rd Law is approximately valid because the Sun is

much more massive than any of the planets and therefore

Newton's correction is small. The data Kepler had access to were

not good enough to show this small effect. However, detailed

observations made after Kepler show that Newton's modified form

of Kepler's 3rd Law is in better accord with the data than Kepler's

original form.

Two Limiting Cases

We can gain further insight by considering the position of the

center of mass in two limits. First consider the example just

addressed, where one mass is much larger than the other. Then, we

see that the center of mass for the system essentially concides with

the center of the massive object:

compared with any of the planets that the center of mass for a Sun-

planet pair is always very near the center of the Sun. Thus, for all

practical purposes the Sun IS almost (but not quite) motionless at

the center of mass for the system, as Kepler originally thought.

However, now consider the other limiting case where the two

masses are equal to each other. Then it is easy to see that the

center of mass lies equidistant from the two masses and if they are

gravitationally bound to each other, each mass orbits the common

center of mass for the system lying midway between them:

This situation occurs commonly with binary stars (two stars bound

gravitationally to each other so that they revolve around their

common center of mass). In many binary star systems the masses

of the two stars are similar and Newton's correction to Kepler's 3rd

Law is very largeThese limiting cases for the location of the center

of mass are perhaps familiar from our afore-mentioned

playground experience. If persons of equal weight are on a see-

saw, the fulcrum must be placed in the middle to balance, but if

one person weighs much more than the other person, the fulcrum

must be placed close to the heavier person to achieve balance.

CENTRAL FORCEs

A central force is one whose magnitude depends only on the scalar

distance r of the object from the origin and is directed radially

outward from the origin. Since the force depends only on the

distance from the chosen origin, the field is spherically

symmetric.

This has some important consequences: 1.) The angular

momentum of the system is conserved and 2.) the energy of the

system is conserved. Since a central force is always parallel to

the object's position vector, the torque exerted by a central force

on the object is zero and the motion takes place in a plane

perpendicular to the angular momentum vector. The statement

that energy is conserved in a central force is equivalent to

saying that a central force is a conservative field.

Properties

A central force can always be expressed as the negative gradient of

a potential:

conservation of angular momentum.

Examples

Gravitational force and Coulomb force are two familiar examples

with F(r) being proportional to 1/r2

Variations of Earth's gravity

Gravity varies by altitude, latitude and local variation.

On the earth's surface, the gravity will depend on the location at

which it is measured, and is smaller at lower latitudes, for two

reasons.

The first is that in a rotating non-inertial or accelerated reference

frame, as is the case on the surface of the earth, there appears a

'fictitious' centrifugal force acting in a direction perpendicular

to the axis of rotation. The gravitational force on a body is

partially offset by this centrifugal force, reducing its weight.

This effect is smallest at the poles, where the gravitational force

and the centrifugal force are orthogonal, and largest at the

equator. This effect on its own would result in a range of values

of g from 9.789 m·s-2 at the equator to 9.832 m·s-2 at the poles

[1] .

The second reason is that the Earth's equatorial bulge (itself also

caused by centrifugal force), causing objects at the equator to

be farther from the planet's centre than objects at the poles.

Because the force due to gravitational attraction between two

bodies (the Earth and the object being weighed) varies inversely

with the square of the distance between them, objects at the

equator experience a weaker gravitational pull than objects at

the poles.

The combined result of these two effects is that g is 0.052 m·s-2

more, hence the force due to gravity of an object is 0.5 % more,

at the poles than at the equator.

If the terrain is at sea level, we can estimate g:

This is the International Gravity Formula 1967, the 1967 Geodetic

Reference System Formula, Helmert's equation or Clairault's

formula.

The first correction to this formula is the free air correction (FAC),

which accounts for heights above sea level. Gravity decreases

with height, at a rate which near the surface of the Earth is

such that linear extrapolation would give zero gravity at a

height of one half the radius of the Earth, i.e. the rate is 9.8

m·s-2 per 3200 km. Thus:

For flat terrain above sea level a second term is added, for the

gravity due to the extra mass; for this purpose the extra mass

can be approximated by an infinite horizontal slab, and we get

2pG times the mass per unit area, i.e. 4.2×10-10 m3·s-2·kg-1

(0.042 µGal·kg-1·m2)) (the Bouguer correction). For a mean

rock density of 2.67 g·cm-3 this gives 1.1×10-6 s-2 (0.11

mGal·m-1). Combined with the free-air correction this means a

reduction of gravity at the surface of ca. 2 µm·s-2 (0.20 mGal)

for every meter of elevation of the terrain. (The two effects

would cancel at a surface rock density of 4/3 times the average

density of the whole Earth.)

For the gravity below the surface we have to apply the free-air

correction as well as a double Bouguer correction. With the

infinite slab model this is because moving the point of

observation below the slab changes the gravity due to it to its

opposite. Alternatively, we can consider a spherically

symmetrical Earth and subtract from the mass of the Earth that

of the shell outside the point of observation, because that does

not cause gravity inside. This gives the same result.

Local variations in both the terrain and the subsurface cause

further variations; the gravitational geophysical methods are

based on these: the small variations are measured, the effect of

the topography and other known factors is subtracted, and from

the resulting variations conclusions are drawn. See also

physical geodesy and gravity anomaly.

above as either:

gf = 9.8061999 - 0.0259296cos(2f) + 0.0000567cos2(2f) or

gf = 9.780327 + 0.0516323sin2(f) + 0.0002269sin4(f)

An alternate formula for g as a function of latitude is the WGS

(World Geodetic System) 84 Ellipsoidal Gravity Formula:

A spot check comparing results from the WGS-84 formula with

those from Helmert's equation (using increments 10 degrees of

latitude starting with zero) indicated that they produce values

which differ by less than 1e-6 m/s2.

Calculated value of g

Given the law of universal gravitation, g is merely a collection of

where g is the bracketed factor and thus:

To find the acceleration due to gravity at sea level you can plug in

values of G and the mass (in kilograms) and radius (in meters)

of the Earth to obtain the calculated value of g:

difference may be attributed to several factors:

· The Earth is not homogeneous

· The Earth is not a perfect sphere

· The choice of a value for the radius of the Earth (an average

value is used above)

· This calculated value of g does not include the centrifugal force

effects that are found in practice due to the rotation of the

Earth

There are significant uncertainties in the values of r and of m1 as

used in this calculation. However, the value of G can be

measured precisely and in fact, Henry Cavendish performed the

reverse calculation to estimate the mass of the Earth.

Newton's Shell Theorem

Gravitating Spheres

While exploring Netwon's gravitational discoveries, we calculated

g using the fact that the distance between the mass m and the

earth was the radius of the earth. In other words, we assumed that

all the mass of the earth is concentrated at its center. This

supposition may seem reasonable when we are far away from the

earth (that is we are at such a distance that the radius of the earth

is negligible in comparison), but it doesn't seem so good at all

when we are at the earth's surface. However, we will see that this

assumption does hold exactly for any body outside the surface of a

gravitating sphere (to which the earth is a good approximation).

This is a profound result. It is a consequence of superposition, the

inverse square law, and the symmetry of a sphere.

Gravitational Potential Energy

gravitational potential energy to any object moving under the

influence of gravity. However, in the previous discussion the

gravitational acceleration of the object was assumed constant,

and we now know that this is only approximately true for

objects that move through vertical distances that are small

compared to the radius of the Earth. More generally, (for

example for satellite orbits) we must take into account the fact

that the gravitational acceleration changes as the object moves.

Instead of gravitational potential energy being simply

proportional to the height above the Earth's surface, one finds

that it is inversely proportional to the distance from the object

to the center of the Earth. It is reasonable that gravitational

potential energy depends on Newton's constant and the Earth's

mass in the same way that the gravitational force does. The

correct expression for gravitational potential energy for an

object a distance r from the center of the Earth is:

And r= distance between earth And object }

The minus sign ensures that the potential energy decreases

(gets more and more negative) as the object falls towards

the center of the Earth.

The dependence of the gravitational potential energy

U on the distance r from the center of the Earth is

illustrated in the Figure below.

because of its position in a gravitational field. The most

common use of gravitational potential energy is for an object

near the surface of the Earth where the gravitational

acceleration can be assumed to be constant at about 9.8 m/s2.

Since the zero of gravitational potential energy can be

chosen at any point (like the choice of the zero of a coordinate

system), the potential energy at a height h above that point is

equal to the work which would be required to lift the object to

that height with no net change in kinetic energy. Since the

force required to lift it is equal to its weight, it follows that the

gravitational potential energy is equal to its weight times the

height to which it is lifted.

For gravitational potential energy arises from the

law of gravity and is equal to the work done against

gravity to bring a mass to a given point in space.

Because of the inverse square nature of the gravity

force, the force approaches zero for large distances, and

it makes sense to choose the zero of gravitational

potential energy at an infinite distance away. The

gravitational potential energy near a planet is then

negative, since gravity does positive work as the mass

approaches. This negative potential is indicative of a

"bound state"; once a mass is near a large body, it is

trapped until something can provide enough energy to

allow it to escape.

energy arises most familiarly when an object is

raised in the Earth's gravitational field. The

object's increase in gravitational potential

energy is equal to the amount of energy

required to raise it, or, equivalently, the amount

of energy that would be released if it were

allowed to fall back to its original level.

energy to remove from orbit, etc. However, for objects near the

earth the acceleration of gravity g can be considered to be

approximately constant.

orbit about the Sun.

energy to remove from orbit, etc. However, for objects near the

earth the acceleration of gravity g can be considered to be

approximately constant.

energy per unit mass of an object due to

its position in a gravitational field.

Gravitational Potential

Gravitational Potential Integral

In astrodynamics the gravitational

potential function has to account for the

non-spherical and non-homogeneous nature

of typical sources of gravitational potential.

In this case a gravitational potential may

depend on polar and azimuth direction of

vector .

potential function depends on (latitude)

and potential coefficients, Jn, called the

zonal coefficients:

A gas filled shock absorber is an example of a

device based on elastic potential energy.

Elastic potential energy is the potential energy

of an elastic object (for example a bow or a

catapult) that is deformed under tension or

compression (often termed under the word

stress by physicists). It arises as a consequence

of a force that tries to restore the object to its

original shape, which is most often the

electromagnetic force between the atoms and

molecules that constitute the object.

In the case of a spring of natural length l and

modulus of elasticity λ Under an extension of x,

elastic potential energy can be calculated using

the formula:

Hooke's Law:

positions of mechanical equilibrium.

In the general case, elastic energy is given by

the Helmholtz potential per unit of volume f as a

function of the strain tensor components Eij:

coefficients. The connection between stress

tensor components and strain tensor

components is:

modulus of elasticity λ), cross sectional area,

A0, initial length, l0, which is stretched by a

length, λ l:

The elastic potential energy per unit volume is

given by:

Escape Velocity

Escape velocity is defined as the smallest speed

that we need to give an object in order to allow it

to completely escape from the gravitational pull

of the planet on which it is sitting. To calculate

it we need only realize that as an object moves

away from the center of a planet, its kinetic

energy gets converted into gravitational

potential energy. Thus we need only figure out

how much gravitational potential energy an

object gains as it moves from the surface of the

planet off to infinity. According to the above

discussion for a planet with mass M and radius

R, this gain in gravitational potential energy is

GmM/R. For an object to just barely escape to

infinity (without any residual speed), all its

initial kinetic energy must go into this increase

in gravitational potential energy. Thus, the

initial kinetic energy must be equal to GmM/R.

Since kinetic energy is mv2/2, equating these

two expressions tells us that the square of the

initial velocity must be equal to twice the

gravitational potential energy divided the

inertial mass of the object.

However, since gravitational potential energy is

proportional to inertial mass, we find finally

that the square of the escape velocity depends

only on the mass and radius of the planet (and

of course Newton's gravitational constant):

VXV =2GM / R

Note that the inertial mass of the object has

cancelled, so that the escape velocity of any

object is independent of its mass. This means

that if you want to throw a grain of rice or an

elephant into outer space, you need to give them

both the same initial velocity which for the Each

works out to be about

10,000 meters per second.

You will also notice from the above expression

that if the mass of a planet or star stays fixed,

but its radius decreases, then the escape velocity

necessarily increases.

artificial satellite launched into Earth orbit

seems to be in Jules Verne's The Begum's

Millions (1879). In this book, however, this is a

completely unintentional result of the book's

villain building an enormous artillery piece in

order to destroy his enemies, and imparting to

the shell a greater velocity than intended.

In 1903 Konstantin Tsiolkovsky (1857-1935)

published Исследование мировых пространств

реактивными приборами (The Exploration of

Cosmic Space by Means of Reaction Devices),

which was arguably the first academic treatise

on rocketry. He calculated the escape velocity

from Earth into orbit at 8 km/second and that a

multi-stage rocket fueled by liquid oxygen and

liquid hydrogen would be required. During his

lifetime he published over 500 works on space

travel and related subjects, including science

fiction novels. Among his works are designs for

rockets with steering thrusters, multi-stage

boosters, space stations, airlocks for exiting a

spaceship into the vacuum of space, and closed

cycle biological systems to provide food and

oxygen for space colonies. He also delved into

theories of heavier-than-air flying machines,

independently working through many of the

same calculations that the Wright brothers were

performing at about the same time.

published his sole book, Das Problem der

Befahrung des Weltraums - der Raketen-motor

(The Problem of Space Travel - The Rocket

Motor), a plan for a breakthrough into space

and a permanent human presence there. He

conceived of a space station in detail and

calculated its geostationary orbit. He described

the use of orbiting spacecraft for detailed

peaceful and military observation of the ground

and described how the special conditions of

space could be useful for scientific experiments.

(first put forward by Tsiolkovsky) and discussed

communication between them and the ground

using radio, but fell short of the idea of using

satellites for mass broadcasting and as

telecommunications relays.

Arthur C. Clarke (b. 1917) conceived of the

possibility for mass artificial communication

satellites in his Wireless World article. [1]

Clarke examined the logistics of satellite

launch, possible orbits and other aspects of the

creation of a network of world-circling

satellites, pointing to the benefits of high-speed

global communications. He also suggested that

three geostationary satellites would provide

coverage over the entire planet.

The first artificial satellite was Sputnik 1 launched by

Soviet Union on 4 October 1957.

In May 1946, Project RAND released the Preliminary

Design of an Experimental World-Circling Spaceship,

which stated, "A satellite vehicle with appropriate

instrumentation can be expected to be one of the most

potent scientific tools of the Twentieth Century. The

achievement of a satellite craft would produce

repercussions comparable to the explosion of the atomic

bomb…"

The space age began in 1946, as scientists began using

captured German V-2 rockets to make measurements in the

upper atmosphere. [2] Before this period, scientists used

balloons that went up to 30 km and radio waves to study the

ionosphere. From 1946 to 1952, upper-atmosphere

research was conducted using V-2s and Aerobic rockets.

This allowed measurements of atmospheric pressure,

density, and temperature up to 200 km. (see also:

magnetosphere, Van Allen radiation belt)

satellites since 1945 under the Bureau of Aeronautics of

the United States Navy.

above report, but did not believe that the satellite was a

potential military weapon; rather they considered it to be a

tool for science, politics, and propaganda. In 1954, the

Secretary of Defense stated, "I know of no American

satellite program."

Following pressure by the American Rocket Society, the

National Science Foundation, and the International

Geophysical Year, military interest picked up and in early

1955 the Air Force and Navy were working on Project

Orbiter, which involved using a Jupiter C rocket to launch

a small satellite called Explorer 1 on January 31, 1958.

On July 29, 1955, the White House announced that the

U.S. intended to launch satellites by the spring of 1958.

This became known as Project Vanguard. On July 31, the

Soviets announced that they intended to launch a satellite

by the fall of 1957.

On October 4, 1957 Sputnik 1 was launched into orbit,

which triggered the Space Race between the two already

adversarial nations.

the International Space Station.

Types of satellites

1. Anti-Satellite weapons:

Sometimes called "Killer satellites" are satellites

designed to destroy "enemy" satellites, other orbital

weapons and targets. Some are armed with kinetic

rounds, while others use energy and/or particle weapons

to destroy satellites, ICBMs, MIRVs. Both the U.S. and

the USSR had these satellites. Links discussing "Killer

satellites", ASATS (Anti-Satellite satellite) include

USSR Tests ASAT weapon and ASAT Test.

2. Astronomical satellites:

Are satellites used for observation of distant

planets, galaxies, and other outer space objects.

3. Biosatellites:

Are satellites designed to carry living organisms,

generally for scientific experimentation.

4. Communications satellites:

purposes of telecommunications. Modern

communications satellites typically use geosynchronous

orbits, Molniya orbits or low Earth orbits.

5. Miniaturized satellites:

Are satellites of unusually low weights and small sizes.

New classifications are used to categorize these

satellites: minisatellite (500-200 kg), microsatellite

(below 200 kg), and nanosatellite (below 10 kg).

6. Navigation satellites:

Are satellites that use radio time signals

transmitted to enable mobile receivers on the ground

to determine their exact location. The relatively clear

line of sight between the satellites and receivers on

the ground, combined with ever-improving

electronics, allows satellite navigation systems to

measure location to accuracies on the order of a few

metres in real time.

7. Reconnaissance satellites:

Are Earth observation satellite or

communications satellites deployed for military or

intelligence applications. Little is known about the

full power of these satellites, as governments who

operate them usually keep information pertaining

to their reconnaissance satellites classified.

8. Earth observation satellites:

environmental monitoring, meteorology, map making

etc. (See especially Earth Observing System.)

9.Solar power satellites:

Are proposed satellites built in high Earth orbit

that use microwave power transmission to beam

solar power to very large antennae on Earth where

it can be used in place of conventional power

sources.

10.Space stations:

Are man-made structures that are designed for

human beings to live on in outer space. A space

station is distinguished from other manned

spacecraft by its lack of major propulsion or landing

facilities - instead, other vehicles are used as

transport to and from the station. Space stations are

designed for medium-term living in orbit, for periods

of weeks, months, or even years.

11.Weather satellites:

Are satellites that primarily are used to monitor

Earth's weather and climate.

SATELLITES

1.Aqua

is designed to acquire precise atmospheric and

oceanic measurements to provide a greater

understanding of their role in the Earth's climate

and its variations. The satellite's instruments provide

regional to global land cover, land cover change, and

atmospheric constituents.

AQUA

2.Aura's mission

is designed to observe the atmosphere to answer the

following three high-priority environmental

questions: Is the Earth's ozone layer recovering? Is

air quality getting worse? How is the Earth's climate

changing? Aura's new objective over previous

atmospheric research missions is also to probe the

Earth's troposphere.

AURA SATELLITE

3.CloudSAT

a cooperative mission with Canada, will use

advanced radar to "slice" through clouds to see their

vertical structure, providing a completely new

observational capability from space. CloudSAT will

look at the structure, composition, and effects of

clouds and will be one of the first satellites to study

clouds on a global basis.

CLOUDSAT

4.CALIPSO

will provide key measurements of aerosol and cloud

properties needed to improve climate predictions.

CALIPSO will fly a 3-channel LIDAR with a suite of

passive instruments in formation with Aqua to obtain

coincident observations of radiative fluxes and

atmospheric conditions.

CloudSAT

will also fly in formation with CALIPSO to provide a

comprehensive characterization of the structure and

composition of clouds and their effects on climate

under all weather conditions.

CALIPSO

5.PARASOL

(Polarization and Anisotropy of Réflectances

for Atmospheric Sciences coupled with

Observations from a Lidar) is a French's CNES

microsatellite project. Its main purpose is to

improve the characterization of the clouds and

aerosols microphysical and radiative properties,

needed to understand and model the radiative

impact of clouds and aerosols. (Credit: CNES)

PARASOL

From the Satellite to the Ground

{A satellite accumulates data (1), transmits it to a receiving system (2), where it is relayed to

a science center (3) }

to the ground. First, you need to accumulate the data on

the satellite. Then, when you get a chance, you zap it

down as telemetry to one of the handful of receiving

systems. From there, it has to get to the actual science

center, typically using ordinary telecommunications

lines. Let's start with accumulating the data.

Accumulating Data on the Satellite

Satellite telescopes gather a huge amount of data. There

are really two kinds of data. "Housekeeping data" is

information about the satellite and its health and safety.

It tells you where the satellite thinks it is pointing, what

its temperature is, which parts are working, and similar

status information. This housekeeping data is used by

the ground crew to make sure everything is working

properly.

In addition, the instruments on board also have their

data, "Science data". This is the fun stuff -- the images,

spectra, count rates, and other measurements of the

celestial object you want to study. Most of the data that

you transmit to the ground will be this science data.

Scientists also use the housekeeping data to evaluate

how well the instruments were functioning during the

collection of their science data.

Data is stored onboard the satellite and sent down to

earth in batches, every orbit or every day or as often as

possible. Sometimes, data can be sent in realtime -- as

the instruments make their observations, they instantly

beam the results back to Earth.

What can go Wrong with Data on the

Satellite

streams of charged particles (protons and electrons) from the solar

wind, not to mention cosmic rays, all of which can zap electronics.

On older satellites, data was stored on magnetic tape (just like in

an old science fiction movie). Tape is very reliable, since it isn't

easily wiped out by cosmic rays or charged particles that stream

from the sun. The main disadvantage with tape is that it requires

moving parts, and moving parts in vacuum require special

engineering.

'bank' of computer memory chips. These are very similar to

ordinary computer memory, except they are usually 'radiation

hard', meaning they are less likely to get wiped out by random

cosmic radiation. Since they have no moving parts, they are more

reliable than tape systems from an engineering standpoint.

Memory chips are more sensitive to radiation and particle damage

than tape, though, so they have to provide extra memory for

redundancy. By storing extra data (either a copy of all data, or

'checksums' that indicate whether a given batch of data is good or

not), you can minimize the dangers of memory errors.

There are 'single event upsets', which occur when a particle zaps a

chip and changes one memory value. Modern systems can deal

with this, so no data is lost and no data is accidentally corrupted.

There are also double events or multiple events, when a bunch of

memory values are changed. Generally, in these cases you can tell

that the data was messed up, but not necessarily what it was

supposed to be. This is okay, even though you lose a bit of data.

One way to think about this is to imagine that someone tells you

their phone number. The best result is if you hear the full number

(555-1212). Second best is if you hear most of it (555-121?),

because then you know exactly what 6 of the digits are, and you

know for certain that you are missing the last digit. The worst case

is if you thought you heard it, but actually one digit is wrong (they

say "555-1212", you hear "555-1219"), because then you think

you have everything correct, but the entire number is wrong.

that you not get 'wrong' data, than that you get all the data. If

there is data that may be incorrect, you want to mark it as

'questionable'. And anything not marked as incorrect is assumed to

be 100% accurate.

Getting to the Ground: Telemetry and

Downlinks

Okay, having all this data stored on the satellite is a good first step,

but hardly useful to your researchers back on Earth. So, first

chance we get, we'll dump the telemetry to the ground. This is the

'downlink' part of the process. There are a few methods for doing

this. We'll cover two of them: satellite relays and ground antenna.

low gain antenna. High gain antennas have to be pointed in

exactly the right direction, but can send a lot of data very quickly.

Low gain antennas don't require precise pointing, but transmit

data much more slowly. Naturally, you generally want to use the

high gain antenna. The low gain antenna is frequently used when

you initially launch, while testing the satellite and waiting to deploy

the high gain antenna. It's also available as a backup in case the

satellite gets temporarily confused about where it is pointing (and

is in 'safehold') or when the high gain antenna isn't working.

earth-based antenna. The data then gets stored in a data center

and awaits further handling. From an operations point of view,

you want to see your satellite data as soon as possible. From an

efficiency standpoint, you want to send data at the fastest rate

possible. Economically, though, there are a limited number of

earth-based antennas, so you have to schedule your time with them

in advance so they can serve all their customers fairly.

Typically you schedule time with an earth-based antenna system

(DSN, or your own antenna) or with a satellite relay system like

TDRSS (which handles the earth antenna part for you). You ask

for as much time as they can give you, and they allocate time fairly

to all the missions they support. Then, as your satellite

accumulates data, you store it on your satellite and patiently await

your next downlink opportunity.

One of the best relay systems (in terms of speed and quality) is the

TDRSS system. This involves several Tracking and Data Relay

Satellites (TDRSs) in geostationary orbits around the earth. You

figure out when your orbiting satellite can see their TDRS satellite

and request time to use it as a relay. TDRSS gives 'forward links'

for sending commands to your satellite, and 'return links' for

sending your data from the satellite to the ground.

You use the forward link to tell your satellite "begin transmitting"

(or you preprogram the satellite to transmit at a scheduled time).

Then, you zap your data over the TDRS satellite return link as

quick as you can. The TDRS routes that telemetry down to their

own set of earth-based antenna and it gets stored in their

computers. Success! Your data has made it to earth!

TDRSS can receive and send data very quickly, at rates from 6

Mbps (mega-bits per second) to 300 Mbps. For comparison,

computer modems on 2002 phone lines typically go at about 56

kbps (kilo-bits per second), or 1/10000th the speed of the fastest

TDRS relays.

If you're lucky, you can even get dedicated TDRSS time. Then you

can send your data in realtime -- no storage, just transmitting the

telemetry through TDRSS to earth as quickly as you gather it. This

isn't a very efficient use of the TDRSS network, though; it is more

efficient to store the data and send it down in periodic batches of

telemetry.

If you aren't using TDRSS, you can try the Deep Space Network

(DSN), a set of ground-based telescopes located in several

countries that provide a similar service. Several space centers

(such as Kagoshima, in Japan) also run their own small radio

antenna for use with their own missions. It is also possible to mix

of methods -- using your own antenna plus time on the DSN, for

example.

Getting Data to the Operations Center

Even though your data is on the ground, it's not quite home yet --

it's sitting in the computers at the antenna facility. They don't want

to keep it, and you want it as quickly as possible. So the final step is

to get the data from their station to your operations and/or data

center.

One method to retrieving the data is to have a hardline. This is just

a telecommunications line that connects your center with the

antenna station. Hardlines are useful because you don't have to

share them with other people. Instead, as soon as the data reaches

the ground station, they can transmit it over the hardline to your

center.

There are several data networks that can transmit this information,

depending on where the ground antenna is and where your

operations center is. Originally, the Internet itself was just a

collection of hardlines between a handful of research centers --

then it grew. In much the same way, there are several 'nodes' that

are connected by hardlines, then they use local networks to get the

data to you specifically.

This means that the data might take a few hops -- from the antenna

over a hardline to a place like Goddard Space Flight Center

(GSFC), for example, then over the GSFC network to the actual

operations room.

Another process involves using a data network to send some of the

more important data, then using tapes to deliver the rest. The

ground station would transmit the most urgent data -- realtime

transmissions or essential health-and-safety data, for example. The

bulk of the stored data that reached their ground station would be

saved to tapes and mailed to you.

Data Processing

Have you ever wondered what data from a spacecraft actually look

like? You may think that the picture you see from the Hubble

Space Telescope or the Chandra X-ray Observatory is exactly what

the satellite in orbit sends down to Earth, like broadcasts from a tv

station, but that's not the case.

Data from a satellite, or "telemetry," is usually in a special format,

like a code, designed so a lot of information can be transmitted in a

very short time. It's the job of the Data Processing group to turn

the telemetry or raw data from a satellite into something that

astronomers can easily read and interpret.

Packets, and Realtime Data

Data is generally sent in packets: specific amounts of bit-sized data

that have a time stamp. Transmission of these packets can be

uneven. For example, part of the relay system may 'drop packets'

due to static or transmission errors. Those dropped packets are

retransmitted, so no data is lost. Also, stored data and realtime data

can be transmitted at the same time, each with their different time

stamps. The end result of these scenarios is that the data received

on the ground, while complete, may not be in the proper order. The

packet's time stamp lets you reassemble the data in the order

observed, rather than the order you receive it. Naturally, it makes

sense to wait until your entire transmission is complete before

doing the final sorting.The sorting can be done by either the

ground station, or your local processing center. For both, the

method is the same. You store all the incoming telemetry on your

computer. Then, when the transmission is complete (or all data

tapes have been received from remote sites), you sort the packets by

time stamps to create, essentially, a perfect copy of what had

originally been on the satellite.

What Comes In To Data Processing

A satellite in Earth orbit has several types of data it may send to people

on the ground. It can send science data, like observations of matter

falling into black holes in the case of an x-ray telescope satellite. It can

send "housekeeping" data about the spacecraft's health, like how the

solar panels are doing and whether the battery is fully charged. And it

can send "attitude" data, which tells exactly where the satellite is

pointed and how high above the Earth it currently is. For an

astronomer to use a satellite, he or she needs to know all these things at

once: *where* was the satellite looking, *what* did it see, and was

everything functioning normally at the time? The problem is, the

satellite can't tell you everything it's doing at once. The different types

of data come from different systems on board the satellite: the telescope

collects science data, the power system keeps track of the solar panels

and any batteries, the "attitude control" system tells where the satellite

is pointed, etc. When it's time to send data to the ground, the different

systems take turns, like tv reporters on the evening news.When you

watch the evening news, you might hear what the government did today,

then what the weather was like, and then what happened in sports. You

don't hear one reporter say, "Today, at 3pm, the President gave a

speech, the Yankees won the first of a double-header, and a bad storm

ripped through Nebraska. Then, at 5pm, Congress worked late on some

legislation, the Orioles had a great triple play, and there was flooding in

Florida." Instead, one reporter tells you what the weather was like all

over the country, and after that another reporter tells you everything

that happened that day in sports, etc. It's the same with an orbiting

satellite: first, you might get all the data about where the satellite

pointed that day, then all the things the telescope saw, then a read out

of the spacecraft's health. The Ground System makes sure all the data

are received correctly, then sends everything to Data Processing, where

the tricky task of matching up the separate reports from the different

satellite systems begins.

Data Analysis

Once you have data from a satellite in your hands in a useful

format, you will want to scrutinize that data in as many ways

available. By using different tools, you can reveal information

about how the source behaves over time, at various energy ranges

and at different points in space. The following are tools that you

would use to understand your new data.

Light Curves

A light curve is a graph of an object's brightness over a period of

time. Some types of sources have distinctive light curves, so you

might be able to tell what your source is just by looking at the light

curve. As an example, the light curve of an eclipsing binary system

will display two "dips," each occurring when one of the stars

"eclipses" the other.

time, which can constrain some of the source's properties. If the

source is changing in a cyclic manner, the change is likely to be

either from the rotation the source itself or from an orbiting object.

This is because rotations and orbits repeat with definite periods.

The period over which the light curve repeats puts limits on the

source's mass and size.

{ The light curve of the x-ray binary system GX301-2, obtained by the All Sky

Monitor aboard the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. The regular increase and

decrease in intensity follows the motion of the neutron star around a massive

normal star companion once every 41.5 days.}

Spectra

A spectrum is a plot of a source's intensity at different energies (or,

equivalently, wavelengths or frequencies). By looking at spectra,

you can determine which elements (like hydrogen, helium, etc.) are

present either in the source or between Earth and the source. This

can be done because each element emits and absorbs light at very

specific energies. Therefore, the energies where spikes or dips

appear in a spectrum reveal which elements are present.

Those spikes and dips in the spectrum, called spectral lines, hold

information other than just what element emitted them. They can

tell you information about magnetic field of the source, how fast

the material was moving when it emitted its light, and whether the

source is orbiting another object.

A spectrum of the cataclysmic variable system BY Cam, taken by

the Broad Band X-ray Telescope.

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