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SMK SHAHBANDARAYA, KLANG

PenilaianBerasaskanSekolah (PBS)
Physics Paper 4 (960/4)
THEME : Heat
TITLE : Determination Of Heat Conductivity Of Metals
GROUP MEMBERS : 1) James Tee Chow Sheng
2) Lee ZhiRhinn
TEACHER : Puan Fatimah Bt. MohdJamil
SCHOOL : SMK Shahbandaraya, Klang
CLASS : 6 (A) Zuhrah

INDEX
NO

CONTENTS PAGE NO

Abstract

Introduction

Theory

Literature Review

Problem Statement

Objective

Methodology

Results and Observations

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Discussion

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10

Conclusion

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Referencesand Bibliography

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HEAT
Determination Of Heat Conductivity Of Metals
Abstract
Difference between heat and temperature in describing heat transfer problems,
we often makes the mistake of interchangeably using the terms heat and temperature.
Actually, there is a distinct difference between the two. Temperature is a measure of
the amount of energy possessed by the molecules of a substance. It is a relative
measure of how hot or cold a substance is and can be used to predict the direction of
heat transfer. The usual symbol for temperature is T. The scales for measuring
temperature in SI units are the Celsius a Kelvin temperature scales. On the other hand,
heat is energy in transit. The transfer of energy as heat occurs at the molecular level as
a result of a temperature difference. The usual symbol for heat is (q). Common units
for measuring heat are the Joule and calorie in the SI system.
What is Heat Transfer? Heat transfer is energy in transit due to temperature
difference. Whenever there exists a temperature difference in a medium or between
media, heat transfer must occur. The basic requirement for heat transfer is the
presence of temperature difference. There can be no net heat transfer between two
mediums that are at the same temperature. The temperature difference is the driving
force for heat transfer, just as the voltage difference is thedriving force for electric
current flow and pressure difference is the driving force for fluid flow. The rate of
heat transfer in a certain direction depends on the magnitude of the temperature
gradient (the temperature difference per unit length or the rate of change of
temperature) in that direction. The larger the temperature gradient, the higher the rate
of heat transfer.
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1.0 Introduction
Heat conduction, also known as heat transfer is facilitated by mean of
molecular agitation. Molecules that are agitated create heat energy. This heat energy is
always transferred from a higher temperature to a lower temperature according to the
second law of thermodynamics. Taking different metal rods with the same
temperature on each end for example, the hot endss energy will transfer across the
rod to the cooler end, because the higher speed particles on the hotter end will collide
with the slower moving particles on the cooler end. These collisions will cause the
slower moving particles to move faster, thus transferring heart energy to the cooler
end. Some materials get warmer faster than others. Metal is a good conductor because
it takes heat quickly.

Diagram1 : Heat Conduction

Diagram2 : Heat Conduction

Diagram 3 : Heat Conduction


Metals are used in many of our everyday objects. The kitchen is full of
different metals: metal coil in heater, stainless steel sinks, silver spoons, and copper
pans. Pots and pans used for cooking are good examples of the properties of metal. At
room temperature metals are solid and sturdy with a high melting point so they can
withstand high temperatures without melting. When metals are heated up to their
melting points they become malleable, or shapeable. Pots and pans come in many
shapes and sizes but have one purpose, to transfer heat from the stove to the contents
inside. Metals have been used to manufacture cookware because of their ability to
conduct heat.
In this experiment, different types of metal rods (copper, brass, aluminium and
steel) are to be used to determine which metal rod has the highest heat conductivity.

1.1 Theory
The theory of heat transfer seeks to predict the energy transfer that may take
place between material bodies as a result of temperature difference. This energy
transfer is defined as heat. In conduction, heat is carried by means of collisions
between rapidly moving molecules closer to the hot end of a body of matter and the
slower molecules closer to the cold end. Some of the kinetic energy of the fast
molecules passes to the slow molecules, and as a result of successive collisions, heat
flows through the body of matter from the hot end to the cold end. Solids, liquids, and
gases all conduct heat. Conduction is poorest in gases because their molecules are
relatively far apart and so interact less frequently than in solids and liquids. Metals are
the best conductors of heat because some of their electrons are able to move about
relatively freely and can interact frequently by collisions. Thermal conductivity: Note
that a heat flow rate is involved, and the numerical value of the thermal conductivity
indicates how fast heat will flow. In general, thermal conductivity is strongly
temperature dependent. It has the units of watts per meter per Kelvin. Heat transfer by
conduction in a solid can be realized through the support of phonons, electrons and
photons. The individual contributions of these carriers widely depend on material and
its temperature.

2.0 Literature Review


Heat transfer from hot bodies such as steel, aluminum and other metals is
vitally important for a wide range of industries such as chemical, nuclear and
manufacturing. Heat transfer research related to conduction has been the source of
fundamental studies since the early work by Fourier (Fourier, 1820).Conduction is the
transfer of heat through a medium by virtue of a temperature gradient in the medium.
It is a microscopiclevel mechanism, andresults from the exchange of translational,
rotational, and vibrational energy among the moleculescomprising the medium.
The first law of thermodynamics states that under steady conditions the rate of
heat flow will be constant. Second law of thermodynamics shows that the direction of
this flow is from the higher temperature surface to the lower one. These two
fundamental rules lead to Fouriers law of general heat conduction:
dQ
dt
=kA
d
dx
Where dQ/d (quantity per unit time) is the rate of flow of heat, A is the area at
right angles to the direction in which the heat flows, and -dt/dx is the rate of change of
temperature with the distance in the direction of the flow of heat, i.e., the temperature

gradient. The factor k is called the thermal conductivity; it is a characteristic


property of material through which the heat is flowing and varies with temperature.

Problem Statement
There are variety of metal materials can be found in the earth. However, in
many metal industries and manufacturer, a problem has been raised which is on the
selecting the metal as the heat conductor especially in the making of the coil in water
heater. In this project, an experiment is to be carried out to determine which is the best
heat conductor to be selected as the coil in water heater.
Objective
The main objective is to determine the heat conductivity of metal rods. In this
experiment, it is how the various type of metal rods vary the time for the thumbtacks
to fall off the metal rod as happens in the metal coil of water heater whereby different
metals have the different heat conductivity which can affect the time taken for the
water to get heated.

Methodology
Experiment Setup
Model setup is used to represent the water heat used in kitchen. The metal rods
(copper, brass, aluminium and steel) are as the materials in the making heating coil in
water heater. As to function a water heater, electricity as the source supply is needed
in order for the heater to work, the Bunsen burner used in the experiment is taken to
represent the source supply which is the heat supply to enable the heat is transferred
throughout the metal rods. The clamps stands used is to hold the metal rods as a
holder is built to hold the heating coil in the water heater while the heat shield used is
for supporting purpose between the Bunsen burner and the thumbtacks. The uses of
stopwatches and thumbtacks are to determine the time for the thumbtacks to fall off
the metal rods as in real, time taken for the water to boil whereas the wax is used to
attach the thumbtacks to the metal rods.

Diagram 4 : Illustration of water heater with inner copper coil

Procedure
The wax is put in a small container and placed in the middle of the Pyrex dish
on a heat-proof mat. By using a potholder, the hot water is carefully poured around
the container until it is surrounded but does not float. The wax is left until the heat
from the hot water has caused it to soften.The softened wax is lifted out of the
container by using the spatula onto the cutting board. The softened wax is cut into
four pieces using the spatula. These pieces are used to attach five thumbtacks onto one
end of the metal rod about 2.5 cm apart which labelling A, B, C, D and E.
The experiment was setup as shown in the Diagram 4. A 25.0cm copper rod is
clamped at a distance of 25.0cm from the table and is supported horizontally by
holding it in one of the clamps at one end of the rod. The Bunsen burner is positioned
about 8.0 cm from this clamp and stand as shown in diagram above. Using the other
stand and two clamps, the heat shield is supported under the rod between the Bunsen

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burner and the thumbtacks. The Bunsen burner is lighted and five stopwatches are
started at the same time when it began to heat the end of the copper rod on the side of
the screen away from the thumbtacks. The time taken for each thumbtack to fall off
the rod is taken and recorded. The processes are repeated again by replacing the
copper rod with brass rod, aluminium rod and steel rod. The experiment is repeated
again for all rods. All the data collected are recorded in the table below.

Diagram 5 : Heating the metal rod with attached thumbtacks


Results and Observations

Thumbtack
A
B
C
D
E

Time Taken For Thumbtack To Fall, T / (0.1 s)


I
II
Average
108.5
102.1
105.3
149.4
139.0
144.2
204.6
197.2
200.9
228.2
216.2
222.2
291.6
280.4
286.0

Rod

Thumbtack
A
B
C
D
E

Time Taken For Thumbtack To Fall, T / (0.1 s)


I
II
Average
82.8
105.4
94.1
114.2
114.0
114.1
153.2
175.2
164.2
193.0
219.0
206.0
224.9
240.0
232.5
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Table 1 :Brass

Table 2 : Copper Rod

Thumbtack
A
B
C
D
E

Time Taken For Thumbtack To Fall, T / (0.1 s)


I
II
Average
49.2
33.6
41.4
67.2
45.3
56.3
77.0
61.7
69.4
120.0
76.2
98.1
125.0
79.2
102.1

Table 3 : Aluminium Rod

Thumbtack
A
B
C
D
E

Time Taken For Thumbtack To Fall, T / (0.1 s)


I
II
Average
159.0
171.4
165.2
266.0
280.0
273.0
384.4
395.8
390.1
507.4
534.0
520.7
543.9
550.0
547.0

Table 4 : Steel Rod

Metal
Rods
Brass
Copper
Aluminium
Steel

Average Time For Thumbtack to Fall, T' / (0.1 s)


A
B
C
D
E
105.3
144.2
200.9
222.2
286.0
94.1
114.1
164.2
206.0
232.5
41.4
56.3
69.4
98.1
102.1
165.2
273.0
390.1
520.7
547.0
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Table 5 : Average Time For Thumbtack To Fall From Each Metal Rod

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600

Average Time For Thumbtack to Fall, T '/s

500

400

Brass
Copper

300

Aluminium
Steel

200

100

Thumbtack
0
A

Graph 1 : Average Time For Thumbtack To Fall From Each Metal Rod

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Discussion :
Based on the results above, aluminium rod takes the shortest time for all
thumbtacks to fall off the rod. This can be explained by aluminium is a good heat
conductor because it allows heat to pass through it quickly. The rate of heat
conduction of aluminium is the highest among the metal rods causing delocalised
electron to move to the cold end and collides with a cold ion making it vibrates thus
heating up the cold end and thus the heat is transferred throughout the aluminium rod.
However, there are disadvantages in aluminium metal rod. One of the disadvantages
of aluminium is easily bent or change in shape when it is heated at high temperature.
Steel takes the longest time for all thumbtack to fall off the rod. This is simply
because the purer a metal is the higher is it's thermal conductivity, steel is made up of
components of iron and carbon and this means it has fairly poor conductivity,not even
as good as a pure metal.
Between copper and brass, copper is a better heat conductor. It is because
copper conducts heat more than brass because of the difference in how far the
delocalised electrons go before they hit the other electrons. Brass has an alloy
structure, an electron bounce off the irregularities in the arrangement of different
atoms and is thus not a good conductor.Further experiment could be studying how
impurities in different metals affect the conductivity.

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Conclusion
In short, from this project, it is found that aluminium is the best heat
conductor among the metals as it takes the shortest time to heat up the rod. However,
due to its softness, aluminium is easily bent or change in shape at high temperature.
Thus, it is not suitable to be chosen as the heating coil in the water heat as it can
damage the heater. Hence, copper is the best choice of making of the coil in water
heater as it can conserve more energy because it transfers heat faster and boils the
water in shorter time and it is strong and long lasting to stand at high temperature.
References and Bibliography
Book
1.Glen E.Myers (January 1971). Analytical Methods in Conduction
Heat Transfer.Mcgraw-Hill College.
2. Kern, D. Q.,1950.Process Heat Transfer, McGraw-Hill Book.
3. Shah, R. K. and E. C. Subbaro,1988.Heat Transfer Equipment
Design, Hemisphere Publishing Co.
4. Welty, J.R., Wicks, C.E., and Wilson, R.E., 1984.Fundamentals of
Momentum, Heat and Mass Transfer, 3rd edition, John Wiley & Son.
5. GE Consumer & Industrial.A COMPARISON OF ALUMINUM VS.
COPPER AS USED IN ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT. Retrieved from
http://www.geindustrial.com/Newsletter/Aluminum_vs_Copper.pdf

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